Frank Ticheli’s New Gospel for Young Band score analysis by Marcellus B. Brown
How Band Music Grew Over Time by Dr. Lawrence Stoffel
Presenting the Seven Winners of the Second International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest Introducing Dr. Jeffrey D. Gershman’s new column, ABOVE THE REST Also in this issue: score analyses by Dr. John Darling, Dr. Keith Kinder, and Gregory B. Rudgers
M AN HAT TAN BE AC H MU S IC IS PROUD TO PRESENT
F R A N K T I C H E L I ’S L I S T P A R T 3 Cover photo o f M ich ael Mar kow ski by D imitr i @ the 24s tu d io
A Manhattan Beach Media Publication
Frank Ticheli’s most anticipated Composition of the Decade
An�e�s in the
score analysis by Richard L. Blatti Three score analyses by Dr. Alan Lourens:
M I C H A E L M A RKOW S KI
Instinctive Travels JODIE BL ACKSHAW
GREGORY B. RUDGERS
Turkey in the Straw
Michael Markowski M anhattan Beach Music
Manhattan Beach Music p r e s e n t s
American Schools Helping American Families Have The Most Important Concert Of Your Life
M a n hatta n B e ach M u sic RAISING THE STANDARDS
T H E
AND BANDS ALL OVER THE WORLD
M B M T I M E S P R O U D T O P R E S EN T
TICHELI’S PART 3 S P O N S O R E D
M A N H AT TA N B E A C H M U S I C It’s all about the music. Most instrumental music teachers understand this simple fact. Excellent repertoire is the cornerstone of a good music program. Period. It can speak directly to students’ souls, reveal to them a kind of beauty that words alone cannot touch, and change their lives in countless positive ways. Yet many, if not most, of the thousands upon thousands of published band works could be called “throw-away music.” Only a fraction of them have deserved to survive the test of time. Indeed, each year very few works from the mountain of new publications will rise to this standard. My aim has been to identify these works by hearing as many of them as possible with my own ears. Not an easy task, and not one to be taken lightly. I acknowledge that I am one person with one set of values and musical opinions. As such, I do not intend for my list to supplant any of the other fine lists already available. Rather, I have tried to make mine more selective. I personally reviewed many of the best published works at all grade levels, selecting only around one hundred twenty works thus far. Of these, another dozen appear here today in Part III of the List. Other titles will be added and made public only after they have received thorough written reviews from outside writers, a process which takes time and careful scrutiny. Thus, the present list is a work in progress which will evolve and expand over time. I hope this list will serve as a beacon to band directors everywhere who share my hopes about the future of wind band literature and music education. I also hope that, together, we can inspire publishers and others in the music industry to redouble their efforts to create a band world in which excellent music is not the exception, but the rule. Frank Ticheli, Composer Pasadena, California
Frank Ticheli’s List ™ and the Frank Ticheli’s List logo are trademarks of Manhattan Beach Music; the content of the individual reviews of Frank Ticheli’s List, as well as the Compilation comprising the titles that constitute Frank Ticheli’s List, are Copyright © 2008–2010 Manhattan Beach Music, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express written permission of the publisher.
Throughout this issue of MBM Times, this logo will identify works that appear on Frank Ticheli’s List
L I S T
E D I T O R ’ S
V I E W
Publisher and Editor in Chief, Neil Ruddy
MBM Times in your future
anhattan Beach Music is only twenty-eight years old, making it something of an upstart in the world of music publishing, where venerable houses trace their lineage to the 19th century or earlier. We’re still a young house, and we’ve had opportunities that many today do not have.
Manhattan Beach Music started in the dawn of the 1980s. This was on the cusp of laser printers and desktop publishing and computer music engraving — at that time, the traditional methods were film typography and manual engraving. While the methods of production and distribution have evolved, what hasn’t changed is our standard of excellence. What has really surprised us are the forward-thinking retailers who have ordered copies of MBM Times to display in their stores, to hand out to their customers, and to ship with their orders. This has pleased us very much. At this time, I would like to invite all retailers to order complimentary copies of MBM Times magazine so that they can take advantage of the expertise it embraces. This is but one thing MBM Times can do for you. We believe MBM Times will be in equal parts enlightening and profitable in helping to educate your sales force, and in helping to prepare them for the demands of the discriminating band director. Choosing quality music is difficult with so many new issues to sift through; MBM Times can make the job easier for both retailer and band director. This is just the beginning of how we can help you compete in today’s corporate world, and another important way to identify your store as a purveyor of quality music. Please write to us at customerservice@manha ttanbeachmusic.com to request your free copies of MBM Times.
Photo of Neil Ruddy by Robert Bennett
We have the music retailers to thank for that, without whom we never would have grown to become a major influence in our industry. And equally we have the band directors to thank for their continuing support, not only of our publications, but of MBM Times magazine. Many have written to express their appreciation and indeed astonishment at the quality of our effort. We are humbled by your compliments, and will try to live up to your expectations. Even in today’s economic climate, we have continued to thrive and expand, and we owe it to you.
We are also pleased to announce the expansion of our fundraising efforts. Ticheli’s Amazing Grace has already been a large part of our fundraising efforts to help those affected by (and still suffering from) the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Today we expand our fundraising effort anew, and invite all bands, whether they have already taken part in our fundraisers, to hold concerts to help bands (which may include themselves) who have been affected by the economic downturn. This may include raising money for instruments, instrument repairs, uniforms, sheet music, and anything else to help with your music department. Learn how to obtain complimentary concert band sets of select MBM publications at www.AmericanSchoolsHelpingAmericanFamilies.org. This is the role of Manhattan Beach Music, and MBM Times. In our difficult world, we need more beauty and art in our lives, not less. Quality always has a way of winning, of becoming essential, and we seek to focus all attention on quality. We cut out the junk, we remove the mediocre, we stop the wasteful spending and we focus on what is important — bringing quality music to our students. Neil Ruddy, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief
M U S I C . C O M B E A C H
The Seven Winners of the 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest are each reviewed, later in this issue, along with the 3rd installment of Frank Ticheli’s List (reviewing select music of all publishers). We also introduce Dr. Jeffrey Gershman’s new column on quality music: Above the Rest; and are pleased to publish Dr. Lawrence Stoffel’s overview of the last sixty years of band music, Cultural Reflections: How Band Music Grew Over Time.
M A N H A T T A N
This issue of MBM Times contains an analysis of Frank Ticheli’s much-anticipated new work, Angels in the Architecture. This work was premiered at the Sydney Opera House. At the pre-inauguration concert for President Barack Obama, Frank Ticheli’s setting of Amazing Grace was performed by the United States Marine Band, and broadcast worldwide. We are proud of our music, and we take special pride in the accomplishments of our most illustrious composer, Frank Ticheli. His newest work, Amen!, a gospel-style work for Grade 2 band, is reviewed in this issue by Marcellus B. Brown.
C O N T E N T S FRANK TICHELI’S
A Score Analysis By Marcellus B. Brown
INSTINCTIVE TRAVELS A Score Analysis By Dr. Alan Lourens
SOULSTRÖM Jodie Blackshaw’s Moving New Band Composition A Score Analysis by Dr. Alan Lourens
TERPSICHOREAN DANCES Jodie Blackshaw’s Prize-Winning Composition A Score Analysis by 20 Dr. Keith Kinder
Cultural Reflections: How Band Music Grew Over Time
by Dr. Lawrence F. Stoffel www. MBM
M A N H A T T A N
B E A C H
M U S I C
Category One Concert Band Music for Younger Players
in the A R C H I T E C T U R E Fr an k T i ch e l i ’s m o s t an t i c i pate d c o mp o si t i on o f t h e de c ade
C O N T E N T S
29 36 to 63
score analysis by R i cha r d L. B l at t i
The Seven Winners of the 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest Category Two Concert Band Music for More Experienced Players
First Prize Clint Needham — Legacies
Second Prize John Fr antzen — Euphoria Third Prize (Tie) in alphabetical order by title
Micah Levy — Joy (Mostly!) Joni Greene — Moonscape Awakening
Fir st Pr ize Leona r d M a r k Lewis Short Stor ies
Second Prize Timothy Miles — Lauda
Thir d Pr ize T r av i s J . W e l l e r Jo u r n e y To T h e P r a ir ie
A Review of Gregory B. Rudgers METRO — reviewed by By D r . A l a n L o u r e n s
Above The REST a new column by Dr. Jeffrey D. Gershman
M B M
T I M E S
A Manhattan Beach Media Publication NEIL RUDDY
Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Managing and Copy Editor BOB MARGOLIS Contributing Writers DR. JOHN A. DARLING DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMAN DR. KEITH W. KINDER DR. ALAN LOURENS GREGORY B. RUDGERS DR. LAWRENCE STOFFEL Additional Graphics and Art Direction ROBERT BENNETT Authors and Advertisers may contact us at: email@example.com and at firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2010 Manhattan Beach Media. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission of Manhattan Beach Media. Frank Ticheli’s List™ and the Frank Ticheli’s List logo are trademarks of Manhattan Beach Music; the content of the individual reviews of Frank Ticheli’s List, as well as the Compilation comprising the titles that constitute Frank Ticheli’s List, are Copyright © 2008-2010 Manhattan Beach Music, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express written permission of the publisher. Music examples by permission of Manhattan Beach Music. Pictured on the front cover, Michael Markowski Photo by Dimitri @ the24studio
M A N H A T T A N is
by Marcellus B. Brown
M E N ! was composed as a gift to Frank Ticheli’s lifelong friend, Tracy McElroy. The work is intended to celebrate Tracy’s achievements during his thirty years of teaching instrumental music in the Texas public schools. Their friendship began in the 1970s as trumpet players in the Berkner High School band program in Richardson, Texas. They have kept alive their close friendship throughout the years, and Frank says, “Tracy’s teaching to generations of young people instilled in them not only his deep love of music, but his values of personal discipline and teamwork. His life’s work epitomizes the contributions of thousands of music educators in this country whose gifts to our society are enormous, perhaps incalculable.” As A M E N ! celebrates the considerable achievements of Frank’s longtime h = 120
Bb Clars. Low Winds and Brass
M U S I C
friend, it also celebrates the contributions of all music educators in a universal language that will last forever. That makes A M E N ! unique to music and the art of music education. A M E N ! is written in binary form — A B
A B — with an Introduction and a Coda serving as bookends. The introduction opens with an eight measure stately “Call to Order” that is bluesy and soulful in character, with two plagal (“Amen”) cadences, concluding in meas. 8 with a half cadence. The melodic material that is used in the “A” section is composed of two themes. The first theme is a playful/bluesy statement in B-flat major presented by the clarinets. It is written in the clarinet’s chalumeau register, which adds to the bluesy, rather gospel character of the tune. This melodic material is accompanied by a straightforward staccato quarter note shuffle figure scored
Frank Ticheli — Photo by Charlie Grosso
B E A C H
HI HAT, closed
M a n h a t t a n
B e a c h
M u s i c
The “B” section reminds one of Handel’s Hallelujah Chorus, or the Ode to Joy in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony for young players for bass clarinets, saxophones, trumpets, low brass and a closed hi hat played with a drumstick, as illustrated below. This theme is extended in G minor in a more bluesy and soulful variation, by oboes, saxophones and trumpets (meas. 26–33). The quarter-note shuffle figure continues in bass clarinet and low brass with the addition of bassoons and clarinets. More color and energy is added, with the percussion playing a variation of the shuffle figure — snare drum with brushes adds a dotted-eighth sixteenth twist and suspended cymbals are syncopated (meas. 26–31). Also, in this section a counter melody is introduced by trumpets and horns, which gives this section of the piece a call and response feel that is reminiscent of a gospel church song. A fortepiano in the clarinets (meas. 32) closes the G minor section and reintroduces the return of the opening theme, which is now accompanied by the counter melody introduced in the previous G minor section along with the original quarter note shuffle figure. This leads to the short bridge section in B-flat major (meas. 42–49) that presses forward with an even more bluesy character because of the use of the flatted third (E-flat) and the VI chord with a flatted ninth in a slightly embellished variation of the counter melody that was also introduced in the preceding G minor section.
horns with upper woodwinds and glockenspiel playing a colorful obligato. Forward motion and rhythmic interest is generated by a simple quarter-note, half-note, quaarter-note syncopated figure in the low brass, bassoon and bass clarinet parts. The tubas and baritone saxophone are given the bass line, although it is the timpani that provide the catalyst to create the fundamental source of joy and excitement throughout this section. The timpani part is marked ff Pounding! Ticheli writes in his rehearsal notes that the timpani part “is not intended for the shy or squeamish types.” The “B” section reminds one of Handel’s Hallelujah Chorus or the Ode to Joy in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony for young players. This is followed by an 8-bar, suddenly p transition (meas. 74–81, with rit.), and an unexpected and playful one-measure, A Tempo introduction — using staccato high woodwinds, woodblock, closed hi hat, and splash cymbal — which Ticheli describes as a False Reprise. Quickly the opening “A” material returns, the melodic and harmonic material primarily similar to the beginning of the piece. In the return of the “B” section (meas. 132) the style is a mirror image of the first, Joyous statement (meas. 58), which used the full ensemble in an exuberant and extroverted manner. Instead, this statement of the “B” section is airy and floats, starting only at mp without saxophones, first trumpets or tubas. The timpani part is light and gentle, which is the opposite of the former “B” section’s timpani. There is a rise in the dynamics to only mf in the saxophones and a closing solo for tuba and bass clarinet. The Coda, which follows, is based on material from the opening of the piece, which includes a series of plagal chord progressions and concludes with a final shout of joy.
The “A” section of the piece concludes with a return of the opening main theme in the clarinets, but scored an octave higher than it was introduced in the opening of the piece with the addition of second flutes (meas. 50–57). The concluding accompaniment material of this section includes both the quarter note shuffle figure and the counter melody that was introduced in the G minor section.
In the first statement of the “B” section, marked “Joyous” at meas. 58, the ensemble is treated as a full chorus singing a glorious song that is divided into four parts with the timpani as the driving force on the bass line. The melody or tune of this section is scored for alto and tenor saxophones, trumpets and
A M E N ! should prove to be a wonderful new addition to the
literature for junior high and middle school bands. It is well crafted and delightful to listen to and play.
The Winners of the 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest are announced in this Issue.
is proud to announce the
presented and sponsored by Manhattan Beach Music
Bob Margolis, Director, Manhattan Beach Music; Sponsor of the 3rd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest
oncert band music continues to evolve. What other largeensemble medium offers such opportunity to so many composers? More and more composers today are trying their hand at concert band music, and are composing for the sake of the art. We invite you to enter this our 3rd contest. Here’s your chance to show your true colors! Join us and write the best work you have ever written. Then enter it.
Executive Producer – Neil Ruddy
for information about the
c o n t e s t
entr y form & r ules, visit ManhattanBeachMusic.com F r a n k T i c h e l i . c o m www. MBM
MANHATTAN BEAC H MUSIC IS PROUD TO PRESENT
MICHAEL MARKOWSKI’S b r i l l i a n t
e x c i t i n g
I N S T I N C T I V E T R AV E L S “The entire work is notable for its sense of movement, almost a sense of perpetual motion that pushes the work gently but insistently forward. ”
by DR. AL AN LOURENS
ichael Markowski is a young man with much to say; and a unique and fascinating voice with which to say it. His first work for concert band, Shadow Rituals, won the Frank Ticheli Composition Contest in the Category 2 section. Instinctive Travels is a somewhat larger and more complex work, combining driving rhythms, clever and often witty thematic development, and demonstrating his growing
M 10 TIMES MBM
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confidence and control over a huge palette of color. If these musical travels are indeed instinctive, this composer is a great find for wind musicians. Make no mistake — this work will stretch the ensemble. Its tight construction calls for great musicianship across the entire ensemble, and those musical demands will require great concentration. However, the reward will be a work that vibrates throughout, and whose single theme appears in a variety of guises, both overt and covert. It is
B E A C H
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From the beginning, Markowski’s tonal ambivalence keeps the listener off balance. The work opens with a an insistent rhythm — some lovely colors here including temple blocks and a driving accented piano — that establishes the idea of a brisk journey that will always be moving.
˙ Œ ‰ œ bœ ˙ j œ
Instinctive Travels: Figure 2
But even here Markowski keeps us unsettled. While we finish clearly on D (and an implied D major at that) the bars before are more difficult. Is it a Bb7? Then an A natural against A flat? The journey continues.
˙ ˙ #œ œ Œ Ó
Figure 1: Instinctive Travels Opening Bars (condensed)
bw Nœ ˙ bw
Seemingly ready to settle into A minor, with a repeated A in the opening, and supporting C’s, Markowski moves us sideways in bar 7 with a D in the horns.
Figure 2: Bars 16-19 (condensed)
w Nœ ˙ w
above all Markowski’s ability to put us firmly on the straight and narrow road, and then suddenly veer off, that makes the work worth hearing and performing.
w (temple blocks)
ww ww w ww
On first listening, some may dismiss the D as an aberration, an accented passing note, but no more. As it turns out, the D will be the center to the work for some time to come. The first However, these first 42 bars melodic fragments are intriguing and immedi(hints at a theme) ately engaging. All the way and later the theme through them the composer itself, will all be cendemonstrates an understandtered around D. For Michael Markowski — photo by Dimitri @ the24studio ing of color and a sense of example, he continues to understated excitement. It is the moment before the journey; play with the tonality and atmosphere with interthe anticipation of what is to come, the sense that all is still jections — some flutter tonguing, some percussive before us. This section is dominated by no one, notwithstandtechniques, indeed some percussion — right until ing the ubiquitous presence of the piano. The tonality may still bar 17, where we get what could be described as be wavering, but one does get a sense of direction, of moving the first of the melodic fragments. Instinctive Travels: Figure 1
q = 176
? c >œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ
Melodically, it’s all tied into the main theme, which we finally hear complete for the first time at meas. 43, after a range of hints ranging from the oblique to the obvious. Rather like Tchaikovsky in his March from Symphony No. 6, Markowksi makes us wait for the melody, all the time giving us a strong rhythmic background against which we can place it.
M A R K OW SK I
Instinctive Travels: Figure 4
towards something worth hearing. For all the ambivalence, we are finally given some tonality to hang on to at meas. 37. Finally a clearly articulated D minor emerges, even amongst the ashes of a D major chord at meas. 36. For a few bars we are at peace, when our main theme emerges.
Instinctive Travels: Figure 3
It is a jaunty, rollicking theme, full of wit. The tonal ambivalence is balanced by a rhythmic one — is this a 6/8 or a 3/4 meter? Or even, in 2 cases, 2/4 bars just to remind the listener of the fun still to come. Of course, even a cursory glance will show that the theme is clearly not in D minor. While the D comes to the fore (for this theme has a strong tonal center of D that pulls it home), the tonality never quite settles down. Is it Fnatural (for minor) or F-sharp (for major?) In the middle, we head off into modal territory. It still feels pulled to D, but exhibits characteristics of Eb minor — a kind of Lochrian mode with Gb instead of G. In the accompaniment, Markowski creates some lovely colorful interjections, and reinforces the rhythmic ambiguity with an array of percussion input, both keyboard and percussive.
>œ œ œ >œ ˙ # ^œ ˙ ‰ J >œ œ œ >œ œ . # œ . ‰ J #˙
b œ b >œ b >œ > > b œ b œ > œ œ œ œ œ b œ b œ . œ œ ˙ 3 3 ˙. œ ‰ Œ b Jœ 42 Œ ‰ b œ 42 4 4 J
3 ˙. &4
Figure 3: Main Theme Bar 43
Figure 4: Brass Chords around rehearsal mark 93
bœ ˙. œœ 3 Œ b œ b œœ b ˙˙ œ ˙ . ‰ Œ Œ Œ b œ b œœœ J &4 bœ bœ F & 43 ˙ b œ ˙ b œ b œ œ Œ Œ Œ œ œ ˙ b œ ƒ . b ˙˙ . œœ b ˙˙ .. b˙ b b ˙˙˙ .. b ˙˙ ... œ ‰ Œ Œ ˙ .. ? 43 b ˙˙ .. . . b˙ b˙ œ b˙. b ˙. œ b ˙. b ˙ b ˙ . . J F
Having finally given us the theme, he proceeds to playfully develop it. Initially, he offers us the Flute melody repackaged. Some superb interjections begin to develop, which push us forward in quite a jazzy way. One of them (at meas. 62), we will see at the Clarinet close, with a strong underlying rhythm that moves, usually subtly but often without much subtlety, from 3/4 to 6/8 in an almost constant manner. Our theme initially stays in D, but the accompaniment does not. There is some gorgeous transition work in this section. Often Markowski establishes cloud-like clusters in the low brass and woodwinds that resolve in a most dramatic and satisfying manner. For example the bars leading to meas. 93 are a masterpiece of chordal writing in the brass, well constructed and orchestrated and resolving in a manner unexpected but not unsatisfying at meas. 93. MBM
2 b bb ˙˙˙˙ 4 42 ˙
. 3 NN ˙˙˙ .. 4 ƒ 34 ˙ .
œ 24 œœœ ‰ Œ 43 ˙. œ J ƒ
The entire work is notable for its sense of movement, almost a sense of perpetual motion that pushes the work gently but insistently forward. It becomes the most noticeable in the moments where Markowski chooses to stop the motion for a few bars (an example would be meas. 74). At these moments, the sense of rest, almost of “reset” is palpable, though we soon regain the sense of being pushed along. These breaks in rhythm become longer as we head towards a more broad theme around meas. 100. Again, Markowski unsettles us through the introduction of the duplet. It is this duplet idea in the trumpet at meas.102 that starts to make us wonder about the future. Do we have a second theme to come? … Perhaps we are being led into a traditional sonata form with contrasting themes and keys. When it arrives, around meas. 113, it does appear to be a contrasting theme. Long, flowing and somewhat chordal, at first glance it fits the bill for a traditional sonata form. Figure 5: OurTravels: Second Theme? Instinctive Figure 5
3 œ bœ 2 &4 Œ 4 3 &4
2 3 œ. œ. 4 œ bœ 4
bœ. œ. ˙. . œ. Œ œ bœ œ
˙. j œ
However, upon closer examination, we find a theme closely related to our first idea. Indeed, example 4 above — thought to be a chordal aside — turns out to be a presage of our second theme, which is so closely related to the first theme as to be just the first theme in new clothing. Markowski’s economy of ideas is clever, and extremely well presented. We have been lead in a circle without even recognizing it. Having presented a contrasting idea, Markowski takes us deep
“We find ourselves involved in episodic development of our theme using the tools of a very skilled composer.” into a developmental section. Here he uses a multi-layered approach to building a sense of harmonic movement. We find ourselves involved in episodic development of our theme using the tools of a very skilled composer. We have at various times augmentation and diminution; we touch base constantly with a falling two-note figure to reorient ourselves in this changing soundscape. It is in the development section at Markowski allows himself the luxury of stretching his compositional wings. Harmonically we are on constantly shifting sands. Markowski uses instrumental groups to fade in harmonies around the changing melodic lines. Dynamics, always important in this style of writing, become crucial. It is the subtlety (or not) with which Markowski chooses to move the listener through these keys that makes the section so intriguing: Colors emerge from the texture, add their contribution and flow back into it; or they burst forward to dominate the next section. This is the scoring of an assured composer. There are few solos, but instead there are many fascinating textures that enhance the harmonic and melodic ideas, and the success of this section in particular will require great musicianship from all. Well-written it may be, but this type of writing requires sensitivity and the application of individual musicianship from the entire ensemble. Meas. 220 sees the climax of this episode. The next twenty bars lead us through a variety of keys, with Markowski adding dissonance to a palette of chords and a lot of work for the percussion. The addition of duplet rhythms again unsettles the listener, who is now starting think about making their way back to the original theme. As we pass meas. 241 with its interjections and a nod in the way of our main theme, we sense that some kind of recapitulation will be forthcoming. And so it does, but not the way we expect. At meas. 259 Markowski now develops an accompaniment figure, which he first presented in meas. 62, alongside yet another version of our main theme. It is clever writing reminiscent of single theme works of such notable composers as Brahms and Beethoven, though of course far removed from their style. We have also settled back (perhaps for the first time) into D Minor (or at least for a few bars). This section is driving — a strong percussion beat and very few 2/4 bars to cause us to “hop”. The melody has frequent off-beats and there are many nods towards the falling two-eighth-note fragment of our main theme.
M A N H A T T A N
We see the unusual pairing of a very low tuba and a high piccolo after m. 276 in a very witty nod towards our main theme. Markowski moves us through a range of ideas in this section — a kind of recapitulation of sorts. It restates many of his developmental ideas and juxtaposes them both with the original theme, and the various versions heard through the work. At meas. 354, we begin the Coda. Having covered a great deal of ground, much of it treacherous underfoot, we are now feeling solid and centered. It is the exaltation of the journey coming to end. However, just as we settle in for what feels like it must be a standard big finish, Markowski again diverts us. Our key — for once feeling very friendly and solid, shifts again and again. We add in a new rhythmic idea and a new time signature — 3/ 2 — but we retain the eighth-note figure, this time inverted as it was in the initial accompaniment, to lead us out. Rhythmically, above our eighth note figure — the composer adds in duplets to keep us off balance before finally closing to a strong rhythmic drive in the low brass. A huge last bar leads us to an emphatic Bb Major chord. After all of our travels, we have arrived at the Traditional Home Chord for Bands, though by the most circuitous route. In a recent article (in MBM Times Issue No. 2) on Markowski’s work Shadow Rituals, Dr. Keith Kinder stated “…Michael Markowski has established himself as a major new voice in the world of band composition.” Instinctive Travels will only reinforce that opinion. This work is tremendously attractive because of its rhythmic energy. However, in its taut construction, Markowski has demonstrated that he is capable of developing an idea and constructing a large-scale work from a limited amount of material. It is a skill that has been demonstrated by outstanding composers throughout the history of notated music. His understanding of color, and his use of appropriate extended techniques, and more particularly a great use of excellent percussion writing is a very exciting proposition for the future of new music for winds. That all of this is evident in such a new voice is an exciting development, and one that offers great hope for the future. Instinctive Travels is great craft; it is also sensational art that deserves a wide audience.
B E A C H
M U S I C
M A R K O W S K I
S H A D O W R I T U A L S
hadow Rituals, by the impressive young composer Michael Markowski, was the unanimous winner of Category 2 of The Frank Ticheli Composition Contest, sponsored by Manhattan Beach Music in the spring of 2006. The work is a dazzling display of rhythmic energy, attractive melody and colorful scoring, but beyond those considerations it is also a wonderfully integrated composition that demonstrates the imagination a fine composer can bring to the use of limited musical material. The highly rhythmic context is established immediately in a short percussion introduction and in the first theme. [See Example 1: Theme A, bars 5–14 (clarinets, written pitch)] This melody, played in unison by the clarinets, promptly creates a number of rhythmic principles that will pervade the composition. Much of the work is in 5/4, but the meter signature changes frequently. All of the thematic materials present syncopation that is enhanced by accents and staccato articulations. The phrasal structure incorporates antecedent and consequent phrases of different lengths. Theme A introduces other important concepts as well. Harmonically, it appears to be in Phrygian mode, but the intervallic content — P5, m2, P5, m3 — is more important to the construction of the piece. The melody is repeated three times. Example 1, Theme A, Shadow Rituals
M A N H A T T A N
BY Dr. Keith Kinder
At its second appearance it is scored for flutes and glockenspiel over an imitative accompaniment based on the descending minor third from the end of the second bar. A new consequent phrase, played by clarinets, low saxophones and horns and later by trumpets, flutes and oboes, is extended to nine bars. At the third statement the tune is again in the clarinets over another accompaniment based on motives from Theme A. An extended consequent (clarinets and flutes) leads to a full band unison statement of the motive, B-flat, D-flat, E-flat at bar 34–5, which signals the end of the primary theme area. Overall, this opening section firmly establishes the compositional principles that Markowski will employ throughout the work. Virtually every melodic fragment can be directly related to the primary theme, but the composer creates variety through scoring, dynamics and articulation, generating a masterful blend of unity and contrast. The percussion writing is exemplary. While six players are required, the only “exotic” instrument called for is one brake drum. Not surprisingly, Markowski’s percussion scoring drives the music forward and reinforces the rhythmic structure; however, he also enhances the articulation by employing choked cymbal and slapstick. A short transition leads to Theme B. [See Example 2: Theme B, bars 45–53 (horns, written pitch)] While this is the first full statement of the secondary theme, the transition that precedes it has already introduced the initial motive, and, indeed, this motive appeared as early as bar 18. Also, the two themes are unmistakably closely related through intervallic content. Contrast to the initial theme is provided by scoring and rhythmic structure. Theme B elides into a substantial, multi-sectional development that presents a remarkable series of episodes based on fragmentation and recombination of the two themes. The initial episode is focused on the opening motive of theme A and presents it in augmentation in low brass, at its original speed in the striking
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Photo of Michael Markowski by Dimitri @ the24studio
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“ the score reveals a hi g hl y ima g inative musical mind ” Example 2, Theme B, Shadow Rituals
combination of trumpets, piccolo and glockenspiel, and then in canon in the high woodwinds. In the second episode, Theme B appears in the upper woodwinds accompanied by fragments from Theme A.
the opening motive of Theme B leads to a restatement at bar 139 of Theme A in almost its original form. These bars sound like a recapitulation; however, only the initial phrase is articulated; the consequent is a blending of the two principal themes in a climactic passage employing full band. What follows is another marvelous musical moment. Theme A
The two episodes that begin at bars 82 and 92 are extraordinary. The first is a chorale in 5/4 in which the first and second bars of Theme A are set in counterpoint against each other. Both the 2+3 and the 3+2 rhythmic patterns in 5/4 are presented simultaneously, creating an engaging cross rhythm with accents on both beats three and four of each bar. The ensuing episode introduces what might be called Theme C, except that it uses the exact notes of the initial motive of Theme A, somewhat reordered. [See Example 3: Theme C', bars 94–100 (euphonium, sounding pitch)
appears in trumpets in exactly its original form, except rhythmically altered to fit into 6/4 meter instead of 5/4. The hemiola required to accomplish this design gives the melody a wonderful “held back” quality, as if it is struggling against the meter, which, of course, it is. Simultaneously, the woodwinds and horns present Theme A in augmentation (one-quarter speed). The slow progression of this version of the tune adds to the restrained character of these bars, while flute/clarinet flourishes consisting of contrary motion scales and loud percussion out-
Example 3, Theme C, Shadow Rituals
This theme is a precise Euph. palindrome, and in p mf the subsequent bars is developed canonically. Shifting meter, which requires a lot of syncopation, might obscure the sense of canon, but Markowski cleverly set the first set of entries for solo players on bassoon, alto saxophone and clarinet and the spare texture plus timbral contrast preserves the answering effect. An episode employing canonic development of
bursts maintain forward momentum. At the coda (bar 164) all sense of restraint vanishes. Rapid woodwind swirls, held brass chords and restatements of the opening motives of the two themes bring the work to a rousing close. With this work, Michael Markowski has established himself as a major new voice in the world of band composition. While the most immediately appealing aspect of this work is its rhythmic vitality, the score reveals a highly imaginative musical mind capable of creating compelling melodic materials, well integrated harmonic contexts and colorful soundscapes. Perhaps most impressive, however, is his adeptness in working with his chosen musical materials. What will follow Shadow Rituals? One cannot but be excited by the possibilities. (from MBM Times Issue 2) www. MBM
MANHATTAN BEAC H MUSIC P R O U D L Y
R E V I E W S
JODIE BL AC KSHAW’S e m o t i o n a l l y
c o m p e l l i n g
S O U L S T R Ö M “It is a moment to almost make you hold your breath.
The tension has changed. It is no longer the tension of anger, but reluctant acceptance.”
Traveling a Colorful Road, by
DR. AL AN LOURENS
ne never expects to need to create an instrument for performance of a wind work. Nevertheless, Blackshaw’s Soulström calls for the creation of at least twenty-five copies of a small percussion instrument. What’s more, the resulting instrument (a Nailenspiel) is not a novelty. Rather it forms the basis for a very stunning and beautiful opening to this dramatic and colorful work. Blackshaw, a previous winner of the Frank Ticheli Composition Contest in Category 1, is an Australian composer who has written in Soulström a work of depth and emotion. Starting life as a dramatic work with narrator examining the nature of love (the narrator is no longer used), the work became a personal journey of the composers “...struggle with depression
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and grief over the loss of my beloved father....” It is an inward-looking work that will stretch musical boundaries. The work calls for for maturity, excellent soloists, a battery of percussion, some improvised instrumentation and a conductor of nerve, organization and an understanding of the human condition. The resulting performance will be colorful, vivacious and touching; as well, one suspects, as being fascinating to most audiences. Opening with improvised instruments (the aforementioned Nailenspiel) a sound not entirely unlikely a series of very small triangles, and projecting a wonderful sense of otherworldliness the first wind entry is a bass clarinet solo in measure six. (See Ex. 1 at right.)
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There is something slightly reassuring about the warm sound of the bass clarinet. Nevertheless, the theme places us firmly in the key of G minor (concert pitch) where we are destined to spend most of our time in this work, a feeling only exacerbated by the repeated A flats that usually fall to G in the flute entry that follows. (See Ex. 2, below.)
It is this very unsettled nature that gives the work room to breathe. In Soulström, Blackshaw never gives us a comfortable vamp or repeated rhythmic figure to relax upon. Rather, it is a work that demands concentration from the listener, and a response from both the head and the heart. Later in the work, following a beautifully crafted layered section at 32, and a slow cadenza-like passage from the bass clarinet, Blackshaw offers us an optional off-stage trumpet part that would (if played off stage) be quite haunting. As it is, played well by muted trumpets in the on-stage option (in the premier recording I heard played beautifully by the University of North Texas band under Dennis Fisher), it is striking in its quiet dignity, leading us to an almost aleatoric section at meas. 49.
Both of these entries highlight the repeated technique of tension and release. In the case of the first theme, it is the repeated C (creating tension) rising to D (the dominant, stable pitch), while in the second theme — laying on top of the first — the A-flat falling to the G (the tonic, an extremely stable pitch). This tension kicks these themes forward. The repeated nature of these pitches hammers home the underlying emotions. It is not stable, though it has some stability. It is never at rest, even though it moves forward with deliberate smoothness, though with frequent, sometimes minute, changes in tempo. Rather like a stunned mourner, the music makes us long to finish the kind of unfinished business that can never be resolved.
Here Blackshaw develops a soundscape through the use of melodic cells. Each musician is invited to repeat their cell ad lib. in tempo and dynamics. The cells, which are an amalgam of the fragments we have already seen in examples 1 to 3 above, again combine to offer both stability and instability, tension and release.
This sense of uneasiness will permeate the work. At meas. 20 we hear a repeated The release at meas. 52 is a masterpiece Jodie Blackshaw — Photo by Jason McCarthy phrase in the horns, rhythmically familof understatement. Resignation, a forlorn iar yet not of this time signature, though sense of looking inward. Reluctant acceptance leads us towards clearly sitting in G minor. Blackshaw layers on a series of ideas a wonderful piccolo solo (marked As With a Broken Heart), later dancing around G, sometimes emphasizing the key, sometimes EX 2: Flute Theme Bar 9 creating tensions, and always keeping us just a little off balance. Example 2: Flute Entry Bar 9 (concert pitch) This section makes the listener just a tad uncomfortable — the œ œ œ œ œ œbœ . œ œ œ œ œbœ 3 b œ œ bœ ˙ 3 ˙. œ œ bœ œ œ œ tension just never seems to settle as the ideas settle around the c & b c ‰J 4 4 key of g. (See Ex. 3, below.) p F Example 1: Bass Clarinet Entry œ œ bœ œ b 3 œ 5 œ œ œ œ œ œ c œ ˙ &b 4 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ f P EX 3: Ideas Presented 20-28
Example 1: First Bass Clarinet Entry, (B Flat pitch) (Lento, molto rubato) Bass Cl.
43 œ œ œ .
&c w &c
j œ œ
j œ c˙ Œ c Œ
j œ w
œ ˙ œ˙ . œ ˙
Example 3: Melodic Ideas Presented bars 20-27 Horn
b &b c
˙ œœ˙ œœ œ ˙
œ œ w œœœ œœ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ
œœ œœ ‰œœ œ
joined by trumpet, horn and euphonim over the next 20 bars. The space on the score — room to breathe, tubular bells — all adds to the drama. It is a moment to almost make you hold your breath. The tension has changed. It is no longer the tension of anger, but reluctant acceptance.
Coda. Not Triumphant but Defiantly is the score marked, and then Jubilantly at 185. Adversity strikes, but the will prevails. A huge D major chord closes the work in the brass. The journey finds its way back home. It’s a fitting end to a 14 minute long exploration of life and death, and our response to it. You feel that in hearing the work you have traveled; We know more about the world from having heard it than we knew before, and we are better people for that knowledge.
Blackshaw builds: Almost exclusively in G minor, through the layering of flowing ideas, we are pushed forward from meas. 79, until at meas. 102, almost unbelievably and with a great flourish, we arrive at a big G major chord. Happiness? Never so simple with a gifted composer. Immediately we move quietly and efficiently into a piccolo solo. Is it G major? Measure 106 puts it to rest; we are back into G minor, and a quiet one at that. The sectional that follows is quite different from the rest of the work. Beginning with Quiet Intensity, this section becomes quite fraught. Progressing through multiple time signatures (including 7/8, 3/4, 5/4, 2/4) these 11 bars are the most technically demanding, and will ask you clarinets to divide into 5 parts. As the composer notes on the score “HUGE percussion, HUGE brass and ugly winds. Let loose!” It is an expression of anger — an outburst that must follow any loss. As quickly as it comes, it disappears. In the next thirty bars, players are asked to play on mouthpieces and pitch-bend. A beautiful oboe solo follows, while another form of otherworldliness comes to the work. From here to the close, the energy starts to increase. First the clarinets, then the percussion, later the flutes and then other (mainly) woodwinds begin a swirling figure of sixteenth notes (occasional triplets, quintuplets sextuplets), all marked energetically leads straight toward triumph! Only, it is not to be. When we get there, at bar 165, we find not triumph, but Suddenly Slower, full of rage. The brass are at full bore: fff, sfz, and even ffff is seen here in the brass in an agressive section that demands great support. This section is full of accents, sixteenthnotes and instability until we finally find the MBM
“Blackshaw’s work, a journey through the soul, is quite different to the Markowski Instinctive Travels also reviewed by the same author in this Issue of MBM Times. Both composers won the first Ticheli Composition Contest in the same year, though in different categories. However, while the Markowski Instinctive Travels is an exuberant, tautly constructed work of almost academic precision, Soulström is more overtly expressive and touching. Both composers have demonstrated outstanding control and understanding of the medium, but are expressing quite different emotions.”
Soulström has been artfully constructed with a personal message of remembrance and triumph over adversity. Like Ticheli’s own An American Elegy, it is searching for answers that do not exist. However, the journey — meandering, thoughtful, considered, at times angry, emotional and fraught — is a worthy one. Works like these can swiftly disintegrate into a self-conscious morass. Blackshaw has, however, held the listeners’s attention throughout, and composed something of substance. A work that is both simple and complex, it captures the imagination and offers the musician great scope for the expression of our most basic emotions, indeed an allegory of the human condition. Blackshaw’s work, a journey through the soul, is quite different to the Markowski Instinctive Travels also reviewed by the same author in this issue of MBM Times. Both composers won the Ticheli Composition Contest in the same year, though in different categories. However, while the Markowski is an exuberant, tautly constructed work of almost academic precision, Soulström is more overtly expressive and touching. Both composers have demonstrated outstanding control and understanding of the medium, but are expressing quite different emotions. In Soulström, we find a journey that we can all understand, in a work to which we can all relate. Blackshaw’s work — heart on sleeve, raw emotions visible for all to see — again demonstrates that music can indeed express the inexpressible — to touch our soul. Who can really ask more of any work of art?
Analysis of Blackshaw’s Whirlwind - by Dr. Keith Kinder
the full band. Each player is to be directed when to begin by the conductor and to hold the final note (A) of the melody until everyone arrives at that pitch. Again, the composer presumes that each performance will be unique; however, this section introduces the idea of imitation, which will be explored later in the work.
hirlwind by Australian composer Jodie Blackshaw was the unanimous winner of Category 1— Beginning Band of The Frank Ticheli Composition Contest sponsored by Manhattan Beach Music. The work is an innovative approach to composing for musicians of limited ability. Technical demands are minimal. The melodic material employs only four notes, concert pitches A–C–D–E, voiced in each instrument’s easiest register, and used to construct a simple, wistful tune that appears unaltered as solos, in twopart canon and in four-part canon throughout the piece. The most complicated rhythms are eighth notes, except for some snare drum figures in sixteenths. However, around these uncomplicated elements, Blackshaw has created an unusual and appealing soundscape that employs “home-made” instruments (waterglass chimes and various kinds of rattles), and “whirlies” (lengths of corrugated plastic pipe that are spun by the player to generate sound) in addition to the customary band complement. These unexpected constituents allow Blackshaw to introduce graphic notation, draw attention to timbre, balance and listening, and encourage dynamic sensitivity. The score contains an extensive prelude that explains the composer’s concept of the piece and Example 1, the solo melody offers suggestions for its Like a whirlwind: slowly - getting faster - then slowly again realization. The compos er has developed a peda mp smoooth and gentle gogical package called “Know your stuff” that is intended to assist with the teaching of all the elements of this piece, and is available as a free download from the Manhattan Beach Music web site. Whirlwind is constructed as a series of contrasted events. A pedal “A” drone through much of the piece establishes a tonal anchor, and, when combined with the work’s four melodic pitches, establishes an A minor tonality. The first event, A, and the last event, I, are entitled Soundscape, are freely notated and involve only the “home-made” instruments. The pulsating, eerie sound of the “whirlies”, played by four percussionists, is an obvious evocation of the title, and the waterglass chimes and rattles suggest rain. The score is only an approximation of what might result. The composer encourages experimentation so that no two performances would sound the same. At the B event the melody is introduced as a solo accompanied only by the whirlies [See Example 1, solo melody,, above.] As can be seen in the example, this section is senza misura. The solo is printed in all parts permitting a variety of soloists to be selected. The B event elides into C, which uses the last phrase of the melody to gradually incorporate
M A N H A T T A N
At event D, the piece becomes measured in 3/4 meter for the first time. Only the drone and layered percussion appear. The composer, however, has carefully specified mallets and sticking patterns and also demands considerable sensitivity from the players. For example: every part has a different dynamic, and the bass drum is required to execute a long roll with very carefully placed crescendos and decrescendos.The pitched instruments, glockenspiel and timpani, again establish A minor. The percussion layers and the drone continue into event E, where they support a two-part canon using the four phrases of the melody. Since each phrase ends on either A or E, players should be encouraged to match their pitch to the drone. Event F is another series of percussion layers, but, unlike event D, they are fragmented and employ six carefully differentiated sounds. Since this section is at a loud volume and is more rhythmically animated than previous sections, it has the character of a dance — a rain dance, perhaps?
Event G is the climax of the work.The full band presents a four-voice canon accompanied initially by only the pitched percussion, but gradually other percussion and the whirlies are added. Event H involves only percussion and two soloists. The soloists are clarinet and muted trumpet, the latter instrument intended to act as an echo to the former. Each performs the four phrases of the melody once. A striking percussion effect is called for at this point. The timpanist is instructed to place a suspended cymbal upside down on the largest timpani and roll on the cymbal while moving the timpani pedal up and down — another extraordinary evocation of wind sound. As noted earlier, event I is a recall of the beginning of the composition, which gives the impression of starting over. Like a whirlwind, this work is circular in form.
Whirlwind is an unusual and intriguing addition to the young band repertoire. While it provides excellent learning opportunities, this composition reaches well beyond pedagogy.The events flow smoothly one into the next and the blending of continuity and contrast offers a convincing musical experience. Whirlwind could well be the highlight of your next performance! (Reprinted from MBM Times Issue #2.)
B E A C H
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J O D I E B L AC KS H AW ’ S
T E RP S IC H OR EA N DAN CES
by DR. KEITH KINDER
(“The Lute Player”) and Der Schutzenkönig (“The
Australian composer, Jodie
Archer King”). All three are developed to con-
Blackshaw, was a winning
siderable length and are preceded by a fanfare
entry in the inaugural Frank
based on motives extracted from the tunes or
Ticheli Composition Contest spon-
from the counterpoint that surrounds
sored by Manhattan Beach Music. As
is apparent from the title, this work
Blackshaw’s setting presents sev-
draws on the extensive collection of
instrumental dance tunes published by
Throughout the score, directions
Michael Praetorius in 1612 known as
such as “defiantly”, “clingingly”,
Terpsichore. Three tunes are specifi-
“reedy” and “to the fore” recall simi-
cally named in the score: Springtanz
lar instructions in the band music of
(“Leaping Dance”), Der Lautenspieler
Percy Grainger, and Blackshaw also
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B e a c h
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“Blackshaw’s Terpsichorean Dances is a worthy addition … however, few works have so successfully combined colours evoking the Medieval wind band with those of the modern concert band.” a voicing that evokes Renaissance instruments, an impression that is reinforced by the contrapuntal texture and the addition of a tambour to the percussion section. The second statement employs the full ensemble in the warm, resonant timbre of the modern concert band.
calls for a “lagerphone”— a curious instrument constructed from a long pole to which bottle caps (traditionally beer bottle caps) are loosely attached. The instrument is pounded on the floor or hammered with another stick to create a sound that resembles a combination of bass drum and tambourine. The “lagerphone” (the name apparently refers to the use of beer bottle caps in its construction) is the Australian version of the English traditional percussion instrument called the “monkey stick,” or a variation of an Aboriginal instrument that uses shells to create the jingling sound. Blackshaw uses it in three verses of Der Lautenspieler.
Although the opening fanfare is based on motives from the tunes themselves, it does not sound MediExample 2: Springtanz; phrase ‘B’ – bars 43-50: eval. Its rapidly rising and descend ing lines and imitative textures are suitably arresting and set the context for the rest of the work.
Blackshaw’s setting of Springtanz is sectionalized according to the four phrases of the tune. The first phrase (‘A’) is ten bars long and introduces a motive with a large upward skip (see bars 2, 4, 6 of the tune) that is characteristic of every phrase of this tune and is probably a musical depiction of the leaps that are among the
Example 1: Springtanz; phrase ‘A’ – bars 23-32:
This initial phrase is stated twice. The first statement is scored for a selection of woodwinds with low brass and percussion in
Phrase ‘C’ (bars 50-61) is a sequential development of the second bar of phrase ‘A’, which rises stepwise from F to C. Blackshaw has created a darker timbre by featuring the low voices. In addition to first clarinets, the melody is played by bass trombone and string bass. All parts are marked “cling ingly”, and motives from the fanfare appear in the accompaniment.
dance steps associated with this melody. Heavy accents on every primary and secondary pulse reinforce the energetic nature of the dance. (See Ex. 1 above.)
The ‘B’ phrase arrives at bar 43 and prominently features the “leaping figure.” It is eight bars long but is elided with the ‘C’ phrase at bar 50 so that the final bar of ‘B’ is also the first bar of ‘C’. Scored for brass alone, it recalls Renaissance or early Baroque brass writing. The melody calls for flugelhorn or cornet, probably to reflect the softer attack of early brass instruments. (See Ex. 2 below.)
Phrases ‘B’ and ‘C’ are immediately repeated, but in dramatically different scorings. For example, instead of brass instruments, ‘B’ appears in solo oboe with bassoons and saxophones—a timbre that sounds decidedly like Renaissance shawms, and ‘C’ has a striking new contrapuntal line in both high and low voices. www. MBM
The fourth phrase of the tune is identical to phrase ‘A’. Two statements complete this section, but again Blackshaw generates ear-catching timbres. The first statement, beginning at bar 81, calls for solo instruments. The melody is played by two flutes and glockenspiel accompanied by bassoons, low brass and percussion, creating a registral gap between the high melody and its accompaniment that results in a very light texture—a remarkable contrast with what has preceded it. The final phrase of this section is scored for clarinets and tambourine only. Blackshaw’s setting of Springtanz is well balanced with two reiterations of each phrase of the melody. However, the most singular aspect of this section is how effectively the composer has managed to evoke the historical character of the melody while simultaneously deploying the extensive colour resources of the modern concert band, a technique that is apparent throughout the work.
simple duplication of the previous processes. This section offers another broad range of inventive timbres, some of which sound more Medieval than anything heard so far. Blackshaw begins this section with five repetitions of the ‘a’ phrase of the tune with no alteration to the melody whatsoever. (See Ex. 3 near bottom of page.) Instead of developing the melody, the composer recalls Percy Grainger’s technique of “accompaniment variation” by composing a more complex accompaniment each time the tune appears; phrase ‘a’ is for solo oboe with only the small cymbal; at ‘a1’ (bar 115), first flute doubles the melody and first clarinet adds a contrapuntal line supported by a few notes on floor tom; when ‘a2’ arrives at bar 125, the texture is expanded downward with the melody assigned to first alto saxophone, while second clarinet adds another contrapuntal strand and tambourine contributes a syncopated rhythm that generates musical momentum; the com-
Der Lautenspieler (beginning at Example 4: Der Lautenspieler; phrase ‘b’ – bars 155-164: bar 101) is introduced by four Horns bars of quiet cymbal strokes. Blackshaw asks for “Antique/ Small Crash Cymbal”, but, if trumpets an antique cymbal is employed, the score offers no suggestion of what pitch should used. Since these cymbal strokes continue through the first few phrases of plete woodwind section in four-part counterpoint appears at the tune, which is in Aeolian mode on D, the logical choice ‘a3’ (bar 135), with fuller percussion activity. would be D, however, this pitch would create several perfect fourth intervals and some half-step clashes. Probably the second Blackshaw has a surprise at the appearance of the fifth repetition option, a small, unpitched crash cymbal, is the better alterna(‘a4’ – bar 145). We might expect a continuation of the expandtive. ing texture, but instead this phrase is scored for the saxophone Example 3: Der Lautenspieler; phrase ‘a’ – bars 105-114: section only. Marked “reedy” in the score, this segment sounds curiously archaic.
Like the previous portion of the work, the setting of Der Lautenspieler is sectionalized according to the phrases of the tune; however, the composer’s fertile imagination did not permit a MBM
An even greater surprise awaits at bar 155. Here, the brass instruments finally appear playing the ‘b’ phrase of the tune. (See Ex. 4 above.)
All instruments, except the horns who have the melody, are
muted. Most instruments require a “straight metal mute,” however, the trumpets employ “harmon mutes with the stem extended.” The “buzz” created by the harmon mutes superimposed on the nasal sound of the other mutes creates a remarkable timbre highly reminiscent of a crumhorn consort. The ‘b’ Example 5: Der Schutzenkönig; phrase ‘x’ – bars 213-220
and written at a quiet dynamic, but the contrary motion, note-exchange counterpoint maintains momentum. (See Ex. 6 below.) As with other instances of a similar colour, this phrase sounds archaic. The quiet volume might imply viols or even lute. At the second statement, Blackshaw creates another interesting, and quite modern, colour by combin ing piccolo and flutes with brass and percussion.
phrase is immediately repeated by full band with an expanded percussion section that includes the lagerphone and woodblock A brief percussion break prepares for the re-entry of ‘a’.
This section and the work concludes with the third phrase (‘z’) of the tune, which is repeated and extended to provide a secure ending. (See Ex. 7 near bottom of page.)
At bar 179, ‘a5’ appears as another surprise. Scored only for piccolo, flutes and oboe, accompanied by lagerphone, this very light texture might suggest recorders. This section concludes with two repetitions of ‘b’.
The first four-bars of the twelve-bar phrase is scored to recall the first statement of ‘y’, oboe, clarinets and saxophones, but
Example 6: Der Schutzenkönig; phrase ‘y’ – bars 229-236:
Der Schutzenkönig contrasts met rically with the two previous tunes mp (3/4 instead of 6/4) but maintains triple meter. Introduced by four bars of loud drum cadences that continue throughout a large part of this section, the joyous, celebratory tune begins at bar 213. The character of the tune supported by the drum cadences suggests a procession, which might very well have been part of the dance steps for this tune, since the title implies a festivity that included a shooting competition.
Like previous sections, this part of Blackshaw’s piece is structured according to the phrases of the tune. The first phrase (‘x’) appears in full band scoring and is repeated with minor alterations. Contrary motion, note-exchange counterpoint generates considerable forward energy. (See Ex. 5 top of page.) The second phrase (‘y’) is simpler than ‘x’ and is also repeated. The first statement is scored for oboe, clarinets and saxophones
is played at a loud dynamic and is accompanied by the drum cadences. Here, the archaic sound might suggest shawms instead of the softer-toned viols. From this point the texture and volume accumulates to create an exuberant closing.
Example 7: Der Schutzenkönig; phrase ‘z’ – bars 245-256:
Dance music from the Middle Ages transcribes especially well for concert band, undoubtedly because of the long association of wind instruments with dancing. Renaissance dance tunes, especially those con nected with the more robust country dances, would have been performed by the wind band of the time. (String players at this point in history used the so-called “Baroque bow”, which was bent in the opposite direction from bows used today, specifically to mute the attack, and therefore lacked the incisiveness in rhythm necessary for dance music). Blackshaw’s Terpsichorean Dances is a worthy addition to the considerable repertoire of this type that already exists; however, few works have so successfully combined colours evoking the Medieval wind band with those of the modern concert band. www. MBM
Our nation has undergone vast changes during the past sixty years, and so too has the concert band music written during those years. The repertory from the mid-1950s to today reflects the social and political customs of each decade. As the customs have evolved, so too has the music, architecture, art, and cinema.
Cultural Reflections: How Band Music Grew Over Time BY
unbridled enthusiasm of this decade. And we see this concern reflected in cinema in remarkable ways. Consider the fact that movies such as Creature from the DR.LAWRENCE STOFFEL Black Lagoon, The Day the Earth Stood Still, and Vertigo, were all statements about the fear of the unknown and the ominous danger that was present beyond our own borders.
This article concentrates on the evolution of concert band music, and briefly comments on parallels in cinema, but omits the evolution in architecture and art. If you are planning to bring these disciplines into your teaching, the sidebar (on page 27) will guide you to the identification of seminal works.
The 1950s Let’s begin with the 1950s—the decade of determination. The United States had come out of World War II as a world power, our economy was strong, the population was growing, but at the same time, the new threats of the Cold War and of the Space Race brought about a prevailing undertone of worry and uneasiness in day-to-day life. As counterpoint to the worry, this was also the decade of Futurism. Possibilities were limitless. Modernism would solve all of our woes. You can see this bipartite vision in the music and cinema of the decade. The optimism of futurism balanced with atomic-era fears. It is no wonder, therefore, that we see a rash of bipartite band compositions from this era: Chorale and Alleluia, Chorale and Shaker Dance, Dance and Intermezzo. There’s even a band composition from this period entitled Prelude and Hula! Despite all the optimism of futurism and of the modernism that would define the 1950s, the overriding concerns over the Cold War and the Space Race brought a damper to the otherwise
M a n h a t t a n
Clifton Williams’ Fanfare and Allegro is a befitting example of 1950s band music. The two-part form is commonplace from this time period. But even more profoundly, it reflects the emergence of the concert band from an entertainment medium (for which it had been largely know prior to the ‘50s) into an artistic medium. The band was now destined for a new future. And this futurism is found in compositions such as Fanfare and Allegro, among the first to elevate the compositional craft above that found in a typical band work. In some ways, it is an emergent example of a new, more sophisticated style of band music to come. To our ears today, the orchestration, the melodic treatment, and the harmonic language of this music all scream “the 1950s!”. And while it still has the freshness and power of the movies above, it shows its age. It is a seminal work that has helped bring us to where we are today. It is authentic: This is the real thing, fresh as the day it burst upon the scene. It’s not an imitation of the 50s — it is the 1950s embodied.
The 1960s The 1960s was a decade which largely rejected the old and sought the new. It was also the decade of a new interest in the global community. It was the decade of preemptive political war, the decade of the United Nations, and the decade that
B e a c h
M u s i c
brought to us lunar spaceflight, which revealed just how small our planet is and how close our populations live regardless of political borders. The 1960s was indeed the decade of a new world order. It was the decade of Internationalism. You can see this vision of a new world order breaking down familiar political borders in movies such as 2001: A Space Odyssey, Dr. Zhivago, and Planet of The Apes. This decade brought us a new type of concert band: a wind ensemble — a concept would reject the old notion of an oversized concert band for a new standard, one embracing clarity, transparency, and economy. This new internationalism that so excited the American people is also prevalent in band composition from the decade of the ‘60s. Composers of other nationalities emerge from the pack of Americans: Japanese, French, Finnish, Czech, Brazilian, and Greek all writing band music. References to cultural and historical events permeate titles of band works from the 1960s: Scenes from “The Louvre,” Music for Prague, Homenagem a Villa-Lobos, King Lear Variations. John Barnes Chance and Variations on a Korean Folk Song (Perhaps one man’s personal reparation for an earlier war?). A new surge takes place in the both quality and ambition of compositional craft found in most band works. Variations on a Korean Folk Song by John Barnes Chance is not simply a reflection of ‘60s-era internationalism. It is also a fine example of the new quality of composition that came to flourish in this decade. The concert band genre was riding a wave of newfound prestige.
The 1970s And then came the 1970s... the “Me Generation”... the decade that would attempt to stave off the gloom of an economy in a new kind of recession with both inflation and economic stagnation (dubbed “stagflation”) ... a war that divided families, and a presidency that scandalized a nation. Big, over-the-top, outlandish... yet impersonal, selfish, alone. For all of the glamour, excitement, and spectacle of the disco scene, there was also indescribable loneliness, self-doubt, and self-destruction. In the ‘70s one could be surrounded on the dance floor by hundreds of gyrating bodies, but you often felt utterly ignored and completely alone. We were so occupied to have a good time, it seemed as though we weren’t too aware of
taking time to bring good to others. The pervasive themes of the 1970s: Feeling loneliness, self-destructive indulgence, and a gloomy fear. ‘70s era composers were ready to let their audiences feel equally alienated. Just like in the other arts, in the 1970s band music takes a decidedly new direction. There was a tremendous output of new music for band in this decade — art music for the sake of art. But much of this music was received as being impersonal, selfish, and distancing. Audiences were alienated by this new music. This new style of band music may very well have been genuine, heartfelt, and profound; and many performers, conductors, and audiences would readily accept that this new music was, indeed, artistic. But to many, it seemed that composers did not care if anyone was listening. For it was during the ‘70s that audiences literally walked out of many a band concert. It seemed as though most people were not interested in hearing this new, art music for wind ensemble. Just as one might ask, “What is that Alexander Calder sculpture supposed to be? I don’t get it,” audiences at wind ensemble concerts asked, in all seriousness, “Was that supposed to be music?” Perhaps John Paulson’s intent when he composed Epinicion for band was to make his audience, through music, think about the horror of war. Published three years before the end of the Vietnam War, his very modern Epinicion (historically, an ancient Greek victory song--but there is no victory here) epitomizes this volatile, lonely, gloomy decade of the ‘70s. His music makes a powerful statement and employs incredible orchestration; at the same time Epinicion is lonely, destitute, and alienating music.
The 1980s The “Big 1980s!” If the ‘70s was the “Me Generation,” then the ‘80s was the decade of pure self-indulgence. Bigger, brighter, louder, faster.... More “special.” And consider the self-indulgence portrayed in such popular movies of this decade as Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, and St. Elmo’s Fire. So imagine how shocked, how stunned the audience (entirely of college band directors) responded to the premiere performance of David Maslanka’s Symphony No. 2 in 1987 at the College Band Directors National Association’s national convention held at Northwestern University. (Now if there was ever www. MBM
a gentlemen’s club profession in the ‘80s, it was certainly such among college band directors.) Mossy band directors heard a band work unlike any other known at the time! This minimalist-influenced, gargantuan work electrified the profession. It was big in scale, physically taxing, kinetic in tempo, driving in rhythm. It spawned a whole new generation of composers to write for the biggest concert band ... for the symphonic wind ensemble.
art the reaction of running away, or trying to get away. You don’t necessarily know where you are trying to go, you just want to get away. Run away as fast as you can, as frantically as you can. Look at the movies that came out in just the first few years of the 21st Century, all of them have permeating themes of running away, sometimes with purpose, and often time with none: Catch Me If You Can, The Fast and The Furious, Finding Nemo.
Maslanka’s symphony was (and I say it in this fashion to parody every ‘80s-era sitcom televison show): Maslanka’s symphony was a “very special” episode of band music. And it was electrifying!
In the 21st century, band music has been scattershot with excursion or escapism compositions: Windsprints, Persistence, Whirlwind(s), Full Tilt, INTO THE CLOUDS! (all five by Richard Saucedo), Rush (Samuel Hazo), Turbine (John Mackey), Spin Cycle, Recoil (Joseph Schwantner), Slalom (Carter Pann), Shortcut Home (Dana Wilson), The Red Machine (Peter Graham). All of them compositions with constant fast driving rhythm and speed. All going somewhere, but not necessarily having a prescribed destination. They are works of speed to go, but not necessarily works of speed to arrive. Excursions just to get away.
The 1990s & The 2000s Now I must close my script, because there is no history yet for our remaining decades: the 1990s and our initial years into the 21st century. There has been too little time ... not enough time has passed to make history yet. Our commentary on these recent decades will not be history; it will be sociology at best. We do not know yet what will be recognized as the predominant themes in the arts and culture from the 1990s to the present. But we can certainly conjecture now what some of the likely themes for these decades will be — and they are humor in the 90s and what I call excursionism (or escapism) in the 00s. As to humor: Eric Whitacre’s Godzilla Eats Las Vegas! is an example of farce; Robert Sheldon’s A Longford Legend is fantasy; Persichetti’s Divertimento is a wonderful example of burlesque; Andrew Rindfleisch’s The Light Fantastic is parody; and Derek Bourgeois, Serenade, Op. 22c is caprice; Rob Deemer’s Carnival of Dreams is a perfect example of humor. With ‘90s-era humor came what I describe as a lack of vigilance, or a sense complacency. This is tragically recalled in our thoughts of September 11, 2001. But even before that dark day of history we see already in cinema movies that reveal in our psyche that sense of complacency and a lack of vigilance. Movies such as Apollo 13, Jurassic Park, and Titanic: movies depicting actions left unquestioned; actions which harkened Robert Oppenheimer’s charge, just because we can do this, should we? And from the disastrous results from complacency we find in MBM
Will excursionism or escapism be remembered as the predominant compositional style in both band music and all of the arts in the early oughts? Only time will tell. But no doubt in the band realm, these types of compositions are the mainstay found in today’s publisher’s catalogs. We treasure cinematic masterworks that epitomize the attitudes, politics, and mores of their generation. And from the richness of the wind ensemble’s repertory we discover that our finest works from the band repertory, too, communicate the attitudes, politics, and mores of their generation. It is true that the band medium does not often garner the same level of recognition and even respect that our colleagues find with orchestral music and choral music. It is true that the concert band is not as conspicuous in the professional musicians’ world because in our society the band is largely situated in our nation’s academic realm. But it is an unequivocal truth that band music matters. It matters because it is meaningful; it is timely; it is artistic; it is pertinent; it is profound. Band music communicates, explains, reveals, and provides purpose and meaning to our everyday lives. And band music will continue to do so because it is and I hope always will be music of human experience.
Some seminal works in architecture and art, whose images are easily accessible through online search:
1950s 1956 - Capitol Records Building, Hollywood, California; Welton Beckett, architect. This is, of course, one of the most distinctive landmarks in Los Angeles and is heralded as the first circular office building. (And we know that the comparison has been made that this building appears to be a stack of 45 records — for those of you old enough to know what 45s were — placed on a turntable. And a bit of trivia: The blinking light atop the tower is actually spelling out the word “Hollywood” in Morse code and has done so since the building opened in 1956.) 1950s - Jackson Pollack’s incredible works in Abstract Expressionism, especially his painting, Convergence 1954 - Salvador Dali’s painting, Disintegration of Persistence. To Dalí, this particular painting was symbolic of the new physics of the quantum world, of the atomic age, of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.
1960s 1964 - Rene Magritte’s painting, Son Of Man, probably best remembered as, “The man in a bowler hat with an apple in front of his face;” a painting about the visible vs. the hidden. 1960s - Andy Warhol’s very whimsical Cambell’s Soup Cans series — pop art rejecting the strictures and formalities of standard art through the exploration of mundane commercialism. 1964 - In architecture The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, designed by Welton Becket, representing the New Formalist in International Style (formalism in its widely spaced vertical elements) vs. the neighboring Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Building designed by Albert C. Martin, same year, formalism in its strongly repeated horizontal elements.
1970s Consider the Pacific Design Center, a.k.a. “The Blue Whale,” that truly unique and enormous building in West Hollywood designed by Cesar Pelli: controversial from the beginning and to this day because of its overwhelming size, its spectacular proportion. But by being so large and so overwhelming its surrounding, it becomes anonymous. You cannot even see into the building despite its exterior being covered entirely in glass!
1980s Consider Wayne Thiebaud and his wonderful pop art paintings from the 1980s, such as Eight Lipsticks, Mickey Mouse, and a host of other food-related subjects such as dinner cakes. All saturated with pastel colors. Simple color was not adequate; saturated pastels were necessary for this artist of the decadent decade of hyper-realism. Consider that crowning example of ‘80s Post Modern architecture in Los Angeles, the U.S. Bank Tower (also known as the Library Tower). The tallest building ever constructed in Los Angeles (73 stories, 1,018 ft.), and even to this day the tallest building in the United States west of Chicago, one of I.M. Pei’s greatest contributions to Los Angeles architecture.
1990s and 2000s First humor. That wonderful Southern California Gas Tower building in downtown Los Angeles. It is one of those wonderful contributions to skyscraper architecture to come from the prolific designers of the firm Skidmore Owings + Merrill. You can see that little “slice” at the top of the building which cuts through the outer walls. Who else but a whimsical architect would slice his building open. playfully exposing the innards of the elevator shafts. Then, the desiere to run: Perhaps Antony Gormley’s sculpture Angel of the North with its magnificent, huge wingspan suggesting the desire to fly away, with a wingspan so enormous the desire is to fly away to a great distance. Or perhaps the very peculiar pieces created by artist by Damien Hirst such as Isolated Elements Swimming in the Same Direction for the Purposes of Understanding: boxes encapsulating fish all pointing in the same direction bust all are isolated from each other. And then in the 21st Century, who knows? Perhaps an emerging artist such as Tracy Harris might become a major artistic from this first decade of the new century. Her painting Funnel: despair becoming aria certainly captures this notion of excursionism, or escapism, of going... anywhere perhaps, just to keep moving. Sensationalist artists such as Christo and his wife Jeanne-Claude with their temporary large-scale environmental works such as The Gates back in 2005 for New York City. Anish Kapoor’s famous sculpture found in Chicago, Cloud Gate, (the “silver kidney bean”). Spectacle... escapism... something to make you forget your troubles to you are facing.
“Just as Charles Ives did more than a century ago, Angels in the Architecture poses the unanswered question of existence. It ends as it began: the angel reappears singing the same comforting words. But deep below, a final shadow reappears — distantly, ominously.”
Frank Ticheli — Photo by Charlie Grosso
F r a n k T ic h eli
F r a nk Tic he l i ’s
by Richard L. Blatti I recall today my first reaction to hearing Angels in the Architecture — Frank Ticheli had pushed the envelope of what wind-band music can be. Listening for the first time at the American Bandmasters Convention in March of 2009, I thought of the musical vistas this composer has explored. As consistent as the quality of his writing has been over the last thirty years, he is unpredictable — he has taken us to the very edge of extremes of emotion. When you compare Amazing Grace to Vesuvius, or Ave Maria to Blue Shades, or An American Elegy to Wild Nights! it seems that Ticheli was destined to write a piece of this scope. His is a distinguished career of providing band directors with some of the very best literature we can claim as our own. Angels in the Architecture was commissioned by Kingsway International and was premiered at the Sydney Opera House on July 6, 2008. The title is provocative enough … where did it come from? Ticheli, himself, provides some of the answer in his introductory remarks in the score: “The work’s title is inspired by the Sydney Opera House itself, with its halo-shaped acoustical ornaments hanging directly above the performance stage. Angels in the Architecture begins with a single voice singing a 19thcentury Shaker song:
“I am an angel of Light I have soared from above I am cloth’d with Mother’s love. I have come, I have come, To protect my chosen band And lead them to the promised land. “This “angel” — represented by the singer — frames the work, surrounding it with a protective wall of light and establishing the divine. Other representations of light — played by instruments rather than sung — include a traditional Hebrew song of peace (“Hevenu Shalom Aleichem”) and the well-known 16th-century Genevan Psalter, “Old Hundredth.”... [plus] an original chorale…. “In opposition, turbulent, fast-paced music appears as a symbol of darkness, death, and spiritual doubt … The alternation of those opposing forces creates, in effect, a kind of five-part rondo form (light – darkness – light – darkness – light).” My own research into the phrase, “angel of light,” turned up a biblical reference from the Second Book of Corinthians, Chapter 11, Verses 13-14: 13 For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, trans-
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“For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.” forming themselves into the apostles of Christ. 14 And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. The idea of a guardian angel protecting the imperfect side of humankind is an age-old and multi-cultural belief. Again, in the composer’s words, “Just as Charles Ives did more than a century ago [in The Unanswered Question], Angels in the Architecture poses the unanswered question of existence. It ends as it began: the angel reappears singing the same comforting words. But deep below, a final shadow appears – –distantly, ominously.” The opposing forces of the Divine and the Devil work into Ticheli’s plan, and the light is rarely seen without darkness close behind. To be sure, wherever there is light, there is usually shadow, and even the purity of spirit that is projected through the Shaker melody “Angel of Light” cannot escape Satan in the end. It is a 14 1⁄2 minute piece for wind band asking the age-old question of why humankind exists. An ambitious agenda, to be sure, but who better to capture the range of emotion, the inescapable contradictions, and the precarious nature of life. A N A LY S I S To accomplish such an agenda, one might expect the composer to create a whole new compositional language, in the mold of Husa’s Apotheosis of this Earth, Pendrecki’s Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima or Corigliano’s Circus Maximus; however, Ticheli not only stays within his own tonal language, but restricts himself to a conventional formal design, a fairly standard wind band instrumentation, and traditional metric and rhythmic compositional devices. The five-part rondo mentioned earlier is packaged neatly, without introductions, codas, lengthy extensions or transitions, MBM
with one notable exception that used to set up the fifth and final installment of the rondo. Also notable is the inclusion of a singer, either a soprano or a boy soprano, who appears at an elevated location in the auditorium, removed from the instrumentalists. Other departures from standard instrumentation (a phrase more and more difficult to define) are as follows: four Bb clarinet parts, celesta, organ (optional), and several additions to the percussion section, including pedal bass drum, two Chinese cymbals, four tuned crystal wineglasses and three tuned “whirlies.” Whirlies are “simply flexible, corrugated rubber or plastic tubes or hoses with an average diameter of approximately one to two inches, and — once cut — a length of approximately three to four feet.” These whirlies are held by one hand and twirled above the player’s head to produce (along with the wineglasses) the eerily beautiful Eb pentatonic chord that opens and concludes the work. I have long been a fan of Manhattan Beach Music and, specifically Frank Ticheli, for being conscientious in preparing scores and parts for those of us who study, rehearse, and perform them. Not only are these scores produced on high-quality archival paper, and published in easy-to-read, error-free, well-designed fashion, but the introductory notes provided are always invaluable to study, especially in the early stages. The macro-analysis I have provided below simply expands and adds detail to the one provided by Ticheli; the overall from is that of a 5-part Rondo, A B C B A' (C+A); the tonality is mostly Eb Major and C Minor (plus related keys and some polytonality); the difficulty is Grade 5; and the duration, 14 1/2 minutes.
M A C RO A N A LY S I S LIGHT — A meas. 1. (freely, not conducted). Offstage Soprano: Shaker song, Angel of Light. Eb major. Pure, serene, and transparent solo accompanied by “other-worldly” Eb pentatonic chord (“whirlies”).
DARKNESS — B meas. 2. (4/4, quarter-note =160, accel.). Transition … “the dark forces begin to overtake.” A pedal concert a is introduced, subtly, at tri-tone (interval of Satan), to establish the tonality of Eb. Enter the Angel of Darkness! meas. 23. Main motive: Darkness Music. Begins with declamatory interjections (followed by dramatic silences) in rising/falling m3s & M2s in eighths. C minor. Special effects: fluttertongue, plunger mute, jet whistle (flute effect), and increased percussive activity. meas 84. Darkness theme. E minor. Quarters & quarter note triplets also stressing m3s, but expanding to P5s, m6s, & m7s plus descending chromatic countermelodies (fragments from main motive and flutter tonguing continue). meas. 107. Continued development of main motive. G minor. Additional nonchromatic scalar passages, ascending and descending, ever-reaching, ever-building; extending intervallic size, rhythmic complexity, dynamic level, and emotional tension. LIGHT — C meas. 149. (4/2 & 3/2, half-note = ca. 69). Chorale of Light. Eb maj/C major. Conjunct melody with sonorous, lush, and homophonic part-writing meas. 175. (4/4 accel.). Traditional Hebrew Song Hevenu Shalom Aleichem (“We have brought peace unto you”). C minor. Melody in Eng. hn., clar. and alto sax, with”woodwind Klezmer band” accompaniment, with brass intrusions of Ab, Db, Gb, and Eb. meas. 191. Darker forces begin to overtake song of peace. Tonalities clash. Hebrew song fades away as the intrusions become more and more insistent. Rhythmic activity and tension build leading to an explosive return of the Main Motive.
Eb minor. Same music as m. 23, but raised a m3 and shortened meas. 223.“Darkness theme” Eb minor. Same music as meas. 84, but lowered a m2 and extended. meas. 272 (4/4, quarter- note = ca. 69). Extension, based on “Darkness theme.” C minor. Much slower section, uncertain, questioning. Rhythmic and intervallic development of theme, a winding down. meas. 281. (3/2 & 2/2, half-note = 80). Long transition, growing from darkness. C pedal. From a quiet Cm triad in low voices, the instrumentation and ranges expand, with chromatic harmony. Addition of syncopations and dynamic range until Chorale of Light returns at meas. 314. LIGHT — A' (C+A) meas. 314. (4/2 & 3/2, half-note = ca. 76). Chorale of Light triumphantly reappears. Db maj/Bb maj. Same music as meas. 149, but raised a m7 (with flourishes added) and reorchestrated for majestic reincarnation. This chorale merges with The Old Hundredth, beginning in meas. 324, and then becomes something harmonically new. meas. 328. (4/4, quarter-noe = ca. 76). Church-bell effect (transition). Bb maj/Gb pedal. meas. 332. Quote: Old Hundredth (16th-century Geneval Psalter). Db/Bb. In addition to being polytonal, also polyrhythmic, concluding with glissando slide into Eb tonality. meas. 341. (2/2 & 3/2, half-note = ca. 50). Offstage soprano returns with Shaker song, Angel of Light. Eb major. Same music as meas. 1, with voices added (humming Eb & Bb), celesta references to meas. 272, and a hint of the Angel of Darkness (A naturals), hiding in the shadows of the final chords.
DARKNESS — B meas. 208. (4/4, quarter-note = 160). Main Motive: Darkness music.
In Angels in the Architecture Ticheli introduces six principal themes: 1. Angel of Light (Shaker Tune)
Angels in the Architecture (Angel of Light) 1. Angel of Light (Shaker Tune)
Frank Ticheli (Shaker Tune)
# % # # # # # # $
Freely, not conducted q = 92
" $ !" " # # # # # # # # I
am an an--- -gel of light ----------
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#% # #
I have soared from a - bove ----------
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2. Hevenu Shalom Aleichem (Traditional Hebrew Song)
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3. Old Hundredth (16th-century Genevan Psalter)
4. Chorale of Light (original music)
5. Main Motive
cloth'd with Mo-ther's love. --------------- I have come, --------------- I have come, -------------- To pro -
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# # # # # # &
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- tect my cho-sen band -----------
6. Darkness Theme
Of these, nos. 1., 2., and 3 quote preexisting music (at left).
lead them to the pro-mised land.-------------
Hevenu Shalom Aleichem
Ticheli mentions in his program note that “these three borrowed songs, despite their varied religious origins, are meant to transcend any one religion, representing the more universal human ideals of peace, hope, and love.” In addition Ticheli has written an original (wordless) anthem which appears twice in the work and, in his words, “represents my own personal expression of these aspirations” ... which he calls the Chorale of Light (ex. 4 at left, below).
2. Hevenu Shalom Aleichem (Traditional Hebrew Song) q = 60, accel .................................................................................................................................
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q = 160
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3. Old Hundredth (16th-century Genevan Psalter, as modified by Ticheli) q = ca. 76 Fls. & Cel.
inmusic) the 4. Chorale of Angels Light (original Sibelius
Architecture (Ticheli Hymn)
Copyright © 2009
h = 69
Although these themes comprise three of the five rondo sections, Light Music makes up less than half of the piece. The reason for this is that little is done to manipulate or develop these themes, a fact which contrasts sharply with the music of the “Darkness” sections. (Please refer to the table on the next page.)
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rit. . . . . . . . . . A Tempo
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The Main Motive and the Darkness Theme provide the raw material for the “Darkness Music,” as Ticheli calls it, and appear intact only twice in the piece. These complete statements come at pivotal moments in the formal design and are provided as Ex. 5 and 6. (Also refer to macroanalysis on the prior pages.) Perhaps more significantly, Ticheli extensively manipulates and develops this music, intervallically, rhythmically, and geometrically to create ever-evolving interjections of musical doubt (humankind’s identity crisis), despair, denial, and death. Four examples are provided as Ex. 7, 8, 9, and 10.
Table: Comparison of Light Music to Darkness Music Musical element
slow (MM = 50–92) 6 min. 20 sec. transparently scored, homophonic, consistent
fast (MM = 76–160) 8 min. 10 sec. contrary motion, polyphonic, variable
long (12–23 measures) mostly major Eb, C, Db, Bb triadic, conjunct (pentatonic) long, sustained very little, quotations are intact
short (1–8 measures) minor A (pedal), Eb, C, E, G disjunct, angular, repeated short notes rapid, active, fragmented much development, through-composed
General characteristics tempo overall duration texture and orchestration Themes/Motives length modality tonalty melodic motion rhythm manipulation 5. Main Motive (meas. 23, and also meas. 208)
q = 160
7. Main Motive in Rhythmic Diminution, up P5 (picc., fl., ob., cl. 1)
84fff q = 160 85 86 87 88 Piccolo 3 3 3 ff 3 fff 1.
6. Darkness Theme (meas. 84, and also f 3 3 meas.3 223)
3 q = 160 84 85 3 86 87 3 Ob. 1-2 Piccolo 3 3 3 3 fff 3 Fl. 1-2
3 3 Ob. 1-2 3
3 Picc. 90
q = 160 53 Piccolo f Fl. 1-2 f a2
f Bb Cl. 3-4 Ob. 1-2
9. Darkness Theme in Augmentation with Metric Displacement
3 3 3 3 ff a2 33 Picc. Ob. 1-2 3 3 3 3 3 ff 3 3 3 ff 3 +2. Fl. 1-2
8. Inverted Main Motive (Interesting note: this inverted motive first appears in meas. 14, long before the Main Motive is introduced!
q = 160
q = 160
Bb Cl. 1-2 97
Bb Cl. 3-4
10. Darkness Theme with Augmentation, Diminution, and Metric Displacement
(rit. poco a poco)
q = ca. 69
Accompanying these manipulations are counter-melodies and special effects, three of which are notated below (Ex. 11–13): 11. Plunger/Flutter Motive in Trombone 1 plunger mute q = 160
12. Jet Whistle Motive in Flutes (which occurs during plunger motive, above, m.65), including the detailed note appearing in the score and the part.
q = 160 Jet Whistle*
(see note below)
13. Syncopated Descending Chromatic Motive 87
q = 160
To be sure, the building intensity of both Darkness sections can be attributed to tempo (MM=160), harmonic unrest, and the application of these fragments and special effects; but it is the constant reiteration of the underlying eighth-note rhythm (introduced in the Main Motive) and how such rhythmic variants MBM
Deft manipulation of color and orchestration propel the listener through the emotional roller coaster that is the Darkness Music. The use of glissando (meas. 118–123 in horns), bells-up (meas.124-132 in trumpets), the “Plunger/Flutter Motive,” (Ex. 11), the “Jet Whistle Motive,” (Ex.12) the pedal bass drum, ratchet, temple blocks, and straight mutes all contribute to the unpredictable and explosive impact. The first Darkness section builds up quickly (meas. 2–23) and even more abruptly comes to a halt in meas. 146, which is followed by the first statement of the Chorale of Light. The second Darkness section, much shorter than the first, also builds quickly (meas. 183–208) but takes a much longer time to wind down (meas. 261–272) and build again (meas. 272–314) to the final statement of the Chorale of Light and the conclusion of the piece. Special mention should be made about one of Frank Ticheli’s favorite intervals, the tri-tone (or diminished fifth/augmented fourth). Ever since I studied Fortress, one of his earliest concert band works, I noticed his affinity for this most unique of intervals. Why unique? It splits the octave perfectly in two, it seems to act as an antidote to tonality, and yet, without it in any dominant seventh chord, the pull toward tonic would be considerably lessened. From the time that Guido of Arezzo established his famous hexachordal system in the 11th century until the end of the Renaissance, the unfortunate nickname of this interval was the diabolus in musica, or “the Devil’s music.”
* The jet-whistle effect is achieved by covering the blow hole of the ﬂute entirely with the lips and blowing as hard and violently as possible into the instrument, as though you are trying to blow out a hundred candles with one short and powerful burst of air. The resulting sound should resemble something like the sudden release of steam from a powerful engine. If players ﬁnd themselves taking a full second or several seconds to release all the air from their lungs, they are not blowing with the proper force. The effect will only last a split second if done properly. There should be no attempt to sound any speciﬁc pitch.
Tpt. 1-2 (a2) Tpt. 3-4 f (a2) Hn. 1-2 f (a2) Hn. 3-4
interplay with that motive that drives the music forward. It is interesting to note that the fastest note values, the sixteenths, are used sparingly, at the peak of each of these sections (e.g. meas.106–132).
Frank Ticheli exploits the tritone in this work, and for very good reason. What better way to sneak into the Eb major Light Music than to quietly, almost imperceptibly, introduce a concert A? At first, it comes in very low (meas. 2); then, joined by ever-increasing forces in octaves, it eventually overtakes the Angel of Light, taunting her along the way (meas. 19–22) — this is indeed the interval of Satan. Remember the passage from Corinthians ... “for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light,” [which has also be translated as “for even Satan transformeth himself into an angel of light” - Ed.] — in this musical case, after passing for the Angel of Light, Satan reveals himself for who he really is! (continued on page 70)
E x e c u t i v e
P r o d u c e r
M B M I s
P r o u d T h e
T H E
2 n d
F r a n k
N e i l
R u d d y
T I M E S T o
P r e s e n t
W i n n e r s I n t e r n a t i o n a l
T i c h e l i
Composition S P O N S O R E D
Contest B Y
M anhattan Beach Music The Frank Ticheli Composition Contest has proven itself as an exciting endeavor for all involved, and I see no limits to its potential to find and encourage talented composers all over the world. Having completed two contests thus far, we have already awarded prize money to thirteen composers from a pool of some two hundred fifty entries received from sixteen countries. Many of the winning works are now published by Manhattan Beach Music. A CD recording of the winning works from the first contest has been released on the Mark Masters label, The First Frank Ticheli Composition Contest: The Winners & The Finalists. And we are just getting started! I am honored to have my name attached to this contest, and I look forward to the fruit it yields for many years to come. Dr. Frank Ticheli Composer/Professor of Composition University of Southern California Thornton School of Music Frank Ticheli â€” Photo by Charlie Grosso www. MBM
M A N H A T T A N p r
B E A C H
e s e n
M U S I C
Score analysis by Jason Missal & Devin Otto
lint Needham began sketches for Legacies during his junior year of study in composition at the Baldwin-Wallace Conservatory of Music, and completed the work during his senior year. During this time, he heard many inspiring stories of successful past graduates. As Needham neared graduation, he started to wonder what type of legacy he might create for future students; hence the title “Legacies.” The outer sections of the work are marked “spirited,” and portray a positive and energetic mood depicting Needham’s ex-
M a 36 TIMES MBM
n h a t t a n
citement and optimism for his future. These sections are characterized by driving rhythms and rising intervals, within the key center of C Major, lending exuberance to the work. The middle section is a reflection on the poignancy of leaving a place the composer loved dearly. Scoring for clarinet choir and vibraphone creates a distant and floating atmosphere. The composer intends for tonal ambiguity to enhance the melancholy mood of this section. Though the center section is sustained and lyrical, the composer intends for the pulse of the music to continue. As the rhythmic drive gradually returns, the piece regains its original momentum and is propelled into the majestic recapitulation and coda.
B e a c h
M u s i c
Clint Needham for Legacies The First Prize Winner
The 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest C at eg ory 2 : Concert Ba nd Music for Mor e E x per ienced Pl ay er s
cision in a secco style.
he composer has indicated that the tempo relationships in this piece are very important. Close examination of these markings reveals a virtually seamless flow linking the sections together.
Though this section gains its character from the underlying rhythmic motor, both themes are linear and singing, and care should be taken to maintain the flow and direction of the phrase. It is recommended that the melodies be rehearsed without the accompaniment to achieve the desired stylistic contrast.
From the Composer’s notes: “The A section establishes the overall jubilant mood and presents the musical themes found in the work. The bright introduction sets up the eighth-note motor on which the Lyric Theme 1 rests.”
The main theme should be shaped to emphasize the B-naturals (M7), as this is a unifying element portraying optimism and brightness of spirit. The diminuendo and breath mark at the end of measure 16 indicate that the theme should be played in two phrases. The second phrase begins with a sudden return to forte. (See “Main Theme,” below.)
In this S P I R I T E D I N I T I A L E P I S O D E there are four subsections: A: meas. 1–24 (a): The main theme is introduced by saxophones; energetic rhythmic motor; B: meas. 25–46 (b): Call and response between low and high voices; C: meas. 47 – 64 (c): Transition passage; rhythmic layering; gradual thickening of texture; A': 65–120 (a’): Rhythmic motor returns; horns introduce triumphant second them; main theme restated by saxophones and low reeds
Clint Needham — Photo by Chris Eller
The subsection at measure 25 contains a
Main Theme m. 8
a. sax, t. sax
f The accompanimental (subito) eighth-notes found in the outer sections are the motor that propels the spirited mood of the music. This material should be played with the utmost pre-
call-and-response with contrasting characters. The low brass and woodwinds are severe picc, bsn and menacing, while the m. 47 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) high woodwinds answer in a light, dancelike manner. p fl, cl Through harmonic tension and rhythmic complexity, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) the goal of the transition passub. p www. MBM
sage at measure 47 (see ex. prior page) is to anticipate and lead to the arrival of the triumphant second theme at measure 69. The high woodwind voices contain superimposed hemiola patterns revealed by the composer’s slur markings. The addition of accents to the first note of each slur will make this more audible. It is recommended that each harmonic and rhythmic layer be rehearsed independently.
ras treated with patience. In addition, a new short fanfare-like theme is introduced in measure 176. The articulated nature of this bold statement is in contrast to much of the surrounding legato texture (see meas. 176 below). Following the Lyrical Interlude is the RETURN OF THE SPIRITED EPISODE
(meas. 191–262). This final section revisits the original material, but with more majesty. Due to dense orchestration, extra care must be taken to balance the ensemble so the melodic material remains audible. Additional layers, beginning with timpani in measure 228 and joined by other low voices (see meas. 228, below), lend rhythmic complexity and a strong feeling of the dominant (G),
The arrival of the triumphant theme at measure 69 is the climactic moment of the first section. This melody contains the M7 element from the first theme in pure form, highlighting the Bnatural. The performers should shape this line accordingly (see “Triumphant Theme”). Trumphant Theme m. 69 horns
Following the spirited initial episode is a LYRICAL INTERLUDE, itself consisting of essentialy two sections, the first of which (meas. 121–158) fom. 153
Eng. horn and euph.
cuses on timbre, followed by a long build in tempo, dynamics, and energy; and the second of which can be thought of as a single long phrase (meas. 159–190). The composer writes: “the B section [Lyrical Interlude] begins with the smallest texture in the work using only clarinets and low brass vibrahone. The main goal of this 3 m. 176 3 3 section is to slowly bring back into focus the opening material … this section begins void of any 3 3 3 strong pulse; a pulse is gradually f established as each instrument is layered into the texture.” In order to create the proper vibraphone tone, the medium motor speed must be audible in support of the floating clarinet choir. Melodies in this section reflect and refract the first and second themes, so the shape and direction should be inspired by the original material (see meas. 153 above). The conductor’s expressive approach should guide the heartbeat of the music, with suspensions and appoggiatum. 228
shortly leading to the arrival of the triumphant theme in C major at measure 234. At measure 246, the restatement of subsection B contains added harmony in the horns, accentuating the upper voice statements. To balance this passage so the low voices are not obscured, the majority of the crescendo should occur in the last two beats. The statement of the triumphant theme in the horns at measure 234 contains an added rip. This should be played 3 3 3 3 at a full dynamic and with intense joy, signifying hap piness and positive energy that continue through the 3 3 3 3 remainder of the piece.
The climax of the entire work occurs at measure 263 (which initiates the final section, CODA) when the trumpets state the triumphant theme with exalted power. The final musical gesture begins at measure 273 with a sudden drop in dynamic; the final note should be full and resonant to create an exhilarating conclusion.
MBM Times is pleased to acknowledge the leadership of Allan McMurray, Distinguished Professor, the Robert and Judy 3 3 Charles Endowed Professor of Music, Chair of the Con ducting Faculty, and Director of Bands at the University 3 3 of Colorado-Boulder, in guiding his graduate conducting students Devin Otto and Jason Missal in their analysis of Legacies by Clint Needham.
VA R I AT I O N S O N A K O R E A N F O L K S O N G
GRADE 5 7 MIN.
Variations on a Korean Folk Song was completed in 1963 and won the American Bandmasters Association Ostwald Prize for an outstanding wind band composition in 1965. It has always been very popular with wind band conductors. Arirang, the pentatonic tune on which this work is based, is among the best known of all Korean folk songs. Chance became acquainted with it during a tour of duty in Korea with the 8th U.S. Army Band in 1958-59. His composition consists of the theme and five highly contrasted variations.
BOOSEY & HAWKES
momentum by an ostinato in timpani, which imitates the sound of taiko drums. This section is again elided into the next — the fifth variation and the finale of the work. In this variation, Chance sets the second phrase of the tune in canon and builds up a massive pentatonic “sound cloud”, over which the main melody is jubilantly expressed by trumpets and trombones. While one cannot but admire Chance’s imaginative use of variation technique, the most extraordinary aspect of this work may be metric rather than melodic. The striking metric modulation (from 6/8 to 3/2) between variation three and four has already been mentioned, but all of the indicated tempos throughout the composition are closely related. In fact, if all tempo markings are precisely observed, the melody in trumpets and trombones at the end is proceeding at exactly half the speed of the clarinets at the beginning. This fact has convinced many band directors to perform the opening melody at half the marked tempo to ensure that the melody flows at the same speed at the beginning and the end. In addition to its musical quality and fine craftsmanship, Variations on a Korean Folk Song is an excellent piece for developing flexibility and musicianship in bands at all levels. Closely related tempos and metric modulation enhance performer’s awareness of rhythmic possibilities and the constant evolution of a single melody cultivates a more sophisticated understanding of melodic development.
JOHN BARNES CHANCE
The theme is stated twice to begin the piece — once by clarinets in their chalumeau register, then by the full band. Variation 1 (Vivace) is largely canonic and the tune is fragmented into motives, which are then set in two- and threevoice canons. In the second variation (Larghetto), the tune is inverted and presented as a plaintive oboe solo. Between the oboe phrases, low register flutes and first clarinets offer the second phrase of the tune in a scoring that evokes the sound of a bamboo flute. Solo trumpet completes the variation by stating the folk melody in its original form. The next variation is a robust triple-meter march that culminates in the work’s first major climax. A loud tam-tam strike supports the apex of the climax, then the music quickly dissipates into snare drum and timpani solos that accomplish a very skilful elison of this variation with the next through a remarkable metric modulation. Variation four is a broad and expressive chorale that is given
Reviews by Dr. Keith Kinder (above) & Gregory B. Rudgers (below)
ALL THE PRETTY LITTLE HORSES
GRADE 2 2 1/2 MIN.
Anne McGinty brings her formidable talents and sensitive understanding to this marvelous setting of a traditional American folk lullaby. Gentle and endearing in nature, this work offers young musicians the opportunity for subtlety and nuance, characteristics sadly absent from much of the literature for youth ensembles. Instrumentation here is ideal for the elementary band with just two clarinet and two trumpet parts, while collecting all low brass and woodwinds on a single line. This accomodation also occurs with the doubling of French horn and tenor sax. The work uses percussion sparingly, all percussive voices are metalophones, and the composer advises that those voices should be considered for “color and shimmer.” She also reminds the percussionists that “percussion instruments are musical instruments.” Thinly scored at times, the setting is nonetheless available for bands with limited instrumentation, as there is ample doubling of many lines. Bravely beginning with first clarinet, bells, and finger cymbals, a brief introduction establishes the minor tonality and then presents the
familiar melody in the flute and oboe. Alto saxophone then enters and we have a charming, brief, set of three part counterpoint before the entrance of cornet and lower brasses and woodwinds. This initial statement in common time then moves to a new key and a tender waltz, before returning to the original tempo and style while remaining in the new tonality for a tutti statement. The work concludes with a delicate woodwind quartet along with bells, finger cymbals and triangle, which is serenely reminiscent of the opening passages. Achieving a sense of the ethereal and at the same time writing music that is eminently performable by inexperienced musicians is no small task, and McGinty’s ability and insight into this challenging duality is most impressive. There is no reason why music of excellent quality should not be available for young bands, and “All the Pretty Little Horses” makes a valuable contribution to this effort while familiarizing a new generation with a traditional folk tune.
w w w . F r a n k T i c h e l i s L i s t . c o m
M A NHATTA N
is proud to pr esent
John Fr a n tzen EU
The Second Prize Winner of the 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest
C at eg ory 2 : Music for Mor e E x per ienced Pl ay er s
Score Analysis by Dr. John Darling
ohn Frantzen’s Euphoria is an
enjoyable and energetic 4’30” addition to wind literature that will likely become a programming staple. There is so much to like about the piece, and this is due in large part to its potential wide audience appeal and its unique compositional style. On a more pragmatic level, the piece allows for many educational possibilities for both the performers and the conductor. The piece is scored for the standard instrumentation of a symphonic wind ensemble with two important differences: MBM
1) the horns are scored as 1st and 2nd parts only; 2) the addition of a piano is critical to the piece and cannot be left out. Although the orchestration calls for a double bass, the piece can be performed without one, albeit not preferred. The composer states: “Euphoria in its development reflects those rare moments where one is totally immersed in the unabashed vibrancy of life. The swirling textures and rhythmic interplay of the score reveals a state of being unhindered by lingering everyday concerns, fully embracing the carefree dance of youth where all things are possible.”
hile the unique compositional style of this piece is part of its appeal, it is hard to categorize the compositional approach Frantzen uses without forcing a stereotypical expectation before you hear the piece. Frantzen uses a minimalistic approach coupled with a “slice and dice” format akin to Stravinsky’s Symphonies of Wind Instruments. This is not the early Reich or Glass versions of minimalism; it’s more closely related to the post-minimalist style of Adams along the vein of Short Ride or Lollapalooza. This piece exhibits the minimalistic characFigure 1 teristics of a steady pulse, a definite tonal center, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns. But the traditional slow evolutionary process that is normally expected with a minimalistic piece is clearly missing. There are several important thematic motives and rhythmic structures that Frantzen uses throughout this piece. If you recall his “swirling textures” program note reference, that is the idea Frantzen uses to begin the piece. See Figure 1. It will become clear later, but for now we will identify the running sixteenth-notes as a melodic motive/fragment. What is not Figure 2 clear from the reduced example is the orchestration that occurs in the winds. Shorter
fragments are dovetailed together allowing for instrumental sections to breath at different times. Coordination and balance will be important for this figure. During the introduction, an aggressive and disjunct melodic fragment highlights the intervals that are used to construct the melodies of the piece: minor second; tritone. See Figure 2. John Frantzen— Photo by Wayne Frantzen
The harmonic structure that appears at measure 13 establishes the harmonic ambiguity of the next section. Notice that the piano is playing a C7 chord and the first note of the top brass part is intentionally dissonant against the C7. See Figure 3, overleaf. The harmonic pallet for this piece, although tonal, is not by any means straightforward. Following a metric modulation going into measure 24, the harmonic structure of Figure 3 goes through a transformation that establishes the first rhythmic motive for this piece. See Figure 4, overleaf. When rewritten, the composite structure of measures 26 and 27 looks like this: See Figure 5, overleaf.
w w w. M a n h a t t a n B e a c h M u s i c . c o m
“Using a variation of minimalistic technique coupled with a jigsaw-like formal structure, Frantzen has created a truly unique piece of literature.” Figure 3
the opening measures.
The 3 against 2 rhythm, Figure 5 identified as rhythmic motive 1, has similarities with the harmonic pallet; slightly unstable and ambiguous. Rhythmic motive 1 becomes the rhythmic foundation for the first true melodic idea that enters at measure 31. For the purpose of this discussion, we’ll call this Theme 1. Notice that the intervals used in the first measure are the minor second and the tritone (refer to Figure 2).
The next important rhythmic development begins at measure 48 where the saxophones first state the harmonic and rhythmic element, rhythmic motive 2. This figure is passed between various textures before finally being picked up by the piano at measure 54 (see Fig. 8). Juxtaposed to this structure is the next melodic idea, Theme 2, stated by a solo flute, bass clarinet, bassoon, euphonium, and double bass. Notice that the interval of the minor second and the tritone are also incorporated in this melody. The introduction of a B-flat and E-flat into the harmonic pallet further clouds a clear tonal cenFigure 8
ter. The B-flat also helps to establish the minor second interval and the E-flat establishes the tritone. When put into context, the resulting scale for the melody ends up being a form of Phrygian Dominant (see Fig. 9). Figure 9
What is not seen in Figure 6 is the flute part which joins the melody in short interjections (see the full score). Rhythmic precision will be a key factor in keeping this section clean and uncluttered. What appears at first to be a brief interlude beginning at measure 37 (see Figure 7), introduces a melodic component to rhythmic motive 1: an arpeggiated bass line. The upper winds have a brief variation of the “swirling” melodic idea from Figure 7
At this point in the piece, all of the melodic and rhythmic ideas/motives have been presented by Frantzen. There is no real development or transformation of these theme and motives. Frantzen does provide slight alterations and additions to some sequences to keep the context fresh, but the reemergence of these ideas always comes back in the original form. The rest of the piece is a series of different motives and fragments presented in different combinations. The best way to show this, as well as the overall structure of this piece, is to chart it out. Notice that at measure 76, Frantzen, presents Theme 2 in can-
context fresh, but the reemergence of these ideas always comes back in the original form.
The rest of the piece is a series of different motives and fragments presented in different combinations. The best way to show this, as well as the overall structure of this piece, is to chart it out. Measures Melodic Idea
1-12 running 16ths min2 & TT
Measures Melodic Idea Rhythmic Idea Key
F Dorian (?)
41-53 Theme 1 Rhythm 1 C Mixolydian
31-36 Theme 1
37-40 running 16ths
Rhythm 1 Bass arpeggio
A Manhattan Beach Media Publication
M ANHAT TAN BE ACH MUSIC IS PROUD TO PRESENT
Transformation Rhythm 1 to 6/8
54-75 Theme 2 Rhythm 2 D Phrygian Dom.
F R A N K T I C H E L I ʼS L I S T
by GREGORY B. RUDGERS
MAKE IT YOUR OWN
76-87 Theme 2 in canon Rhythm 2 F Phrygian Dom.
THE RHYTHMIC & METRICAL DIVERSITY OF FRANK TICHELIʼS
Creating More Meaningful Performances and Rehersals Through Effective Score Study by DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMAN
88-106 Theme 1 & 2 Rhythm 1 & 2 F Mixolydian
by DR. JOHN DARLING
WAGGING THE DOG: SIX MODEST PROPOSALS by DR. JEFFREY BOECKMAN
Rhythm 2 Bass arpeggio F-Bb-Fmin
122-125 running 16ths Theme 2 Rhythm 2
126-134 Theme 1
F Dorian (?)
on. At measure 88, Frantzen switches between short fragments Notice that at measure 76, Frantzen, presents Theme 2 in canon. At measure 88, Frantzen of Theme 1 andshort Theme 2, each with its own identifying rhythswitches between fragments of Theme 1 and Theme 2, each with its own identifying mic structure. Eventually, a thematic of Theme 1 appropriate and rhythmic structure. The Stravinsky “slice andfragment dice” reference earlier is from this Rhythm 2 are coupled together along with a return of the runpoint forward where the music goes from two measure fragments of Theme 1 to two measure fragments of Theme then back to Theme Eventually, thematic fragment of ning sixteenth-notes. This2,leads to the climax1.of the piecea which Theme 1 and Rhythm 2 are coupled together along with a return of the running sixteenthbegins at measure 107. Measures 115–118 provide the only recnotes. This leads the climax of of the which begins at measure Measures ognizable tonaltosequence thepiece piece, as Frantzen moves107. from 115-118 provide the only recognizable tonal sequence of the piece, as Frantzen moves from F to C7 to B-flat to C7, clearly an F major tonal sequence. This F to C7 to B-flat to C7, clearly an F major tonal sequence. This brief emergence of tonality brief emergence of tonality doesn’t last long but does set up the doesn’t last long but does set up the final statement of Theme 1 and the conclusion of the final statement of Theme 1 and the conclusion of the piece. piece. Using a variation of minimalistic technique coupled with a jigsaw-like formal structure, Frantzen has created a truly unique piece of literature. It is refreshing and challenging. It provides a tonal pallet unique for wind repertoire. It will appeal to audiences, performers, and conductors without pandering to the lowest common denominator. It should come as no surprise that this piece was one of the winners of the Second International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest. The wind genre needs more pieces like this one with fresh ideas and a unique approach to composition.
JOHN CARNAHANʼS …AND THE ANTELOPE PLAY
WINNER OF THE CBDNA YOUNG BAND COMPOSITION COMPETITION
TURKEY IN THE STRAW REVIEW by DR. KEITH KINDER
REVIEW by DR. KEITH KINDER
A Manhattan Beach Media Publication
Arnold Rosner’s works, including
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an UPDATE to the FRANK TICHELI COMPOSITION C O N T E S T
photo by Charlie Grosso
Photo of Frank Ticheli by Orange Count y Register
107-114 Theme 1 (Climax) Rhythm 1
Measures Melodic Idea
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M A N H A T T A N i s
pr o u d
B E A C H t o
M U S I C
pr e se n t
JOY (MOSTLY!) “In this extraordinary composition, Micah Levy has created incredible energy through rhythmic manipulation, striking chord voicings and imaginative use of instrumental timbre. All of these, plus the prominent use of major chord sonorities generates a bright, cheerful mood that effectively captures the work’s intent.”
Score Analysis By Dr. Keith Kinder
oy (Mostly!) by Micah Levy is a winning work in the 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest sponsored by Manhattan Beach Music. Bright and energetic, it also offers a number of imaginative chord voicings that produce a remarkable soundscape. In his program note for this composition, the composer indicates that its inspiration came from re-connecting with a former close friend after a hiatus of a number of years. The exuberant outer sections reflect the joy that one would feel when re-establishing a valued friendship, while the middle section provides contrast through reduced textures and an
M a n h a t t a n WWW
extraordinary approach to accelerando and ritardando. In its large sense, the form is A-B-A, but within the A sections a number of sub-sections provide contrast, although the style remains consistent. The piece opens in an unusual way with a 1/8 bar containing a single, staccato, eighth-note chord that comprises a “tall” C Major triad spread over the entire range of the band from bass drum to piccolo. This might appear to be an upbeat, but in fact it’s a downbeat preceding the downbeat of the initial bar—certainly unexpected and possibly reminiscent of Stravinsky. Similar “tall” chords are reiterated throughout both A sections. They mostly
B e a c h
.FRANK TICHELI LIST.COM
M u s i c
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Micah Levy for Joy (Mostly!)
The Third Prize Winner
The 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest C at eg ory 2 : Concert Ba nd Music for Mor e E x per ienced Pl ay er s
fall in unusual places in the meter, and add brilliance to a rhythmic context that is always driving forward. The harmony consists of added-note chords, most of which include the pitch C, essentially establishing a pedal tone throughout this subsection. The melody appears immediately. In four-bar antecedent/consequent phrases, it begins in trumpets and concludes in trombones. Example 1: Melody, bars 2-9:
Subsection A2 arrives at measure 24. The relentless forward energy continues, but the textures are lighter and a new melody appears at bar 28 in trombones, and is continued by saxophones and trumpets.
Micah Levy — Photo by Britt Olsen-Ecker
(See Example 2: New Melody, Trombones, bars 28-31, below left.)
During this subsection, a few “tall” chords similar to those in the opening appear in either1/4 or 2/4 measures. In Stravinsky’s ff music such chords have been trombones identified as “incisions”, and they perform a comparable function f here by suggesting either phrase endings or beginnings of new This initial subsection (bars 1–13) is extended by another fourmotivic material. The conclusion of this subsection is signalled bar phrase with the melody in flutes, oboes and first clarinets. by an upward scalic sweep in parallel thirds through the most of This phrase concludes with a flourish consisting of simultanethe band leading to a silent 5/4 bar at measure 48.
= 144 trumpets
ous ascending and descending C Major scales, which announce the beginning of a new subsection. Subsection A1 (bars 14–23) continues the motoric rhythm of the previous music and begins in similar fashion. However, the four-bar phrasal structure disappears and the harmony includes an aurally-surprising dominant seventh chord on D that suggests popular music. It also introduces shifting meter, which will be an important feature of the entire composition.
A new subsection, either A3 or codetta, begins at bar 49. Rhythmic activity is intensified with constant shifts among 7/8, 6/8, 1/4 and 2/4, and considerably more frequent “incisions,” which generate irregular phrasal units. In this section these “tall” chords are either clusters or chords in fifths. The B section, which Levy describes as “wistful”, appears very abruptly at measure 69. Chords in fifths are voiced to produce a warm resonant texture, and fragments of the main melody are tossed from instrument to instrument. The most remarkable aspect of this section, however, is the composer’s approach to
tempo. Mostly in four-bar segments, the speed “steps” down from the original quarter-note = 144 to quarter-note = 96. Levy indicates in his programme note that the tempo changes should be terraced, dropping suddenly at each segment rather than in a gradual ritardando. The composer feels this approach generates more drama, a view that is confirmed by the music. An actual ritardando occurs at bars 96-97 taking the tempo down to quarter-note = 50.
including A, A1 and about half of A2, are repeated with minor alterations. At bar 157, a new development of A material occurs that might be considered A4 and contributes additional contrast, especially through exploration of compound meter. At bar 198, the remainder of A2 is restated and extended by seven bars to produce a convincing ending. The final chord, another “tall” chord consisting of C major with added second, falls on the weak beat in 2/4, another Stravinskylike gesture that provides long-range balance with the very first chord of the work.
Bar 98 is a crucial measure. At this point, the textures of the A section return, and an accelerando appears that, within that one bar, more than doubles the tempo to quarter-note = 104. In the ensuing 25-bar transition, the tempo gradually returns to the original quarter-note = 144 through six terraced steps. This transition recalls the music of the A section including the rapidly shifting meter, the incisions and the “tall” chords, but does not exactly repeat any of it.
In this extraordinary composition, Micah Levy has created incredible energy through rhythmic manipulation, striking chord voicings and imaginative use of instrumental timbre. All of these, plus the prominent use of major chord sonorities generates a bright, cheerful mood that effectively captures the work’s intent. Overall this composition is a well-proportioned, ear-catching addition to the band’s repertoire.
Section A returns at bar 123. The first 35 bars of the piece,
Stories for Band, Leonard Mark Lewis (Analytic Matrix) Analytic Matrix for Short StoriesShort by Leonard Mark Lewis – story begins on page 52
Introduction/ Story One Poco meno mosso, Prelude Lyrical and Sustained
Story Three Intimate Chorale
Story Four Subito, Growing Frustration
Soloistic and Reﬂective
Canon Growing in Intensity
Coda/ Epilogue Intimate
Rehearsal A mm. 19-32
Rehearsal B mm. 33-50
Rehearsal C mm. 51-65
Rehearsal D mm. 65-79
Rehearsal E mm. 80-93
Quarter= 108 Quarter= 108
Eb (Ab Lydian)
Fm7/AbM7 (Eb Lydian)
Eb9/FM9/ F/Bb (D-A Arrival within Bb-F9)
Introduction of main theme over syncopated accompaniment
Diminution of main theme and introduction of two-note sigh in horns
Melismatic development of main theme over brass chorale and the harmonic embedding of the Main Theme staring in m. 61
Two note motive expanded into six note falling motive
Three soloistic lines (Flute, Clarinet, and Trumpet)
Main theme (E-D) in its purest state (mm. 131-132)
Motivic Introduction Treatment of (E-D) Motive
Story Two Traveling with Increasing Intensity
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Rehearsal F mm. 94-119
Percussion begins with syncopated canonic material building toward climax (mm. 116-119)
Rehearsal G mm. 120-end
M u s i c
A B O U T
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A U T H O R S
Richard L. Blatti is Head of the Ensembles and Conducting Area, and Distinguished Professor of Music at The Ohio State University, where he conducts the Symphonic Band and supervises all aspects of the conducting curricula for the School of Music. Ensembles under his direction have recorded for the Naxos, Delos, and Mark labels, and have performed for CBDNA, ABA, and Ohio MEA. For his interpretation of their works, Blatti has earned the praise of many composers, including Gunther Schuller, John Mackey, Warren Benson, Steven Bryant, Michael Daugherty, David Gillingham, Frank Ticheli, Jennifer Higdon, Daniel Bukvich, and Roger Cichy. Professor Blatti has twice received The Ohio State University School of Music Distinguished Teaching Award.
Dr. Alan Lourens is a freelance conductor, arranger and composer currently based in Perth, Western Australia. Previously, he has held university and professorial positions in Singapore, Dubai and Australia at leading arts institutions. He has conducted orchestras and bands throughout Asia, Australia and the U.S., and has performed on Euphonium across four continents. He has been heard nationally on Australian radio, and is in demand as a conductor and teacher of conducting throughout the region; he is also active in the Brass Band movement in Australia, both as a conductor and soloist. In 2008, Dr. Lourens was made a Fellow of the prestigious UK-based Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) in recognition of his contribution to the development of the arts internationally.
Marcellus B. Brown is Director of Bands and Professor of Trumpet at Boise State University, and director of the University Symphonic Winds and the Treasure Valley Concert Band. He also teaches Instrumental Conducting, and is a founding member of the University Faculty Brass Quintet. He has done extensive work as a guest conductor, clinician and adjudicator throughout the United States, including guest conducting appearances at the The Midwest Clinic. He currently serves on the Board of the National Band Association, and is a member of the American Bandmasters Association.
GREGORY B. RUDGERS, after a successful career in public school music, now serves on the adjunct faculty of Ithaca College in New York State where he teaches in the music education department. He has written articles for The Instrumentalist, the Music Educator’s Journal, Teaching Music, and several state journals. He is also a published composer with works for band, wind ensemble, string orchestra, and chamber ensembles produced by several prominent publishers, next up from Manhattan Beach Music being Metro. He has enjoyed success as a clinician/guest conductor, having served in that capacity at both the public school and university levels for over one hundred festivals.
DR. JOHN A. DARLING is currently an Associate Professor of Music at Bismarck State College where he is responsible for conducting the Wind Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble, and all chamber groups. He also teaches Instrumental Conducting, Theory, and technology classes. He stays active as a guest conductor, clinician, and adjudicator throughout the upper Midwest. He is an Associate Member of the Board of Directors for the International Music Camp where he teaches during the summer sessions, and serves as the National Band Association State Chair for North Dakota. His composition, West River Jubilee, is now available through Alfred Publishing. He is a regular contributing author to the Journal of the World Association for Symphonic Bands and Ensembles (WASBE), and MBM Times. Dr. Jeffrey D. Gershman is the Associate Director of Bands at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music, where he conducts the Symphonic Band and teaches courses in undergraduate music education and wind band literature and graduate conducting. He is an active guest conductor and concert band clinician and a frequent guest lecturer at state and national conventions. Also an accomplished arranger, his band transcriptions include works by John Corigliano and Frank Zappa. DR. KEITH KINDER is Professor of Music and Director of the School of the Arts at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, where he conducts the concert band and the chamber orchestra, leads the Music Education program and teaches courses in conducting and music education. As a recognized expert in wind literature and performance, he presents regularly at conferences worldwide. He is the author of Best Music for Chorus and Winds (Manhattan Beach), The Wind and Wind-Chorus Music of Anton Bruckner (Greenwood), and Prophetic Trumpets: Homage, Worship and Celebration in the Wind Band Music of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt (Pendragon).
M a n h a t t a n
DR. LAWRENCE STOFFEL is Director of Bands at California State University, Northridge (Los Angeles), where he serves as conductor of both the internationally-recognized Wind Ensemble and the Wind Symphony. As an associate professor of music, he teaches courses in music education and conducting, as well as being the coordinator of wind studies. He is author of A Discography of Concert Band Recordings on Compact Disc: Promoting the Artistry of Band Composition (Edwin Mellen Press) and has been published and lectured on topics wideranging—from musical interpretation to band transcriptions, from the use of religious music in the public schools to band in the school curriculum, from copyright law to band discography. The two First-Prize Winning works of the 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest (Legacies by Clint Needham, and Short Stories by Leonard Mark Lewis) were reviewed by these five students in the conducting studio of Professor Allan McMurray at the University of Colorado at Boulder: Tyler Benjamin, who is pursuing simultaneous Master’s degrees in Wind Conducting and Euphonium Performance; Erik Johnson, who holds a Master’s degree in Wind Conducting from the University of Colorado, and is now working towards a Ph.D. in Music Education; Ingrid Larragoity, who, after teaching high school band and orchestra in Florida for 10 years, is pursuing her D.M.A. in Wind Conducting; Jason Missal, who is finishing his Master’s degree in Wind Conducting and who previously taught high school band in Tulsa, Oklahoma; and by Devin Otto, who was the Assistant Director of Bands at Eastern Washington University for six years, and is now a D.M.A. student in Wind Conducting.
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M A N H A T T A N
B E A C H
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is proud to pr esent
M O O NS C A PE AWA K EN I N G “The composer has indicated that the title refers to: ‘a shimmering moon that slowly rises and bursts into an awakening of full presence and intensity. The process of progression to the moon’s zenith is presented musically as a slow building of melody, texture, note duration and range.” by DR. Keith Kinder
Moonscape Awakening by Joni Greene is a winning composition in the 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest, sponsored by Manhattan Beach Music. The work was commissioned and first performed by James Geiger and the West Laurens High School Wind Ensemble of Dublin, Georgia. Moonscape Awakening is a “texture piece.” Although melodies and melodic fragments as well as harmonic
progressions and rhythmic
intensifications can easily be
identified throughout the
work, musical momentum is
primarily achieved through
textural accumulation and re-
cession. The composer has
M a n h a t t a n
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� resentin �
Joni Greene for Moonscape Awakening
The Third Prize Winner
The 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest C at eg ory 2 : Concert Ba nd Music for Mor e E x per ienced Pl ay er s
indicated that the title refers to: “a shimmering moon that slowly rises and bursts into an awakening of full presence and intensity. The process of progression to the moon’s zenith is presented musically as a slow building of melody, texture, note duration and range. The culmination of these elements reaches a climactic apex just over halfway through the work [bars 72-75]. An arch form is then created as the music slowly dissipates to its beginning’s simplicity signifying a weakening of the moon’s presence.”
Clarinet 1 (later in Horn 1) and ringing percussion sounds in mallet percussion and piano, which are probably intended to evoke the silvery sparkle of the rising moon’s light. The flute solo outlines a melodic motive that will be integral to the entire work and, when played against the pedal, introduces the intervals (P5, m6, m7, m3) that are characteristic of both melodic and harmonic content. See Example 1: Flute Solo, bars 2-12, below center.
At measure 8, under the continuing flute melody, the clarinets present a series of While this programmatic concept can quiet figures that expand from unisons Joni Greene — Photo by David Neuse readily be followed through the cominto short line clusters. Subtle crescendos position and would unsupport this first example of doubtedly be helpful in employing texture to geninterpreting the work for erate musical momentum. flute young players, Greene’s This pattern is developed piece works on a purely pp pp p p throughout the “A” section, 1 clar. musical level without ref although Greene also adds erence to any pictorial impp accents that highlight new agery. Her skilful handling instrumental colours and, of instrumental colour, since they sometimes appear pp pp layering and harmonic/ pp p mp p horn 1 off-the-beat, contribute to rhythmic intensification the rhythmic impulsion as produces a highly satisfypp well. This section is a coning sense of tension, release stant development of the and musical progression. flute motives from the first The composer considers the work to be in arch form, but bars, often in imitative textures. A climax is reached at measure the nature of the musical material does not allow for obvious 25 in a brass pyramid that essentially verticalizes the first four structural divisions. The initial “A” section (bars 1-32) begins notes of the flute solo (with the additional pitch, F), illustratvery quietly with a flute solo supported only by a C pedal in ing how thoroughly the composer has integrated the musical
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“Moonscape Awakening is unusual and refreshing band music. It offers none of what have become clichés in the repertoire — long sections of loud playing, driving rhythms, drum breaks, &c.— offering instead a contemplative experience of an atmospheric event to which everyone can relate.” p
materials. After the climax the texture dissipates quickly — a pattern that will be repeated throughout the composition. The final bars of “A” present woodwind motives that subtly suggest the “B” section over primarily quintal brass harmonies. The “A” and “B” sections are elided at bars 32-33 by a melodic fragment in coupled thirds played by oboe and alto saxophone soloists. The “B” section presents the first full melody, appearing initially in bass clarinet. See Example 2: Melody, Bass Clarinet, bars 34-36, above center. While this melody does provide contrast with previous material, it employs similar intervals and the sections flow smoothly one into the next. The “B” section (bars 33-92) is the longest segment of the work and presents the most dramatic music. Like the “A” section it starts very quietly, and quickly begins developing motives from the bass clarinet melody. Reminiscences of earlier material also appear, and the brightening moon is depicted in trills and tremolos in high woodwinds, piano and percussion. Rising woodwind sweeps lead to a climax at bar 53, but it promptly dissolves in preparation for the second presentation of the complete melody in the horns. Interestingly, the horn melody is accompanied by a rhythmically faster partial version of itself in euphonium and is followed by reiterations of the flute motive from the beginning of the piece. Fragments of both melodic ideas and the woodwind sweeps that appeared earlier are layered through the textural accumulation that leads to the major climax at bar 75. During the climactic bars, the complete melody is pre-
sented by piano supported by a slightly simplified version in euphonium and an ornamented version in tenor saxophone. Like all previous climaxes this one quickly evaporates. The textures are simplified and the woodwind lines that previously ascended are now inverted into descending passages. The ensuing measures are transparently scored and recall aspects of the entire work. Toward the end, an imitative texture recalls the opening flute motive with its perfect fifth expanded to a sixth. A poco rit. prepares the re-entry of “A”. The final “A” section is short (bars 93-111) and recalls, but does not exactly re-state, the initial material. It ultimately reaches what the composer calls a “resonating chord” (bars 108-111), a towering chord in fifths in brass, saxophones and low clarinets. A solo clarinet connects this section to a brief coda in which a flute solo is supported by a sustained cluster in clarinets. Moonscape Awakening is unusual and refreshing band music. It offers none of what have become clichés in the repertoire — long sections of loud playing, driving rhythms, drum breaks, &c.— offering instead a contemplative experience of an atmospheric event to which everyone can relate. While intended for young bands, the skill with which it was created will make it attractive to ensembles at all levels. Indeed, this work demands substantial control of dynamics and pitch, and requires well developed listening skills, challenges that will attract experienced performers even as it broadens the musical development of younger players.
GRADE 2 4 1/2 MIN.
S H A K E R VA R I A N T S
The familiar melody from “Simple Gifts” may be one of the most fruitful melodies to spring from our culture. From Copland forward, many modern composers have taken its elegant simplicity and developed works that capture a spirit of Americanism and tradition. Elliot Del Borgo takes lower level bands and directors through several developments of the Shaker Tune, all the time maintaining its dignity and style. At four minutes and ten seconds the composition is a bit longer than the average level two work. However, as a result of insightful scoring for this level, the composer has creted a tune that is still practical for young players. A fanfare opens the work in which Del Borgo passes around fragments from the melody from upper woodwinds to lower woodwinds and brasses and finally to muted trumpets and horns, before the melody is stated in its entirety by the flutes in a straightforward, gentle march. The march continues through several iterations before the tempo slows into a serious and soulful treatment inferring minor keys and
presenting powerfully dramatic declarations. The last “variation” quickly occurs with a burst of sustained winds and driving percussion. Trumpets boldly state the theme accompanied by majestic low brass, gradually building to a fortissimo, highly developed conclusion that is most exciting all the while maintaining the inherent nobility of this timeless hymn tune. Del Borgo’s characteristic mastery of percussion writing is much in evidence here. The percussion lines stand in rhythmic support and counterpoint to the winds with taste and discretion. The instrumentation is appropriate for level two with just two clarinet, and two trumpet parts, and a single line for French Horn, Trombone and Baritone. Ranges are eminently reasonable and the dynamics are straightforward giving young players the total range from gentle to powerful and dramatic. Young musicians should know of this classic melody, and Elliot Del Borgo has offered an accomplished introduction to its charm and grace.
ELLIOT DEL BORGO
R e v iews by G regory B . R u dgers GRADE 4 15 MIN.
SYMPHONY FOR BAND
ELKAN VOGEL/ PRESSER
Written in 1958, the Persichetti Symphony reprelengthier melody through rapidly alternating choirs sents one of the earlier 20th century masterworks and restatements of the theme in brief variations. Perfor the modern concert band. Up until Persichetti cussion here is integral to the work and both accompaand other notable composers, the American band nies the melodic voices and serves in counterpoint to movement, and indeed much of the world’s bands the melodic rhythms. The second movement, Adagio relied on transcriptions of orchestral works and sostenuto, takes the original melody and modifies it to lighter music composed specifically for bands. Thus, fit a moving and beautiful chorale. This movement reit may be stated that this composition serves as a places the jagged and irregular treatments of the first VINCENT guidepost to the burgeoning world of contemporary with lyricism and gentleness. In its elegant simplicity literature for band. Band directors can be thankful PERSICHETTI and simple loveliness, it may well be one of the most that a noted composer from the symphonic world moving works for winds ever written. The third movecreated this master work. It is a truly symphonic ment translates into a lively dance that is reminiscent composition, deriving its four movements from two simple of folk music in compound meter which evolves into a sprightly melodic motifs stated early in the first movement. The opensection in two/four before returning to its opening style with ing horn call, reminiscent of the opening of “Pageant” another just a few hints of the staccato simple meter- just wonderfully fine piece for band by Persichetti, is followed by a low brass and charming. The fourth, in tradition, combines all of the elewoodwind extended melody both of which provide the melodic ments from the first three and adds thundering percussion in an material for all four movements. The opening movement, Adaexciting and driven climax, culminating in a tonal cluster that gio-Allegro begins with a quiet reflective statement of the two shouts in triumph. This a master work, part of the foundation themes and then moves on to an Allegro which develops the of our heritage as bandsman, and it stands as a wind symphony of true significance.
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M anhattan Beach Music is pr ou d to pr esen t
S HOR T S T OR I E S
A n I nterpretive A nalysis of the S core
by Tyler Benjamin, Erik Johnson, & Ingrid Larragoity
pproaching a new piece of music carries with it endless possibilities. The procedures to discover the music may begin with form, tonality, meter, tempos, and terminology; but then comes the revelation of the actual music, and the combining of these elements to reveal the beauty, the life of the music. These components require the artistic conductor to guide the ensemble through this process to achieve the composer’s intent. The composer states, “I’ve always been fascinated with the writing of Milan Kundera, particularly his essays and short stories. His innate ability to write collections of seemingly disparate short stories while keeping a central theme is, to me what sets his works apart from his contemporaries. It was my goal to achieve
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something similar in a musical context… Short Stories is made up of an introduction (prologue), six short “stories” based on elaborations of the introduction and a coda (epilogue).” Introduction/Prologue: mm. 1-18 The prologue to Short Stories begins with a punctuated chord that gives way to a sustained colorful harmony. As part of this harmony, a two note motive (E–D) is introduced in clarinet 1, alto saxophone 1 and vibraphone (mm. 1-3). This two note motive acts as a 4-3 suspension over Bb9 (Example 1). It is recommended that a slight crescendo take place from the E to the D in order to accentuate the release of tension.
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� resentin � The First Prize Winner for
Leonard Mark Lewis
The 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest C at eg ory One: Concert Ba nd Music for Younger Pl ay er s
motive acts as a 4-3 suspension over Bb9 (Example 1). It is recommended that a slight crescendo take place from the E to the D in order to accentuate the release of tension.
Leonard Mark Lewis — Photo by Bethanie Pletcher-Lewis
Story One: mm. 19-32 The main theme of the work is presented in Story One at measure 19. This three-measure quarter-note theme, played by alto saxophone, trumpet, and glockenspiel, echoes and develops the major 2nd intervalic relationship found in the opening E–D motive. This three-measure motive, also resolving in the third measure, imitates the shape of the opening three bars. In order
Story One: mm. 19-32
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The main theme of the work is presented in Story One at measure 19. This threemeasure quarter-note theme, played by alto saxophone, trumpet, and glockenspiel, echoes and develops the major 2nd intervalic relationship found in the opening E-D
to maintain continuity, the conductor must shape the destination of the theme toward the downbeat of m. 21 to ensure there is no diminuendo to that point. “Equal syncopation”, as noted by the composer (measure 19), implies special care be taken to achieve a soft articulation with full value notes in both lines (Example 2).
The accents in measure 30 highlight the opening E–D motive suspended over Bb9. Slightly slowing into the weighted accent of beat three measure 30 accentuates the return of the motive providing structural closure to Story One. The g minor chord in the following measure also provides harmonic closure to Story One as a small scale dominant–tonic cadence from D–g minor. By shaping the E–D motive (measure 30 in fl, ob, cl, tpt, hn) as before, toward the g minor chord resolution (measure 31), the conductor again provides stylistic continuity (Example 3). Story Two: mm. 33-50 Traveling with a familiar melody that has been altered by key and rhythmic diminution, the listener is ushered into a different short story at letter B announced by the triangle. The momentum is carried forward by a subdued rhythmic pattern which should be treated in the same “Equal syncopation” as earlier statements (Example 4).
note=108), and short descending melodic figures, which expand the original two note motive. These figures are truncated throughout the story to a simple two note motive as the section builds in frustration toward letter E. By adding a slight stringendo beginning at measure 78 (Example 6), the agitated character of this section is accentuated. (Example 6.) Story Five: mm. 80-93 The frustrated character of Story Four is suddenly interrupted by a calm chamber setting (Example 7). The conductor should treat the eighth notes in the flute, clarinet and trumpet lines with patience to accentuate the dreamlike character. The clarinet line could be treated as a solo as well if care is taken to maintain balance. As if awakened from a dream, the end of Story Five is a return to the frustrated material of Story Four. ( Example 7.) Story Six: mm. 94-119
Forward motion is realized through three discrete elements: melodic diminution, new harmonic area, and rhythmic displacement. To illuminate the “horn sigh” as new material in this section, balance must be guided to reveal the horn scored in its low register. Marked with “increasing intensity”, the texture thickens into measure 48. A more dramatic climax can be achieved by using both a crescendo and ritardando in measure 47, emphasizing the quarter-note line reminiscent of the main theme. This climax recedes into the intimate setting of Story Three.
In 4/4 time, the timpani plays a syncopated 5/4 rhythmic figure giving an unsettled quality to the opening of this story. In counterpoint with the timpani, the glockenspiel sounds an equally unstable motive (Example 8). To reinforce the sustained melodic line it is suggested that a vibraphone be added in contrast to the timpani. To maintain balance within the thickening texture the timpani should crescendo to the climax in measures 116-119. The canonic entrances slowly increase in “intensity” toward the climax where the syncopated rhythmic figure is no longer the accompaniment but the main statement. Punctuated by the bass drum, the climax reaches its final statement in measure 119. The accents in this measure must be played with weight and length, signifying the end of the journey. A brief silence must occur before moving on to measure 120, to create a moment of repose before the epilogue. (Example 8.)
Story Three: mm. 51-67
Coda/Epilogue: mm. 120-end
The flute and clarinet line, beginning in measure 51, should be phrased lyrically over the brass choir. A low, warm sonority is established by the orchestration, and should be maintained. The brass sound should be smooth and transparent,never outgrowing a piano dynamic (Example 5). The half note pulse should be maintained throughout, allowing for a slight repose in the cadences in measures 57, 63, and especially 65. Maintaing a piano dynamic until the crescendo and addition of the saxophones at measure 64 emphasizes the texture and dynamic change at measure 65. The conductor is reminded to treat the suspensions beginning in measure 61 as tension leading towards resolution. (Example 5.)
The Coda/Epilogue brings an intimate end to the story. The opening motive is stated one last time in measures 131-132 (Example 9). Attention should be drawn to the E-D. Marked with a sforzando, the E diminuendos to the D as the main character exits the stage. The glockenspiel reiterates the two-note motive and, when treated with patience, brings a sense of closure to Short Stories. (Example 9.)
Story Four: mm. 68-79 Story Four (measure 68) begins with a sense of urgency. This character is achieved through a subito tempo change (quarter
M a n h a t t a n
The analytic Matrix appears on page 46. MBM Times is pleased to acknowledge the leadership of Allan McMurray, Distinguished Professor, the Robert and Judy Charles Endowed Professor of Music, Chair of the Conducting Faculty, and Director of Bands at the University of Colorado-Boulder, in guiding his graduate conducting students Tyler Benjamin, Erik Johnson, & Ingrid Larragoityin their analysis of Short Stories by Leonard Mark Lewis.
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and trumpet lines with patience to accentuate the dream-like character. The clarinet could be treated as a solo as well if care is taken to maintain balance. As if awaken from a dream, the end of Story Five is a return to the frustrated material of Story Fou
n measure 2 30 highlight the opening E-D motive suspended over Bb9. ng into the weighted accent of beat three measure 30 accentuates the motive providing structural closure to Story One. The g minor chord in the asure also provides harmonic closure to Story One as a small scale ic cadence from D-g minor. By shaping the E-D motive (measure 30 in ﬂ, ) as before, toward the g minor chord resolution (measure 31), the ain provides stylistic continuity (Example 3).
Story Six: mm. 94-119
In 4/4 time, the timpani plays a syncopated 5/4 rhythmic ﬁgure giving an unsettled quality to the opening of this story. In counterpoint with the timpani, the glockenspiel sounds an equally unstable motive (Example 8). To reinforce the sustained melodic line ample 5 it is suggested that a vibraphone be added in contrast to the timpani. To maintain Example 4 balance within the thickening texture the timpani should crescendo to the climax in m. 33-50 measures 116-119. The canonic Story Six: mm. 94-119entrances slowly increase in "intensity" toward the climax where the syncopated rhythmic ﬁgure is no longer the accompaniment but the h a familiar melody that has been altered by key and rhythmic diminution, main statement. by theplays bass a drum, the climax ﬁnal giving statement in In 4/4Punctuated time, the timpani syncopated 5/4reaches rhythmicitsﬁgure an unsettled measure 119. The accents in this measure mustInbecounterpoint played with with weight length, ushered into a different short story at letter B announced by the triangle. quality to the opening of this story. theand timpani, the glockenspiel signifying the end ofan theequally journey. A brief motive silence(Example must occur movingthe onsustained to um is carried forward by a subdued rhythmic pattern which should be sounds unstable 8).before To reinforce melodic line measure 120, create a moment of repose before the epilogue. it istosuggested that a vibraphone be added in contrast to the timpani. To maintain same "Equal syncopation" as earlier statements (Example 4). balance within the thickening texture the timpani should crescendo to the climax in measures 116-119. The canonic entrances slowly increase in "intensity" toward the Example 8 Forward motion is realized through three discrete elements: melodic diminution, newwhere the syncopated rhythmic ﬁgure is no longer the accompaniment but the climax harmonic area, and rhythmic displacement. To illuminate the "horn sigh" as new material main statement. Punctuated by the bass drum, the climax reaches its ﬁnal statement in in this section, balance must be guided to reveal the horn scored in its low register. 119. The accents in this measure must be played with weight and length, measure Marked with "increasing intensity", the texture thickens into measure 48. A more signifying the end of the journey. A brief silence must occur before moving on to dramatic climax can be achieved by using both a crescendo and ritardando inmeasure measure120, to create a moment of repose before the epilogue. 47, emphasizing the quarter-note line reminiscent of the main theme. This climax recedes into the intimate setting of Story Three. Example 8
Story Three: mm. 51-67 The ﬂute and clarinet line, beginning in measure 51, should be phrased lyrically over Coda/Epilogue: mm.be 120-end the brass choir. A low, warm sonority is established by the orchestration, and should maintained. The brass sound should be smooth and transparent,never outgrowing a The Coda/Epilogue brings an intimate end to the story. The opening motive is stated piano dynamic (Example 5). The half note pulse should be maintained throughout, one last time in measures 131-132 (Example 9). Attention should be drawn to the E-D. allowing for a slight repose in the cadences in measures 57, 63, and especially 65. Marked with a sforzando, the E diminuendos to the D as the main character exits the Maintaing a piano dynamic until the crescendo and addition of the saxophones at Four: mm. 68-79 stage. The glockenspiel reiterates the two-note motive and, when treated with patience, measure 64 emphasizes the texture and dynamic change at measure 65. The brings a sense of closure to Short Stories. conductor is reminded to treat the suspensions beginning in measure 61 as tension Four (measureleading 68) begins with a sense of urgency. This character is Coda/Epilogue: achieved mm. 120-end towards resolution. Example 9
ory ough a subito tempo change (quarter note=108), and short descending melodic The Coda/Epilogue brings an intimate end to the story. The opening motive is stated ures, which expand the original two note motive. These ﬁgures are truncated one last time in measures 131-132 (Example 9). 9 Attention should be drawn to the E-D. Marked with a sforzando, the E diminuendos to the D as the main character exits the oughout the story to a simple two note motive as the section builds in frustration stage. The glockenspiel reiterates the two-note motive and, when treated with patience, ward letter E. By adding a slight stringendo beginning at measure 78 (Example 6), of closure to Short Stories. brings a sense agitated character of this section is accentuated. Example 9
: mm. 68-79
(measure 68) begins with a sense of urgency. This character is achieved subito tempo change (quarter note=108), and short descending melodic ich expand the original two note motive. These ﬁgures are truncated the story to a simple two note motive as the section builds in frustration er E. By adding a slight stringendo beginning at measure 78 (Example 6), d character of this section is accentuated.
he tenor saxophone is written below its range eight and four measures before letter E
M A NHATTA N IS
PR OU D
P R E S EN T
SCORE A NALYSIS BY J OHN DAR LING rom the program notes, the composer pro-
Typical of compositions that are concise and well
vides a context that helps to understand the
crafted, Miles presents all of the compositional mate-
compositional concept of this
rial for the piece in opening three mea-
piece. Commissioned by a Catholic school
sures. The rhythmic drive of the piece,
where the composer once taught, Timothy
the rhythmic identity, is provided by the
Miles chose a sacred form called the lau-
percussion, specifically the closed hi-hat
da as the starting point for this composi-
playing continuous sixteenth-notes. This
tion. During the Renaissance, composers
is a clear indicator to the pop music refer-
would write a sacred song, the lauda, with
ence. The low reeds and brass introduce a
the text set in the vernacular, the local
syncopated counter-rhythm to the hi-hat.
language. Putting a contemporary twist
Finally, the trombones provide the me-
to this compositional form, Miles set this
lodic fragment on which the main theme
“lauda...with melodic and rhythmic material inspired
will be constructed – the interval of the minor third.
by pop music.” The pop music reference serves as the vernacular for this piece. MBM
M anhattan Beach Music
Timothy Miles for Lauda
The Second Prize Winner
The 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest C at eg ory One: Concert Ba nd Music for Younger Pl ay er s
Timothy Miles — Photo by Laura Shaw Figure 1- Introductory Material (all figures on p. 59) Following the three measure introduction of the compositional elements for the piece, Miles sets off on an eighteen measure development of these elements. The sixteenth-note pattern is moved to the marimba. The upper woodwinds develop the sixteenth-note figure into sets of running patterns that will serve as a textural element that Miles uses as a cohesive figure throughout the rest of the piece. Figure 2 – Running Sixteenth-notes The saxophones highlight the importance of the minor third to the compositional framework that eventual becomes the main theme. Figure 3 – Minor Third Element Notice that in measure 11, the figure foreshadows Theme 1 (see Figure 4). The low brass present an augmented form of the minor third further stressing the importance of this interval. The percussion continually add layers to the texture that highlight the synco-
pated counter rhythm, the running sixteen-notes in the winds, and the minor-third interval. Finally at measure 22, the trumpets introduce Theme 1 with the low reeds and brass providing the counter rhythm bass line. Figure 4 – Theme 1 Notice that the melody is comprised mostly of descending minor-third melodic fragments. Miles interjects a brilliant little canonic episode at measure 34. The figure is loosely based on the arpeggio bass counter rhythm figure. The entrances are staggered only 1 beat apart. It may prove to be the most difficult 8 measures of the entire piece to line up correctly, however, the effect is well worth the extra rehearsal time. Figure 5 – Canonic Gesture The harmonic identity for the beginning of the piece is clearly G natural minor or G Aeolian. An unexpected dominant-seventh chord in measure 53 shifts the key to D minor. Unison syncopated figures clearly announce the end of this section of
w w w. M a n h a t t a n B e a c h M u s i c . c o m
“Putting a contemporary twist to this compositional form, Miles set this lauda ‘with melodic and rhythmic material inspired by pop music.’ The pop music reference serves as the vernacular for this piece.” Figure 7 – Theme 2 and Inversion Counter-melody
the piece. A sudden shift from sixteenth-notes to a quarter-note figure in the percussion further signifies that a new section begins at measure 56. Various rhythmic versions of Theme 1 are sprinkled throughout the texture while the horns foreshadow the new theme. Figure 6 – Transition to Theme 2 Theme 2 is first presented by a solo clarinet. The rhythm and melodic idea are loosely based on the opening arpeggio counter rhythm. Figure 7 – Theme 2 All of the flutes present Theme 2 at measure 76 while the entire clarinet section plays a counter melody that is an inversion of Theme 2. Figure 8 – Theme 2 and Inversion Counter-melody A quick look at the score will show that Theme 1 is still present in various rhythmic manifestations as textural highlights in the trumpets and saxophones. Horns and euphonium are added later. Miles uses rhythmic augmentation on the final three notes of Theme 2 to announce the climax of the piece at measure 90. The climax of this piece uses only one note, concert “d”, over a five-octave spread. To complicate the issue, the dynamics start at double-forte. Control of the intonation and balance of this figure for younger players will take some coaching. Interestingly, the piece is 144 measures long. If you subscribe to the Fibonacci golden mean theory, the climax comes at measure 90 of a 144 measure composition; 89 and 144 are the eleventh and twelfth Fibonacci numbers, and for this piece, the golden mean should begin around measure 89. Following the climax, the marimba picks up the familiar quarter-note pulse. Then in a wonderful harmonic moment, Miles shifts the tonality from D minor to D Mixolydian (or D dominant-seventh) , providing a large scale modal shift using a D7 chord outlined by a solo flute playing Theme 2 in a major tonality.
M a n h a t t a n MBM
A quick look at the score will show that Theme 1 is still present in various rhythmic manifestations as textural highlights.
Figure 9 – Modal Shift
Miles uses rhythmic augmentation on the final three notes of Theme 2 to announce the
Starting measure Miles uses a cadential 6/4 harmonic climax of thein piece at measure106, 90. Interestingly, the piece is 144 measures long. If you subscribe to the Fibonacci golden mean theory, the climax comes at measure 90 of a 144 structure that drops the tonality clearly into G major. A quick measure composition; 89 and 144 are the eleventh and twelfth Fibonacci numbers. look at the score shows that measures 109-110 is a brief reprise Following the climax, the marimba picks up the familiar quarter-note pulse. Then in a of the canonic figure from measure 34. A shortened version of wonderful harmonic moment, Miles shifts the tonality from D minor to D Mixolydian (or the introductory material, all using three elements (closed D dominant-seventh) , providing a largeincluding scale modal shift a D7 chord outlined by a solo flute playing Theme 2 in a major tonality. hi-hat, running sixteenth-notes, and syncopated counter rhythms), leads to a presentation of Theme 2, now in G major. Figure 8 – Modal Shift
Figure 10 – Theme 2 in G major Starting in measure 106, Miles uses a cadential 6/4 harmonic structure that drops the
tonality in Gof major. A quick1, look the major, score shows that measures 109-110 is126. a A full clearly reprise Theme inatG begins in measure brief reprise of the canonic figure from measure 34. A shortened version of the Like he did to announce the climax, Miles augments the last introductory material, including all three elements (closed hi-hat, running sixteenth-notes, three notes counter of Theme 1 leads to announce theofending of the piece. and syncopated rhythms), to a presentation Theme 2, now in G major. A full reprise Themean 1, inabbreviated G major, beginsflow in measure 126. the Like he did to announce the When putofinto chart, preceding analyclimax, Miles augments the last three notes of Theme 1 to announce the ending of the piece. sis looks like this: When put into an abbreviated flow chart, the preceding analysis looks like this: Measure Material
1-22 Introduc tion
23-66 Theme 1
67-89 Theme 2
90-118 119-125 Climax – Theme 2 Modal shift D (D7) G Major
126-142 Theme 1
The form can be viewed as an arc form or a palindrome form with a modal shift.
The form can be viewed as an arc form or a palindrome form This is a marvelously compact piece that is sure to please younger players and audiences with a modal shift. alike. Ranges are well within the grade level. There are some sixteenth-note runs that go
This is a marvelously compact piece that is sure to please younger players and audiences alike. Ranges are well within the grade level. There are some sixteenth-note runs that go over the break for 3rd clarinets, however, those few instances could eliminated for less advanced players without adversely affecting the texture. The modal shift that brings the key into G major may be a surprise for some younger performers. Properly devised warmup scales and exercises in G major should be enough to get the fingers comfortably playing the correct accidentals. Miles has scored the presentation of theme 2 in G major (see figure 10) for only the horns without providing cues in other parts. Horns will be required for this piece. The constant driving rhythms and the 4 1⁄2 minutes it takes to perform this piece make it a great candidate for either a concert opener or a finale piece.
B e a c h
M u s i c
M a nh at ta n Be ach Music I s P r o u d To P r e s e n t
Journey To The Prairie
By Gregory B. Rudgers Dedicated to Chris Nelson and the Mercer 6th Grade Band
ravis Weller has composed a welcome addition to elementary band literature that does much to exceed the traditional scoring, rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic devices often found in Level 1 band music. This programmatic work, which suggests westward expansion and the old West, is fully approachable by elementary bands without sacrificing musicality and aesthetic appeal. Simply put, this is good quality music for young players.
Study of the score quickly reveals the use of compositional techniques that, while completely playable by young musicians, challenges their musicality and maturity towards greater understanding of a broad range of musical expression. For example, Weller uses the full range of dynamic expression throughout the work ranging from piano all the way to fortissimo as well as forte e piano e crescendo. There are fully four tempos and three different styles, from bold and dramatic to soft and gentle. There are also opportunities
M a 60 TIMES MBM
n h a t t a n
for rubato and ritardando not often found at this level. And, though the key signature remains steady throughout the work, there are at least the suggestion of several tonalities. While the wind parts are definitely in the range of Grade 1, the percussion parts do tend towards Grade 2, providing a welcome challenge to that section. The orchestration consists of standard instrumentation for elementary band with single lines for each instrument with the exceptions of trumpet and clarinet which each have two parts. There is ample percussion here â€” enough to keep fully eight players involved â€” which includes the standard battery plus Bells, Xylophone, Suspended Cymbal, the obligatory Temple Blocks for horse effects and Slap Stick for the accompanying whip. Weller also includes a piano score which mirrors the band scoring. The piano part would be quite useful during rehearsal but not necessary for performance. There are appropriate cues for bands with incomplete instrumentation.
B e a c h
M TIMES u s .comi c
Tr avis J. Weller for Journey To The Pr airie
The Third Prize Winner
The 2nd International Fr ank Ticheli Composition Contest C at eg ory One: Concert Ba nd Music for Younger Pl ay er s
The dominant constructive element employed by the composer could be characterized by the concept of alternation. Weller alternates choirs throughout the work, from Percussion to Winds, from Brass to Woodwind, from bold to legato and back again, as well as from melody to ostinato. This technique is particularly inviting for young players as it facilitates rehearsal as well the mastering the individual parts.
This use of both exposure and counterpoint is yet another example of Weller exceeding traditional restrictions on level one performance.
The next section titled “Moving the Wagons” brings us a new style, lively and rhythmic, with rhythms that are at once playable and exciting (shown Travis J. Weller — Photo by Beth A. Weller here in Trombone, Baritone, and Tuba), with a playful melExample #2 ody in the trumpet, once again accompanied by counterpoint The other dominant factor is the use of F Mixolydian as the in the trombone. > > > dominant tonality, a wise choice for this level. After all, the kids ? b b c œ œ œ œ ‰ Jœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œJ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œJ œ œ œ œ œ Ó Trombone are probably going to play the Eb anyway, why not have it there F > > > in the first place! With the careful use of Ab in several passages, œ œ œ ? bb c œ ‰ Jœ œ œ ‰ Jœ œ œ ‰ Jœ œ œ œ œ œ Ó Baritone we do find the suggestion of F minor, as well as several brief enF ? bb c counters with other chromaticisms. Frequent use of open fifths, Ó ‰ j ‰ j ‰ j Tuba œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ > > > F F and C, give the work a powerful sense of the combination of mystery and adventure found in the old west. Here Weller alternates between three different styles and deThe work opens subtitled “The Journey Begins,” with a percusvices, from ostinato to quarter eighth melody and back, to half sion flourish followed by a half note fanfare boldly establishing note fanfare reminiscent of the opening lines. Indeed, this work the tonality. The alternation here is from percussion to Tutti represents a high degree of unity in that many of the ideas exband. A trio follows in the flute, clarinet, and trombone. (There pressed in the opening measures are found again and again in is the option of using soloistsExample for these#1 three lines.) different formats and manifestations throughout this delightful tune. Flute
Clarinet in B b
b 4 &b 4 Œ &
? b b 44
œlegato œ œ
. œ ˙
œ œ œ œ w
œ J ‰Œ Ó
˙ œ ˙. F optional solo
j‰ Œ Ó œ
œ ‰Œ Ó J
Œ ˙. F
“Campfire Dreams” slows down the action with a delicate pyramid constructed along the same lines as the opening fanfare. Example #3 Weller also asks the musicians for vocalizations to add to the quiet and mystery. (Continued on page 62.)
b &b c Ó
w w w. M a n h a t t a n B e a c h M u s i c . c o m
(Rudgers’ Metro - continued from page 69.)
with all of the implications this offers. All of the themes are clearly derived from a single idea stated at the opening. Like composers before him, Rudgers teases this material into a series of attractive themes. The form is tight, well constructed and easy to follow.
A playful rhythmic figure at 76 repeatedly builds us to a fortissimo at 80, and finally on to our recapitulation. Through the recapitulation, Rudgers continues to offer variations in scoring and dynamics. This is no cut and paste composition, but a well thought through working of melodic ideas. The trumpet idea first heard at 22 becomes an engaging horn countermelody at 91, while the rhythmic idea continues to keep the work moving forward.
It is this simplicity that gives the composer a problem. How does he compose a work of significance within these tightly held boundaries? This is the dilemma faced by composers through the ages, and Rudgers’ answer - based as it is also within the boundaries of a Level 3 band work - is a very good one.
Our coda, which is clearly and unmistakably headed towards the close from 102, presents the percussive cascade and rhythmic interjections before even these ideas merge together at 110. Finally, we move towards our harmonically unresolved chord at the close.
This is a work of substance. Well composed by a writer who understands education and school ensembles, it is an excellent vehicle with which to teach, and directors everywhere will enjoy rehearsing, analyzing and discussing this work. However this is not important.
According to Rudgers, Metro is not strictly programmatic, but “...the driving tempo, and mechanical nature of the work do conjure up visions of mechanical marvels motoring through dark tunnels and brightly lit stations.”
What matters is that it is a work of musical depth, a work whose music transcends its construction. In Metro we find a composer who has posed himself a musical question, and found a musical answer, and done so with young musicians in mind. Audiences will enjoy it for its bright, melodic and tonal qualities; Students for its technical challenges and musical writing; Band Directors for the opportunity for technical and musical development. All of which makes Metro a rare outstanding work in Grade 3 band literature.
More than this, the work presents the musician with a number of problems that require solutions. Built upon this sequence of tonal ambiguity, the work asks the musicians to consider the nature of the tonality, and their relation to it. The work is overtly neither major nor minor, but sits within the key of Ab, (Weller’s Journey to the Prairie, continued from page 61.) He then develops this portion with a clever transition in which the faint echo of “Home on the Range” is heard among the whispers and sighs.
Snare Drum/ Bass Drum
Sus. Cym. Cr. Cym.
&c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ƒ
Example #4 œ œœ œœ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
ã c œœ œ œ œœ œ œ Œœ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ ƒ Œ Ó c ã œ˙ ˙ ƒ j Ó œ ‰ Œ œ œœ œ ã c œ œ Œ J ‰ Œ ƒ
Slap Stick The final section, marked Allegro, “New Life, New Hope,” again begins with a percussion flourish followed by a straightforward melody accompanied by a rhythm suggestive of the “Moving the Wagons” motive. This last finale is an excellent example of the challenge provided to the percussion section with this Tutti statement including a total of six percussion lines.
A brief development during which several chromaticisms sug-
œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ Œ ˙
gest f minor again then builds into an appropriate joyful and boisterous declaration of the journey’s end.
“Journey to the Prairie” provides young œœœœœœœœ œ œœœ Ó Œ œ musicians and their directors with a valuable musical experience and is well deserving of the Frank Tichelli Composition Contest award. While maintaining a realistic level of difficulty for young players, it provides wide and varied opportunities for musical and aesthetic performance. It is an attractive work, both for players and audiences alike, and will add the elements of sophistication and maturity to any elementary concert.
C o n g r a t u l a t i o n s t h e
a l l
W i n n e r s
M a n h a t t a n
B e a c h
M u s i c
Raising the Standards of the A merican Concert Band and Bands All Over the World 63
GRADE 4 6 1/2 MIN.
Eric Whitacre’s October is a very audience friendly within a loosely through-composed form. One thepiece. The effectiveness of this musical poem stems matic fragment finds its way into the melodic mix on from its overall construction and the deliberate lack three different occasions, each time presented with of stereotypical “band composition styles” or any traa new orchestration schema. Whitacre modulates ditional formulaic approach. In his program notes, through a series of nonrelated keys so effectively that Whitacre describes his composition style for October the modulations occur without notice or without as “English Romantic.” While he does not directly the traditional dominant-tonic structure. Although quote any other composer’s music in this piece, he the general key construction is tonal, Whitacre slips does an excellent job of recreating the pastoral flainto a brief episode of quartal harmony that does not ERIC vor of the English masters such as Vaughan Williams break the romantic atmosphere of the piece. Along or Elgar. The open and airy texture of the beginning WHITACRE with lush textures and a unique harmonic frameis skillfully woven into a full orchestration of sound work, Whitacre uses a few carefully placed moments and then back to a chamber setting. Whitacre accomof silence quite effectively. The mood of this piece plishes these textural changes so seamlessly that the audience never overreaches. Even the largest climactic moment should will not miss the lack of a strong melodic identity — they will be approached with some restraint. This piece very quickly bebe too busy enjoying the ever-changing kaleidoscope of textures came a popular work for its programming aspects and remains that make this piece so attractive. The English romantic flavor so almost ten years after its premiere. Its place among the pieces is enhanced by the oboe and euphonium solos carefully placed considered core works for band should remain undiminished for many years.
R e v iews by J O H N D A R L I N G GRADE 6
SYMPHONY NO. 4
additional resources: 3rd Flute is required to double Symphony No. 4 by David Maslanka is an overwhelmon Alto Flute; three oboes rather than two; contrabass ing, almost daunting, addition to wind literature. It clarinet is not an optional part; contrabassoon has exhas all of the characteristics and craftsmanship that posed parts not doubled anywhere in the score; trumone has come to expect in a Maslanka work. This pet parts are in C; 1st Trumpet is required to double masterpiece for winds and percussion should be peron B-flat Piccolo Trumpet; harp, piano and organ have formed more; not enough have experienced its exucritical moments; and the percussion requirements are berant message and beauty. There may be many reasubstantial. DAVID sons why this piece has not received more attention There is an underlying spiritual message that is highand has not been programmed more frequently, but MASLANKA lighted by the inclusion of three hymn tunes or chocertainly it is not because the work lacks credibility rales. The most recognizable hymn, one that appears or is vacant of any lasting meaning. The form is not to dominate the piece, is the “Old Hundred,” somethe traditional segmented movement format of the times referred to as the “Doxology” (Praise God from Whom symphony genre. There are five clearly discernable sections that All Blessing Flow). Maslanka opens the symphony with his own are seamlessly woven in one long movement taking approxi“hymn” material, a beautiful and mournful solo horn passage mately twenty-seven minutes to complete. The form might be which reappears, is transformed, and provides the structure for more closely related to a fantasia than to a symphony in its the closing message of the piece. From measure 732 to the end design. All of the musicians performing this piece will need to (measure 919) the intensity builds and never slackens. The final have fully developed musical skills and perception, not to menmeasures will raise the audience from their seats and the effort tion incredible endurance. In addition to the standard symit takes to bring this piece to life will speak for itself. phonic instrumentation, several sections of this piece require MBM
w w w . F r a n k T i c h e l i s L i s t . c o m
THREE SONGS FROM SUSSEX
GRADE 3 5 1/2 MIN.
Hugh M. Stuart’s “Three Songs from Sussex” provides middle level bands with three distinct tempos and meters while maintaining a consistent style-that of playful British folk music. There is a great deal of musical humor here to match the title dedication of the three charming miniatures. “March for the Duke of Chichester” captures the comical vision of the Duke marching his staff around his estate while haughtily criticizing their work. “Ayre for Mary Pribble” portrays a local bar maid that has the fancy of the local nobility, and “Gatwick’s Galumph” presents a lively but awkward dance enjoyed by the local peasants. Like his musical predecessors, Grainger and Vaughn Williams, Stuart captures the British style masterfully. The advantage of this selection is that it is approachable by middle level and high school bands, with few technical hurdles to climb and no range or instrumentation restrictions. The “March” brings cut time at a moderate
tempo to the fore, an oft ignored style for this level. A brass ensemble opens the lively tune, recalling British brass bands, and the charming melody is then stated by the tutti ensemble. The “B” theme is stated by a gentle woodwind passage, followed by an aggressive call perhaps reminding one of the pompous lord. Restatements of the themes end with a tutti rendition of the opening melody. The “Ayre”, marked Allegretto is a sweet, simple melody in a lilting 6/8, which begins gently and builds to a rich, full, and quite beautiful passage before relaxing back to its gentle origins. The onomatopoetic “Galumph” charges forth with a vigorous fanfare in raucous compound meter, and employs bold rhythms and a driving tempo to complete the suite with gusto and energy. Stuart chooses standard instrumentation for this splendid work and brings the characteristics of European style to middle level players with a wink and a smile.
HUGH M. STUART
Reviews by Gregory B. Rudgers
IRISH TUNE FROM COUNTY DERRY
GRADE 3 3 MIN.
S O UT H E R N M U S I C
Edited by Mark Rogers. This classic military band work was drawn by Grainger from the “Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland.” The melody, more commonly known as “Danny Boy,” is one of the most endearing and haunting melodies of all time, and Grainger’s setting does significant justice to the ancient tune. Grainger actually set this tune for several different ensembles and soloists before penning a version for military band. Mark Rogers, through extensive research and exhaustive scholarship, has crafted this edition using a set of first edition parts, the very closest to primary source available. Indeed, the set of parts drawn from here, are known to have been owned by Grainger himself. Thus, we have a truly authentic rendition, as Grainger intended, for study and performance. As an example, the curious and expressive score directions, such as “flowingly” and “slow off lots” are included in both the score and parts, guaranteeing a sense of Grainger’s unique musical personality. The brasses and low reeds begin the work and state the chorale in rich, warm, harmonies, with long flowing phrases.
The second statement of the melody is presented in the upper woodwinds, granting an ethereal and almost crystalline quality to the work, which gradually adds voices until we arrive at a glorious, fortissimo declaration, breathtaking in its intensity and beauty. The work then slows and softens for a dramatic decrescendo to silence. Though there are no technical challenges here, challenges abound in terms of phrasing and range, as each of the twenty two voices are required to maintain tonal quality and intonation throughout their respective ranges and throughout achingly long phrases. In his extensive notes on the history and derivation of this edition, Rogers cites Grainger’s instructions to vocalists in performance of a choral version of the work as a gentle suggestion to conductors and performers of the wind band version, that they should interpret these lyrical lines with vocal phrasing in mind. And, while vocal interpretation should indeed be kept in mind, it is the power and majesty of woodwinds and brasses in full color that bestow majesty to this edition.
GRADE 2 2 3/4 MIN.
There is wonderful humor to be found in the band repertory: Bernstein’s Slava! (slapstick), Eric Whitacre’s Godzilla Eats Las Vegas! (farce), Robert Sheldon’s A Longford Legend (fantasy), Persichetti’s Divertimento (burlesque), Andrew Rindfleisch’s The Light Fantastic (parody), and Derek Bourgeois, Serenade, Op. 22c (caprice), to name a few. Brian West’s Skeleton Dance is especially humorous. Here, the humor is parody. The composer notes in the score that he envisions the quirky motion of marionette puppets in the music (an association readily made upon hearing this delightful music). It is music that is rooted in stage, film, or cartoon music — it’s classical music the way such music is reworked for commerce. The music tiptoes across the stage and trips into potholes (or slips on banana peels) but is ever genteel. Plenty of novelty effects punctuate this music. A wonderful assortment of sounds come from the percussionist’s trap table: guiro, vibra-slap, and siren whistle. Despite the abject humor and novelty of this composition, it never sounds trite or goofy. The music is
genuine and the humor is sly. There is also a hint within Skeleton Dance that is (fantastically so!) ‘50s/‘60s era rock ‘n roll music; in particular, parody of the novelty rock ‘n roll songs akin to “Monster Mash,” “Purple People Eater,” “Ahab The Arab,” and “Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini.” Brian West’s Skeleton Dance is certainly not ever to be confused for rock ‘n roll music, but it is downright fun, funny music harkening to the likes of Tom Lehrer. This economy of part-writing makes the orchestration appropriately lean for younger ensembles. There are only two trumpet parts, two F horn parts, and two trombone parts. (The drum kit is listed as optional, but the funfilled nature of the composition makes the drum set requisite.) The song’s hook is a simple but effective bass line riff that has all the immediate appeal that the best song writers create. The orchestration also is incredibly light and transparent. Even when the entire band is scored, West creates a very clean, translucent pallet of sound. The instrumental ranges are conservative, keeping the players always within comfortable ranges.
R e v iews by D R . L A W R E N C E S T O F F E L
T H E L E AV E S A R E FA L L I N G
GRADE 6 12 MIN.
MARKS MUSIC/HAL LEONARD
Times were changing. The social revolution of the 1960s was underway; public school curricula were still reeling from the shock of Sputnik. Sex education was introduced to the classroom, and Jr. ROTC was under fire. This decade is defined by commotion, unrest, uncertainty, and experimentation — rejection of the old, and search for the new. During the ‘60s some pioneering composers and conductors sought to redefine what band music would be — rejection of the old, and search for the new. These mavericks initiated change that would transform the body of literature made available for the concert band. Warren Benson, a composer of international stature, was among them. He championed their cause: Even the most renowned musician must be, in part, responsible for the education of musicians. The Leaves Are Falling is just one work of many Benson compositions that redefined band music. The Leaves Are Falling is an intense composition and is unsettling music. It is music which came forth from an abandoned musical sketch that would only find completion in immediate, fierce reaction to the fateful events of November 22, 1963, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The Leaves Are Falling is music that seems to suspend time. It is exceptionally slow music. The indicated tempo is quarter note = 32–34. And this pulse never wavers. The Leaves Are Falling is haunting music. The composition begins with the rather disconcerting combination of claves and a chime in unison. This clank and clang, too, never wavers. It is the slow, methodical ostinato — persisting and unrelenting — which deliberately plods along for all 12 minutes until the climatic coda.
The Leaves Are Falling is disparate music. Tremendous contrary motion results from a simple dual treatment of the enharmonic pitch D-flat/C-sharp. Motion from this single pitch tends to resolve both downward to C and as a leading tone upward to D. The Leaves Are Falling is large-scale music. Benson likens it to an orchestral tone poem. Although the work is constructed in two, clearly delineated halves, the entire composition remains a singular, unbroken line. This continuous line stems from an initial descending, threenote motif stated in the beginning by solo flute. (Actually only three pitch sets create the entirety of melodic material employed in the work.) Through the first half of the composition this descending three-note motif is developed, occurs more and more frequently and with greater overlap, and grows to an intense loudness. Then, suddenly, the enormous sound collapses back to the single solo flute; the second section begins. The three-note motifs continue and eventually build back once again to great intensity, but now also superimposed is Martin Luther’s epic chorale tune, Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott (A Mighty Fortress Is Our God). This tune is also cast in the same deliberately slow tempo. But the chorale melody does not fit in the established alla breve meter; rather Benson writes the chorale melody in a compound meter (6/4). The resulting polymeter (2/2 against 6/4) creates considerable disconnect between the superimposed melodies. The obsessive clank and clang ostinato finally and suddenly ends (coda). Now only is heard the chorale melody in multiple octaves by brass alone: unaccompanied, and loud, and anguished, and, for one last moment, time is suspended.
w w w.Frank T ic he lis Lis t. c om
GRADE 4 6 MIN.
O MAGNUM MYSTERIUM
When considering H. Robert Reynolds’ fine tran-
and skillfully makes it available to wind musicians.
scription of “O Magnum Mysterium” one must first
This is a mature and challenging setting with long
give regard to the original choral setting by Morten
phrases appropriate to its vocal origins. It employs
Lauridsen. This stunningly beautiful and profound
the modern concert band instrumentation and uses
work has become one of the world’s most performed
the various colors available to achieve both power and
and recorded compositions. Premiered in 1994 it is
gentleness. Brass and woodwinds combine in a variety
the all time best selling octavo published by Presser,
of colors and range from the quitest of dynamics to a
and deservedly so. The work is both sacred and sublime and it would be wise to listen carefully to one of the many recordings by several professional choirs
powerful amd moving fortissimo. Percussion is limited to timpani, and that, sparingly in loyalty to the vocal tradition. In short, the tutti sections resonate with
of the original chorale when considering the band
richness and warmth and the more thinly scored pas-
transcription for performance. Reynolds’ transcrip-
sages gleam with light and transparent energy. While
tion was produced with the approval and appreciation of the
the band setting does offer the advantage of a variety of colors
composer. It is no wonder that Mr. Reynolds was driven to cre-
through Reynolds insightful orchestration, it would be wise to
ate this band version of the famous work Once heard, there
remember the works origins and make every attempt to realize
isn’t a musician that would not want to experience its exquisite
the elegant, flawless lyricism of this masterpiece.
beauty. Reynolds’ transcription is tirelessly loyal to the original
R e v iews by G regory B . R u dgers
THE HEADLESS HORSEMAN
GRADE 2 1 3/4 MIN.
M A N H A TT A N B E A C H M U S I C
Band directors who have grown weary with lower There are dire warnings here as well, as the low brasses level literature that is tutti scored with lock-step uniinterject powerful, angular alarms, but the ride continson rhythm as well as pedantic and academic melodic ues and develops into an absolutely charming tutti sectreatments will revel in this work. Timothy Broege’s tion that combines wonderfully creative rhythms, lyriwonderful little gem employs special effects—tromcism, and percussion in an explosion of sound that is bone glissando, dramatic subito dynamics, colorful stunningly joyful. Two more screams interrupt the few percussion, and terrified screams, to achieve the happy moments, followed by a reverent chorale in the TIMOTHY programmatic effect of the traditional Washington middle voices. Still there are evil portents even here, as Irving short story, “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.” the horses’ hooves persist through the prayer and evenBROEGE Halloween is alive and well in Broege’s depiction of tually build into a reprise of the tutti/joyful section, the dark specter—the headless horseman who rides which then devolves into a delicate restatement of the through the night seeking the souls of the unsusride as it fades into distance. The amount of music that pecting. The opening Adagio sets the ominous mood of the Broege has compressed into this charming composition is truly work with bass drum, suspended cymbal and snare drum rolls remarkable. And through creative and original scoring and efadding the mist and fog to the trombone glissandos. After a fects, this gifted composer has made a significant contribution dissonant cacophony, the fateful ride begins with Allegro stacto the available colors and expression for the lower level band. cato ostinati in the clarinets, saxes, and snare drum accompanyYoung players and audiences alike will find musical substance ing flute, oboe and bells with a quarter-half haunting melody. in this brief fantasy, all the while enjoying a fanciful retelling of the familiar tale.
w w w.Frank T ic he lis Lis t. c om
REVIEW BY Dr. ALAN LOURENS
G R E G O RY B . RU D GE R S
he most commonly used phrase when examining easier wind music is “This has some great teaching points”. It is a kind of damning with faint praise. One hardly ever hears Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony described in terms of its teaching points, though they are many. In lower level wind music it is seen as a kind of badge of honor. Not “…is it good music?” but “…can I teach with it?” Rudgers’ Metro has many fine teaching points. However, it is the musical qualities that make the piece worth playing. It is a well constructed bustling piece that teases out an opening cascade into a three and a half minute work. It exudes color, and involves the entire group, from piccolo through to galvanized pipes. Rudgers eschews effects — there are no 7/8 bars, singing, chanting or overly complicated backstory. Yet he creates a piece that is an once engaging to the audience, interesting to the student, and keeps analysts and musicologists on their toes. From the very beginning Rudgers indicates that he will be doing something a little differently. The tempo is brisk Allegro and he builds the chords from the bass to a gentle throb at the end Metro Example 1 ofBars bar1-42:Condensed Opening Bars condensed: b &bb c
œ œœ œœœ ? bb c w b
w œ œœ œœœ www ˙.
œœœ œ œ œœœœ œœœœœ œ œ œœœ ... œœœ ... œ œœ . œœ . œ œ œ . œ . ‰ œœ œœ ... œœ ... ‰ œœœ J J
Although the key is Ab, as indeed is the opening note, the F in bar 4 gives us an F Minor flat 7 chord. This is our first indication of a ambivalence in this work. Will it settle into major or minor? In fact, the theme which we derived from the opening gives us a clue. It settles down nicely into Ab major in the first 4 notes, and then a kind of F in the second. It is this beautifully tonally ambiguous theme that gives Rudgers such an outstandMBM
ing palette with which to work. It is an excellent idea ripe for Metro Example 2 development. Derived Theme
Of course, like impatient readers of mystery novels, scholars Last Chord
œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ
will quickly flick to the end to see how the ambiguity has been resolved. And, like a good mystery novel, we find no answers. Rudgers has merely stacked our theme into a chord, like so:
? b b œœœ b œ
It has the feel of Ab , but stacks nicely into an Ab major (Ab, C Eb) and a Bb major (Bb, D, F) polychord, or, alternatively an Ab major extended chord (with the 9th, 11th and 13th, but no 7th). Whichever way you choose to resolve it, it is a interesting chord to present to young students. The chord itself has a kind of throbbing dissonance that is carried throughout the work. Learning to present this dissonance musically will result in a very interesting and musical work, and surely will lead students towards more tonally ambiguous composers, such as Hindemith and Persichetti. By Bar 12, Rudgers has settled into a rollicking feel based on the rhythm we first heard in bar 3. He begins to tease out the theme into some melodies. Our first melody is a pleasant 8 bar idea presented in the flutes. It is, however, not without interest. The theme — starting on a lower Ab — feels immediately that it will fall into friendly 2 bar/2 bar/2 bar/2 bar pattern. However, Rudgers keeps us moving. The theme continues to climb to the end of the phrase, and while the melody may be broken into two four-bar phrases, it feels that it wants to continue to soar to the conclusion. It has a through-composed feel, even as
“ …it is the musical qualities that make the piece worth playing. It is a well constructed bustling piece that teases out an opening cascade into a three and a half minute work. It exudes color, and involves the entire group, from piccolo through to galvanized pipes. Rudgers eschews effects — there are no 7/8 bars, singing, chanting or overly complicated backstory.Yet he creates a piece that is an once engaging to the audience, interesting to the student, and keeps analysts and musicologists on their toes.” chords and a variation on the rhythm from bars 3 and 4, however this time reversed. The cascading chords here and elsewhere may be a challenge for a young ensemble, but with correct balance and attention to the accents, some very interesting effects will emerge. Percussion here introduce both an Anvil, and the unusual and earthy sound of two galvanized pipes struck together. It is a dramatic and interesting effect that works well in this rhythm. This cascading idea is not unlike ideas heard in the Persichetti Symphony No. 6.
it sits within the chordal structure he has already established with a comfortable vamp below. This melody has a lovely woodwind accompaniment, thus forming a woodwind choir for the presentation of this theme. Rudgers follows this with a Brass/Percussion theme. The same rollocking rhythm is presented, but the melody this time is very broad. Indeed, the melody, presented in the trumpets, is mainly quarter notes, and one feels that the composer is up to something in this section.
The presentation in bar 43 — seen completely in the Xylophone — is note-for-note statement of the theme stated at the opening. Thus Rudgers reminds us before the development of the origin of the melodic material.
So it proves to be. Like the Hindemith Symphony for Band (second movement), Rudgers presents these two themes concurrently from bar 30, bringing together the Woodwinds, Brass and Percussion. He strengthens all the melodic lines (the flute line with Piccolo and Sax and the Trumpet line with Oboe and Trombone) and adds percussion instruments. The idea of two themes inspired from the same 8 notes and belonging to the Metro Example 4 is hardly new. The presentation in same harmonic structure First Melodic Idea Metro, though, is ideal for young students. Flute Theme from bar 14:
b œœ œ œ & b b œ. J
œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ.
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. J
œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ J J & b bb
So we begin a period of thematic development. Rudgers’ has given himself much material to develop, all springing from the opening bars. We have the opening harmonic/melodic ideas Metro Exampleand 5 two melodic ideas first seen in bars from the introduction, Second Melodic Idea 13 and 22. Trumpet Theme from bar 22, at concert pitch:
b & b b œ.
j œ œ
b œ. &bb
œ J œ
j œ œ
It is no surprise that the first idea developed comes almost directly from the opening bars. At 41 we have both the cascade
M A N H A T T A N
From Bar 49 onwards, Rudgers gives us a big chordal idea developed from the main theme. It will appear in the coda of the work, and feels like an almost Copland-esque series of chords with ascending bass lines and descending soprano lines. A lovely color is the addition of a subversive element in the third clarinets and third cornets - they play a tone below the second clarinets and cornets and create a delicious dissonance. Above them the Piccolo, Flute, Oboe and First Clarinet present the descending theme one eighth note later. This two bar idea is repeated with a rhythmic diminution in the low voices. After a very brief transition based on theme A, Rudgers continues with a high energy development at 56, working through the ideas first seen in the woodwinds in bar 3, while distributing the theme amongst the brass, as well as vibrant brass interjections. Just as we fear we are to be hammered through the development, Rudgers lightens the mood at 66, with a new dynamic and more delicate touch. As a listener we prepare for the recapitulation which will surely follow. We have a nice rhythmic feeling and a sense œ of balance in the world, albeit with a harmonic inference that we may not expect. However, this is not to be our recapitulation, but a new developmental idea based on ideas first seen in bar 15. First presented in œ the low woodwinds and euphonium, Rudgers leads us through a series of layers to build both the tension and the dynamics to a brief forte at 74. (Continued on page 62)
B E A C H
M U S I C
(Above The Rest, continued from page 72) (Angels in the Architecture, continued from page 34) The Darkness Music is replete with tritones. Three prominent occurences come in meas. 22, the penultimate chord before the Darkness Motive is introduced, built on the tritone (simultaneous Eb and A dominant-seventh chords!); meas. 87 (see Ex. 13) followed one measure later by the same motif, but unsyncopated and in the voice of a flutter-tonguing trombone section; and much later in meas. 235 in the alto saxophone, trombone, and euphonium. Even at the piece’s conclusion, while the second installment of the Shaker tune and its angelic Eb accompaniment waft away into silence, below the surface and in the shadows, Satan questions humankind with a final A. In my opinion, Angels in the Architecture is a crowning achievement in what has been, to date, a remarkable career and an amazing catalog of artistic merit. I have always appreciated Ticheli’s ability to write serious music for all age groups and ability levels, never sacrificing his standards or pandering to the lowest common denominator. I know when I purchase a work by Ticheli that I will be investing in art — and art, in my opinion, should have the power to elevate both performer and listener to a higher plane. This work certainly does that, and more.
Lullabye by Randall Standridge Grand Mesa Music Publishers (www.grandmesamusic.com) Publisher Grade Level: 2+ Approximate Length: 3:30 This wonderful, unpretentious little waltz from Randall Standridge features a beautiful, almost nostalgic, melody, a full range of ensemble dynamics, and wonderfully conceived, tasteful percussion writing that is seamlessly integrated into the texture of the ensemble (including a terrific percussion-only introduction). Even better, the piece offers musicians at this grade level the rare opportunity to play in a fast triple meter that can be conducted in a quick three or in a slow one. Standridge’s piece isn’t as much an outstanding Grade 2 piece as it’s an outstanding piece that just happens to be written at a Grade 2 level. I wish more music publishers understood that distinction.
MODERATELY ADVANCED Reflections on an English Hymn by Carl Strommen Carl Fischer Music (www.carlfischer.com) Publisher Grade Level: 3 Approximate Length: 3:30 Emerging out of a grade level that’s particularly bloated with badly written, painfully overblown new music comes this wonderful, refreshingly straightforward little gem from Carl Strommen. Filled with carefully conceived orchestration and interesting, sophisticated harmonies, this setting of the old English hymn, “Jerusalem” is an honestly affecting throwback to when chorale and hymn settings were more about craft and substance than horn rips and wind chimes. If you want to build the sound of your ensemble and the musicianship of those sitting in it, this piece should be in your library. Moonscape Awakening by Joni Greene Manhattan Beach Music (www.manhattanbeachmusic.com) a future publication also reviewed in this issue as a Frank Ticheli Composition Contest Winner Approximate Length: 7:30 Written by promising young composer Joni Greene, this delicate, haunting work is so different from the generic hamonies and orchestration that fill our promotional recordings it’s hard to believe it’s only a Grade 4—and an easy one at that. With a true gift for orchestrating winds and percussion, Greene’s piece will both elevate your students’ playing ability and their intellect through its high level of instrumental independence and with a harmonic vocabulary largely unexplored at this grade level. This is the kind of piece that challenges its players to reach a level of understanding that they probably didn’t know existed. This is the kind of piece that leaves a band changed for good. ADVANCED Popcopy by Scott McAllister Scott McAllister (www.lydmusic.com) Approximate Length: 13:30 Movements with my grade level estimates: More Cowbell! (Grade 5); One Time at Band Camp (Grade 4); Serenity Now (Grade 6) The most entertaining piece that I listened to all year, Scott McAllister’s suite is inspired by famous catchphrases from popular culture. This piece is viscerally exciting (no one writes a more authentic hard rock groove better than McAllister), sometimes moving, and, perhaps just as im-
portant, always funny. From the four “antiphonally” placed cowbell players that surround the ensemble that invoke Saturday Night Live’s Will Ferrell’s Gene Frenkle to the extended flute solo in homage of American Pie’s favorite band nerd, to the musical representation of Seinfeld’s Frank Costanza’s battle between sanity and insanity (complete with aleatoric and unmetered sections as well as random quotes from Holst’s Second Suite, the Hindemith Symphony in Bb and Stars and Stripes Forever), this piece is every bit as entertaining as it is well-crafted. Each movement can easily be programmed separately as a standalone piece. Even if your ensemble isn’t able to perform music at any of these difficulty levels, I urge everyone to at least give Popcopy a listen on McAllister’s website. I think that it’s important to remember that in our constant search to find music for our ensembles we sometimes forget that it’s actually OK to listen to band music for fun—even if it’s music that your group might never play. Symphony No. 1, My Hands Are a City by Jonathan Newman Jonathan Newman (www.jonathannewman.com) Total Approximate Length: 27:00 Movements with my grade level estimates: Across the groaning continent (Grade 6); The Americans (Grade 5); My Hands Are a City (estimated as a Grade 6) (Discloure: I was the organizer of the consortium of high schools and universities that commissioned Jonathan Newman to write this work.) Inspired by the Beat Poetry movement of the 1950s, the music of Newman’s symphony is as diverse and unique as the original material that inspired it. The first movement channels Jack Kerouac’s On the Road by creating six minutes of perpetual motion, fueled by a constant, restless rhythmic energy. The second movement perfectly captures the sense of pensiveness and quiet hope that pervades Robert Frank’s landmark photography book from 1958, The Americans. The musical result is a piece that, in my opinion, is one of the most hauntingly beautiful pieces written for band in the last twenty five years. The final movement runs its players through a wide gamut of styles, ranging from introspective to minimalist, even including a subtle nod to the Bop of Charlie Parker and Lester Young. The work lends itself to performance of its individual movements as standalone pieces. And again, as with the McAllister, above, even if your ensemble isn’t able to play music this difficult, I strongly recommend that you visit Newman’s website to give it a listen. So that’s the best of the year. I hope these titles will be helpful, both in providing you with important new repertoire, and in giving you back some of the time you might otherwise have spent looking for it. Our goal is that this column can become a trusted and valuable resource to help keep keep your band program above the rest. I hope I have helped. Close to a thousand titles have been whittled down to just six. I look forward to my next column in MBM Times, as I again help to keep your band program above the rest. For those interested in how these pieces were selected, I put into practice the same six criteria stated in my MBM Times article, Skimming the Top; in evaluating each new piece. I’ve also simplified the grading process by organizing my choices into three categories: Less Advanced (Gr. 1-2); Moderately Advanced (Gr. 3-4), and Advanced (Gr. 5-6). For those familiar with my past articles in MBM Times articles on repertoire (Issue 2’s Skimming the Top: How to Find the New Masterworks) and programming (Issue 3’s Keep Them Coming Back for More: How to Program Successful Concerts for Your Students and Your Audience), you know how passionate I am about the importance of putting nothing but the finest music in front of our bands. Superior repertoire allows us to show our students what can make music so powerful. Our all-too-brief window of opportunity to promote a lifelong love and appreciation of classical music can’t be squandered on music of questionable artistic merit. Just like the English department, the Theater Department, the Art Department, who each have a vast canon of quality works from which to select repertoire, we must we raise our students’ appreciation of great music with great music. It’s just that our job is harder—there simply isn’t as much great concert band music. But if you believe in it and, more importantly, if you support it, it will come.
Above the Rest
a new column by Dr. Jeffrey D. Gershman It’s no secret that in today’s world, being a band director is more time-consuming than it’s ever been. And it seems that with each new task, we’re pushed farther away from the things that truly matter—especially when it comes to finding the very best new music for our students. I think I may be able to help. I’m thrilled to present this new column, and honored that Manhattan Beach Music has invited me to do so. This column was created to tell you about the best new band music—music that I believe is above Dr. Jeffrey D. Gershman the rest. Over the past year, I’ve combed Photo by Alain Barker through the newer releases of nearly twenty major and minor music publishers as well as a large number of self-published composers to find you the six best pieces—some of which you may know and, more often than not, some of which you won’t. Manhattan Beach Music and MBM Times have provided the forum to express my opinions. and I can’t commend them enough for doing so. With Frank Ticheli’s List and now with Above the Rest, Manhattan Beach Music is allowing me to share my opinions and insight about the very best band music available, regardless of its publisher. The fact that their commitment to exposing quality band music is so strong that they are willing to promote music by their competitors shows an unmatched, and a frankly unprecedented, commitment to music education. Here’s what I found to be the best of the best for 2009. Additional information about each piece as well as a full recording can be found on the website of each publisher. LESS ADVANCED Chorale Prelude: For The Beauty of the Earth by Don Colquitt Twin Towers Music Publications (www.twintowersmusic.com) Publisher Grade Level: 1.5 Approximate Length: 4:30 From a publishing company in East Texas comes Don Colquitt’s remarkable chorale prelude setting on the traditional hymn “For The Beauty of the Earth.” With a lush and unique harmonic vocabulary, a wide array of ensemble textures (including a surprising amount of solo and chamber sections), and careful, tastefully chosen orchestration, I’ve never heard a Grade 1 piece quite like it. Colquitt has succeeded here in giving us something quite rare — a Grade 1 piece that somehow respects a young musician’s playing ability as well as their intellect.
contiinued on page 70
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