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The Water Sorter

A toolkit based workshop,

Designed by: Ragini Lall Kavya Jha Malvika Tewari Under Project H2U (2011) Headed By Srishti Labs Srishti School Of Art, Design and Technology


Contents Introduction Activities for Day 1 Name Droppers The SSUD Cycle Hues in your water? part 1. Hues in your water? part 2. The Sand Saviour Sticker Sailors

Activities for Day 2 Water Matters Brain Waves Fill ‘n’ Flush

Index Acknowledgments


Introduction Welcome Water Sorter user! The Water Sorter is a toolkit based workshop that allows members of communities to observe, reflect upon and visually map out their water systems and in so doing create solutions and generate discussion. Another use of the toolkit is with an information collecting objective to gain insight about individual households of a given area, to collect visually mapped data and to be acquainted with existing water systems.

Ideally this toolkit should be used by you to conduct a workshop including the activities listed in the following pages over a period of 2 days. We kept in mind six children between twelve to fourteen years of age as our focus group but the activities can evolve and adapt to other age groups and number of participants.


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When talking about water, every so often we get caught up in things like waiting for authorities to bring about a change, expecting engineers and designers to create solutions and meeting electrical energy requirements that are a shortcoming in most villages. However, this toolkit allows its user group to be proactive and with the help of facilitation and questions to trigger their thought process to identify problems and devise new methods through participatory design which is open to new ideas, alternate energy solutions and makes use of techniques and material that is indigenous to the group. It is also an attempt to bring to notice the deplorable quality and lack of accessibility of water that many parts of the country face today. We hope that both empathy and responsibility will stem from the use of this toolkit that may take the shape of practices and actions that try to clean and conserve water as a community resource.


Activities for Day 1 1. NAME DROPPER With any participant group, a short warm up exercise is a good way to engage them and lighten up the atmosphere. In the Name Dropper activity each participant comes forward, enacts out an action associated with water in their daily routine while saying his/her name. For example – ‘I brush my teeth every day, and my name is Kavya’. The entire group then repeats the action of brushing one’s teeth and says the name Kavya. A game like this helps lessen the initial hesitation to speak up and also looks into the daily water habits of people.

PRECAUTION

People might start copying each other in this exercise, so the facilitator should keep probing them with questions to extract other habits, to add variety. This might need some preparation on the behalf of the facilitator by listing out activities before hand, so there aren’t awkward silences in between.


The Water Sorter Manual

The more dramatic and expressive, the better the activity helps in creating a positive energy in the group. So it’s a great idea to include lots of movement, action and expression. Also shuffling up the participants and yourselves would help a lot to break the ice. For example,mix up boys and girls, students and facilitators, older and younger people.

TIPS


Activities for Day 1 2.The SSUD Cycle: The purpose of this activity is to map out and compare natural and man-made water systems. The cycle of water travelling in a household from Source, Storage, Usage to Disposal (SSUD) should be introduced at this stage. While discussing the natural water cycle, ask participants trigger questions like – Where does the water come from? How does it drain out? How does it remain in the cycle? How do trees form a part of the water cycle? How do clouds form? How does recharging of groundwater happen? After that, start the discussion on the man-made water cycle analogously. Ask similar questions but also consider stakeholders in the water system, such as the government, local private distributors, even elder people within the family and women of the household while discussing sources. In addition to this, talk about sewage and how it goes back in the system, about sewage treatment and how problems might be caused without it. Stress on the SSUD cycle at all times to get it ingrained in the participants’ minds, as it is used in the workshop during later stages as well.


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PRECAUTION

Often people get caught up in terms like evaporation, precipitation, transpiration, which might not always reflect on their understanding of the water cycle. The facilitator would also need to research on it and should discard bookish terms while focussing on simple language. Sometimes source and storage in a water system overlap, for example clouds being a source of rainfall but also storage for evaporated water from the land. So while the distinction between the two is important, it is okay to let these labels be used in interchangeable ways.

As a facilitator it is important to be clear about all stages and also be open to new in between steps like re-using of water if it comes up in discussions. The broad categories have been created only to keep discussions least complicated while mapping out water habits.

TIPS


Activities for Day 1 3. Hues in your water? Part 1 This activity is to introduce the concept that clear may not always be clean. It will also help gauge the participants’ perception of clean water. For this the facilitator needs to prepare some water solutions in advance. Possible ingredients would be food colouring, mud, sand the ones that can be discarded right away as being unclean. Other solutions could be soap, shampoos, vinegar, lemon these would be clear solutions but yield acidic or basic shades. After the clean versus clear concept is explained, the pH could simply be a fun way of testing solutions, to observe the different colours the paper yields.

PRECAUTION

Any person testing with the pH paper should have clean and dry hands. pH strips cannot be reused, so it is important to do this. The pH paper test should not be confused with testing for any sort of contamination, which is addressed in the next section. Use lemonade as an example, it is acidic but not contaminated. This test merely stresses on the point that what appears to be a clear solution, might have ingredients one may not know about.


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Allow people to suggest other ways of testing clear water, including other chemical tests and local know how too. The participants can also have a follow up activity where each one prepares a clear solution and lets the others test it. The solutions may also be mixed up and then identified by using the scale to deduce what may be more or less acidic/basic.

TIPS


Activities for Day 1 4. Hues in your water? Part 2 A good way to take the pH discussion further is to sit around in a circle and discuss contamination in water and its effects on health and the environment. This is to bring to notice the need to check the purity of water before it is used in the household and to make purification a regular practice and decrease the ill-effects on the health of the community because of neglecting the possibility of contamination. It is also a way of introducing them to existing solutions and products that battle impurities and contamination. It’s important to cover the kinds of contamination most prevalent in that area, so this will require some thorough pre-hand research. It helped us to broadly categorize contamination underChemical Contamination eg: pesticides, detergents, arsenic Mineral Contamination eg: fluoride, magnesium, sodium Biological Contamination eg: bacteria, virus, sand Chemical Contamination can be seen as the most alarming of the three wherein the effects on the environment are tragic and often hard to reverse. A small scale solution that can be suggested for Mineral Contamination is the Reverse Osmosis Water Purifier, carry a picture along for reference.


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The R.O. system is something that has reached most households but the hard water that is separated from drinking water after purification often drains out. This is a serious wastage as this water, though unfit for drinking, can be used for other purposes such as flushing, mopping floors, cleaning the cowshed etc.

PRECAUTION

As facilitators it’s important to spread as much awareness as one can but it would be wrong to assume that the existing level of awareness of the group is low. So, be open to anecdotes, questions and information about local techniques and material. When addressing effects of contaminated water on health, avoid using complex medical terms. Instead, it would be effective to look for the local name of the disease. At times, the group may recognize symptoms more readily than the actual disease. For example: ‘Tooth decay and weak bones’ instead of ‘Fluoride contamination’.

The discussion on water can be enriched depending on who the participants are and what they relate to. For example: If the group belongs to an industrial town, make them reflect on any sightings of chemical waste entering the ground water table. If in an agricultural community, speak of pesticides sprayed near open wells.

TIPS


Activities for Day 1 5. The Sand Saviour To come to this activity from the previous discussion, save Biological Contamination for the end. The BIOSAND filter and SOLAR DISINFECTION is a simple way to separate biological contaminants from drinking water. It’s a low-cost slow filtering process based on diffusion of water through layers of sand and gravel which trap the contaminants. It can remove a 95 to 99% of organic contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms. The BIOSAND filter makes for a great product that each participant makes for him/herself and takes home, giving the workshop an afterlife. It can be created with easily available material following these instructions:


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PRECAUTION

Observe how the participants make their own BIOSAND filters with small changes and intervene if they stray from the principle. Even if the workshop is held over a few hours, stress on the fact that the SODIS procedure requires a period of 2 days in the sun to effectively kill all harmful microorganisms. Insist on using PET bottles and no cheaper kind of plastic.

To save time you can sieve and wash sand beforehand. You may divide the group in twos to distribute work and responsibility.

TIPS


Activities for Day 1 6. Sticker Sailors The m-seal around the straws takes about 15 minutes to dry. One can utilize this time to map the SSUD system of the building one is working in by taking a tour in and around the building guided by the group. Since we were with students, we mapped the school but with a group of adults one can map the closest community building. This activity allows the group to look at the SSUD cycle in a familiar environment and see it in the bigger scheme of things. It gives them an exercise in mapping before they map their own household. It is also a good way to revise the SSUD cycle before the group wraps up after DAY 1. PRECAUTION

Always verify with authorities if the cycle is mappedcorrectly. Enquire about the frequency of the water supply, how often the storage is cleaned, who cleans it etc. If a couple of participants are more active than others, try to distribute the work evenly among the group members.


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Stickers are a fun way to label components. Give them durability to stay on longer so they can generate interest and discussion among other community members.

TIPS

End of Day 1 Before the group leaves for the day, ask them to observe the SSUD cycle within their own homes. Urge them to ask other members in case they are not that familiar with the water in their household. After understanding the water cycle, they should create a sketch of the house and things around it with all details that relate to water such as bathroom and kitchen utilities, open/closed drains around the house, plants and trees that grow in the community etc. These maps and information are vital for the second day.


Activities for Day 2 7. Water Matters This day begins with an activity through which we can reflect on our own lifestyles and the habits we associate with water. We precede this with a discussion on issues such as is water a commodity that should be paid for, water shortage, lack of sanitation, the value of water etc. It is a way to observe water practices that we otherwise take for granted. After this, we take a box full of water chips, small pieces of blue paper, which we place in the middle of the circle. In turns, the participants tell the group about a bad/undesirable habit related to water that they practice and then proceed to draw out some water chips. Eg: ‘I dip dirty hands in the pot of water at home, making the entire water unfit for use.’ Anyone else in the group who practices that habit picks out some water chips as well.

PRECAUTION

Discuss the concept of waste. Wastage is unnecessary and excessive use of water without a purpose. Sometimes a participant may confuse wastage with a leisurely use of water, such as playing with water. But one needn’t give up these practices, instead they can be asked to consume a smaller amount of water for such activities or make up for this water by conserving it in a different way.


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As we go around the circle, the paper in the box gets over, symbolizing how water gets depleted and leads to a shortage.To reverse this, we go around the circle again, this time stating a good/desirable habit and putting the water chips back into the box slowly refilling the box. Eg: ‘I reuse the kitchen water to water the garden.’

Be prepared with examples and questions if the group can’t come up with any habits immediately. Encourage and appreciate the group to follow practical ways of saving and purifyinf water.

TIPS


Activities for Day 2 8. Brain Wave This is an exercise to share and understand each other’s individual domestic water systems. It allows us to exchange ideas and thoughts on the water story of each house. and in so doing, come up with alternatives, solutions, efficient practices for their households. Start with one participant. Take a large sheet of paper and let the participant lay out their water system using the components of the Water Sorter referring to the sketch they have brought in. (For index of components refer to the end of the manual) After the entire system has been laid out. Take a look at the system and see if there is anything interesting or unique about the system. Bring notice to the group about the interesting practice. Identify areas where improvement if possible.Ask of the group and the individual if there could be an alternative to the existing solution.


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PRECAUTION

While laying out one individuals system in case the other participants start to get disengaged try to get the entire group to be involved. Delegate responsibility to the participants. Give one half of the group the top layer of the Water Sorter and the bottom layer to the second half of the group and they can pass the pieces as and when asked for.

To get the group familiar with the Water Sorter toolkit, start the exercise by working with the entire group by laying out the area/building where the workshop is being conducted.

TIPS

To get a holistic system that includes the surroundings of the household to the minute details of the house, prompt the individual with questions. For Example What’s next to your house? Are there any trees or plants in and around your house? Which tree is that? Where does the water come from? From here where does it go next? Does the water get filtered here? Do you have any animals/pets living in your house? What kind of roof does your house have? Do you get water directly to your house or do you have to get it from some outer source? How do you reach the source point? What’s the primary occupation of the community (if there is one)?

While thinking of alternatives if the group is hesitant or getting stuck,prompt them with trigger questions likeWhat’s a source that is free and could be utilized? How would this happen? Is there an easier way of transferring the water from the tap to the house? What about the cycle in the house? Are there any unused structures that could hold water around your house or community? Could you and your neighbors collaborate and create a rainwater harvesting unit?


Activities for Day 2 9. FILL ‘N’ FLUSH The last activity is a way go over the various points covered during the Workshop and to end on a high energy note. Everyone stands in a circle and cup their hands as if they were holding water. Start by saying one statement about water that could be true or false. Ask everyone else also to come up with such statements. For example-Kitchen Water could be reused in the garden. Everyone is to respond to the statement. If the statement is true-make an action of drinking the water caught in the cupped hands. If the statement is false-make an action of letting the water go.


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PRECAUTION

Have a set of statements ready if people hesitate.

Prompt the participants to come up with their own statements.

TIPS

With this exercise we come to the end of the workshop. Despite the short duration of two days that we spend with the group, we hope that we leave them with a seed of thought and that the activities leave an impact on them., giving them a sense of freedom to create their own solutions and identify ways in which they can contribute to their water systems, as a member of a household and of a community.


INDEX The Water Sorter Toolkit consists of the following pieces: LAKE

RIVER/ STREAM

NATURAL SOURCES RAIN

NATURAL SOURCES BOREWELL

NATURAL SOURCES WATER TOWER

MAN-MADE SOURCES

MAN-MADE SOURCES HAND PUMP

MAN-MADE SOURCES


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WELL

WATER TANK

MAN-MADE SOURCES DAM

MAN-MADE SOURCES COMMUNITY TOILETS

MAN-MADE SOURCES TOILETS- GENTS

COMMUNITY SANITATION

COMMUNITY SANITATION TOILET-LADIES

COMMUNITY SANITATION


SEWAGE PIT

ELECTRIC MOTOR PUMP

COMMUNITY SANITATION SOLAR PANEL

TECHNOLOGY FARM TRACTOR

TECHNOLOGY VEGETABLE CART

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT BICYCLE

TRANSPORT


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HILLS

FARM

LANDSCAPE GRASS

LANDSCAPE TREE-BROAD LEAVED

LANDSCAPE TREE-PALM

LANDSCAPE

LANDSCAPE TREE-CONIFER

LANDSCAPE


POTTED PLANT

GOAT

LANDSCAPE POULTRY

LANDSCAPE PIG

LANDSCAPE DOG

LANDSCAPE CAT

LANDSCAPE

LANDSCAPE


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COW-INDIAN

LANDSCAPE SUN/SOLAR POWER

LANDSCAPE BUS SERVICE

LANDSCAPE

COW-HYBRID

LANDSCAPE PLAYGROUND

LANDSCAPE TRAIN SERVICE

LANDSCAPE


RESERVOIR/ OPEN TANK

COMMUNITY STORAGE DRINKING WATER TANK

COMMUNITY STORAGE HOSPITAL

COMMUNITY BUILDING

SUMP/ SEPTIC TANK

COMMUNITY STORAGE WATER TANK

COMMUNITY STORAGE INDUSTRIAL UNIT

COMMUNITY BUILDING


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GOVERNMENT OFFICE

COMMUNITY BUILDING TEMPLE

COMMUNITY BUILDING CHURCH

COMMUNITY BUILDING

SHOP

COMMUNITY BUILDING MOSQUE

COMMUNITY BUILDING COLLEGE

COMMUNITY BUILDING


SCHOOL

COMMUNITY BUILDING MUD ROOF

TYPE OF ROOF STRUCTURE CEMENT ROOF

NATURAL SOURCES

THATCH ROOF

TYPE OF ROOF STRUCTURE TILED ROOF

TYPE OF ROOF STRUCTURE PIPELINE

WATER FITTINGS


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TAPS

HOSE PIPES

WATER FITTINGS EARTHEN POTS

STORAGE AT HOME PLASTIC POTS

STORAGE AT HOME

WATER FILLINGS METALLIC POTS

STORAGE AT HOME PLASTIC BUCKETS

STORAGE AT HOME


METAL BUCKETS

STORAGE AT HOME OVERHEAD WATER TANK

BATHROOM UTILITIES INDIAN TOILET

BATHROOM UTILITIES

WATER BOTTLES

STORAGE AT HOME SHOWER

BATHROOM UTILITIES WESTERN TOILET

BATHROOM UTILITIES


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TRADITIONAL WATER HEATER

BATHROOM UTILITIES SOLAR WATER HEATER

BATHROOM UTILITIES OPEN DRAIN

DRAINAGE

ELECTRIC WATER HEATER

BATHROOM UTILITIES WASH BASIN

BATHROOM UTILITIES CLOSED SLAB DRAINAGE

DRAINAGE


COAL

FIREWOOD

KITCHEN UTILITIES TRADITIONAL CHULHA

KITCHEN UTILITIES GAS STOVE

KITCHEN UTILITIES

KITCHEN UTILITIES WASHING AREA

KITCHEN UTILITIES KITCHEN SINK

KITCHEN UTILITIES


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COTTON CLOTH PURIFIER

PURIFIERS UV PURIFIER

PURIFIERS REVERSE OSMOSIS PURIFIER

PURIFIERS

CERAMIC CANDLE PURIFIER

PURIFIERS E-BOILING PURIFIER

PURIFIERS BLANK PIECES

DRAW YOUR OWN


Acknowledgements We would like to thank: Slabs Team – Mr. Girish Prabhu, Mr. Pranav Borgoankar, Mr.Warren Greving, Ms.Deepta Sateesh Mr. Vishwanath ,Ms. Niveditha at CSTEP, Araghyam Arzu Mistry,Vidya Ma’am and Rupa Ma’am, the students at Drishya,Vayalikaval. Usha Ma’am and the students at Carmel English School,Devanahalli Reap Benefit -Kuldeep Dantewadia and Gautam Prakash Staff and students at TVS Academy, Hosur


The Water Sorter Manual



The Water Sorter- Project H2U