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ISSUE #4

A Manhattan Beach Media Publication

M ANHAT TAN BE ACH MUSIC IS PROUD TO PRESENT

F R A N K T I C H E L I ʼS L I S T PART 2

MAKE IT YOUR OWN

Creating More Meaningful Performances and Rehersals Through Effective Score Study by DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMAN

BURIED TREASURE

by GREGORY B. RUDGERS

THE RHYTHMIC & METRICAL DIVERSITY OF FRANK TICHELIʼS

POSTCARD

by DR. JOHN DARLING

The Tyger

FRANK TICHELIʼS

WAGGING THE DOG: SIX MODEST PROPOSALS by DR. JEFFREY BOECKMAN

Photo of Frank Ticheli by Orange Count y Register

MICHAEL MARKOWSKIʼS

TURKEY IN THE STRAW REVIEW by DR. KEITH KINDER

JOHN CARNAHANʼS …AND THE ANTELOPE PLAY WINNER OF THE CBDNA YOUNG BAND COMPOSITION COMPETITION

REVIEW by DR. KEITH KINDER


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AMERICANS HAVE A VOICE

YOUR ART, YOUR MUSIC, YOUR CONCERTS

CAN HELP RAISE AWARENESS ABOUT DARFUR


HAVE THE MOST IMPORTANT CONCERT OF YOUR LIFE Announcing Fundraising Series #4

Whether or not you’ve participated before, here’s a new opportunity to help by performing new works for your fundraising concert. To learn how to receive free band sets for your fundraising concert, please visit: AmericanSchoolsHelpingAmericanFamilies.org


MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC.com

AMERICAN CONCERT BAND AND BANDS ALL OVER THE

WORLD

MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC PUBLICATIONS A R E

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U N I T E D

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O F

I N

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NEVER OUTSOURCED

w w w . M a n h a t t a n B e a c h M u s i c . c o m TIMES

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MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC

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RAISING THE STANDARDS OF THE


I S

M B M T I M E S P R O U D T O P R E S E N T

FRANK TICHELIʼS LIST PART 2

S P O N S O R E D

B Y

MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC It’s all about the music. Most instrumental music teachers understand this simple fact. Excellent repertoire is the cornerstone of a good music program. Period. It can speak directly to students’ souls, reveal to them a kind of beauty that words alone cannot touch, and change their lives in countless positive ways. Yet many, if not most, of the thousands upon thousands of published band works could be called “throw-away music.” Only a fraction of them have deserved to survive the test of time. Indeed, each year very few works from the mountain of new publications will rise to this standard. My aim has been to identify these works by hearing as many of them as possible with my own ears. Not an easy task, and not one to be taken lightly. I acknowledge that I am one person with one set of values and musical opinions. As such, I do not intend for my list to supplant any of the other fine lists already available. Rather, I have tried to make mine more selective. I personally reviewed many of the best published works at all grade levels, selecting only around one hundred twenty works thus far. Of these, only twenty-four appear here today in Part II of the List. Other titles will be added and made public only after they have received thorough written reviews from outside writers, a process which takes time and careful scrutiny. Thus, the present list is a work in progress which will evolve and expand over time. I hope this list will serve as a beacon to band directors everywhere who share my hopes about the future of wind band literature and music education. I also hope that, together, we can inspire publishers and others in the music industry to redouble their efforts to create a band world in which excellent music is not the exception, but the rule. FRANK Frank Ticheli, Composer Pasadena, California

Frank Ticheli’s List ™ and the Frank Ticheli’s List logo are trademarks of Manhattan Beach Music; the content of the individual reviews of Frank Ticheli’s List, as well as the Compilation comprising the titles that constitute Frank Ticheli’s List, are Copyright © 2008 Manhattan Beach Music, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express written permission of the publisher.

TICHELI’S

Throughout this issue of MBM Times, this logo will identify works that appear on Frank Ticheli’s List

L I S T

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E D I T O R ’ S

V I E W

Editor in Chief, Neil Ruddy

Which way to the new frontier?

B

and directors are about to be given a new choice: “Would you like that on paper, or would you like to go green, and have your print music served up digitally?”

And your answer to this seemingly innocuous question may well launch the future trajectory of concert band music. How so? To begin with, consider the choice. You’re a band director — you need your music right away (actually you need it yesterday), so digital seems the way to go, doesn’t it? If you look at it from the viewpoint of technological progress, it offers distinct advantages. No more waiting. No more woes with pieces being out of print, or being in that mysterious state, “on backorder.” If it’s sold digitally, it’s pretty much always in stock. There is no argument that digital music is greener. Sure, the music (at least for the time being) still ends up on paper, but there’s a telling difference: Instead of publisher and retailer inventories (visualize huge piles of music that may never get sold), everything produced is used — so there is less waste. More significantly, the environment is saved the insult of shipping (all that combustion and pollution). Digital delivery, if nothing else, is more efficient. The problem is not the technology; it’s how the technology gets distributed to the end users. It’s a serious issue, because this is music education, and the needs of the students should not be made less important than those of the tech providers. But that is exactly what could occur; indeed, it may already be happening. If you look around today, you’ll find precious few retailers offering digital sales of print music. You’ll find some publishers selling digital print music direct to the band director (thus bypassing the retailer — uh oh.); and you’ll find some composers bypassing both the publisher and the retailer by selling direct — yikes! The industry is being stood on its head, title by title. The first to suffer, sad to say, will likely be the retailers; though if implemented properly, they should be among the first to benefit. Most of them have been cut out of the equation, since you can’t buy digital music from every retailer. The reasons for this vary: some retailers aren’t interested, some aren’t set up for it, and some may not have ever been offered the chance. Ultimately, it’s up to the publishers to figure out how to distribute their music digitally. They can either go open-standard and use pdf (which will display and print music perfectly well, but won’t play it) or they can go proprietary and use one of the specialized music technologies (this may require re-engraving and re-proofreading music or converting it from one file format to another). Publishers must be licensed to serve up all such files to the band directors. And, since the technologies vary (there are quite a few already, both music-specific and otherwise), you have to be technologically savvy to implement each in turn; and

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1. Free the digital print music technologies from proprietary models. Make the technology open source, and free of licensing restrictions. The first to do so may well gain a permanent market advantage; and they needn’t give away everything; they need only find a way of facilitating progress. There are many ways to give away a product (or some functions of one) and still be successful in the marketplace. Early in the history of Adobe’s pdf format, you had to buy software just to view the files. Only when Adobe made its Acrobat viewer free did pdf take off. Now that the code for the creation of pdf files is open standard, it can be incorporated into more programs (it’s already built into the Mac OS, for one). 2. Can the same be done with the digital music technologies? Instead of licensing the tech to publishers and retailers, can it be made part of the operating systems? This doesn’t have to happen immediately, nor is this the only way to make the serving of digital print music files easier; it can progress in stages. The tech companies need just to turn a few more keys to unlock additional capabilities. But most important of all: 3. Make it transparent. Make it easy for all composers, all publishers, and all retailers to implement the sale of digital print music. Give some things away, sell others. For example, sell turnkey systems that don’t require advanced coding or other mumbo jumbo to get going. Embrace pdf as an alternative production method so that publishers don’t have to re-engrave a hundred years of music to get their feet wet. Make it possible for anyone to securely sell digital print music. This way, when you decide to go green and buy the digital version, you won’t be turning the clock back to the days of corporate conrol, but rather ahead, to a future of continued democratic access to music of quality.

M U S I C . C O M

Here are some possible solutions:

B E A C H

Because of these burdensome complexities, we seem headed in the direction of the control and leverage over what gets composed, published, and sold, resting in fewer and fewer hands (the larger publishers, the larger retailers, the tech providers) — those with the time and money and personnel to master the thorny issues. If it goes this way (and signs are it could), and if digital music increases from, say, 2% of print music sales to 20% of print music sales, smaller retailers may be increasingly hard pressed to stay in business (or at the very least, in the print music business).

MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC CELEBRATES

FRANK TICHELIʼS

CAJUN FOLK SONGS AN AMERICAN ICON FOR 20 YEARS AND COUNTING

7

MICHAEL MARKOWSKIʼS

TURKEY IN THE STRAW A REVIEW BY DR. KEITH KINDER

8 MAKE IT YOUR OWN Creating More Meaningful Performances and Rehersals Through EffectiveScore Stud y

BY DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMAN A

M A N H A T T A N

next, you have to find technologically savvy retailers to interface with. Since licensing is often involved (which may require royalty payments to the tech providers, as a percentage of sales, or by some other model), there are the issues not only of where and how to sell the music, but also of who should absorb the royalties (publisher? retailer? customer?), and of whether the retailers will get their usual discount, or more or less than usual.

C O N T E N T S

S C O R E

A N A L Y S I S

FRANK TICHELIʼS

12

O F

POSTCARD BY DR.JOHN DARLING

22

JOHN CARNAHAN

WINNER OF THE CBDNA YOUNG BAND COMPOSITION COMPETITION

…AND THE ANTELOPE PLAY A REVIEW BY DR. KEITH KINDER www. MBM

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.com

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M anhat tan Beach Music is Pr oud to Sponsor Frank Ticheli’s List

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The Tyger 30

M A N H A T T A N P R E S E N T S

B E A C H

M U S I C

FRANK TICHELIʼS

THE T YGER

REVIEW BY DR. KEITH KINDER

35

MANHAT TAN BEACH MUSIC IS PROUD TO PRESENT

FRANK TICHELIʼS LIST PART II

C O N T E N T S

35

30

44

WAGGING THE DOG: SIX MODEST PROPOALS

BY DR. JEFFREY BOECKMAN

50

BURIED TREASURE THE MUSIC OF HOLST & VAUGHAN WILLIAMS

BY GREGORY B. RUDGERS

60

FRANK TICHELIʼS LIST RECALLING PART I - COMPLETE LIST OF TITLES

M B M

T I M E S

A MANHATTAN BEACH MEDIA PUBLICATION NEIL RUDDY Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Managing and Copy Editor BOB MARGOLIS Contributing Writers DR. JEFFREY BOECKMAN DR. JOHN A. DARLING, DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMAN, DR. KEITH W. KINDER, GREGORY B. RUDGERS, DR. LAWRENCE STOFFEL Additional Graphics and Art Direction ROBERT BENNETT Authors and Advertisers may contact us at: editorial@mbmtimes.com and at advertising@mbmtimes.com

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Copyright © 2009 Manhattan Beach Media. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission of Manhattan Beach Media. Frank Ticheli’s List™ and the Frank Ticheli’s List logo are trademarks of Manhattan Beach Music; the content of the individual reviews of Frank Ticheli’s List, as well as the Compilation comprising the titles that constitute Frank Ticheli’s List, are Copyright © 2008-2009 Manhattan Beach Music, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express written permission of the publisher. Music examples by permission of Manhattan Beach Music. Pictured on the front cover, Frank Ticheli — Photo by Orange County Register.

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M A N H A T T A N

B E A C H

M U S I C

C E L E B R A T E S

F R A N K

T I C H E L I ʼ S

CAJUN FOLK SONGS AN AMERIC AN ICON FOR 18 YEARS AND COUNTING E X C E R P T S Cajuns are descendants of the Acadians, a group of early French colonists who began settling in Acadia (now Nova Scotia) around 1604. In 1755 they were driven out by the British, eventually resettling in South Louisiana. Today there are nearly a million French-speaking descendants of the Acadians living in Louisiana and parts of Texas, preserving many of the customs, traditions, stories, and songs of their ancestors.

F R O M

T H E

P R O G R A M

����� ������� � � � � �

N O T E S

8003-2, Swallow Records Co., Ville Platte, Louisiana). “La Belle et le Capitaine” tells the story of a young girl who feigns death to avoid being seduced by a captain. Its Dorian melody is remarkably free, shifting back and forth between duple and triple meters. In this arrangement the melody is stated three times. The third time an original countermelody is added in flutes, oboe, clarinet, and trumpet.

������������� Although a rich Cajun folksong tra“Belle” is about a man who goes � � � � � � � � � � � � dition exists, the music has become away to Texas only to receive word of increasingly commercialized and his sweetheart’s illness, forcing him to Americanized throughout the twenreturn to Louisiana. Finding her untieth century, obscuring its original conscious upon his return, he pawns � � � � � � � � � simplicity and directness. In response his horse to try to save her, to no to this trend, Alan and John Lomax avail. The folk melody is sometimes traveled to South Louisiana in 1934 to collect and record nuvaried rhythmically, texturally, and coloristically, and an origimerous Cajun folksongs in the field for the Archive of Folk nal melody is added for variety. Music in the Library of Congress. By doing so, they helped to Cajun Folk Songs is composed as a tribute to the people of the preserve Cajun music in its original form as a pure and powerold Cajun folksong culture with hopes that their contributions ful expression of Louisiana French Society. will not be forgotten. The work is dedicated to the Murchison “La Belle et le Capitaine” and “Belle” can both be heard in Middle School Band, Austin, Texas, Cheryl Floyd, Director, who their original versions on the Lomax recordings (Swallow LPcommissioned the work and gave its premiere on May 22, 1990.

Hear Cajun Folk Songs www.FrankTicheli.com www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com

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MICHAEL MARKOWSKIʼS

TURKEY IN THE STRAW Markowski’s debut work, the highly imaginative Shadow Rituals, was reviewed by this author in the prior issue of MBM Times. The present work comes as something of a surprise.

by Dr. Keith Kinder photo of Michael Markowski by Dimitri @ the24studio

Michael Markowski burst onto the band scene in the spring of 2006 when he won first prize in the Frank Ticheli Composition Contest, Category 2, with his dazzling grade 4 work, Shadow Rituals. For his second band work, Markowski has turned to the wellknown American folk tune, Turkey In The Straw, which originated as a fiddle tune sometime prior to the 19th century. By the 1830s it had acquired words, and over the ensuing decades it was sung to a number of different texts, although the most common seems to have been a teamster’s song from the 1860s. Turkey In The Straw has always attracted nonsensical and humorous texts (my own father used to play this tune on fiddle and sing along with his own playing, making up a new set of outrageous words every time he performed it). The tune is strongly associated with country dances and amateur country musicians. Markowski’s setting for concert band has maintained the expected witty context through form, scoring,

harmony, rhythm and special effects. This review will focus primarily on the witty aspects of the setting. The work opens with a short Introduction (bars 1-11) based on fragments of the tune itself. The initial three bars present a rhythmic motive in low brass, played mostly on a single pitch, which recurs frequently throughout the piece. (See Ex. 1.)

       

      

     

Example 1: Rhythmic motive, bars 1-3:

  

       

The tune emerges out of the Introduction at bar 12. Markowski’s version is ornamented and incorporates abrupt changes of style and scoring to immediately establish a humorous

Example 2: Tune, bar 12-27:

                                                                    mp       flutes/oboes/clarinets/alto saxophones      trumpet                                                mf p cresc                             flutes/bassoons

mp

clarinet/saxophone

   

    

   

mf

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context. (See Ex. 2.) Two complete verses are

preparation. A motive from the refrain leads

offered (elided and in different keys) before

directly into the third verse of the tune in

the refrain appears at bar 28. Markowski’s re-

flutes, oboe and trumpets, accompanied by

frain incorporates both straightforward and

percussion offering slapstick, crash cymbals,

ornamented renderings of the melody. (See

wood block, cowbell, and rim shots in snare

Ex. 3.)

drum — obviously another evocation of a country dance band. Like the early part of

The refrain leads into what might be called “Episode 1” at

the work, two complete verses are presented. Verse four is in

bar 36, since motives from the refrain are developed and spe-

unison clarinets and xylophone accompanied only by saxocial effects are introduced, most of which seem to be intended phones playing a fragExample 3: Refrain, bar 28-31: to bring to mind the types of unment of the refrain in                  expected tricks that coun                               parallel chord clus               try musicians might play on     ters. (See Ex. 6.) their audiences at dances, f   and which add to the joyousness of these events. Percussion effects include wood block (evoking country music drummers), and slide whistle. Effects in other instruments

                f            

               f  f 

                

         

                

                

  

         

           

consist of simultaneous ris-

Two 3⁄4 bars in the

middle of the melody add a challenging rhythmic twist (in a country dance such a rhythmic warp might be intended to trip

ing and falling chromatic scales played by the brass section in

up the dancers), made more striking by chord cluster harmony.

close, dissonant harmony (bar 40-41), trombone glissandi (bar

Solo oboe is assigned the final phrase of the tune, but fails to

52) and a motive harmonized by simultaneous A-flat major and

complete it. The music disintegrates into two bars employing

A-flat minor triads (bar 51, 53) that is appar-

only a single line in low woodwinds and Example 4: “Wrong notes”- bar 51:

ently intended to recall the “wrong-note”

           ff           

harmonies often used either accidentally or with sly intent by country musicians. (See Ex. 4.) What follows (bar 58) is either a continuation of Episode 1 or Episode 2. Trum-

pets and horns with “wah-wah” mutes (an incongruous sound in the context) introduce an unprepared, much-slower tempo, labelled “Against the Current” in the score. This section is lyrical and only loosely based on thematic material. Tritone and half-step intervals give the melody a curiously oblique profile. (See Ex. 5.) At bar 70 the original tempo is re-established, again with no MBM

10 TIMES

     f

  

            

 

sparse percussion figuration. It seems

 

desperately trying to keep going. This

as if the band has gotten lost and the low woodwinds and percussion are impression is reinforced when the Introduction unexpectedly recurs, as if the piece is starting over. After several

bars of fragmented development of fragments of the refrain, the full band leaps into action (bar 114) with the refrain as it appeared at bar 28. This time, the refrain is ex-

Example 5: Melody, bar 58-66 (horns in F):

 

    

      

   

 

tended into an extraordinary musical event. A ritardando, a decrescendo and descending chromatic scales lead into a brief slower segment,


The next five bars are a rising “wave” that consists of a five-note ascending scale overlapped on every half beat of every bar, beginning on every note of an E-flat major scale (the tonic of the work) and sweeping up through the ensemble to a full band E-flat major chord — with a grinding, “wrong note” A-natural in horns and alto saxophones. then the reverse occurs. A crescendo, an accelerando, rising

a frantic accelerando to the finish. The first four bars place a

chromatic scales and very long ascending trombone glissandi

variation of the refrain in the high woodwinds accompanied by

introduce the fifth verse at the fastest tempo thus far (marked

the last two bars of the rhythmic motive and other hints of the

“Chaotic: Circus-like” in the score). These two divergent chro-

Introduction. The next five bars are a rising “wave” that consists

matic passages are labeled simply “Slowly” and then “Winding

of a five-note ascending scale overlapped on every half beat of

Back Up” by the composer, and sound like

Example 6: Chord clusters, bar 82-83 (saxes):

an old-fashioned, wind-up gramo-

   

       f                 

phone running down, then being re-wound. The melody at verse five begins with the curious combination of piccolo, xylophone, bass clarinet, bassoons, baritone saxophone, eu-

 

 

every bar, beginning on every note of an E-flat major scale (the tonic of the

                  

work) and sweeping up through the ensemble to a full band E-flat major chord — with a grinding, “wrong note” A-natural in horns and alto saxophones. The final two chords

phonium and tuba. Middle register instruments

sound like a conventional dominant-tonic ca-

are added later. Heavily accented, it evolves into

dence, but are actually a chord in fourths on B-

a rhythmic development of the final motive that

flat (C in 3rd trumpet) followed by a short E-flat

sounds like it is preparing the final cadence of

major triad.

the work (see Ex. 7).

Markowski’s debut work, the highly imaginative Shadow Rituals, was reviewed by this author

However, the piece does not end here, but a sixth verse appears in a lovely lyrical texture. After eight bars

in the prior issue of MBM Times. The present work comes as

(half the complete tune), it segues into the rhythmic motive

something of a surprise. By replacing the driving energy of the former work with a mar-

from the first bars of Example 7: Melody, Verse Five, bars 148-158:

the piece (see Ex. 1), and

culminates

in a fully-scored dominant seventh under a fermata (bar 179) that signals the beginning of the Coda. The Coda (bar 180) is twelve bars long and presents another series of humorous events. Like most folk dances, it involves

   

Almost Too Fast

     ff               ff

                                      

                     

                                                                                                           

velously

        

        

       

 

         

www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com

subversive Markowski

wit, has

created a different kind of hit - one that will enliven any

concert

injecting

by

humor,

surprise, and, behind its brusque facade,

consider-

able charm. 1

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BY DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMAN

MAKE IT YOUR OWN Creating More Meaningful Performances and Rehersals Through Effective Score Study

I looked at the opening page of my score and it quietly stared back at me. It was a Saturday morning, early in my Winter Break, and I had decided that I was going to do some committed score study on the major piece I had chosen for my first spring concert. I had everything I needed: my score, a freshly sharpened red colored pencil, a quiet room, and lots of coffee. The problem was that my score and I were just sitting there and neither one of us was saying much of anything. I reassured myself that it was going to be fine. “OK, I’ll just start by marking all of the important cues in the piece and then, I’ll really be able to dig into the music.” Time passed, the coffee pot emptied, and the red colored pencil grew dull. I surveyed my work. “Cues marked — check. Now to the music.” I leafed through the opening pages of my score and again waited for inspiration. But, just as before, the score and I said nothing to each other. And as our silence stretched from seconds to minutes, it became painfully obvious that, well-intentioned as I might have been, I honestly didn’t know what to do next. “So now what?” My journey to this moment began the previous spring… I was just finishing my third year of teaching high school in New York and our final concert of the year was to be shared with my band and the ensemble of my friend and colleague, Rick. My group was the first to perform on the concert and they delivered a solid performance. The students seemed pleased with themselves and with the warm reception they received from the audience. MBM

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Contented, I settled into the darkened hall to listen to Rick’s group, completely unaware that by the time the lights in the auditorium would come back up, I’d be forever changed as a teacher and a conductor. For forty-five minutes that May evening Rick and his students held all of us completed captivated, hanging on to every note of their performance. And as their final chord of the evening gracefully echoed through the auditorium, Rick’s baton drew to his side, and the audience rose, spontaneously, unanimously, in their appreciation. As I rose out of my chair with the rest of them, it became very apparent that this was not the generic, obligatory standing ovation so often granted in our concert halls and auditoriums. This was an audience that needed to stand — inspired by a heartfelt admiration for the ensemble and its conductor who had just reminded us how powerful real music making can be. I didn’t sleep much that night, partly because of the lingering excitement of the performance, but mostly because of the painful realization that in my teaching career, I had never, ever, come close to creating that level of music with my ensemble. And, to be very truthful, I didn’t really understand why. I mean, I knew what I was doing in a rehearsal room—how to break apart a piece, fix it, and put it back together. My performances were largely clean, intune, and stylistically solid, but they lacked something intangible—some sort of an element that I couldn’t pinpoint, but knew was certainly real, as evidenced by Rick’s performance. The next morning I arrived early at school, waiting for Rick to share with me how he did what he did. When he arrived, I gushed. I


told him how remarkable his performance was last night, told him how I never knew a bunch of suburban teenagers could make music like that, and told him about how his forty-five minutes has sent me to a sleepless night of soul searching. “So,” I asked, finally getting to the question that had resonated within me since last night, “how did you create a performance that musical and nuanced out of your group?” His was a two word response. “Score study.”

Three-dimensional performances, beautifully conceived and paced and built on a foundation of a comprehensive understanding of the score. “So now what?” ***

Back again to that Saturday in I stared blankly at him. My confused look prompted him to December as I tried, in earnest, patiently repeat his answer again: “Score study.” Now, it’s true to truly study my scores for the that every morning I arrived before school, I would find Rick in first time. The probhis office, door closed, intently looking through lem was, I truly had his scores. “Good for him,” I would often think, “I didn’t sleep no idea even where “trying to figure out what he was going to do in to begin. I mean, much that night, rehearsal that day.” partly because of there was just so much stuff: melodies, countermelodies, harmony, dynamics, articulation, and on and It still didn’t make sense, though. I did rehearsal the lingering exciteon. Sitting there that morning, blankly staring at preparation as well, although mine was normally done during my hall duty a couple of hours be- ment of the perfor- the score, I distinctly remember that, from deep fore band. I admitted to Rick I didn’t get it. “Exmance, but mostly in my sub-conscious, came a long, lost quote from Igor Stravinsky learned years ago in an undergraduplain to me how we both do rehearsal preparabecause of the ate music history class. Stravinsky had once said he tion, and yet, our ensembles’ performances could be that different.” “Because,” he answered, “repainful realization experienced a feeling of tremendous anxiety at the hearsal preparation and score study are two dif- that in my teaching outset of each of new composition. It terrified him to start writing because the possibilities of where and ferent things.” And with one sentence, now it all career, I had never, how to start were so infinite, that he couldn’t even made sense. The intangible suddenly became very tangible. Rick wasn’t in his office every morning ever, come close to imagine where to begin. An “abyss of freedom,” he figuring out which instruments doubled which creating that level called it. “Smart man, that Igor,” I thought, staring at my score, sitting on the precipice of my own perline or where there might be potential intonaof music with my sonal abyss of freedom. tion problems. Rick was in his office devoting his time to analyzing and exploring the music on the ensemble. Apprehensively, I dove into the score as best I page and nothing else — could, writing down random observations as they How was each phrase to be shaped? came to me. “The tempo is marked Allegro moderato.” Good, got it. “Trumpets and flutes have the melody and should play at What needed to be done with balance to make sure that his forte.” Check. “Percussion have two unexpected hits in measure melodies were always present? three.” Gotta remember to cue that. How did the large scale form of the piece influence the pacing And on and on I went, blindly floundering my way through of the music? the score, aimlessly bumping into random insights until I had I dwelled only in the land of the practical, putting my music filled a sheet of paper. And, as I read through my observations together like it was a puzzle. And, not surprisingly, that’s exactly later, it dawned on me that I hadn’t slightest concept of what to what my performances were: flat, two-dimensional representado with these things. In fact, all of this information somehow tions in which all the pieces fit nicely together. Rick’s performade the score more confusing than before. I was lost, incredmances were nuanced and genuinely moving because they came ibly frustrated and, what was worse, had wasted hours of time doing it. from his singular, personal vision of how the music should go. www. MBM

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“Our jobs as teachers and conductors must include more than just effectively policing the safe-and-successful journey of our students from the top left of the first page to the final measure.When we limit ourselves to this, we reduce our role to nothing more than a musical traffic cop, insuring everyone’s safe and uneventful route home.” In hindsight, I really can’t fault myself too much; I was too inexperienced to know that I should have had a plan on how to study that score, long before I opened up its first page. My first attempt at score study reminded me very much of my early years of practice on my instrument. I remember as a freshman in college, I was told by my professor that I needed to practice two hours a day. Being the dutiful student, for two hours a day I sat in that practice room, randomly alternating between what I was supposed to be practicing and music that I could actually play, throwing in an occasional trip to the student lounge. No surprise that my progress was slow, despite my two hour a day commitment. I knew I was supposed to practice — the problem was that no one ever taught me how to practice. How to enter that practice room with a plan, how to use my warm-up to get me mentally and physically ready for what I needed to play, how to break down that étude into smaller, manageable chunks and build it back out again — in essence, how to make practice efficient. Score study was exactly the same for me. I knew I was supposed to do it, I just didn’t know how to do it. I’m now just eight years removed from that awkward, misguided first attempt at score study, but what I’ve slowly discovered over this time is that there is indeed a better way. It’s my hope that the score study method I present to you in this article will provide a logical, efficient, and most of all, effective way to internalize your music, which will result in more meaningful rehearsals and performances. In order to get to this point, I think it’s imperative to understand that score study is not solely a functional exercise. Learning your score must be more than whom to cue and when to cue them. Our jobs as teachers and conductors must include more than just effectively policing the safe-and-successful journey of our students from the top left of the first page to the final measure. When we limit ourselves to this, we reduce our role to nothing more than a musical traffic cop, insuring everyone’s safe and uneventful route home. I firmly believe that the process of score study works better if it is approached by examining the music first, and then investigating how it drives the function. Using the music as our guide, I believe that effective score study can be achieved through five clearly defined steps. MBM

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S T E P 1: G E T TO K NOW T H E C OM P O S E R

Before you ever crack the first page of that score, I believe you owe it to yourself and your students to do a little preliminary research about the composer whose music you’re about to interpret. Reduced down to its essence, our job as conductors is to bring to life someone else’s work. We are not the inspiration here — we are the facilitators of inspiration and because of that, I believe it’s our job to get to know at least a little about the life and career of the person who has trusted us with their vision. I’m hardly talking about a treatise here — I just recommend finding a biography of the composer’s career, the teachers with whom he or she have studied, and a list of their complete composition catalog (including non-band works) with dates, if possible. Oftentimes this information is readily available from many different sources, both online and in print. When I start this process myself, I usually begin by typing the composer’s name into a search engine. More often than not, multiple entries are available, allowing me to choose information from reputable websites, or from the composer’s own personal website. Once I’m content with the quality of what I’ve found, I then just simply cut and paste it into a document. It’s a quick and easy method to obtain valuable information, which then I’ll often augment through articles or entries in print resources like the Oxford Dictionary of Music, the Grove Dictionary of Music, or the Teaching Music through Performance in Band series. Once you’ve accumulated your research on this composer, place it into a file labeled with their name. This will allow you to easily reference your information both now and if you program another piece by this composer in the future. This is a crucial beginning step in your score study and should be done regardless of the pedigree of your composer. Be it an accomplished, award-winning composer or one that specializes only in middle school band, what’s important to remember is that this kind of background information will help you understand the person and the historical and social events that helped shaped his or her music. One final thought as we leave Step 1. While this information is largely for you to develop a deeper understanding of your score, don’t be afraid to share some or all of this information with your students when you think it might be


interesting or pertinent. Students will better invest themselves into what you put on their stands when they understand that the composer is so much more than the name at the top right of their music. S T E P 2 : G E T TO K NOW YOU R PI E C E

Once you become familiar with your composer, it is equally essential to find background information on the specific piece that you’ve programmed. Again, no article-length research needed here. Instead, find out background information on how and why the work was written: What is its composition date? Where is the piece in the composer’s overall compositional output? What was the reason that it was composed? Was the work commissioned and, if it was, by whom? If the particular piece you’ve chosen is a transcription or an arrangement, determine its original instrumentation and, if it’s a vocal piece, locate its original text. This kind of research is invaluable for transcriptions and arrangements as it will, perhaps more than anything else, help you understand and recreate the character and musical intent of the original composition. Start with the information that is included in the score and then move to online sources by typing both the name of the piece and its composer into a search engine. You will often be surprised how much information is available, often through posted concert program notes and compact disc liner notes. Create a separate file exclusive to this piece to collect all of your research so that you can refer to it now and in the future, should you choose to program the work again. All of your effort and work will help bring into focus what led the composer to create this specific piece at that particular moment, which often is vitally important in interpreting the piece itself. Finally, as we discussed earlier, make sure you share part or all of your findings with your students. Plain and simple, for most people a piece of music will always be made more interesting if it has a unique program or a back story. Don’t miss this opportunity to help your students invest more in their music through a deeper understanding of why it was created. S T E P 3 : U N DE R S TA N D YOU R A RC H I T E C T U R E

With your preliminary research on the composer and the piece complete, it’s finally time to open your score. While it’s natural to want to jump right into analyzing all of

the music on page one, I strongly recommend that you take a step back instead and first consider the large scale form of the piece. This will allow you to avoid the sectional interpretations that plague many band concerts. Nearly all of my own performances earlier in my career tended to lack a conception of how a piece should naturally progress and flow from beginning to end. This was because I was rooted only in the practical aspect of the score. With each new composition, I would rehearse and clean my way through the work section-by-section so that, by the time of the performance, we could play through the entire piece successfully. The music, however, always lacked any sort of cohesiveness because I had never considered how all of these sections fit into the overall form. From a practical standpoint, understanding the overall architecture of the music will allow you to identify any material that is repeated, saving both you and your students time in the rehearsal process. Once you’ve identified the large scale structure, analyze each section to determine its general key, as this will allow you to anticipate both the potential pitfalls of specific keys and to see if the repeated material in the piece returns at the same pitch level. This is really a crucial step in the score study process, so I would urge you not to be put-off or intimidated by the fact that you may have to dust off some long-forgotten form and analysis skills. Just keep in mind that there are no college theory professors looking over your shoulder, with grade books in hand. This step is not so much about identifying the differences between ternary and rounded binary form as it is about your ability to distinguish between the similarities and differences between sections of your music so you can create well-conceived, thoughtful performances. That’s it. S C OR E M A R K I NG S UG G E S T ION S

The first thing I do with any score is take the time to number every measure, if the measures haven’t already been numbered by the publisher. While this is a simple task, it is also an essential one, as it will allow for quick and effective reference throughout the score study process. Once you’ve determined the form and the keys, go ahead and add them into your score. For the components of the form, I tend to add their labels at the top of the score. For the general key regions, I place them underneath the last staff on the bottom of the page. To better www. MBM

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illustrate this, please see the excerpt from my score of Frank Ticheli’s Sun Dance on page 19 (also shown on p. 21).

rise and fall to the line? If there is, how much louder or softer do you want to vary from the marked dynamics?

One final thing based on my own personal experience. Don’t keep the form to yourself—share it with your students. Explain to them how musical form works and don’t be afraid to refer to the sections by their formal names. You will find that not only will your students understand these labels, they’ll begin to transfer this knowledge into your other music.

These are just some of the myriad questions that need to be considered. With so much riding on your decisions during this step, there are a few important aspects to consider that will help you effectively manage all of these potential choices. First, become very familiar with the melodies that you are shaping.

S T E P 4 : C R A F T I NG YOU R I N T E R PR E TAT ION

With the large scale structure of your piece fully established, you now can begin the process of crafting your own personal musical interpretation of the score. Because the majority of the music we perform is built on melody and its development, it only makes sense that in most cases your musical concept for the entire piece should start here. The decisions you make during this step in the score process will have a profound effect on nearly every other facet of the piece. Begin with the understanding that all composers, through their notation and their markings, give us the blueprint on which they’ve built their music. Understand as well, though, that within that tight construct, there is still further room to make this piece unique to you. So when you identify the opening melody of the work, begin to consider all of its possible aspects: What should the tempo be? If the composer has marked it within a metronome range, where does your perfect tempo fit? How long should the phrases be? Should they for example be four measure phrases or do you think that the music suggests an eight measure phrase instead? When should your musicians playing the melody breathe? If they can’t make it to the end of the phrase on one breath, should they breathe together in the middle of the phrase or should they stagger their breathing instead? How exactly do you want your musicians to articulate the notes? Just because it says staccato, this doesn’t mean everyone has the same concept of staccato. Decide exactly what staccato means to you at that point in the melody. What is the dynamic shape of the phrase? While the composer may have written an initial dynamic, does the melody line constantly maintain that dynamic, or is there a natural dynamic MBM

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Gaining familiarity with the melody should extend beyond listening to a recording or hearing it in your head. To get a true physical sense of what it will take for your players to execute your interpretation, I highly recommend that you perform the melody in some capacity, be it on your own instrument, on piano, or by singing. Second, if your melody utilizes anything originally written for voice, you must, without exception, track down the original vocal music. My adamance about this is based on the fact that you cannot possibly create a legitimate interpretation of a vocal piece without first considering the meaning of its text and the placement of its words by the composer. It’s been my experience that once the text is understood in the context of your music, your interpretation will often take care of itself. Third, don’t expect to find your perfect interpretation on your first try. There are frankly too many interpretive choices for you to process them all simultaneously. Instead, look at shaping your interpretation as a process of evolution. Create several ways to shape your melody and see which one you prefer. Just as importantly, once you’ve found an interpretation you like, leave it and come back to it the next day to see if it still feels as right to you. Fourth, as you work towards finding your perfect interpretation, force yourself not to conduct during the process. I know this seems like a paradox, but it’s imperative that your musical decisions not be influenced by your conducting technique. Many times earlier in my career, I would come up with effective interpretations that would be quickly abandoned because they were awkward or uncomfortable for me to conduct. Don’t let your physical skill as a conductor compromise your musical integrity — it’s not fair to your students and not fair to the music you’ve been trusted to interpret. Commit to the way you believe the music should go and use these opportunities as a way to broaden and improve your conducting skills.


Don’t let your physical skill as a conductor compromise your musical integrity— it’s not fair to your students and not fair to the music you’ve been trusted to interpret. Finally, as you enter into the process of finding your personal interpretation, don’t allow yourself to think of the playing limitations of your specific players. Our job during this step in the process is to create how you believe the music needs to go. Because of that, I invite you to come up with your perfect interpretation, unencumbered of practical limitations. Only when you have that ideal interpretation, should you step back into reality and see first if your players can realistically perform what you’ve created. If they can’t, see if there is anything that could be done to help realize your interpretation through techniques like stagger breathing or cutting and adding players. Only if your preferred interpretation just isn’t ultimately feasible, should you then begin to consider other interpretive options. S C OR E M A R K I NG S UG G E S T ION S

Once you’ve gone through this entire process of honing your interpretative choices down to your own unique personal expression of the music, it is vital that you meticulously write all of your musical decisions into your score. You’ve spent a lot of time and energy on making this music your own, so it’s important that all of your musical decisions are easily accessible to you during your study and rehearsal. I always begin putting my interpretation in the score by clearly labeling a specific metronome marking that reflects my preferred tempo. I do this mainly to keep me honest and consistent in rehearsal. I learned early on in my own teaching that my tempos, depending on my adrenaline level at that point in the rehearsal, had the potential to drastically fluctuate. Because rehearsal time is always at a premium, it’s an inefficient use of my students’ time if they’re made to rehearse at tempos different from those of the ultimate performance. By listing a specific metronome marking, it keeps me in check and reminds me to make sure things stay consistent. As you move into the music to specifically notate all of your interpretive decisions, the first thing that needs to be addressed is where these markings should go, since melodies are often doubled by multiple instruments. I recommend that you place all of your

markings on the instrument line that you think should be the leading timbre of that melody. With reference to the Sun Dance score (see page 19 of this article:) As an example, the melody in measures 105–109 in Sun Dance is played by Flutes 1–2, Oboe 2, Clarinet 2, and Alto Saxophone 1. If you believe that the Alto Saxophone 1 should be dominant color, then all of your interpretive markings should be written into their part, fully understanding that the same markings will also pertain to the Flutes 1–2, Oboe 2, and Clarinet 2. By limiting your markings to only one line, it will allow you to both save time and keep your score more visually clean. For the phrasing of the melody, I make sure to clearly list all breath marks as well as indicating if I want specific types of releases, such as a release that is soft and lifted or one that is marcato and abrupt. In addition, on common phrase transitions (such as between measures four and five of an eight measure phrase), I will often use a horizontal arrow to remind myself that I want a phrase to be carried. I’ve found that this arrow does a terrific job in giving me a visual reminder to make sure no one is breathing on the transition. I also make sure that I’m clear on the score about specific articulation markings. If a melody has no indicated articulations, I make a point to add my own to remind me of the specific length and weight of exactly how I want the musicians to articulate. No need to add them to every note — if the articulations are consistent throughout the phrase, then I’ll simply label them on the first couple of notes and add a simile to remind myself that it continues. As far as dynamics, I use the written dynamics only as a starting point. Any sort of shaping within the line should be marked with a specific crescendo or decrescendo. Just as importantly, these crescendos or decrescendos must have specific dynamics at their apex and www. MBM

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conclusion. To better help visualize these interpretative score markings, please see my score excerpt to see how they might look on the page. A final important disclaimer about putting all of this information in your score. As you put your markings into the score, I highly recommend that you do this in regular, not colored, pencil. As we grow older and more experienced, it is only natural to think that our interpretations will change and evolve. By notating your interpretive decisions in pencil, it will easily allow you to erase and change your markings when you return to the piece in the future—an option that a colored pencil doesn’t easily afford. [To clarify which markings are those of the author, for the purposes of this article all have been highlighted : Ed.] S T E P 5 : E S TA B L I S H I NG T H E H I E R A RC H Y

Now that your interpretation is in place, you have created a solid musical foundation on which the rest of the music can be built. What this fifth and final step will allow you to do is work through the piece section by section, identifying and analyzing all of the various lines involved in the music. To get started, on a sheet of paper different from the score (or in a new document on your computer), go ahead and list the measure number in which the melody begins and all of the instruments playing the line by name (or by abbreviation) in score order. What this step does is allow you a quick visual reference of the actual instrumentation of the melody. To help visualize this, as we work through this final step I’ll reference measures 105-109 of Sun Dance as an example: m. 105 Melody: Fls. 1-2/Ob. 2/Cl. 2/ASx. 1

Now that the instrumentation of the melody has been established, begin looking through the score to identify its nonmelodic lines. Once these parts have been identified, begin assigning each a label that describes what you believe the function of that part to be. For instance, does the line serve as accompaniment? Is this part a harmonization of the melody? Is this music an orchestrational effect? The reason that you make an effort to label the function of each line instead of giving it a more generic label (such as Line 2 or Line B), is to try to determine the composer’s intent — specifically, why did he or she write that line and what is its role in

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the overall music? Once the function of the line is established, list the measure number where it begins and the instrumentation of the line, just as you did for the melody: m. 105 Countermelody: TSx./BSx./Tpt. 2/Hns. 1-4; Tpt. 1 (beginning in m. 107)

With this new nonmelodic line and its players identified, it’s time to determine all of the same musical and practical aspects you considered for the melody: How should this line be phrased? What should the balance of the countermelody be in the overall texture of the piece? What should the balance be within the line itself and should one timbral color dominate? Will the marked dynamics of this line overshadow the melody? Just as with the melody, choose the instrument whose timbre you believe should predominate and then mark these aspects in your score in pencil as a visual reminder of exactly how you want this line to be played. Before you leave this part for the next nonmelodic line, make sure to make a point of seeing how this line interacts with the melody. This particular step is particularly crucial because it’s here where the subtle nuances of music become evident. For instance, in the case of this countermelody, it interweaves with the melody, inserting moving notes whenever the melodic line has longer note durations. Once all of your observations and musical decisions are complete, return to your countermelody instrumentation and add any specific musical notes or possible rehearsal challenges you observe: m. 105 Countermelody:TSx./BSx./Tpt. 2/Hns. 1-4 Balance: •TSx. & BSx. add a little reediness to timbre of the Horns; •Tpt. 2 should be the least important timbre; •Tpt. 1 entrance should not be audible—its addition is only meant to reinforce the Countermelody. No softening on longer notes or right before a breath; Note crescendo in m. 108 (exclusive to the Countermelody); Note accent on downbeat of m. 109 (exclusive to the Countermelody).

Continue to repeat this process with each remaining nonmelodic line until all of the parts have been accounted for and analyzed. By the end of this process, you should have a sheet


The author’s pencil markings are highlighted in yellow for clarity; the one crossed-out dynamic marking is highlighted in green. (Excerpt from Sun Dance by Frank Ticheli.)

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that might look something like this: m. 105 Melody: Fls. 1-2/Ob. 2/Cl. 2/ASx. 1 Countermelody: TSx./BSx./Tpt. 2/Hns. 1-4 Balance: •TSx. & BSx. add a little reediness to timbre of the Horns; •Tpt. 2 should be the least important timbre; •Tpt. 1 entrance should not be audible—its addition is only meant to reinforce the Countermelody. No softening on longer notes or right before a breath; Note crescendo in m. 108 (exclusive to the Countermelody); Note accent on downbeat of m. 109 (exclusive to the Countermelody). Melody Harmonization: Picc./Ob. 1/Cls. 1 & 3/ASx. 2 Balance: •More Cl. 3 & ASx. 2 to help balance high tessitura of Picc./Ob. 1/Cl. 1 •Harmonization dynamics must be slightly less than Melody, so not to overshadow Melody Harmonization should follow the same phrasing, articulation, and dynamics as the Melody Accompaniment 1: Bsns. 1-2/Trbs. 1 & 3/Timp. Balance: •Bsns. add a little reediness to the timbre of Trbs. 1 & 3 •Note that Timp. dynamics (mf ) are softer than Bsns. 1-2/Trb. 1 & 3 Bring out marcato articulation and make sure that there is no decay on the half notes Note that Timp. does not play with a marcato articulation Accompaniment 2: Trb. 2/Euph. Balance: •Euph. should be slightly louder than Trb. 2 Make sure that “and of 2” lines up with Accompaniment 1 Bring out beat 4 and push into next measure Watch pitch on Trombones on C Bassline: BCl./CBCl./Tuba Balance: •More CBCl. to complement Tuba Solid marcato articulation to echo marcato from Accompaniments 1 & 2 Note that the rhythm of the Bassline never aligns vertically with the rhythm of Accompaniments 1 & 2—this creates a syncopated composite rhythm (see outline in score) To hear composite line equally, the Bassline must play ff so that their volume is the same as Accompaniments 1 & 2 MBM

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While this process is no doubt time consuming, its long-term return is enormous both in a musical and in a practical sense. From a musical perspective, by clearly and definitively establishing the hierarchy of the music, you will better master the art of seeing and hearing the score vertically. In addition, because you are analyzing each part independently, you will find the subtle, frequently forgotten aspects embedded deep within the score, such as the use of independent dynamics, independent articulations, and/or different phrase markings between parts. Perhaps even more importantly, this final step will give you a complete understanding of how every part fits together to create a musical whole. This will help you establish a better overall ensemble sound as well as create an ensemble clarity and transparency because of your comprehensive knowledge of the score. From a practical standpoint, you will have determined ahead of time all of the technical, key, and register issues that will challenge your students. Best of all, all of your hard work will serve as a remarkable reference to you in every single rehearsal and, once you’re done with this performance, each time you return to this music in the future. With this method, the days of having to re-learn a piece will be a thing of the past. S C OR E M A R K I NG S UG G E S T ION S

With all of your interpretive decisions now made, all that is left is marking the more practical aspects of your score. Score marking is an individual and very personal aspect of the music making process and, because of this, there are about as many score marking methods as there are conductors. I have seen conductors whose philosophies range from refusing to make any marks in their score to those who use multiple colors, each of which representing a different musical element, to conductors that heavily mark a practice score and then use an unmarked score for their performance. The bottom line on score marking is that you need to develop a method that works best for you and the way you learn. Much like finding your melodic interpretation, score marking is often an evolutionary process. Feel free to experiment and, just as importantly, to glean various aspects from different methods until you find a process that’s effective and efficient for you. Personally, I like looking at a relatively clean score that contains only the most vital of performance information. For me, there is just so much information on the page happening in such a short amount of time, that when I glance down at the score, I only want to see clearly marked information that will best allow me to guide my ensemble. What I mark first, in red colored pencil, are any and all meter changes. I normally mark these meters in three spots C ON T I N U E D ON PAG E 4 2


The author’s pencil markings are highlighted in yellow for clarity; the one crossed-out dynamic marking is highlighted in green. (Excerpt from Sun Dance by Frank Ticheli.) To make it more convenient to refer to this score page, we’ve reprinted it here.

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F R A N K

T I C H E L I ʼ S

P O S T C A R D I T S

R H Y T H M I C

&

M E T R I C A L

D I V E R S I T Y

BY DR. JOHN DARLING There are many things about Postcard that might make a conductor hesitate choosing this piece to program. Like most of Ticheli’s compositions, the melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic elements of this composition are intertwined and interrelated. It is difficult to separate the various elements and discuss them separately without inadvertently referring to another one or all of the elements. In Postcard, the melodic elements are as complex as they are unique, the harmonic language encompasses several different techniques, the orchestration runs from two-voice textures to eight-voice polyphony, and multiple layers of dynamics are common. When I have suggested this piece to conductors looking for a piece that will challenge their students, very few have ever taken up the task of preparing this piece with their students. When working at the Manhattan Beach Music booth at Midwest, I’ll hand Postcard to conductors looking for another Ticheli piece that they haven’t done, but they rarely get past the first three pages before they close the score and hand it back. The same general comment goes something like this: “That might be a bit of a stretch for my kids.” It’s not the melodic complexities, the varied harmonic techniques, the orchestration or the dynamics that are the problem in the first few pages of the score, it is the rhythm and the metrical diversity that seems to be the most compelling reason why conductors seems to shy away from this five-minute whirlwind of emotional contrasts and styles. Ticheli has referred to this piece as his most compact composition. There is very little about this piece that can be called fat or filler material. There are very few examples of sections that are repeated exactly, which requires substantially more rehearsal planning and preparation for this piece. Having studied and conducted this score, it took considerable time to practice the constantly changing metrical patterns to the point where I felt comfortable enough to take the band through their first reading of this piece. It takes a mature group and a conductor who has taken the time to prepare the score properly, but it is well worth the time and effort for the performer, the conductor, and the audience. The rhythmic gymnastics begin with the opening theme, which starts from the very first downbeat. In the first ten MBM

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measures, there are eight meter changes using simple time, compound time and complex time signatures. Example 1

Rhythmically, the second statement of the A theme is exactly the same, however, the texture is changed and a countermelody is added. It should be obvious that the conductor must have a clear and consistent beat pattern. But the need for rhythmic precision isn’t incumbent on just the conductor. The trumpets provide a punctuation figure starting in measure 22 that requires an understanding of the metric complexities of the changing meters. Example 2

At measure 30, the metrical shifts end as Ticheli stays in simple triple time. The rhythmic challenges do not end, however, as Ticheli incorporates a multi-layered rhythmic schema centered on the horns.


contrasts as seen in example 4. Another such moment begins in measure 77 where Ticheli layers multiple rhythmic divisions together to create a swirling diversion of metric instability.

Example 3

Example 5

This interwoven rhythmic schema continues until Ticheli brings back a truncated variation of the opening theme at measure 52. Canonic figures and passages are not uncommon in Ticheli’s music. The three-voice imitative passage that begins in measure 66 is further enhanced when Ticheli adds textural interest in the orchestration with additional voices joining the canon for short bursts of color. Example 4

Notice the beaming of the euphonium part. This is a clear five-note motive and Ticheli ensures that the player understands this by deliberately changing the standard rules for beaming. The first climax of the piece also has a distinct layered rhythmic schema. Example 6

Ticheli returns to the opening theme often; however, each statement of the theme is altered slightly, either by different note choices or a change of the rhythmic patterns and meters. These brief returns to the main theme are often connected by short vignettes of rhythmic

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To close the A section, Ticheli offers yet another different rhythmic schema. Example 7

It is clear that a simple-quintuple (5/4) pattern must be maintained in order for the clarinets to see a distinct five-beat pattern from the conductor. The second statement of the Ethel motive requires the same approach. Example 10

Ticheli offers a unique stretto effect of the Ethel motive as it relates to the rhythm starting in measure 132. Generally, the higher the tessitura, the faster the note values are associated with the motive. Example 11

The main melodic element of the B section is the “Ethel” motive. By itself, the motive seems like a straightforward composite metrical idea. Example 8

Like the main theme from the A section, the Ethel motive is a melodic palindrome. It would appear that a composite interpretation of 10/8 (6/8 plus 2/4) conducting pattern would be appropriate rather than a simple-quintuple pattern as indicated in the meter signature. However, it is not as straightforward when the accompanying clarinet line is added. Example 9

An interesting additive effect begins in the tuba part in measure 143. Ticheli starts with a three-note motive (loosely based on the Ethel motive) and then adds a note to the end creating a four-note motive. He continues to add one note at a time until a six-note motive is created. To add to this interesting compositional idea, Ticheli creates an eight-voiced polyphonic texture that sets the canonic pattern an eighth-note apart.

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max (measure 77), starting in measure 234. This moment marks one of the few times in the piece that Ticheli repeats an earlier passage. However, even with this repeat, there are subtle changes in the rhythm and some note choices.

Example 12

There is no shortage of contrapuntal effects in Postcard. A very active and interlocking rhythmic set begins in measure 166. Example 13

The conductor who chooses to program Postcard must have a mature group of players in every section, but particularly true in the clarinet section as some of the passages are in the extreme high range of the instrument for all of the parts. The conductor must have an absolute command and knowledge of the score, the willingness to commit the proper time needed for score study and preparation, and the ability to provide ample rehearsal time to this piece. Personal preparation is essential for the conductor, particularly in regards to a clear and defi ned ictus, as well as visibly concise patterns, which will be crucial for the performers. The process of videotaping oneself during rehearsals might prove extremely beneficial. Practice time with a metronome for the conductor should be a given. Considering just the amount of meter changes that take place in this piece, a conductor who isn’t completely secure with his or her knowledge of the score is flirting with disaster when it comes time for a performance. When you add the possible number of cues that need to be worked into the piece in addition to the rhythm gestures that the conductor should be accomplishing, the technical requirements for the conductor become even more critical.

This interlocking counterpoint continues in measure 177 and again in measure 211, albeit a variation of the contrapuntal idea. Another example of a multi-layered rhythmic schema can be seen in the score starting in measure 186. Ultimately, Ticheli returns to the first cli-

Postcard is not an easy piece to conduct or perform, but it is a uniquely crafted composition from a distinguished American composer. It is as important a piece as Lincolnshire Posy, Symphony in B-flat, or Hammersmith, and as such it needs to be on every conductor’s fouryear list. 1

Postcard is not an easy piece to conduct or perform, but it is a uniquely crafted composition from a distinguished American composer. It is as important a piece as Lincolnshire Posy, Symphony in B-flat, or Hammersmith, and as such it needs to be on every conductor’s four-year list. Hear a complete recording of POSTCARD on www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com www. MBM

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C O N G R A T U L A T I O N S ,

J O H N

C A R N A H A N

WINNER OF THE CBDNA YOUNG BAND COMPOSITION COMPETITION

…AND THE ANTELOPE PL AY by Dr. Keith Kinder ...and the antelope play by John Carnahan was the winner of the 2007 College Band Directors National Association Young Band Composition Contest. As is apparent from the title, this work uses motives from the North American folk song, “Home on the Range.” Especially important are the motives formed by the first four pitches, and sol-doh-ti-doh-re, which accompanies the words “deer and the antelope play”. This latter motive will be dubbed the “antelope motive” in this study. This choice of material and title are clearly not coincidental considering that the composition was written for the Antelope Valley Unified School District Honor Band in California. Carnahan’s composition is sectionalized: Intro—bar 1–12; A— 13–30; transition—31–36; B—37–78; C—79–96; Intro-1— 97– 102; B1—103–111; transition-1—112–119; A1—120–143; Coda/ Intro-2—144–160), creating an arch form. The melodic material is contrasted, but, as will be seen, the use of limited musical materials generates fine aural unity as well. These sections are identified by captions in the score, which have programmatic intent. The work traces the history of the Antelope Valley, and is concerned the demise of the herds of Pronghorn antelope that used to flourish there, as well as the displacement of the First Nations people who had established themselves in the valley. The Introduction has three subsections. The opening, senza misura and titled “...first there was wind”, employs only wind sounds plus spare percussion — snare drum with brushes improvising in an accelerating and ritarding rhythm, marked “like tumbleweeds,” suspended cymbal, and wooden wind chimes perhaps reflecting the clicking of sage brush blown by the wind. The effect is mysterious, even primordial, depicting the valley before the arrival of humans. After a little more than 30 seconds, a soprano recorder solo, standing in for Native American flute, is superimposed on this background.

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The soloist’s melody, sol-dohre, outlines the “antelope motive”, but pitch bending and ornamentation enhance the Native American character of the figure. This subsection is titled “...the spirit world”, and the composer has indicated that this simple melody breaks the established silence and calls forth the spirit world. It also perhaps reflects the arrival of the first humans in the valley. The third subsection, “...morning light!”, completely changes the mood. Depicting the brilliant California sun, this section is rhythmically measured and dramatic, presents fanfares in the woodwinds and cornets that are verticalizations of the first notes of Home on the Range, and establishes a quartal harmonic context that will recur frequently throughout the piece. The horns add a motive that is an inversion of the recorder solo and at bars 8-11 the low brass and woodwinds play the first eight notes of the folksong in an elongated rhythm that disguises its appearance. Example 1: Low brass/low woodwinds – Home on the Range (modified) - bar 8-11 The masked appearance of the folk song at this point may prefig-

            mf



       

ure the arrival of European settlers in the valley, since the subsequent section is titled “...behold the valley” and incorporates a broad chorale in the style of European art music. The “...behold the valley” section (identified as “A” above) is comprised of a soaring, lyrical melody in a style that is associated with westward expansion, wide-open spaces and wagon trains, and is supported by a contrapuntal accompaniment. The melody begins with the first four pitches of Home on the Range, but then develops in a new direction, although similarities with other motives from the


foreshadowing), energetic percussion (the most notable percussion figure is a temple block “hoofbeat” passage), and a few woodwind and trumpet interjections. The main melody of this section arrives at bar 46 in trumpets, and is built from the retrograde of measures 4-5 and bars 12-13 of the folksong, accompanied by a rhythmic ostinato in low brass that alternates an F major triad with a chord in fourths (see Ex. 4).

folksong can easily be identified in both the melody and the other contrapuntal lines. The harmony is modal, but the movement of voices generates many added-note chords and quartal sonorities. This section is enhanced by effective, mostly non-pitched percussion that reinforces the phrasing. Example 2: “...behold the valley” melody – bar 12-30 (clarinets)

  mf

                           

f

  



 

  

  





  

This impassioned melodic and textural structure provides a sense of the breadth and overwhelming beauty of the valley in its natural state.

When this melody repeats in truncated form at bar 63, the “antelope motive” is superimposed. According to the composer, this section represents      the herds of Pronghorn ante lope who occupied the valley. The extent of this section, the     longest in the piece, gives an  impression of the magnitude of these herds, and the excitement and swift movements of these animals are implied by the very fast tempo and the percussion, which consists of loud, short notes on bass drum, timpani and slapstick.

In the short transition that follows, the saxophones and horns present fanfare figures similar to those in the “...morning light!” segment earlier. The quartal harmonic context bolsters the similarity; however, the “antelope motive” is added by cornets and high woodwinds, and the final bars offer a quotation of bars 17-18 of the folksong at the words “Home, Home on the Range”.

The “C” section, “...the plight of the valley”, is slightly slower and uses material from B. The harmonic context, however, is radically altered. The familiar interval of the Perfect 4th is expanded to a tritone and combined with seconds to create substantially more dissonant sonorities. Much of the melodic material proceeds in parallel tritones. Accumulating texture, increasing volume, brass fanfares and loud percussion outbursts drive the music to an enormous, dissonant climax at bar 95. A driving snare drum part signifies the arrival

Example 3: “antelope motive”, cornets – bar 32

 

       

f

The main purpose of this transitional section is to double the tempo in preparation for the “B” section. The caption “...and the antelope play” identifies the “B” section, which is fast and dramatic. The initial nine bars are introductory and consist of a walking bass comprised of descending Perfect 4ths and Tritones (the tritone is perhaps another

Example 4: melody and accompaniment, bar 46-53

  

    

mf

 mf        

      ff



    mf

             

  

   

  

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  

 

  

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  

 

   

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       

     

 

 

       

 

      

       

  

 

 

   

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      



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The Coda is short, quiet and evocative. Over the continuing wind sound, the clarinets and saxophones present the opening pitches of Home on the Range as a quiet line-cluster and solo flute plays the “antelope motive” slowly and marked “with sorrow”. The wind sounds fade out to end the piece as it began, but with a few single notes on flute and triangle that the composer confirms represent the word “home”. Nonetheless, the final impression is an overarching sense of sadness and loss.

of the railroad, and trumpet fanfares in Mariachi style suggest the influx of Spanish settlers. The caption and the musical material of this section indicate the destruction of the natural environment, the demise of the antelope and the displacement of the Native American people. Everything collapses suddenly at bar 95. The tempo is abruptly reduced by two-thirds (from quarter note = 152, to quarter note = 52), the texture becomes a single pedal tone, the percussion is simplified and set at quiet dynamics. At bar 97-102, a solo piccolo recalls the recorder “spirit” music of the Introduction and the “morning light!” fanfares can be heard very distantly in percussion. The caption on this brief section is “...the spirit remains”, implying a hopeful future, and these few measures comprise the peak of the arch form. The restatement of the “B” section is short and uses the theme and harmony of the original B section overlaid with the “antelope motive”. The tempo, however, is much slower and this section has none of the bravura that characterized its original appearance. The caption “...and the antelope?” suggests loss and profound sadness, although this sentiment is moderated somewhat by the memory of the always-present spirit world. When the transition reappears at bar 112, it remains similar to its original presentation, but in this instance no tempo change ensues. Its bright fanfares and marking “with excitement” restores a feeling of optimism. The transition leads to an extended restatement of A. Designated “...the valley home” in the score, it is identical to earlier, however, the contrapuntal context is enhanced by a prominent countermelody in horns and alto saxophones that, like the A theme itself, begins with the first four pitches of Home on the Range, but also incorporates motives from the B theme. The “antelope motive” is overlaid on the final ten bars of the melody. Example 5: “...behold the valley” theme and countermelodies, bar 119-138, at right: Although this section exudes the same confidence as earlier, the enriched counterpoint generates a more pensive mood. Musically, the amalgamation of the three primary elements of the work is an effective summation of the piece as a whole, and may be intended as a symbol of hope that humans, animals and the environment might be able to live harmoniously. This section rises to a major climax at bar 138, but then quickly dissipates to silence as the wind sounds from the very beginning are restored. MBM

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Since all of its primary musical materials are drawn from the same source, …and the antelope play is a well integrated composition. However, melodic construction, variety of style and highly effective scoring provide substantial contrast as well. By combining skilful construction with a thoughtful aesthetic, Carnahan has created a new work that offers many opportunities for inspired educational and musical experiences. 1

  

   

   

mf

  



 

 

       

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 

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f



   

         

                            f        

    

  





                                                     

  

 

   

  

      

 



 

f

mf

 





 

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                              

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Groundbreaking! Video Master Class

Each DVD contains

Three new DVDs featuring

multiple rehearsals,

H. Robert Reynolds and

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H. Robert Reynolds and Frank Ticheli

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A N A L Y S I S

B Y

M A N H A T T A N

D R .

K E I T H

B E A C H

K I N D E R

M U S I C

P R E S E N T S

F R A N K

T I C H E L I ʼ S

THE T YGER

Frank Ticheli’s The Tyger is rather unusual in Ticheli’s output because it is based on a tone row, although it is not strictly serialized. While many melodic and harmonic gestures are row segments, other passages seem to be chromatic but not precisely aligned to the original series. It’s not entirely clear that the row Ticheli has designed employs the full twelve tones. The first seven notes (D-sharp, E, F-sharp, B-sharp, C-sharp, G, and D) and segments from them, are easily identified and recur frequently at the original pitch or transposed and as chords. The additional five notes are less obvious and if a twelve-tone series is employed, two slightly different orders seem equally plausible: A-flat, F, B-flat, B, A; or A-flat, B-flat, F, B, A. However, whether the row is seven or twelve tones, much of the harmonic-contrapuntal context includes all twelve notes of the chromatic aggregate. Ticheli has provided informative program notes that outline the concept of the piece, confirm the form and offer interpretive suggestions. The work was inspired by the first stanza of William Blake’s famous poem of the same name: Tyger! Tyger! burning bright! In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In this music, Ticheli has reflected the power, sense of awe and fearsomeness that Blake has attributed to the tiger. The composer suggests that the relentless forward energy of his piece, despite sustained periods of quiet apprehension, evokes the tiger’s hunting habits — extended periods of stealthy repose, followed by shocking bursts of ferocious energy. The piece begins with a thirty-nine bar Introduction MBM

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that commences very quietly and mysteriously in the lowest registers of the band (the night image in the poem?). From the initial sounds, an agitated impression is created by repeated notes on timpani and bass drum. Bassoons and bass clarinet provide a long pedal E and a gradually evolving melodic line that expands whole-tone scale segments into a complete whole-tone scale. Meanwhile the tuba adds a long pedal G and two muted trombones insert brief outbursts that add a sinister quality (perhaps the first glimpse of the tiger’s shining eyes in the dark). Example 1: Trombone 1 and 2, bar 9-10:

  

straight mutes

     

   

     

 

mp crisp

  

mp crisp

 

Toward the end of the Introduction, piano, tuba and bass trombone contribute short motivic figures that will be integrated into an all-important ostinato in the ensuing section. The A section arrives at bar 40 with an ostinato that will be present virtually continuously throughout the composition and, according to the composer, generates an “incessant, predatory quality”. This ostinato, played in the piano’s lowest register, outlines the first seven notes of the tone row, and is the source of much of the musical material. It is grouped in patterns of 2, 3, 4 and 3 eighth notes, which makes it isorhythmic in relation to the 4/4 meter.

Example 2: Piano ostinato, bar 40-41:

                        poco f


“In this music, Ticheli has reflected the power, sense of awe and fearsomeness that Blake has attributed to the tiger.” As this section progresses bassoons are integrated with the piano, but their parts are not strict ostinatos and they add the pitches not included in the piano that complete the chromatic aggregate. At the same time, brass and percussion insert brief, transitory gestures, another compositional procedure that is central to the construction of this work. Both the brass and percussion figures are coloured by special effects, such as a variety of mutes, carefully selected mallets and specialized playing techniques. These momentary and diverse figures add to the relentless energy of the work and might represent glimpses of colourful flora and fauna in the tiger’s natural environment. This section flows smoothly into the B section at bar 68. This section is brief and transitional. The ostinato breaks down, but a running eighth note line continues and gradually ascends, preparing for the C section where the ostinato returns a perfect fifth higher. The brass gestures become more continuous in this section and mostly involve three-note chords constructed of a tritone and either a minor second or a major second, apparently drawn from notes 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the tone row, and another vital musical element. As observed, the ostinato transposed up a perfect fifth returns at the C section (bar 74). In this instance, it is divided among the bassoons, tuba, bass trombone and bass clarinet. The fleeting gestures established earlier continue throughout the ensemble and largely sustain a continuous twelve-note harmonic context. While all previous sections flowed smoothly one into the next, the D section arriving at bar 95 provides a dramatic contrast. The texture suddenly becomes homophonic and presents a high woodwind hocket that is doubled by piano, vibraphone and glockenspiel. The melody presented appears to be a series of three-note row segments mostly incorporating a tritone with either a minor second or a major second, like the chords in the B section. Castanets, maracas and trumpets with harmon mutes provide the only counterpoint. Considering the dazzling effect created by these measures, it is difficult not to imagine bright light, either the “burning bright” eyes of the tiger, or perhaps the advent of dawn after the night image presented at the beginning of the piece and the poem.

At bar 103 an altered version of B appears. Like the B section (or transition) this section (B1) is short and has a continuous eighth-note line that, in this case, descends to the original pitch centre. Interestingly, at bar 108-109 the motive Gflat, C and D-flat appears and is imitated through the ensemble. Since this motive comprises notes 3, 4 and 5 of the original row, these bars effectively foreshadow the restatement of the ostinato at its original pitch that will appear at bar 113. The A1 section at bar 113 presents the ostinato in the piano on the original pitches, however, several important modifications also appear. The meter is altered to 3⁄4 and the melodic profile is adapted into an arched phrase that fills two bars, removing the isorhythmic element. Throughout the first four bars, every note of the ostinato is reinforced by brass pyramids similar to the high woodwind hocket of the D section. Example 3: Piano ostinato and brass pyramids, bar 113-14:

 

 

 

ff





ped.

   

 



 ff p       ff p

   ff p       

ff p



  ffp       ff p       ff p

ff p

       



  ff p    ff p

ff p

ff p

After four bars the pyramids are transferred to woodwind instruments while the brass present melodic lines that, like the A section, contribute the pitches needed for a complete chromatic aggregate. A subsection begins at bar 125. The piano ostinato and woodwind pyramids continue while the brass alternate three-note chords of the same sonority as earlier (tritones and minor seconds). This subsection reaches its climax at bar 129 when the brass chords become continuous.

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Example 4: Brass chords, bar 129-30:

      f       f 

        

  

      

 

      

      

  

“heartbeat”, brief, fleeting gestures in pointillistic textures presented by selections of woodwinds, brass and percussion appear and vanish swiftly. As before, these figures are highly coloured by special effects, mutes, trills, flutter tonguing, designated mallets, specified playing techniques, etc. The harmonic content is drawn from the first seven notes of the tone row (see Ex. 5a and 5b).

The E section, arriving at bar 137, is short and is labelled This section ends with a sudden crescendo that leads into the an “episode” by the composer. The ostinato, now in piano re“second climax” at bar 200. From a conceptual point-of-view, inforced by bassoons and bass clarinet, is transposed down a perhaps section G might be seen as the tiger resting after its unmajor second and shortened to five successful exertion, surrounded by busy small Example 5B: Percussion, bar 184-88 notes, which restores its isorhythbirds and animals. s.cym (sticks) mic character. It is accompanied edge-------------------dome s.cym (tri-beater) tri   by an imitative texture constructed            from three-note row segments. This p mf p snare (on rim) section also comprises a continuous         crescendo leading to the subsemp p bass drum quent section F at bar 147, which                is identified as the “first climax” p by Ticheli. This climactic passage involves fragments of the ostinato Section H, the “second climax” beginning at bar 200, is called delivered at very loud volume throughout the ensemble. Later a “battle” among four groups (high woodwinds, high brass, low the brass parts are simplified to short, powerful chords while brass, timpani) by the composer. the woodwinds present intense sixteenthThis incredibly forceful music feanote scale segments. This section reaches tures cluster harmonies either as an abrupt ending in a full-ensemble twelvesingle chords or in parallel chronote flourish that leads to a brief silence. The matically-inflected sixteenth-note sudden ending might suggest that the tiger, passages, harmonized tremolos and in this case, did not capture its prey. brief melodic lines that are row segments. Section G, beginning at bar 156, is called “quiet section” by the composer. The Coda arrives at bar 211. Its The longest section of the composition (43 first part is over a vigorous pedal bars), it presents the most dramatic contrast F — a long-range leading-tone to to surrounding music. It starts with one tonic resolution of the E pedal from eighth-note of silence, then solo bass drum the Introduction. Over the pedal, restores the relentless eighth-note pulse that intense forward momentum is genunderlies the entire work. Over this quiet erated by canonic, scalic melodic lines played by the brass in continuous sixteenth notes. Initially Example 5A: Brass and clarinets, bar 190-91 there are two lines woven through the low brass and one in the    trumpets, however this expands to four lines at bar 216 and to                           five at 219. The high woodwinds add brief lines of their own.     brass  Clarinets flutter At bar 222, the sixteenth-notes and the pedal disappear to be                  replaced by an imitative brass fanfare and the first five notes of    

pp

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p

 

p

C ON T I N U E D ON P. 4 2 …

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near the end of The Tyger...

219

217

220

218

1 2 Fls.

(Picc.) 3 4

Obs.

1 2

E Cl.

B Cls.

1 2

B Bass Cl.

1 Bsns. 2

Cbsn.

1

poco 2

poco

B Tpts. 3

poco 4

poco 1 2 F Hns. 3 4

1

poco Tbns.

2

3

poco Bass Tbn.

Euph.

poco Tuba

poco

cresc. poco a poco Timp.

Perc.

1

35

33


MANHAT TAN BEACH MUSIC IS PROUD TO PRESENT PART II PHOTO OF FRANK TICHELI BY CHARLIE GROSSO

TICHELI’S

FRANK TICHELIʼS LIST

FRANK

L I S T

A B OU T OU R AU T HOR S A N D R E V I E W E R S

DR. JEFFREY BOECKMAN is the Director of Bands at California State University-San Bernardino, where he directs the Symphonic Band and Chamber Winds ensembles, and teaches conducting. He also founded and conducts the Inland Empire Youth Wind Symphony, an honors ensemble of high-school musicians. Dr. Boeckman frequently serves as a clinician and adjudicator, and has conducted honors groups in several states. His scholarly work has been presented at state music education conferences and published in the Journal of Band Research; his book A Counterpoint of Characters: the Music of Michael Colgrass was released in 2008 by VDM Verlag. DR. JOHN A . D A R L I N G is currently an Assistant Professor of Music at Bismarck State College where he is responsible for conducting the Wind Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble, and all chamber groups. He also teaches Instrumental Conducting, Aural Skills, and Music Appreciation. He stays active as a guest conductor, clinician, and adjudicator throughout the upper Midwest. He is an Associate Member of the Board of Directors for the International Music Camp where he teaches during the summer sessions, and serves as the National Band Association State Chair for North Dakota. His composition, West River Jubilee, is now available through Alfred Publishing. He is a regular contributing author to the Journal of the World AsMBM

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sociation for Symphonic Bands and Ensembles (WASBE), and MBM Times. DR. JEFFREY D. GERSHMANDr. Jeffrey D. Gershman is the Associate Director of Bands at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music, where he conducts the Symphonic Band and teaches courses in undergraduate music education and graduate conducting. He is an active guest conductor and concert band clinician and a frequent guest lecturer at state and national conventions. Also an accomplished arranger, his band transcriptions include works by John Corigliano and Frank Zappa. D R . K E I T H K I N D E R is Associate Professor of Music at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, where he conducts the concert band and the chamber orchestra, leads the Music Education program and teaches courses in conducting and music education. As an recognized expert in wind literature and performance, he presents regularly at conferences worldwide. He is the author of Best Music for Chorus and Winds (Manhattan Beach), The Wind and Wind-Chorus Music of Anton Bruckner (Greenwood), and Prophetic Trumpets: Homage, Worship and Celebration in the Wind Band Music of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt (Pendragon). G R E G O R Y B . R U D G E R S , after a successful career in public school music, now serves on the adjunct faculties of both Ithaca

College and Roberts Wesleyan College in New York State at which he offers graduate courses in composition for music educators. He has written articles for The Instrumentalist, the Music Educator’s Journal, Teaching Music, and several state journals. He is also a published composer with works for band, wind ensemble, string orchestra, and chamber ensembles produced by several prominent publishers, the most recent being Riders to Stonehenge published by Manhattan Beach Music. He has enjoyed success as a clinician/ guest conductor, having served in that capacity at both the public school and university levels for over one hundred festivals. D R . L A W RENCE STOFFEL is Director of Bands at California State University, Northridge (Los Angeles), where he serves as conductor of both the internationally-recognized Wind Ensemble and the Wind Symphony. As an associate professor of music, he teaches courses in music education and conducting, as well as being the coordinator of wind studies. He is author of A Discography of Concert Band Recordings on Compact Disc: Promoting the Artistry of Band Composition (Edwin Mellen Press) and has been published and lectured on topics wide-ranging—from musical interpretation to copyright law, from the composer Leoš Janáček to the use of religious music in the public schools, from band transcriptions to singing in band.


FRANK TICHELIʼS LIST PART II

Rev i ew by

S E C O N D S U I T E I N F, O p . 2 8 , N o . 2

DR. KEITH KINDER

GUSTAV HOLST

Holst’s Second Suite in F was written in 1911, but was not performed until 1922. This very familiar suite is based on English folk melodies, which are named in the score and were mostly collected in Hampshire by Dr. George Gardiner, a highly respected folk song collector and a friend of the composer. The association with Hampshire and Gardiner is important, since the melodies used by Holst are often not those usually associated with the titles that appear in the score. FRANK

TICHELI’S

The first movement, March, is in the form of a British military march — two strains, trio and da capo. The exuberant opening strain is labelled “Morris Dance.” Morris dancing was extraordinarily popular in medieval England, probably associated with the dispelling of demons in agrarian societies. The practice had largely died out by the 19th century, but was revived during the renewed interest in folk traditions around the turn of the 20th century. The melody used by Holst in this first strain is a combination of two actual Morris dance tunes woven together to give the impression of a single melody. The composer also reflected Morris traditions in his setting. For example, the brief bridge section (measures 19-26 in the score) is scored for high woodwinds and triangle, probably evoking the single, highpitched pipe that provided the music for Morris dancing, and the bells that dancers attached to their legs to mark the rhythm as they stamped out the steps. The second strain employs the song “Swansea Town” and is probably the most famous euphonium solo in the entire repertoire. The solo is accompanied by horns, trombones and tuba written as separated notes to ensure that the euphonium will be easily heard. However, the composer’s careful

W W W

GRADE 4 11¾ MIN . BOOSEY & HAWKES

attention to voice leading makes each individual part a recognizable melodic line and players should be encouraged to play line rather than a series of separated chords. The second statement of the tune is scored for full band with sparing, but dynamic percussion. These percussion figures probably represent the sounds of a storm at sea as described in the third verse of the song. The trio utilizes the lilting 6/8 tune “Claudy Banks”. Two verses are presented; the first features low-register clarinets with the saxophones, the second is scored for full band. The most notable musical element is a gradual crescendo throughout the second verse. The second movement draws on the plaintive “I’ll Love My Love,” a folk song that appears in slightly altered versions in many parts of England. Again, two verses are presented. In the first verse, the melody is scored for solo clarinet supported by a simple accompaniment that essentially sustains an f-minor chord through the first half of the tune. Since the song is ostensibly being sung by a young girl confined to a mental institution, this unadorned texture produces a sense of great poignancy. At the second verse, Holst expands the scoring and adds a running eighth note countermelody that weaves through the woodwinds generating considerable momentum. The movement ends with a short coda in which the countermelody descends through solo instruments: clarinet, alto saxophone, euphonium and tuba. Although not notated, a ritardando should be interpolated into the last two bars for a more secure ending.

L I S T

The third movement, “Song of the Blacksmith”, is one of the earliest examples of shifting meter in the band literature. CONTINUED ON PAGE 59

.FRANK TICHELI LIST.COM

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GRADE 2 5½ MIN.

O L D

C H U R C H E S

BANDQUEST/HAL LEONARD

Old Churches was Colgrass’ first essay into writing muE, with each instrument assigned one pitch. In another, sic for young players. His goal was to write music that the woodwinds create a quiet “murmuring effect” by would be challenging but playable, that would introduce playing any notes as fast as possible, which may be the contemporary music practices, that would be expressive muttering of monks at prayer in a hidden room. The and offer a degree of substance rarely seen in music at bell sounds associated with churches are produced by this performance level. two sets of orchestra bells improvising around another Colgrass’ solution was to construct an evocative por6-note cluster based on C, and by eight large kitchtrait of a visit to a church or cathedral. The musical en bowls suspended and struck with “thick pieces of M I C H A E L material is a fragment of Gregorian chant, presented as C O L G R A S S wood”. The effect generated by the bowls is spectacuit would be in a liturgical setting, in call-and-response lar. Their unfocussed sound is an amazingly accurate texture. Each statement is varied enough to hold interest, but representation of bells from a church tower heard muffled inside still maintain musical integration. Individual lines, in the natural the building. The special effects are smoothly integrated into the minor mode, rarely expand beyond six notes and are set in each musical flow of the piece. instrument’s easiest and most resonant register. Color and wellHarmonically, the work is grounded on A and offers a series of considered timbral blends give the impression of much more chalcontrasted sonorities built on this pitch, however, as noted, more lenging materials. complex harmonies like clusters also appear. The work begins by generating an atmosphere reminiscent of Old Churches is atmospheric, attractive and convincing musithe reverberant space inside a church. This is accomplished in a cally. While intended for young players, its musical quality makes number of imaginative ways. In one instance, flutes and clarinets it of interest to bands at many levels. softly improvise note lengths on a 6-note chord cluster based on FRANK

FRANK

b y

D r .

K E I T H

K I N D E R

W H I R L W I N D

GRADE 1 7 MIN.

TICHELI’S

TICHELI’S

R e v i e w s L I S T

L I S T

MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC

Whirlwind was the winner of Category 1— Beginning The piece is constructed in a sequence of contrasted Band of the inaugural Frank Ticheli Composition Conevents. The opening and closing sections are identical. test in the spring of 2006. It is an excellent example of These are freely notated and use only the home-made the imagination that can be brought to composing for instruments. The pulsating, whistling sound of the four very young bands. Blackshaw has incorporated graphic “whirlies” is an evocation of the title, and the rattles notation, focuses special attention on timbre, balance and water glass chimes suggest rain. Later in the work, and listening and introduces home-made instruments another spectacular wind image is created by playing a like rattles, water glasses and “whirlies” (lengths of corroll on a suspended cymbal placed upside down on the rugated plastic pipe that are spun by the player to crelargest timpani, while moving the pedal up and down. ate an eerie, whistling sound). The nature of the notaThe intervening sections include a solo section with a tion and the unusual timbral effects draw the players single player accompanied only by the “whirlies”, twointo the creation of the piece, which is intentionally and four -part canons, soli percussion, and a canonic J O D I E designed to encourage personal input, something that duet in which the second voice functions as an echo of is certain to intrigue young musicians. B L A C K S H A W the first, requiring careful listening on the part of both The primary musical material is a gentle, wistful tune performers. Whirlwind offers excellent opportunities to that consists of only four pitches — A, C, D, E — and appears teach tuning, listening, musical sensitivity and creativity. However, in every instrument’s easiest register. The near-pentatonic content in addition to its pedagogical value it is also a well integrated comof these pitches allows for easy contrapuntal combination and, inposition that flows smoothly from section to section in a musically deed, canonic imitation is a major textural element. convincing manner.

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W W W

.FRANK TICHELI LIST.COM


R e v i e w

MUSIC

b y

G R E G O R Y

FOR

B .

R U D G E R S

PR AGUE

1968

G R A D E 6 18 ½ M I N . “Music for Prague 1968” was commissioned by ASSOCIATED MUSIC PUBLISHERS/HAL LEONARD the Ithaca College Concert Band during the sumcent of the first movement. The apex of this idea mer of 1968 and written in response to the Russion reaches a stirring tutti fortissimo before subsiding invasion of the ancient capital of Czechoslovakia. into a more peaceful, yet still troubled, sustained The work was premiered in Washington D.C. at the chorale in the upper winds and saxophones all Music Educators National Conference in 1969, Dr. with the omnipresent percussion as a unifying Kenneth Snapp conducting. This signficiant work factor. for winds consists of four movements: IntroducThe third movement, “Interlude,” consists ention and Fanfare, Aria, Interlude, and Toccata and tirely of percussion suggesting the bells alluded to Chorale. Husa describes the work as being bound above. A snare drum begins and is gradually joined by three main ideas. The first and most important by no less than thirteen sustaining percussion inis an old Hussite war song from the 15th century, struments including various antique cymbals, tri“Ye Warriors of God and his Law,” which stands angles, tam tams, and vibraphone. The melodic as a symbol of resistance and hope for hundreds of construction here is specific and controlled with years for the Czech nation. The second idea referthe eighth note passing at 63 to 66 beats per minences the sound of bells in the city, which is known ute and note values down to the 32nd and 32nd as the City of “Hundreds of Towers.” Throughout note triplets. This is extremely complex music, yet history these bells have been used by the city as the effect is quite hypnotizing, capturing the random nature of so alarms as well as celebrations of victory. The third idea is a motive many bells in so many bell towers. The texture thins gradually to of three chords which appear throughout the work and take on a single snare drum, which in a most militaristic rhythm is then the guise of a complete range of expression from the gentle accomjoined in a long roll by up to three more snare drums in a dramatic paniment to the piccolo solo at the beginning of the work to the crescendo, until the fourth movement explodes with a powerful and dynamic statement in the Aria. fortissimo unison rhythm from all winds. The Introduction begins with the aforementioned F R A N K The Toccata and Chorale follows its powerful introducchords accompanying the piccolo solo and displays Husa’s tion with staccato imitative passages which pass the mecreative use of the many colors and timbres available in lodic and rhythmic figures from voice to voice in rapid the modern concert band. From the haunting first statesuccession. These angular statements are linked together ™ ment in the timpani of the ancient war song, to muted L I S T with sustained trills in the upper woodwinds and hints of brasses, saxophones with no vibrato, and flutter tongues the upcoming chorale in the saxes and brasses. Eventuin the trombones, and flutes, Husa explores colors which ally the sustained voices equal the staccato expressions in enhance the ominous nature of the introduction. The brilvolume and intensity as one hears the driving rhythm of liant fanfare that follows with trumpets, horns, trombones the opening of this movement emerge in horns and saxophones. A and baritones at fortissimo and marcato signal an explosion of artrumpet fanfare recalls the opening fanfare of the first movement ticulation and percussive playing by all voices, which drives at a and then is followed by a most powerful crescendo into a unison furious pace in imitation; this culminates in a driving, rhythmic statement of the ancient war song at fortissimo — a truly breathtrumpet statement that we will hear later in the work in snare taking finale. drum. There exists here a brief aleatoric section in which players There are a great many symbols in this momentous work which are instructed to play figures at random without a specific meter. recall the struggle of the Czech people toward the freedom and libThe energy here is compelling, with the instructions in the score erty they have seldom obtained. There are growling Russian bears, stating fortississimo, “staccatissimo and as fast as possible unmeadistress calls in the trumpet fanfares, the unbroken hope of the sured” bringing the horror of war to the center of this movement. Hussite song, the tragic sound of the bells, and the clarion bird call Following a reiteration of the war song in the timpani, the moveof a piccolo solo, another symbol of the hope of the city of Prague. ment relaxes into a piccolo solo with single notes on the timpani. Karel Husa has significantly captured the pain and anguish of his The Aria begins with a ground in the tuba and intermittent pernative land and at the same time affirmed his faith in the dignity cussion in accompaniment to a lyrical, yet angular saxophone and and strength of its people. Modern concert bands and wind enbass clarinet choir. The chorale accelerates through reduction of sembles are most fortunate to have this major work composed by note value and becomes quite agitated and is eventually joined by a Pulitzer Prize winning composer of distinction. percussive and rapid articulation in the upper woodwinds reminis-

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GRADE 1

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As so much of level one literature for school band does little to develop lyricism and phrasing, it is a pleasure to discover a beautiful setting of an Irish folk song that is eminently playable by a level one band, yet does not sacrifice substance or authenticity to the abilities of the players. Clancy Weeks’ “In Sheldon Glen” accomplishes this rare feat with style and maturity. Employing long arching phrases and rich, warm colors, this beautiful work is often performed for its musical worth by bands that are far more advanced than grade one. Much C L A like the works of Grainger and Vaughn Williams, W E this composition captures the authentic nature of the haunting melody, and also awards sensitive performers and directors at the lower levels with a performance opportunity way beyond the tender years of the players. Weeks controls the tessitura of the individual lines so that all instruments remain in their most comfortable ranges, thereby ensuring the best possible quality of sound from the ensemble. Clarinets remain below the break and flutes do not venture above Bb above the staff. The FRANK

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low brasses are in their richest and most resonant ranges and the trumpets and horns are most comfortable as well. Percussion writing is simple and elegant, much as the style demands. Orchestration here is fairly traditional and again reminiscent of Grainger. Clarinets and saxes are joined by horns, trombones, baritone, and tuba in the opening statement, and true soprano voices do not appear until the appropriate mood has been established, with trumpets entering in measure 17 and flutes not until measure 25, a delightful departure from much C Y of lower level literature. When the soprano voices K S do appear, however, it is most auspicious. The richness and warmth of the opening measures, joined by the clarity at brightness of the trumpet and flute provide a gorgeous tutti statement, which is then followed by a brief interlude of piano and mezzopiano woodwinds, before a reprise of the tutti statement brings the composition to a most satisfying conclusion. “In Sheldon Glen” is significant music.

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Steve Rouse explains in the program notes to “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” that he was moved to set the haunting melody for band as a result of his childhood in the deep south and his association with the Southern Baptist churches there. He states, “I came to understand through personal experience the influence of spirituals on American popular music…” His treatment of the spiritual is loyal to conventional style and at the same time hints at the harmonies of modern jazz derived from an African American tradition. Rouse S takes the falling third from the opening measure of the beloved spiritual and employs it as a central building R block to this moving and ethereal setting. The opening measures, suggesting descent, set a gentle yet mysterious mood into which a trumpet solo speaks the opening phrase of the melody. Rouse’s score directs the performance with the words “warm, legato, and richly expressive” and he has certainly provided opportunities for exactly that atmosphere. The voicing of much of this composition lies in the most com-

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fortable of ranges to create the richness and warmth called for. This gifted composer complements the dignity and soulfullness of the original melody with lovely counter-melodies, often imitating the cascading nature of the opening measures. A developmental passage, again using the falling third as a basis, creates a near melismatic feeling which floats along peacefully, gradually yielding another rich, warm rendition, this time of the “B” section of the melody. This in turn builds in anticipation to a most powerful and majestic declaration that shouts both V E the pain of servitude and the joy of redemption. S E Band directors and their students wishing to include passion, sorrow, and joy into their experience will find ample inspiration from this compelling setting of an essential part of our heritage. The publisher has provided extensive program notes and explanations of the history and background of this wonderful old song. Rouse also provides very complete analysis in terms of suggestions for performance.

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Most, if not all, band directors are familiar with “Variations on a Korean Folk Song” by John Barnes Chance, in which Chance sets the ancient folk song, “Ahrirang” in several variations. James Curnow has chosen the same folk tune as the basis for his Korean Folk Rhapsody, set for level 1 players. Through skillful and creative use of the percussion section, Curnow has provided young bands with an exotic and authentic setting of the beautiful melody. The introduction is an excellent example of colorJ A ful scoring with a complement of percussion that includes triangle, large suspended cymbal, bells, viC U R braphone, and several wind chimes. Flutes and clarinets join the bells and vibraphone in unison. The effect is both mysterious and pleasant at the same time and avoids the traditional cliché of fully scored grade one orchestration. In fact, the low brass and reeds do not enter until the sixteenth measure. It should be noted, however, that when they do enter, they provide a rich warm cushion of sound upon which the melody floats along in the saxophones and French horns. The second FRANK

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statement of the melody occurs in bassoons, clarinets, saxophones, and baritone, another example of Curnow’s creative voicing. This melodic statement is accompanied by a staccato pattern passed between upper winds and low winds and brasses in a pointillistic fashion. The work continues with several statements of the original melody, both in its entirety and in fragments, and gradually builds into a full, rich, tutti statement before returning to the gentle, elegant style of the introduction. E S Korean Folk Rhapsody is scored for nearly complete instrumentation including both bassoon and O W oboe, with three clarinet lines, as well as separate bass clarinet lines. There are two separate trumpet parts and single parts for French horn, trombone, and baritone. This work is an excellent example of what can be achieved through orchestration at the elementary level. Curnow takes the ancient melody through transparency and gentleness on to strength and majesty, a rare find in elementary band literature.

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There are precious few works for middle level children and adults, much like Mussorgsky’s third concert band that offer the opportunity for insightmovement “Tuileries” from “Pictures at an Exhibiful directors to experience a “major” work. At three tion” which La Plante describes as the movement’s movements and nine minutes in length, In the Forest inspiration. The setting opens and closes in a quiet of the King is a welcome addition to the literature for manner, suggesting a dreamlike quality. The interior this level. This suite of old French folksongs offers measures provide yet another dance or playing song, three contrasting moods and styles, all of which add described as Allegretto e Scherzando. The delightful to the depth of understanding and musical awareness and comical third movement “galumphs” along in of young musicians. They are all eminently playable, merry glee, describing a pompous royal with his loyal to the original songs, and are skillfully arranged P I E R R E L A pants on backwards. In 6/8 compound meter it alin a most pleasant manner. ternates between bold satire and gentle fun and conP L A N T E The first movement, “Le Furet” is an old children’s cludes with a Tempo Giusto that nearly explodes with song traditionally used in childhood play. It is joyful humor and joy. Once again, the technical demands and sweet, capturing innocence and playfulness consisting entirely here are well within the abilities of middle level bands. The chalof quarter and eighth note rhythms at a bright and energetic tempo. lenge is the maintenance of style and phrase. This is most engaging It should be noted, however, that La Plante graciously offers the dimusic for both the performer and audience, and directors with the rector the choice to take a tempo appropriate to the abilities of the patience and courage to tackle a significant work will garner complayers. The second movement melody, “The Laurel Grove” has exmensurate rewards. isted in many variations for hundreds of years and appeals to both

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G R A D E 4 11 M I N . Vaughan Williams wrote this suite, his first band work, in 1923. He told friends that he had thoroughly enjoyed writing it, especially since he had to deal with the challenges of composing for a new medium. His pleasure shows through in this largely joyful work, and in the attention he lavished on every detail of its construction. Each movement incorporates a medley of folk tunes, although occasionally melodies are heard in counterpoint as well. The first movement, March – “Seventeen R A L Come Sunday”, is similar in structure to a BritV A U G ish military march (two strains, trio, da capo), W I L L I but Vaughan Williams adapted it by repeating the second strain after the trio, creating a small-scale arch form. The first strain employs the folk song “Seventeen come Sunday”. The original melody has a meter change, which Vaughan Williams did not incorporate into his setting. However, he marked stresses on particular notes and altered phrase lengths to convey the sense of flexible meter associated with English folk song. Dynamics are used to define phrase lengths. Interestingly, the second statement of the tune, scored for full band, does not include these dynamic indications. The second strain, based on “Pretty Caroline”, is lyrical and transparently scored, rather unusual features in a march. Beginning at bar 48, tenor sax doubles the bass line, but in a contrasted articulation, a surprising and effective scoring idea. The trio is the most contrapuntal section of the entire suite. There are three simultaneous lines: the folk song “Dives and Lazarus” in the low voices, a jig-like tune (apparently a Vaughan Williams original) in the high voices, and a simple, primarily harmonic, line in horns. All are marked ff, but when played that way the horn line disappears and the two prominent melodies compete in an unsatisfactory way. Since this section is repeated, a conductor can emphasize the low voices the first time and the jig-tune the second, allowing the horn line can be heard against both melodies, and generating a more interesting listening experience for both performers and audience. A reprise of “Pretty Caroline” leads to the da capo and an abrupt plagal cadence. The second movement, Intermezzo – “My Bonny Boy”, functions as both slow movement and scherzo. In ternary form (AB-A), the slow music comprises two different settings of the love song “My Bonny Boy”, while the scherzo function is provided by “Green Bushes”—the “B” section of the movement. The two “A” MBM

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sections consist of some of the most haunting and effectively-scored music in the entire band repertoire. The initial section leaves the tune in solo voices supported by a gradually accumulating accompaniment. Full band appears only at the climax of the melody, at bar 16-17. At the second statement, the composer added a high register countermelody that suggests hemiola. There is also a notable lowvoice/high-voice canon at bar 28-30 that is often overlooked. The “B” section consists of two statements of “Green Bushes”. Like the beginning of the H movement, the first statement features solo voices A N over a simple, in this case drone, accompaniment, M S and a countermelody in high woodwinds supports the second. Triangle and cymbals add a lovely touch to both statements. The transition back to “A” could only have been accomplished by a master composer. The closing motive of “Green Bushes” is set in hemiola and in effect accomplishes a metric modulation. Scoring in the second “A” section is another marvel. The phrases of “My Bonny Boy” alternate between the low voices in unison and the clarinet/cornet/trumpet choir in harmony, thereby simultaneously accomplishing contrasted color and enormous poignancy. The finale, March – “Folk Songs from Somerset”, is another medley of folk tunes and another unusually structured march. The form is A-B-A, but each section incorporates two folk songs that are seamlessly linked, giving the impression that they are part of the same tune. The initial “A” is in itself a small ternary form. Two full statements of “Blow Away the Morning Dew” are separated by a single statement of “High Germany”. The two folk songs of the “B” section consist of a single presentation of each of “The Tree So High” in 6/8 time and “John Barleycorn” in 2/4. “The Tree So High” is supported by lyrical countermelodies in horns, trumpets and cornets that need to be drawn out of the texture. “John Barleycorn” is scored into the low voices with an upper register ‘military march’ rhythmic accompaniment. However, in Vaughan Williams hands, this march figure becomes almost another folk melody. A reprise of “A” completes the movement and the suite. Vaughan Willams said he hoped that “a chance to play real tunes would be an agreeable and salutary experience for Bandsmen”. With his love of folk songs, his acute ear for instrumental color and his sheer compositional skill, he accomplished his goal and a great deal more.

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R e v i e w GRADE 6 20 MIN.

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Dana Wilson’s Piece of Mind offers the performer and listener a challenging view into the world of no less than the workings of the human mind itself. Undaunted by the enormity of the task, Wilson provides four movements, each of which captures with joyfully creative and innovative insight, one of four basic areas of human thought: “Thinking,” “Remembering,” “Feeling,” and “Being.” This work, a musical pun on an old expression, is Wilson’s first work for wind ensemble and arrived under the auspices of Symphony Space and the Ithaca College Wind Ensemble. Wilson states that while many of the aspects of the mind are quite inexpressible, the four in this work appealed to him as possible for musical D depiction. “Thinking” is quite logical, cognitive, and W I easy to follow, based on a very straightforward four note motive, which serves as the melodic foundation for the entire work. (This motive’s reiterations are too many to recount here, but suffice it to say, this simple idea is developed into compelling symphonic treatments throughout the piece.) “Remembering” advances as memory serves most of us —flashing back and forth from one image to the next. “Feeling” takes us through the emotional spectrum, and “Being” delves into Eastern mysticism, taking the original four note theme and conjuring up a oneness of joy and peace. The musical construction of the work is as creative as the ideas expressed. The first movement, “Thinking,” begins with the simple four-note motive expressed by marimba, and advances in pointillistic style, becoming more and more complex and connected, as it also begins to suggest subtle reflections of jazz rhythms and improvisational spontaneity. Indeed, Wilson, an accomplished jazz musician, infuses much of this work with elements of jazz in many of its genres. Quite minimalist in its development, the movement then suddenly becomes a straightforward fanfare before it becomes more complex with a dizzying array of the pointillistic opening, jazz idioms, the fanfare, and suggestions of lyricism which will take hold in later movements. Much as the human mind wanders from idea to idea, this movement compels the listener through sounds that capture thought itself. No small task. The dream-like second movement, “Remembering,” is a misty collection of reminiscences, which at first seem completely out of context, much as one’s memories may shift from one recollection to another. Still, as the movement advances one discovers a certain vague evolution of recollections that all fit together, unified by the melodic and rhythmic construction. The music vacillates back and forth from wispy, transparent meanderings of sound to sudden bursts of Dixieland, Big Band, Be Bop, Stride Piano, and even a Samba. Wilson has described this movement as musical channel surfing, and indeed one

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is thrust from idea to idea seemingly orchestrated by a symphonic remote control. This rapid change of styles and tempos represent a considerable and consistent challenge in performance. “Feeling” is much broader and more ponderous than the previous movements with large ideas stated in both a sensitive and powerful manner. The score is marked “Quiet but persistent” and indeed the peaceful, warm, introduction in piano and clarinet does have a sense of impending drama. Solos in saxophone and trumpet lead the work to a thicker orchestration building to a violent, imposing, glaring declaration of anger. There is basic, primitive, rage here accomplished with complex percussion and percusN A sive statements by the winds; one hears reverence for S O N Stravinsky and the Rite of Spring. A quiet interlude of reflective sounds, highlighted by a plaintive saxophone solo again is built into a most powerful Maestoso chorale, which then devolves into a tragic and nostalgic piano and mallet percussion lament. Feelings wend their way through our lives with both passion and gentleness; their authority over us is inescapable, just as this movement captivates our imaginations. “Being,” most appropriately reflects the Eastern influence of contemplation. Borrowing from traditional Pakistani modes and song form, Wilson takes the flat second mode extends it and thickens it in unison and at the fifth as he also employs the eastern use of a ten-beat melody. Dealing with a sense of the eternal, the movement again begins with a reflective, quiet, yet ominous moment in piano, glockenspiel, and vibes and slowly grows via an eastern chant in the clarinet reminiscent of snake charming and oriental mystery. The mystical statement builds into an unsettling counterpoint of jazz, eastern wailings, and frantic dance figures. This curious, delightful, and completely creative combination of eastern modes and philosophy with modern jazz figures leads one then to a thundering percussion interlude before becoming a charming, playful, dance, almost childlike in its simplicity. Once again, agitation takes hold, building into a powerful, beautiful, and majestic finale before a sudden, surprising eastern drone with a diminuendo to silence. When one considers the immensity of this work and all of its apparently disparate components one might be, at first, a bit overwhelmed. However, with careful study and analysis, the essential agreement of all of those seemingly conflicting elements begins to emerge. In true symphonic fashion, Wilson has created a marvelous journey through ourselves; a journey that considers the infinite while adhering to the earthly — a contemplation of the workings of the mind with all of its mysteries, while still retaining a sense of unity. This is a major work for winds, well deserving of its many awards and accolades.

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…C ON T I N U E D F ROM PAG E 2 0 / 21

on the page — once at the top of the woodwinds, once at the top of the brass, and once at the top of the percussion. I prefer multiple meter markings because it allows me the freedom of looking anywhere in the score and knowing that a meter change will catch my eye. I also mark the beginnings of melodic material with red colored pencil to serve as a strong visual reminder of where my conducting focus should be. When the melodic line is doubled, I mark the instrument that I designated earlier should be the leading timbre on the line. To remind me who else is involved in the doubling, I’ll write the other instruments playing the line in pencil next to the red marking. Finally, I believe one of the more difficult things to visualize when conducting and rehearsing are the composite lines that are often determined when analyzing the hierarchy of the score. To help with this, I will draw connective arrows in pencil to link the various parts of a composite melody. I find these arrows are tremendously effective in helping me focus my conducting, and subsequently the attention of the musicians and the audience, on what is most musically important at that time. To help better visualize all of these markings, please see my score excerpt of Sun Dance. I firmly believe that these basic markings, coupled with the deep understanding of your interpretation forged through effective study, will provide you with everything needed for meaningful rehearsals and performances. “So, now what?” It’s amazing how much change and growth can begin with only three small words. It took me many years to discover and hone, but the score study method I’ve outlined here has made all the difference in the world. It has made me a better musician because it has taught me that personal expression is as much about the details as it is about inspiration. It has made me a better conductor because I know my job now is so much more important than just policing cues. And it has made me a better teacher, because I enter rehearsal each day knowing exactly what I want to hear and what I need to do to get the music to that level. Through this method, I finally found the ability to create the same kind of deeply meaningful music that moved me all those years ago. And through this, my question finally received its long-awaited answer. “So, now what?” “Make it your own.” 1 MBM

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the ostinato, transposed up a minor second, in piano and low voices. Bars 230-31 present a sensational new event. The entire ensemble participates in a downward plummet in quarter-note triplets and cluster harmonies. Ticheli proposes that this might represent the tiger pouncing on its prey, which suggests that the earlier part of the Coda might illustrate the chase that precedes the capture. Also, if these descending figures are the tiger’s seizure of its quarry, then the final three bars depict a truly gruesome image. These bars offer the first seven notes of the ostinato in the lower voices at the initial pitch, but not precisely in the original note order. The main feature of these measures, however, is a hammering twelve-note chord in brass and high woodwinds supported by non-pitched percussion, which apparently portrays the tiger, successful this time, killing and eating its victim. The composer insists that this is a violent ending that must be played with immense aggression, befitting its horrific programmatic intent. In earlier works such as Vesuvius and Sun Dance, Frank Ticheli has shown his ability to compose music of great intensity. However, in The Tyger he has taken intensity to a new level. This work demands enormous commitment by the performers and will provide audiences with a persuasive and, at times, disturbing experience. Conductors who are searching for compelling and atypical repertoire to add variety of soundscape to their performances will want to undertake a detailed exploration of this composition. 1


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GRADE 2 4 MIN.

Jan Van der Roost labels Orion as a slow march, and the composition is certainly that. But a more befitting designation is found in the initial tempo marking, “solenne.” This composition is better described as a processional. There is a tremendous sense of motion in this slow march, a type of motion which deliberately and steadily moves from the beginning to the end. The pace (albeit moderately slow) is constant, and the destination is inevitable. There is an exotic flavor to this composition. By no means is there any suggestion that this exotic flavor J is authentic to the music of any particular far away land or culture. But from the very opening percussion V A N ostinato that remains incessant throughout the majorR O ity of the march, there is a suggestion of, perhaps, a Middle Eastern desert caravan. (Picture camels laden with men wearing flowing white robes!) The exotic flavor of the march is largely formed in the harmonic language. The principal theme is always presented in Aeolian mode (that is, the natural minor scale). This melody is also harmonized FRANK

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in parallel thirds. The modality and parallel harmonization of the melody creates a hypnotic feel. The exotic flavor of the march is also achieved through a rich orchestration. Although Orion is certainly a grade 2 composition from a technical perspective, the instrumentation is packed. Van deer Roost calls for the full family of clarinets (including E-flat soprano and alto), 3 trumpet parts, 3 French horn parts, three trombone parts, and a palette of percussion including glockenspiel, timpani, tom toms, and tambourine. The sensuous sonorities so critical to this N composition are largely created with the band’s “colD E R or” instruments, such as alto clarinet, bassoon, horn, euphonium, and string bass. S T Van der Roost provides a refreshing conclusion to the march, which he describes in the score as optimistic and spontaneous. The prevalent exotic flavor of the march is quickly diverted to a rather playful, joyous (almost heroic) coda which brings the processional nature of the march to a rousing conclusion in the relative major key of E-flat. FRANK

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At first glance, the notion of a two-minute symphony might strike at a band director’s sensibility. (How could any symphony be only two minutes in length?) So approaching this young band composition by Bob Margolis demands that we abandon the stricture of forms which we learned in college as music majors. This composition is not a symphony in the formal sense. It is a single movement (although within this single movement there is a hint of the four traditional movements typically found in a classical symphony), B and this singular movement is not cast in sonata form. Here the composer explores a more elemental meanM A R ing of “symphony. ” Margolis aptly describes it as a proto-symphony. The Two-Minute Symphony presents just one theme which is thoroughly developed (“fragmented, plopped … extended, kneaded, and recapitulated,” writes the composer) while remaining firmly within the technical constraints of grade 1 literature. The symphony’s singular theme suggests a Mixolydian mode and is immediately reminiscent of a Renaissance tune which we come to expect in much of Bob Margolis’ wonderful music for concert band. The melodic theme uses only the first pentachord in B-flat major. Its simplicity makes the theme ripe for varied

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treatments and development. There are the requisite devices that we have come to expect in a young band composition — a fast-slow-fast tempo scheme (although accomplished in seamless fashion), and generous orchestration so that every student has the opportunity to present the melody at least once (and still scored smartly so that successful performances are possible even with a limited instrumentation). But the actual development of the theme is far more sophisticated than just these commonplace compositional B techniques. Margolis isolates the most basic of musiO L I S cal matter from the theme and develops these simple components into unexpected and engaging variations. The rhythm is inverted, passing tones are introduced, accent patterns are varied, stretto is employed, and augmentation is heard. Although several small components of the theme are developed in many varied ways, the composition never sounds disjunct. Despite the simplicity of the theme and the myriad developmental techniques employed by the composer, the entire work is seemly and complete. And to ensure a proper conclusion to the entire work, a tried-and-true cadential device completes the composition, adding just a hint of a cliché to provide a proper conclusion to a “symphony.”

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WAGGING THE DOG: SIX MODEST PROPOSALS BY JEFFREY BOECKMAN Most all of us have, at some point in our professional lives, heard, and if we’re honest, participated in, conversations that degenerated into mutterings about the state of the band world. These discussions with friends and colleagues often involve a fair amount of grousing — “Why can’t those judges just be consistent? “The new band pieces these days — and my favorite isn’t even on the festival list yet! “With all the fundraising, I never have enough time to really study my scores.” My initial reaction to these exchanges has lately devolved into the stance of a cranky devil’s advocate. My inner voice says, “then don’t go to festival,” or, “well then, don’t buy music from that publisher.” Not useful suggestions, to be sure, but they have the advantage of (a) almost always being unspoken; (b) when accidentally spoken, discouraging further grousing, and every once in a while; (c) encouraging honest introspection. So, in the fine tradition of Jonathan Swift, I proffer six possibly objectionable and decidedly impracticable ideas for your consideration this year. 1. Don’t listen to a single promotional CD this entire year. Several times a month (if not a week!), most of us receive promotional CDs from the bigger music publishing houses, trumpeting their new band pieces and composers. On the CD, we’ll find anywhere from ten to forty excerpts or “highlights” of these pieces; occasionally there will be a complete piece, but more often that not we’re asked to evaluate the piece and the composer (if not the publisher) by these snippets. For this entire year, throw every single promotional CD you receive in your “circular file.” Better yet, contact the publisher and ask them to temporarily remove you from their mailing lists. Why? Let’s sit down and really listen to the MBM

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music on a promotional CD. All too often, preparing a piece for such a recording means distilling it down to a minute or less. We hear the opening fanfare, a few bars of the allegro, the opening of the slow section, and the close of the finale. That’s it. Seriously, how are we to evaluate the entire work? What if measures 72–84 — a solo for an instrument we don’t have this year — don’t make it into the clip? What possible consideration of the composer’s deft handling of form or melodic development can be made? Which 30 seconds of Ravel’s Bolero would a publisher use to capture the essence of that mammoth exercise in extended crescendo? Perhaps the better question is: what music can be well-packaged in 30 seconds? We’re probably stuck with music that attracts immediate attention. Familiar textures, melodies, harmonies, and rhythmicmetric figures that reinforce what we’re already comfortable with, what we already know. Entertainment music. ‘My students will get into this right away.’ ‘This will make my band sound good.’ Have I set up the music publishing industry as a bit of a straw man? This lament is, of course, nothing new. Band directors have decried the ‘sameness’ of publishers’ offerings for years, bemoaning the quasi-pop melodies, simplistic rhythms, and dreaded A-B-A (or, for variety, Introduction-A-B-A-Coda) forms. Publishers, for their part, have long protested that directors reflexively favor music with simple melodies & rhythms, heavy doublings, and comfortable ranges, in spite of their purported interest in “real” music. Indeed, entertainment music sells quite well, while the “real” music called for by directors languishes unsold on the shelves. The more real, the deeper the dormancy. So: let’s abandon these promotional CDs. We


need to find better places to look for new music and to learn about new composers. What are some alternative avenues to pursue? Our colleagues can be valuable resources, as well as our mentors and leaders in the field. Asking our fellow directors, or asking conductors we’ve never met (email can work wonders here) for their recommendations will almost always unearth some gems. There are excellent published resources with exhaustive listings of fine wind band music for every grade level. Several publishers have invited world-class composers to write works of modest technical difficulty for middle-level bands, several of which deserve to be performed by groups of every level.

that establish these prescribed music lists only aim to discourage programming the Lowest Common Denominator music mentioned above. And the templates (e.g., march – slow piece – major work) encourage variety in programming and create a balanced field for adjudication. But there are other issues to consider. Fine works for band often take years to make their way through review committees, which often have their own idiosyncrasies (they may have favorite composers, or they may overlook works not released by major publishers). And what about doing one large, multi-movement piece? How many fifteen- or twenty-minute works are on your prescribed music list? What about premiering a brand new work, or even better, one commissioned by your ensemble?

We can also do some digging of our own on that most powerThere is a vast pool of quality music that is going unperful resource of all, the internet. Search “concert band music” or formed at festivals, and by extension is being largely “wind ensemble music,” and you’ll be amazed at ignored by the profession at large. A shocking what you’ll discover. Browse through the compos“So, in the fine number of good and great works will go unstudied, ers’ pages of the American Composers Forum or untaught, and unperformed by our bands, simply the American Music Center. You’ll find a lot of tradition of the because they fail to conform to either (a) the preinteresting music. Music that doesn’t quite fit into 30-second snippets. Jonathan Swift, I scribed music lists or (b) the prescribed festival template (March; slow piece; large “major” work). This Now that we’ve discarded these promotional is, in short, a tragedy, and one of our own making. proffer six CDs and discovered (or re-discovered) some quality band literature, we can bring that to festival, Choose music that speaks to you, which you conpossibly objecright? Or did you forget to check the prescribed nect with, which will encourage your band to stretch music list first...? and grow; in short, music which will provide protionable and found opportunities to make music (if you’re unsure 2. Choose your band’s literature without con- decidedly impracwhere to find this music, see above). If that music sideration of what’s on the festival list. to be on the prescribed music list, great, but ticable ideas for happens don’t go to the lists first. This is the tail wagging the State & regional playing lists have our best interests at heart. Without them, what would your consider- dog – and not a very musical tail at that. control for quality & difficulty of literature? And let’s say you’ve done it – you’ve chosen music ation this year.” ofSoworth shouldn’t schools of similar size and ensemble for your band, music you love, that fits depth play comparable music? Certainly, we can’t your band well, and that isn’t on the festival playjust show up for festival and play whatever we ing list. Or perhaps you’ve chosen a twenty-minute want, can we? symphony — a big and worthwhile stretch for your group, and for whatever reason it isn’t on the state prescribed music list yet. Well, why not? Selecting literature is one of our most imporWhat’s the worst that could happen? tant responsibilities, and one we should never take lightly. Many (too many) programs’ literature choices are governed entirely Will the adjudicators refuse to give you a rating or offer “comby the festival circuits. This year, allow yourself to be guided ments-only” if you hand them a score not on the festival list? entirely by artistic merit rather than age- or grade-appropriate Will you be thrown out of the festival? Well … would that be lists. the end of the world? Another straw man, you protest – the review committees www. MBM

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“So, for one hour of every day, ignore the knocking on your office door, close your email folder, turn your cell phone off, and dig into your scores … The purpose of score study is to develop an internalized ideal performance of the work in every aspect.” 3. Don’t attend a single competitive marching or concert festival this entire year.

do — whether technique, dynamics, or articulation styles — to play musically and expressively?

Most of us have an ambivalent relationship with competitive music festivals. We appreciate the opportunity to have an objective measure of our program’s strengths and weaknesses. Yet we object to the criteria used in these evaluations; we bemoan the lack of objectivity; and we worry about our students thinking of music as a competitive, ratings-driven activity, rather than an avenue of artistic expression.

The most thrilling, expressive performances don’t always fit the boxes on the sheet. We have all attended competitions where the most inspiring, musical performance didn’t “win.”

Now, it is certainly true that the fundamentals of music — beauty of tone, rhythmic precision, blend and balance, listening skills — are compatible with competitive festivals. And the aim of these competitions is certainly to encourage excellence in music through standardized/agreed-upon criteria and healthy competition. So why object to them? Let’s start by being honest about what focusing on these competitions means for our music programs. Most definitions of “music education” are stretched perilously thin by the weeks of rote work necessitated by competitive festivals, especially marching competitions. Rehearsal after rehearsal is dedicated to the same eight to twelve minutes of music, with a goal of … well, what? Perfect execution? A rating of 1? The use of state & national testing mandates as accurate barometers of student learning and achievement is widely decried by most teacher unions, and rightly so. While noble in theory, in practice these mandates encourage “teaching to the test;” and regimented testing routines make true education — to say nothing of a love for learning — difficult. Is it too much to suggest that competitive music festivals might be steering us away from true music education, and discouraging a life-long love of music? While we’re at it, let’s consider those evaluation sheets. The categories on the judges’ sheets certainly seem to cover the larger music fundamentals, and can serve to remind us what we should be covering every day in our rehearsals. But what are we to make of what is usually that last box, “Musical expression/Interpretation/Other”? Forgive me for stating the obvious, but we need to remind ourselves: isn’t the goal of everything we MBM

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So: where do we go, if not to these field and concert competitions? How do we measure our level of musical success? A great number of festivals offer ratings-only; the judges give serious evaluations in a healthy, non-competitive atmosphere. Moreover, many of these festivals require performing ensembles to listen to other groups throughout the day. These sorts of festivals encourage the best in musicians without the non-musical “beat the other guys” distractions. Sharing concerts with ensembles directed by like-minded colleagues can also remind us of our performance standards, as can sharing the stage with local college and university groups. Inviting guest conductors, artists, or composers with exacting musical standards to work with your group will raise the bar. Now that we’ve cast off the negative aspects of the competitive festival circuit, we can spend less time in rote rehearsals…unless, that is, we’re still playing that music for four months… 4. Program at least four different concerts of completely different music with your group this year. Even though it might be a decades-old memory, most of us can probably remember the exact program from our high school field shows. We might even still have the fingerings down. The reason we can so easily recall this? We most likely worked on those ten minutes of drill from August through late November. Concert season wasn’t much different; December through April was almost entirely devoted to the same twelve minutes of music. Indefensible. Habitual routine will smother musical development. Young musicians need a steady diet of fundamental technical and musical principles, but if those are taught through routine exposure to the same literature, they will stagnate. The likelihood of meaningful musical experiences drops with every month spent exclusively on the same literature.


There is immense value in taking several months to learn a piece — to really digest a piece, in all its aspects. But to have that one piece (or program) be the solitary focus for a musical ensemble, particularly a youth ensemble, will not effectively lead towards musical development. Basic music skills continually emphasized through the same literature can simply become rote exercise. Music fundamentals are more successfully reinforced when they are connected to new literature. We in the band world often have the luxury of too much rehearsal time on our music. In the interest of perfecting music selected for performance at festivals (see no.1–3 above), we run the risk of over-preparing it, of losing the spark of wonder and discovery in musical communication. More, we’re exposing our ensembles to a severely limited variety of styles and historical eras of music. How many of us have ended up putting our festival music on the shelf for a week, for fear of our group getting bored with it, or the music sounding over-rehearsed? Does this really serve to foster a “Habitual life-long love of music? This year, create four different programs, each with completely different music. This will certainly challenge your ensemble members to learn their parts more quickly, and to apply the musical skills they’ve been developing to each new piece. It will also challenge your programming talents, mostly in selecting music your group will be able to successfully perform in much less time. This may mean less grade IV and V works in the folders; but if it takes four months for an ensemble to be able to play a piece, perhaps that piece shouldn’t be played by your group. Choosing music that fits your ensemble and allows for a degree of mastery in a timely fashion will allow for many more meaningful musical experiences than devoting half a year to stretching for that one grade V piece.

us in our lessons. Every note, every connection, every symbol, every nuance of the music had to be considered for a truly artistic, musical performance. We certainly encourage this in our students. And we should attack every measure of our scores with just as much devotion and thought to musical expression. So, for one hour of every day, ignore the knocking on your office door, close your email folder, turn your cell phone off, and dig into your scores. Use your instrument and/or a piano, a metronome, several pencils (red/blue?), perhaps a highlighter, and learn everything you can. Better, arrive at exactly what you want the score to sound like.

The purpose of score study is to develop an internalized ideal performance of the work in every aspect. When routine we approach every line of the score will smother musi- the same way we would a piece for solo instrument, we know how cal development. our we want every phrase to be shaped, Young musicians every articulation to sound, the need a steady diet air support needed over trouble registers, etc. — in short, what we of fundamental expect to hear at every second of the piece.

technical and musical principles, but if those are taught through routine exposure to the same literature, they will stagnate.”

Of course, working on much more music during the course of the year will require more of us as conductors — there simply won’t be time to learn the music in rehearsal. 5. Turn off your cell phone, close the office door, and devote at least one hour of every day to score study. Most all of us can easily recall our time in applied studios, and the seriousness of attention our applied teachers required of

When it’s done this thoroughly and thoughtfully, score study can (and should) define and guide our warm-ups, our tuning procedure, and both our rehearsal planning & pacing. Score study allows us to get our heads out of the score which allows us to hear into the ensemble much more readily. It encourages better eye contact with the ensemble and increases the effectiveness of our conducting. It frees us to show what we want with our gestures, which allows us to stop and explain less.

Simply put, score study guides everything we do in rehearsal. Effective score study leads to effective conducting, which (to paraphrase Craig Kirchhoff) is effective rehearsal technique. So what if we don’t do it? What if we just listen to the recording a few times and sight-read with the band? If we don’t know the score as well as we should before rehearsals begin, we’re frankly learning the piece on our ensemble’s back; they are, in essence, teaching the piece to us, and in a very real sense, determining our knowledge of the score. This sets the CONTINUED ON PAGE 59 www. MBM

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D I S T A N T GRADE 1

HAL LEONARD

2½ MIN.

This eminently performable composition offers level one players the occasion to experience elements of music performance that are more commonly reserved for more advanced players. There are many passages that are very thinly scored, thus challenging level one bands who may be accustomed to the all too familiar block scoring of much of level one literature. Tutti scoring is reserved for the most dramatic and compelling passages, giving M I C those sections significant authority. The percussion writing is very effective and an integral part of the S W E character of the work. Percussionists are given parts that are technically playable by young players, but quite creative, involving several percussive colors that they may not have heard before. Sweeney also employs simple and direct mixed meters effectively, at times inserting 2/4 measures in the 4/4 second section. Distant Horizons is programmatic in that it successfully creates two distinct moods: the first, a haunting invocation of a misty dawn or sunset, and the second a highly rhythmic, percussive evoca-

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curs, simple and elegant, before the dance returns with a sudden burst of energy. From that point forward, the work presses on, employing the opening measures, the spirited dance, and the lyrical song in many and varied combinations and sequences. It finishes with a triumphant restatement of the opening motive for a most exciting finale. This is a challenging work, as it demands virtuosity from the solo trumpet, and technical agility from virN tually all players. An authentic transcription, Copland N D refuses to defer to band tradition and writes in C, Bb, Eb, D, and E Major keys before returning to the joyful and sunny C major for the final statement. Young bands will find that this wonderful music will stretch their musical knowledge and abilities. Mature bands will find it refreshing to spend some time in the sharp keys, another rarity in band literature. This overture is aptly named, offering the modern Concert Band a bright, refreshing, and playful style. The band world is fortunate to have this work from a major composer.

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TICHELI’S

TICHELI’S

9½ MIN.

There are precious few works written for the modern concert band by composers with the fame of Aaron Copland. Written originally for orchestra, this transcription for concert band was penned by the composer himself, another rarity. The overture is an exciting and vibrant selection that presents many of the stylistic, melodic, rhythmic, and referential elements that so identify Copland as a singular American composer. Indeed, though there are no direct A A references to specific American folk songs, a sense C O P of the history of America comes through strongly throughout the work; one is reminded of Copland’s “Billy the Kid” and “Rodeo” ballets and the “Lincoln Portrait” when encountering this little gem. The overture begins with a signature motive that dominates the first forty measures, both in its original and inverted forms. This is followed by a vibrant dance replete with syncopation and boisterous celebration. A beautiful lyric section or interlude then oc-

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tion of majestic scenes from the world of nature. One might imagine towering mountains or broad plains as Sweeney offers young players the opportunity to understand the power of music to create scenes in ones imagination. The slow opening begins with solo percussion and a sustained concert F which passes from instrument to instrument, thus providing the listener with subtle changes of color. Written in transposed Dorian, and using chromaticism in contrary motion, E L the composer achieves an effect that will engage both performers and listeners. This opening “movement” E Y gradually adds voices and concludes with all players engaged. The second portion of the work is marked at 144 to the quarter note, but that should not deter directors looking for quality level one literature. The technical demands are quite reasonable for young players. That being said, the musical demands here are significant and most rewarding, with alternating imitative choirs of legato and marcato passages, all building to a powerful and satisfying final statement.

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GRADE 5

C O L O R

7 MIN.

Anyone who is familiar with the music of Bob Margolis knows that he favors the music of the Renaissance, in particular, music written for recorder or recorder consort. It should come as no surprise that the basis for the music in the five movements of Color is grounded in 17th-century English dance tunes, primarily from John Playford’s English Dancing Master (1651). With the abundance of arrangements of this genre already available (e.g., English Folk Song Suite, Lincolnshire Posy, Second Suite in F, et al.), this is B a piece that stand outs. First, Margolis took special care in choosing the melodies for this five movement M A R work. The melodies are not as familiar to those outside of the English folk song genre, therefore, the habit of comparing this work to the more familiar masterworks can be avoided. Second, Margolis has chosen to set these melodies with a contemporary orchestration and harmonic pallet. It is the combining of these two distinct idioms that makes this work very attractive, both as a teaching experience for the students and as an aural experience for the audience. In fact, Margolis explains that it is the FRANK

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distinct settings and the carefully planned orchestrations of each movement that are more important than the actual melodies. Thus the timbre of each setting is what the audience is expected to take away from the performance. The title of the work, Color, truly describes the tonal concept that Margolis was focusing on while scoring the piece. As should be expected, the score is meticulously marked for dynamics, articulations, performance issues, and special effects. Unusual combinations of B instruments that create unique tonal pallets are often O L I S highlighted with moments of modern instrumental techniques (for example, note-bending, flutter tonguing), which are reminiscent of some of the techniques Margolis used in the scoring of Terpsichore to mimic instrumental timbres and performance practice of the Renaissance. Margolis has not shied away from using English horn, Contra-bassoon, E-flat Alto Clarinet, and E-flat and B-flat Contrabass Clarinets to enhance and expand the timbre pallet. All five movements should take approximately 7’0” to perform.

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Higdon states in her program notes that this pieces pays tribute to the inescapable presence of rhythm involved with our daily life routines. She has created a piece that combines interesting timbres and nontraditional sounds into a spirited amalgamation of rhythms, poly-rhythms, and counterpoint. Rhythm Stand represents a break from traditional band pieces in several ways. First, the melody is not the primary focus of the piece; as the title suggests, it’s all in the rhythm. There are repeated melodic J E N N fragments and motives, but no real melody in the exH I G pected antecedent and consequent structure. To provide melodic interest, some passages are presented in pointillistic fashion which provides ample opportunity for Higdon to explore short counterpoint and poly-rhythmic episodes. Second, the harmonic framework is not based on traditional chord progression, but rather on a generic tonal center that seamlessly fluctuates be-

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tween E-flat and B-flat. Much of the harmonic interest comes in the form of contrast to the rhythmic kaleidoscope that is the melody. Long, sustained, and mostly descending chords, with their own rhythmic identity, are introduced to provide contrast to the contrapuntal nature of the main idea. Lastly, in a piece that focuses on rhythm, the percussion section logically has important role. Six percussionists play a myriad of pitched and non-pitched instruments to color the timbral palF E R let. In addition to the variety provided by the different timbres of the percussion instruments, stick clicks and O N performing on the rim of drums adds more depth to the orchestration. The wind instruments also are required to perform rhythmic patterns by tapping pencils on their music stands and snapping their fingers. Both the audience and the band will thoroughly enjoy the 2’30” it takes to perform this unique piece.

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B U R I E D

T R E A S U R E

THE MUSIC OF HOLST & VAUGHAN WILLIAMS B Y

G R E G O R Y

I recently had the privilege of conducting a local college band. Toward the end of the rehearsal we had a few minutes left and I took the opportunity to ask them a few questions. Most of the band members were music education majors and were planning on a teaching career, and as a former school band director, I was curious about their high school experience. There were about 80 in the band. I asked them, “How many of you played the Vaughan Williams Folk Song Suite in high school?” Five hands went up. “O.K.,” I said, “How many of you have played the Holst E Flat Suite?” Three hands. “Okay, how many have played the Holst Suite in F?” Again, three hands. A few more had played the Robert Russell Bennett Suite of Old American Dances, but very few had played the Schumann New England Triptych. They acknowledged that their college experience had exposed them to all of those tunes in one form or another, but pretty much agreed that their high school experience contained few of the masterworks for winds that are the foundation of wind performance. Over the last few years, I have found that those and many other fundamental works are getting much less attention than the latest “popular” works for band, and more distressingly, fewer performances than some literature that is, candidly, much less worthy than the work of the masters. Unfortunately, the situation exists at all levels. The wonderful music of Clare Grundman, Frank Erickson, and John Kinyon is also played much less frequently than music that is more popular, formulaic, and MBM

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R U D G E R S predictable.

Why laud these older works? Part of the answer is quite obvious. Each of the composers sited above are part of our heritage as band directors. The British Military Band tradition translated easily across the Atlantic and directed the earliest efforts of the American band movement; and later on, the early composers who focused their efforts on school bands did so with the noblest of intentions — that of educating young musicians. This is not to say that all band music written in recent years is not valuable literature; there are hundreds of worthy works being written and performed every day. Still, I would think that there should be some reverence and respect for from whence we have come. Vaughan Williams and Holst are both significant composers in the world at large, and the fact that we have music by them written for band is most fortunate. And, there is no doubt that the aesthetic value of these master works for band is of the highest level. The benefit to our students in studying and performing the works of the masters is axiomatic. Would we have them read comic books instead of Milton, Shakespeare, or Fitzgerald? The other reason to return to the classics is more pedagogical. The band music composed by significant composers, by definition, has more to offer our students. More challenge, more depth, more variety, and more substance. There are no concessions to conventional norms of publishing in the music of Ralph Vaughan Williams. The third trombone part may be more technically difficult than the first; there may be extensive exposure in the double reeds; and there may be four distinctive horn parts. I really don’t think that Gustav Holst had a concern


“There were about 80 in the band. I asked them, “How many of you played the Vaughan Williams Folk Song Suite in high school?” Five hands went up.” about the level of the musicians that would perform his music. He wrote music for band as he desired to hear it, without restraint. The music of the masters is authentic; it is aesthetically and intellectually honest; and it has survived to our times for very good reasons.

those that have done the research, and expose your students to music of lasting value.

Thankfully there are several publishers who are in the process of reissuing many of these master works, as well as more contemporary works, that have stood the test of time. These “Classic” series are a welcome reminder of our heritage and will serve to introduce a whole new generation of band musicians to their elemental value.

Second Sutite in F. Boosey and Hawkes

Music for Concert Band by Gustav Holst: First Suite in Eb. Boosey and Hawkes

(Both of these suites are also available, edited by Frederick Fennell, from Ludwig Music) Hammersmith. Boosey and Hawkes “Mars” from The Planets Suite. Boosey and Hawkes

“Jupiter” from The Planets Suite. Also, there is new music being inBoosey and Hawkes troduced by some that ascribes to the (Both of these works are tranprinciples mentioned above. There is PHOTO OF GREGORY B. RUDGERS BY SHERYL D. SINKOW scriptions by Holst from the origimusic that is being published today nal orchestral suite.) [Also of note that may well, over time, ascend to is Merlin Patterson’s transcriptions of the The Planets entire, the levels of the classics. Music of quality that dares to feature at www.MerlinPatterson.com - : Ed.] English Horn, music that ventures into key signatures and modalities that heretofore have been largely ignored. Band music Moorside March. Transcribed by Jacob. Boosey and Hawkes that explores new and creative textures and instrumentation Scherzo and Nocturne. Transcribed by Jacob. Boosey and without sacrificing integrity and essential value, and allows our Hawkes students to experience innovation, not for the sake of innovation, but for the sake of a new, fresh voice. Fugue al a Gigue. J.S. Bach, arr. Holst/Mitchell. Boosey and To program a concert with only works from the nineteenth Hawkes and early twentieth century would not be sufficiently artistiMusic for Concert Band by Ralph Vaughan Williams cally or educationally varied. However, when you sit down over English Folk Song Suite. Boosey and Hawkes the summer to plan your year’s program, you would do your students a fine service to include works of major composers Flourish for Wind Band. Boosey and Hawkes along with the best music that is available from the wonderful Toccata Marziale. Boosey and Hawkes composers we have today. There are many lists of both modern and historically distinguished literature for bands. (See, for Sea Songs. Boosey and Hawkes example, Frank Ticheli’s List, available in serial form in MBM Times.) Consult such lists, talk to your colleagues, seek out Rhosymedre. Transcribed by Beeler. E.C. Schirmer 1 www. MBM

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T E M P E R E D GRADE 5

7¾ MIN.

S O U T H E R N

Charles Rochester Young’s Tempered Steel was the first commission solicited by the Big 12 Band Director’s Association. It is a challenging work infusing fully 505 measures with great activity and excitement, as well evocative lyricism. The composer relates that the concept at work is that much as “tempered steel” becomes more and more resilient through the process of heating and cooling, humans also grow stronger and more resilient through facing hardship and obstacles in our lives. “Tempered Steel” is a celebration of triumph over adversity, employing driving rhythms, marcato declaraCHAR tions, and dynamic energy to suggest an indomitable ROCHE spirit. Continuing the metaphoric nature of the work YOU are many metallic sonorities available in the modern concert band, including suspended cymbals, chimes, xylophone, bells, tam-tam, 2 brake drums, vibraphone, and large and small triangles. All of these colors bring a mechanical cast to the work and in combination with the woodwinds and brasses yield sig-

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fortissimo climax, before a gentle, quiet ending of brass and saxophones in a brief half note chorale. Scoring for this work is traditional for elementary band, with low brass and lower woodwinds in parallel octaves for much of the tune. Clarinets and cornets are divided into just two parts, and flutes are in unison. Percussion is sparse due to the traditional nature of the melody as a lyric folk song, though the bell part, appearing in only seven notes throughout the entire work, is essential and quite profound. First clarinets are asked to play up to a written A N natural, which is a bit high for this level, but the O N second part is available for those players who may or may not be able to play those notes with control and quality. The work is challenging in that it demands a lyrical, legato approach with phrases that are longer than many grade one tunes. Still, this splendid composition provides young players and their directors with an excellent opportunity to develop the essential elements of expression, style, and phrase. This is a mature work, playable by young musicians.

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TICHELI’S

3 MIN.

John Kinyon may aptly be referred to as one of the patriarchs of the modern school band era. His many works for elementary and junior high level performers are standards of the literature and, in the early days of band publishing, they lent a certain dignity and substance to youth performances. Londonderry Air, while a genuine level one work, could appropriately be performed by virtually any concert band or wind ensemble. The subtitle of the piece states “featuring the clarinet section” and indeed, the clarinets present the timeless melody in the openJ ing measures and are prominent throughout the work. K I The clarinets are joined briefly by the flutes with the first statement of a countermelody. Kinyon then proceeds to develop the tune by assigning the melody to the flutes, with clarinets in octaves on another countermelody, and adds additional colors eventually leading to a tutti, fortissimo, climax, replete with percussion. After a delicate denouement, the “B” theme returns with another crescendo in both dynamics and orchestration, to a second

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nificantly original sonorities. It is both ironic and appropriate to point out that Charles Rochester Young is a saxophonist, one of our more “metallic” woodwinds. The dominant compositional device employed in this truly original work is a symmetric hexachord that is exposed and developed through a wide variety of gestures and themes juxtaposing the hexachord against itself and other derivative expressions. The work begins with an explosive fanfare in compound meter and explores all ranges of forte. Mixed meters ensue before the compound meter returns in a more transparent ES T E R and thinly scored presentation of the motivic material. A haunting lyric section then occurs, wandering from G major to minor its voicings. The remainder of the work combines the lyricism, the aforementioned fanfare and the driving, aggressive statements to a truly thunderous finale. This work gets ones attention immediately and holds it firmly in its grasp.

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GRADE 5

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Scott Lindroth playfully references the final rinse stage of an automatic washing machine in the title of this, his first (and as of present, his only) band composition. But set aside the mental image of the forlorn Maytag repairman! The composer acknowledges that the “spin cycle” reference is a whimsical description of his compositional treatment. Numerous melodic motifs are constantly swirled about. This is playful music that is (in Lindroth’s words) agile, breathless, and virtuosic. This music is deliberately exuberant and trendy. This single-movement work was composed after a period in which Lindroth had S created exclusively contemplative, slow music for theatriL I N cal productions. Spin Cycle’s whirling, swirling, insistent music is literally the composer bursting out of a period of calm and reflection. The composition is cast in ternary form. The outer sections rev through syncopated rhythms driven by a brisk tempo and an ever present, 16th-note perpetuum mobile (the “swirl”). The middle section has the same brisk tempo and rhythmic punctuation, but longer sustained chords provide a decidedly contrasting feel. Here the music is more romantic with sustained, sweeping melodies that hint

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at the minimalist style of John Adams. Lindroth has created a score which demands nothing short of virtuosic skills. The fluid yet driving perpetual motion belies the rhythmic complexity of the music. Utmost rhythmic precision and subdivided pulse are necessary. Meters are constantly jumping to and fro regular and irregular time signatures and rhythms. An everpresent shifting between 6/8- and 3/4-time provides a daunting task for the performers. There is a definite eclectic quality to Scott Lindroth’s music, and this blend of musics comes not as unexpectC O T T ed from a composer who credits influences as distinct D R O T H as J.S. Bach and Miles Davis. Spin Cycle is decidedly jazzy from the opening phrase — syncopated rhythms, bongos, and high-hat percussion evoke bebop. At the same time, complex and dense counterpoint recalls the compositional craft of Baroque masters. But do not permit the references to bygone composers to mislead; Spin Cycle is contemporary, engaging, and hip music. It is yet another offering of today’s many composers who write “excursion music” — brisk, concise, rhythmic forays into musical speed races, flamboyant melodic lines, and syncopated, driving rhythms.

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6¼ MIN.

CARL FISCHER

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(Timothy Topolewskiʼs edition)

Colonial Song is no ordinary ballad; it is a true love SOUTHERN MUSIC song. This profession of love is both an endearing trib(R. Mark Rogersʼ edition) ute to Percy Grainger’s fellow native Australians and, at music. Two melodies, although not authentically folk the same time (in what is his most pronounced “mama’s songs, harken (by the composer’s own self-admission) boy” gesture), a love song to his mother. There are few to the sentiments of a Stephen Foster song. And the works in the band repertory as sentimental as this. rich, intense orchestrational color we have come to The innovative and eccentric Australian-Americherish in Grainger’s music is immediately heard, as can composer Percy Aldridge Grainger is well known well — rich reeds, luscious brass, hammering pianos, among band musicians, but in mainstream classical angelic harps, adorable flugelhorn and tender soprano music circles, his notoriety is more that of an oddity saxophone solos. Flowing, wayward phrases are freor in the fringe (or perhaps, only known for his charmquently interrupted with momentary hesitations in ing ditty, “Country Gardens”). But his catalog of works PERCY time (notated with irregular meters, fermatas, and arguably contributed more to the quality and creativity ALDRIDGE constant fluctuations in tempo). But along with all of band music than that of any other single composer G R A I N G E R of this inventiveness comes forth genuine, passionate, in the first half of the 20th Century. An avid collector comforting music. of folk music (as were Bartok and Lomax), an innovator Colonial Song was intended by the composer to be the first comof irregular rhythm and meter (as were Stravinsky and Varèse), and position in a series of works labeled, “Sentimentals.” Ultimately an imaginative inventor of musical instruments and experimental Grainger abandoned the idea of such a series, but clearly Colonial musical machines (as were Cage and Moog), Percy Grainger truly Song remained intimately dear; the dedication inscribed on the was a pioneer in classical music equal to the most acclaimed of our score in the composer’s hand reads: This military band dish-up as most innovative 20th-century musicians. Loving Yule-Gift to Mumsie, Yule, 1918. Grainger’s trademark compositional innovations are all present in Colonial Song, despite the delicate and wistful character of this

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S A T I R I C GRADE 4 7 MIN.

A S S O C I AT E D M U S I C P U B L I S H E R S / H A L L E O N A R D

Satiric Dances (for a Comedy by Aristophanes) The recent death of Norman Dello Joio (July 24, 2008) gives us reason to pause and reflect upon the wonderful contributions to the band repertory made by this composer. Here is a man who garnered a trifecta of major awards: the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Pulitzer Prize, and even an Emmy Award! Dello Joio composed Satiric Dances, a three-movement suite, drawing upon incidental music which he composed for a theatrical production of an ancient Greek Old Comedy by Aristophanes. Despite the Athenian inspiration, N O there is nothing remotely Greek about this music. In fact, the music is overtly Italian! This is zesty music celebrating D life in a bountiful way that Dello Joio’s Italian heritage J would demand. After all, what composer (other than, perhaps, Persichetti) would use “Allegro spumante” as a tempo marking? (For those not so inclined, spumante is Italian champagne!) The first movement is exotic, highly chromatic, even hinting octatonic. It is at once both hypnotic and bombastic music. The movement concludes with a short, spirited, frenzied dance. A tarantella! (Dello

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Joio, the Italian, makes his primo appearance.) The second movement is similarly bipartite — the initial sad music (“Mesto”) is answered with heartfelt respite (“sentito”). This is emotional music worn on the sleeve. (Dello Joio, the Italian makes his secondo appearance.) The third movement (yes, the tempo marking really is “Allegro spumante”) is rollicking, spontaneous, and ripping fun. In vino veritas! (Dello Joio, the Italian, appears a nel finale.) Or to quote our namesake, Aristophanes, “Quickly, bring me a beaker of wine, so that I may wet my mind and say something clever.” The suite barrels into a frenR M A N zied, festive, frenetic conclusion. Satiric Dances presents two particular technical chalE L L O lenges. The sparse scoring in much of the second moveO I O ment requires confident, soloistic performance skill on part of the principal trumpet, flute, clarinets, horn, and euphonium. The plentiful 16th-note runs in the final movement do not always lie well on the clarinet and other melodic instruments. But despite such occasional technical challenges, this invigorating music exudes a love for life and invites all to live richly. Dello Joio recently departed us from this earth, but he lives on through such life-affirming music.

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new timbral combination with every major phrase. Has Charles Carter been overshadowed by Frank ErickIt remains unfortunate that some composers insist upon son? It would be easy to come to such a conclusion since titling band works “for winds.” Not only are such titles Erickson’s published band works far outnumber those of largely inaccurate, they undermine the radical, positive Carter’s, even though both men’s lives largely paralleled transformation of percussion part writing that came about each other. Born only three years apart, both men entered in the 1960s. Band music is composed for winds and permilitary service as band arrangers after receiving formal cussion, not just winds! So despite misgivings over the title, music education at major universities. While Carter lived Carter has successfully orchestrated a band work in which in the midwest and Erickson was west coast, both found even the percussion writing is lightly scored, transparent, sudden success at the national level in the mid-1950s by refreshing, and delicate. composing well-crafted, musically engaging works for In terms of orchestration, Charles Carter excels. He cerschool bands. Both men’s names are synonymous with tainly casts off any possible notion of being under Frank exceptionally crafted compositions for young bands. UnErickson’s shadow. Carter’s scoring displays far more variety C H A R L E S like Erickson, however (who died some 12 years ago), than Erickson’s oft static orchestration. Carter is also never Charles Carter is still actively composing. Carter’s career C A R T E R as stingy with the ritardando as Erickson often was, and now spans more than 50 years! Song for Winds comes to a satisfying, effortless conclusion with a slowSong for Winds is one of Carter’s more recent contributions to the ing of the tempo — first to a brief Maestoso statement, then ultimately young band repertory. This charming, unassuming composition is conto a quite final chord. servatively scored, but the orchestration never sounds stale. The conWhile there is no denying that Carter and Erickson are kindred spirstant change and shading of timbres from phrase to phrase are pleasits, both composers have made their own irreplaceable contributions to ing. Lyrical melodies are presented simply, first by flutes and bells, then the repertory. Consider how fortunate we are to have all the compositrumpets in unison, clarinets and horns continue, then single reeds add tional gifts provided by both Charles Carter and Frank Erickson! yet another color to the palette of sound. Despite the economical part Song for Winds proves yet again that Charles Carter has earned a perwriting (most instruments have just a single part, and only the clarinets manent and prominent place in the young band repertory. and trumpets have two-part writing), Carter’s orchestration presents a MBM

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SUBITO MUSIC PUBLISHING

Galbraith wrote this work in 1991, scoring it for orchestra. She revised and re-scored it for wind band in 1996. Both versions hold established places in their respective repertoires, but the band version is the most frequently performed and is currently the composer’s most popular piece. The “los Duendes” of the title are mythical, goblinlike beings that are a part of the folk lore of many South American societies. They are mischievous, even malicious, characters who are blamed for all kinds of misfortunes from ill-behaved children to major recreational N A accidents. Galbraith’s music is dance-like, has sinister overtones and powerful climaxes, however, the compos- G A L B er’s website indicates that the title was added after the music was written at the suggestion of a student. Galbraith’s music, including this composition, has been described as minimalist, with energetic rhythms balanced by lyrical melodies. In Danza de los Duendes a relentless rhythm and a very fast tempo are established immediately and relax only briefly to prepare the final coda. The fundamental rhythms are repetitive, but also evolve slowly over fairly long time intervals. Syncopation and shifting meter are used to signal new sections. A number of melodies appear, but all of them use very similar intervallic relationships (most melodies begin FRANK

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with minor thirds or major sixths), allowing the composer to simultaneously provide contrast and unity. All melodies are highly syncopated and are often in canon generating some very complex textures. The middle section of the piece (bars 151–261) is in effect a development during which the composer creates continuous variations on the melodies. While all these new ideas contain elements from earlier material, they ultimately incorporate many wide intervals. During this section the volume is gradually expanded from piano to a massive climax at bar 253. After this high point most of the material from earlier returns in Y reverse order, creating an altered arch form. I T H Reviewers have commented on Galbraith’s orchestrational skill. In this work, she provides an effective balance of full band versus chamber textures. Important melodic material is assigned to virtually every instrument, and individual sections are exposed in imaginative ways. For example, in bars 52–56 the trumpets present a wonderful heterophonic fanfare. Pitched and non-pitched percussion is deployed to reinforce surface rhythms, build and support climaxes and add colour to quieter sections. This relentless, brightly coloured and often overwhelming composition is an outstanding example of the effectiveness of minimalism, lyricism and rhythmic inventiveness in a full band setting.

Bach’s Fantasia in G Major, BWV 572 is a three-part work Where similar sections appear, they usually add new elements. for organ that was written sometime between 1703 and 1707, For example, sections G and H are reminiscent of the openearly in the composer’s career. It was criticized at the time being, but have new and active bass lines that significantly change cause the virtually constant suspensions from bar to bar were their character. Many short section appear, each of which has a deemed too dissonant. different character ranging from imposing and majestic to reGoldman and Leist transcribed the middle section of this strained, thoughtful and deeply personal. work for band as a memorial to Edwin Franko Goldman In their scoring, Goldman and Leist have built in a consider(Richard’s father), the founder and long-time conductor of able amount of instrumental color demonstrating their thorthe Goldman Band of New York. The senior Goldman died ough knowledge of the band medium. Powerful sections for full in 1956, and a composition by Bach was considered an apensemble give way to gradually accumulating textures or quiet J.S. BACH propriate memorial because Edwin Franko had frequently ina r r . G O L D M A N sections featuring either woodwinds or brass. In some places cluded transcriptions of this composer on his band concerts. instruments are specified, their delicate textures adding a n d L E I S T solo The transcription was first heard on July 1, 1957, performed further timbral variety. The percussion (timpani, bass drum, by the Goldman Band conducted by Richard Franko Goldcymbal) are used sparingly, but with fine sensitivity. A single loud stroke man. on bass drum (an instrument that might be considered inappropriate This music is especially suitable for band performance because it is for this music) begins most loud sections and is surprisingly effective in grand in concept, is written in five-part counterpoint that can be suitproviding definition and support to both rhythm and volume. ably balanced in the band setting and the numerous suspensions can be As in many other works, Bach’s insight into human thoughts and feelemphasized and satisfactorily resolved. ings is undoubtedly why this work continues to captivate performers While no music is exactly repeated in this work, the entire structure and listeners in both its original form and in this magnificent transcripis a continuous development of motives from the opening statement. tion. www. MBM

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Best Music for Chorus and Winds

by Keith W. Kinder

foreword by Frank Ticheli edited by Bob Margolis

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Variants of this song exist in different areas of England, but only Gardiner’s Hampshire version emphasizes this peculiarity. The sounds of the forge are evoked by hammered brass rhythms, anvil and cymbals. Holst’s setting consists of a single statement of the complete song. The finale, “Fantasia on the Dargason”, is based on a very old English country dance — dating from at least as early as 1500. The eight-bar melody has no cadence, allowing Holst to spin twenty-five continuous variations, no two of which have the same timbre or texture. At two climactic points he sets the 6/8 dance tune against the folk song “Greensleeves” in 3⁄4, and the two melodies flow together seamlessly, despite the conflicting meters. Since the tune does not cadence, Holst created one of the most remarkable endings in all of the musical literature. The final few variations employ less and less accompaniment, then fragments of the tune are tossed between tuba and piccolo. When the tune has completely broken down, a resounding F major chord on the ‘wrong’ beat of the bar abruptly concludes the piece. The compositional skill demonstrated in Holst’s Second Suite in F is only part of the work’s enduring popularity. His mastery of scoring and his deep appreciation for, and understanding of, the folk materials employed in its construction also continue to captivate new generations of conductors, performers and listeners. 1 CONTINUED FROM PAGE 47 bar of musical expectations rather low indeed; school bands very rarely play above the abilities and knowledge of their conductor.

Our saxophones should never have to excuse us for awkwardly transposing their part on a note check; our horn players should never ask what con sord. means the week of the concert because we failed to notice it earlier. My colleague Jeffrey Gershman details his approach to the mechanics of score study elsewhere in this issue [p. 12 ff : Ed.] For here, let it suffice to say that an hour a day of score study allows us to make musical decisions, and to form a concrete set of musical expectations to bring to every rehearsal. This may seem an unrealistic amount of time to devote to score study, much less on a daily basis. It does cost time outside of rehearsals, to be sure; but I’d certainly rather invest time outside of my rehearsals than lose time in them. We’ve all at one time or another walked out to the podium thinking, “If we just had another two weeks!” Effective score study (and, by exten-

sion, effective rehearsal planning & technique) can go a long a way to eliminating that phrase from our vocabulary. 6. Write a Mission Statement, and keep the tail from wagging the dog. Perhaps not one of the Modest Proposals above is realistic. With our myriad professional and personal responsibilities, too few of us have the time to study our scores as thoroughly as we’d like, much less to seriously and thoughtfully explore contemporary music outside of the band world. Running the risk of being declined a festival venue because of our literature selection is unpalatable. And while pleasant enough to entertain as a fantasy, the notion of skipping festival is simply not an option; for some of us, our job security is tied to our band’s performances at competition. But acknowledging that these proposals are at best unrealistic shouldn’t excuse us from considering the underlying message: How often the tail wags the dog in our band world. The promotional CDs we receive shouldn’t dictate our programming to us, yet they often do. The desire to do well in our festival performances shouldn’t govern our approach to teaching the art of music, yet it often does. Our many fundraising activities shouldn’t rob us of time better spent knowing our literature backwards and forwards, yet it almost always does. This is the tail wagging the dog, the world around our music-making controlling how we make music, and not the other way around. So, before you choose another piece of music, before you accept another festival invitation, before you make another decision involving your band program, stop. And write a mission statement. Quite simply, a mission statement is a brief declaration of our purpose, our reason for doing what we do. Clearly and succinctly, it serves to remind us what our goals and values are. And if we look to it for guidance and direction, it can help us keep the tail from wagging the dog. Admittedly, the Proposals above are possibly objectionable and decidedly impracticable. But perhaps we can reconsider how we select literature for our festivals, or even how we organize these festivals, with a nod towards our core principles as musicians and music educators. And if our Mission Statement informed and inspired our decision-making, would our band world look any different? I modestly suggest it might. 1

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F r a n k

T i c h e l i ’ s

L i s t — P a r t

I

(reviews appeared in MBM Times Issue #3)

Title

Composer

Publisher

Reviewer

Grade/Min.

A Tallis Prelude

Douglas Akey

Queenwood/Kjos

Dr. Lawrence Stoffel

2

3 1/2

Air for Band

Frank Erickson

Bourne Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

1

3 1/2

Amber Terrace Dreams

Christopher Tucker

C. Alan Publications

Dr. John A. Darling

2

3

...and the mountains rising nowhere

Joseph Schwantner

Schott Helicon

Dr. John A. Darling

6 11 1/2

Bali

Michael Colgrass

Carl Fischer Music

Dr. Lawrence Stoffel

4

8 1/2

Caccia and Chorale

Clifton Williams

C.L. Barnhouse

Dr. Lawrence Stoffel

4

7

Children’s March

Percy Aldridge Grainger

Southern Music

Gregory B. Rudgers

4

7

Courtly Airs and Dances

Ron Nelson

Ludwig Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

3

12

Crystals

Thomas Duff y

Ludwig Music

Dr. John A. Darling

3

5 1/2

Fanfare Ode & Festival

Bob Margolis

Manhattan Beach Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

2

4

Fugue in G Minor

J.S. Bach arr. Kimura

De Haske Publications

Gregory B. Rudgers

3

3

George Washington Bridge

William Schumann

G. Schirmer

Dr. Keith Kinder

5

7

Kenya Contrasts

William Himes

Curnow Music

Gregory B. Rudgers

2

2 1/2

Redline Tango

John Mackey

OstiMusic.com

Dr. Lawrence Stoffel

6

9 1/2

Scenes from “The Louvre”

Norman Dello Joio

E.B. Marks Music/Hal Leonard

Dr. John A. Darling

4

11

Serenade

Derek Bourgeois

G&M Brand

Dr. Lawrence Stoffel

3

3

Shadow Rituals

Michael Markowski

Manhattan Beach Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

5

4

Sinfonia V

Timothy Broege

Manhattan Beach Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

5

7

Sinfonia VI

Timothy Broege

Manhattan Beach Music

Dr. John A. Darling

3

6

Snakes!

Thomas C. Duff y

Ludwig Music

Gregory B. Rudgers

2

3 1/2

Soldiers’ Procession & Sword Dance

Bob Margolis

Manhattan Beach Music

Gregory B. Rudgers

1

2

Song for Friends

Larry Daehn

Daehn Publications

Dr. John A. Darling

1

2 1/2

Spring Festival

Chen Yi

BandQuest/Hal Leonard

Gregory B. Rudgers

3

3

Suite Française

Darius Milhaud

Leeds Music/Hal Leonard

Dr. Lawrence Stoffel

5

15

MBM

60 TIMES


ALL COVER PHOTOS OF FRANK TICHELI ON THIS PAGE ARE BY CHARLIE GROSSO

Premiering in MBM Times Issue #3 Part I of Frank Ticheli’s List Read all the reviews in Part I of Frank Ticheli’s List in Issue No. 3 of MBM Times. Just visit www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com to find out how to get your copy today. FRANK

TICHELI’S

L I S T

Suite Provençale

Jan Van Der Roost

De Haske Publishing

Gregory B. Rudgers

4

7 1/2

Symphony in B-Flat

Paul Hindemith

Schott

Dr. John A. Darling

6

17

The Passing Bell

Warren Benson

E.C. Schirmer

Dr. Keith Kinder

5

11

The Two-Minute Symphony

Bob Margolis

Bob Margolis

Dr. John A. Darling

1

2

Third Suite

Robert Jager

Alfred Publishing

Gregory B. Rudgers

4

9

Toccata Marziale

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Boosey & Hawkes

Gregory B. Rudgers

5

4

Toledo

Bruce Carlson

Dox Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

3

10

Train Heading West

Timothy Broege

Manhattan Beach Music

Dr. John A. Darling

1

4 1/2

Whirlwind

Jodie Blackshaw

Manhattan Beach Music

Dr. Keith Kinder

1

7

MBM Times Issues No. 1 (left) and Issue No. 2 (right) MBM TIMES PRESENTED BY MANHATTAN BEACH MEDIA

MBM Times is printed exclusively by Chernay Printing, Inc.

61


AN AMERICAN ELEGY - DVD MBM

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VOL. #3 IN THE MUSIC OF TICHELI SERIES THE NEW CD FROM MARK MASTERS

or der f r om :

w w w.mar kcus tom.com / w w w.f r ank t icheli.com and your f a vor i te r et ailer

in t his s er ie s : Vol. #1 - Blue Shade s / Vol. # 2 - Simple Gi f t s f e a t ur i n g t he M i chi g an St a t e U ni v e r s i t y W i n d Sy m p h o n y / J o hn L . W hi t w e ll, C o n du c t o r


An Update To The 2nd International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest, sponsored by Manhattan Beach Music

The Second International Frank Ticheli Composition Contest promises to be an exciting event, with outstanding entries from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Spain, Belgium, Finland, Switzerland, Bangladesh, & South Korea.

Please join with us for the announcements of the finalists, winners, and honorable mentions

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‌ and visit us for for news of upcoming contests.

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TIMOTHY BROEGE

www.ManhattanBeachMusic.com

MANHATTAN BEACH MUSIC

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Profile for Manhattan Beach Music

MBM Times Issue #4 from Manhattan Beach Music  

MBM Times Issue #4 Introducing Frank Ticheli's List, and articles by Jeffrey D. Gershman, Keith Kinder, Gregory B. Rudgers, and Dr. Rodney C...

MBM Times Issue #4 from Manhattan Beach Music  

MBM Times Issue #4 Introducing Frank Ticheli's List, and articles by Jeffrey D. Gershman, Keith Kinder, Gregory B. Rudgers, and Dr. Rodney C...