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MALLETT Established 1865

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MALLETT

PLEASURES OF BACCHUS Dining and Drinking

141 NEW BOND STREET, L O N D O N W1 B O U R D O N HOUSE, 2 DAVIES STREET, L O N D O N W1


M A L L E T T IN B O N D S T R E E T Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd 141 New Bond Street London W I S 2BS Telephone: +44 (0)20 7 4 9 9 7411 Fax: +44 (0)20 7495 3179 MALLETT GALLERY Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd 141 New Bond Street London W I S 2BS Telephone: +44 (0)20 7 4 9 9 7411 Fax: + 4 4 (0)20 7495 3 1 7 9 M A L L E T T AT B O U R D O N H O U S E Mallett at Bourdon House Ltd 2 Davies Street London W I K 3DJ Telephone: +44 (0)20 7629 2 4 4 4 Fax: +44 (0)20 7499 2 6 7 0 Mallett Website: www.mallettantiques.com Email: antiques@mallett.co.uk

Front cover: A George III circular mahogany dining table

(see pages 88-89).

Frontispiece: The Green Dining Room, 141 New Bond Street. Right: Part of a very fine Worcester porcelain dessert service (see page 68-69). Back cover: A silver gilt 'Hock' label by Paul Storr. London, 1812


INTRODUCTION

Is anything m o r e fun than entertaining,

At root these B a c c h a n a l i a n pleasures are

offering hospitahty to friends and relations,

based on the e n j o y m e n t o f the riches o f

enjoying with others a certain lavishness

food and drink. T h e way we shape these

and celebrating with food and wine?

customs into our houses has always been

Family meals are at the centre o f our

endlessly fascinating and full o f variety.

culture while greater feasts mark success

Here we lay out some fine furniture and

with shared pleasure. T h i s is the theme

much else that was made for the grandest

o f our s u m m e r exhibition this year.

hospitality. T h e s e o b j e c t s are still wonderfully appropriate for creating a

Fine furnishings in a dining r o o m have

delightful breakfast r o o m , a lunch party

an important role at these events and help

or the ultimate in dining and drinking.

to set a scene o f luxury. N o t e s in this catalogue refer to the changing habits in dining, eating rituals, and drinking.

P

T h e great mediaeval pastime o f the hunt was followed in the afternoon by a massive household meal. T h e distinction o f modern regular meals, breakfast,-lunch and dinner

L a n t o Synge

gradually b e c a m e formalised much later.

C h i e f Executive

Each o f these may be considered the most important but each can be enjoyed with style.


Breakfast Breakfast was a social and informal meal that divided the morning's business. In most Georgian houses, breakfast normally took place any time between 9am and 11am. Visitors might call to pay their respects and to drink tea or coffee. Boswell, writing in 1763, described breakfast as 'a light meal of bread and butter, toast, honey, marmalade, warm rolls, muffins, spiced bread and small cakes of various kinds, with tea, chocolate or coffee'. Small mahogany tables were designed for this purpose, but it was not until the late 18th century that breakfast began to be taken in the specially designed morning or breakfast rooms. In the 1770's breakfast parties became fashionable. Guests were served cold food and strolled in the house and garden, conversing and listening to music. The earliest were given at breakfast time but these gradually crept into the afternoon. The informality of breakfast strikingly contrasted with the formality of dinner. Francois de la Rochefoucauld found 'this sudden change in social manners quite astonishing. In the morning you can behave as you like and it is all extremely comfortable, but in the evening the standard of politeness is uncomfortably high. Dinner is one of the most wearisome of English experiences, lasting as it does, for four or five hours'.

A SILVER GILT A N D G L A S S E G G CUP SET

A charming set of eight cut glass pedestal egg cups decorated with barrel cutting and scalloped edge in a silver gilt stand by Henry Chawner, bearing the full hallmarks for 1790/91, together with eight spoons by George Smith and William Fearn, six of the same date and two dated 1 7 9 4 / 1 7 9 5 . Overall height: S'A in / 21 cm


ght: 27 gth: 63


A S H E R A T O N OVAL M A H O G A N Y B R E A K F A S T T A B L E

...

A late 18th century Sheraton period small oval breakfast table in finely faded mahogany and of elegant proportions, the top crossbanded with satinwood and rosewood and inlaid with b o x w o o d and ebony stringing, with tilt mechanism raised on a turned pillar on curving splayed quadruped base, the supports ending in brass box castors. English, circa 1790 Height: 2772 in / 70 cm Length: 5472 i n / 1 3 8 cm Width: 4174 in / 106 cm

A H O N E Y POT AND STAND

A melon shaped glass honey pot with cover and stand heavily cut all over with narrow columns with cross cut diamonds. English, circa 1820 Height of pot: 572 in / 14 cm Diameter of stand: 6'/i in / 16.5 cm

12


13


A S E T OF F R U I T K N I V E S A set of twenty silver gilt fruit knives with mother of pearl handles bearing the monogram PS. French, circa 1820

A S E T OF S I L V E R GILT SPOONS

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14

A fine set of twelve early 19th century silver gilt hour glass pattern spoons together with two serving spoons ensuite by Eley and Fern with winged spur crest of Sir Richard Johnson Bart, and the engraved motto Non quam non piratus ('never unready'). English, hallmarked 1807


A PAIR O F C O N D I M E N T VASES

A superb pair of George II silver gilt vases by Edward Wakelin, for Francis Greville, 1st Earl of Warwick, engraved with his crest. English, hallmarked 1 7 5 6 Height: 9'U in / 2 5 cm

15


A SET OF GLASS CUT PLATES A set of twelve plates with serrated edges decorated to the rims with cross cut diamonds, the bases decorated in a star pattern with cross cut diamonds and deep cutting. English, circa 1820 Diameter: 7 in / 18 cm

BACCARAT TUMBLERS A group of glass tumblers by Baccarat of various cut and moulded designs, each with encased enamel flowers on gold foil within a raised field. French, circa 1840 Height: 374 in / 9.4 cm The use of gold foil inclusions was developed in France in the 1820s. Gold sheet, which had to be 24 carat otherwise the glass would not adhere to it, was cut to the desired outline and then decorated with coloured enamels and fired. While the tumbler was hot, the enamelled foil was placed on the surface and then covered with a 'pad' of glass. When annealed and cold these tumblers were then cut.

16


AN IRISH

CUT GLASS

BOWL

A deep circular glass bowl with turnover rim, the rim cut with narrow flutes, the body with a band of stylised tlowerheads between two bands of husk ornament, on an inverted baluster stem above a high domed foot with faceted rim. Irish, drai

1790

Height: 1 I in / 28 cm PROVENANCE: The collection of the 6th Marquess of Bute

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A N I M P O R T A N T S U I T E OF G E O R G E II D I N I N G C H A I R S An exceptionally rare suite of mid 18th century carved mahogany dining chairs comprising four open armchairs with pierced fretwork backs and sides of 'Chinese' railing and six side chairs with upholstered backs, all the chairs with arched toprails with central foliate cartouche, the frames carved with gadrooned borders, the square legs with similarly gadrooned corners and foliate brackets. All the chairs are upholstered in 18th century needlework, the seats of the four armchairs having floral needlework on a buff ground. The six side chairs are covered with needlework depicting scenes from mythology and Aesop's fables. English, circa 1755

18

ARMCHAIR:

Height: 3972 in / 100 cm Width: 25 in / 64 cm Depth: 23 in / 58 cm SIDE C H A I R :

Height: 39'/z in /100 cm Width: 22 in / 56 cm Depth: 2OV2 in / 52 cm PROVENANCE:

Kent Gallery Ltd, London Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd The Myron C Taylor Collection, sold by Parke-Bernet Galleries Inc, New York, 11-12 November 1960 Private Collection Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd, 1964 The collection of the late Sir Emmanuel Kaye CBE

This suite of armchairs and side chairs, probably a unique grouping, must have been conceived as a whole, yet adapted to incorporate an amalgam of contemporary decorative motifs, both the 'Roman' and the 'Chinese', and also fine needlework of the period. The double arched shape of the chair backs, the acanthus crestings and the gadrooned mouldings occur throughout all the chairs. The backs and sides of the armchairs, however, enclose panels of Chinese fretwork. In the backs these are juxtaposed with turned columns. This is an unusual combination, though a similar fret and pillar arrangement does appear on a set of chairs from Fineshade Abbey, Lincolnshire, illustrated in The English Chair by Moss Harris, 1946.


AN I M P O R T A N T SUITE OF G E O R G E II D I N I N G C H A I R S

continued

Chinoiserie forms became highlights of the

(plates CL-CLX). Later designs by Robert

A Fox once saw a Crow fly off with a piece

fanciful rococo period and yet these fret or

M a n w a r i n g and Ince and M a y h e w are

of cheese in its beak and settle on a branch

lattice patterns in fact appear as early as

also recorded.

of a tree. The Fox decided he was hungry

1750, in W i l l i a m Halfpenny's Twenty New

and wanted the piece of cheese. He

Designs of Chinese Lattice, and in 1751 in

The contemporary needlework seat of

up to the foot of the tree and cried up to

Matthias Darly's New Book of

each side chair depicts a different scene

the Crow: 'Good

Chinese,

Day, Mistress

Crow.

from Aesop's Fables, with their moral

How well you are looking

Thomas Chippendale's hugely influential

connotations echoed on the seat backs,

glossy your feathers are; how bright

Gentleman

representing stories taken from either

eyes are. I am sure also that your voice is

Ovid's Metamorphoses

far superior to that of all other birds; let

Gothic and Modern

Chairs. There followed

and Cabinet-Maker's

Director

of 1754, with engravings by M a t t h e w

or Virgil's Aeneid.

today;

walked

how your

me hear one song to prove it and so I can

Darly, illustrating 'Chinese Chairs' to be O n e example is the combination of the

greet you as Queen of all Birds'. The Crow

(plates X X I I I - X X V ) and a variety of

Fable of the Fox and the C r o w with the

lifted up her head and began to caw her

patterns for 'Frets' and 'Chinese Railing'

story of D i d o and Aeneas:

best, but the moment

upholstered in needlework or tapestry

20

she opened her


mouth the piece of cheese fell to the ground only to be gobbled up by the Fox. 'That will do,' he said. 'That is all I wanted. In exchange for your cheese I will give you a piece of advice for the future do not trust flatterers. The nidden meaning of the fable of the Fox and the Crow depicted in the needlework of the seat is echoed in the story taken from Virgil's Aeneid depicted in the needlework on the chair back. The scene represents the beginning of the love affair between Aeneas and Dido. Aeneas, on his

great journey, arrived at the court of Dido, Queen of Carthage in North Africa. Dido was charmed by Aeneas flattery and soon fell madly in love. Time passed,*until Aeneas realised that he should continue his journey. In the dead of night he crept away and set sail with his entourage, leaving Dido, unaware, in Carthage. When she woke she realised what had happened and immediately killed herself. Aeneas looking back across the sea could see the smoke from the funeral pyre.

succeeded J P Morgan Jr as Chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. He held positions as the Personal Representative of the President to Pope Pius XII and Personal Representative of the President on Special Missions. He was a renowned and varied collector, particularly of early and mid 18th century English and American furniture, porcelain, silver, textiles, rugs, paintings and drawings.

In 1932, Myron C Taylor (1874-1959)

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A S P E C I M E N W O O D L A Z Y SUSAN An unusual early 19th century revolving iazy susan', the circular top veneered with a variety of specimen woods in a radiating pattern around a central roundel, raised on a turned brass stand. English, circa 1820 Height: Wh in 116.5 cm Diameter: 24 in / 61 cm

A PAIR O F G E O R G E III K N I F E BOXES A pair of George III mahogany knife boxes of serpentine bombe form having boxwood stringing and Sheffield plate escutcheons, each top opening to reveal the interior lid decorated with a marquetry star framed by ebony and sycamore stringing, each interior now lined with green baize. English, circa 1 780 Height: 1472 in / 3 7 cm Width: 9 in / 23 cm Depth: 11 in / 28 cm

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A CHIPPENDALE PERIOD M A H O G A N Y DUMB WAITER

A very fine m i d 18th century circular m a h o g a n y three tier d u m b waiter of exceptional faded c o l o u r w i t h intricately carved a n d fluted stem raised o n d o w n c u r v i n g t r i p o d supports. I English, circa

1760

Height: 4 7 in / 119 c m ^ a m e t e r : l i ' A in / 65 c m PROVENANCE: Mallett 8c Son (Antiques) L t d , 1936 The collection o f M r &; M r s Eric M o l l e r at T h o r n c o m b e Park, Surrey LITERATURE: R W Symonds, Furniture and 18th Century

Making

England,

in 17th

1955, p p 1 3 7

& 139, fig 191

Formed d u r i n g the 1940's a n d 1950's, the M o l l e r collection was one o f the great 20th century collections o f English furniture p u t together under the guidance .- . i f f

of the furniture historian R W Symonds. The core of the collection was a g r o u p o f outstanding m i d 18th century m a h o g a n y pieces o f w h i c h this d u m b waiter is a fine example.

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-

v., -TT, A cut glass a n d silver gilt beehive honey pot a n d stand, w i t h hallmarks for the maker J o h n Emes, L o n d o n 1803 A set of four cut glass salts. English, circa 1780 A silver gilt toast rack. English, h a l l m a r k e d 1850 A gilt glass jug. English, circa 1 8 6 0 A cut glass m a g n u m carafe. Anglo-Irish, circa 1810 A silver gilt ' H o c k ' label by Paul Storr. English, h a l l m a r k e d 1812


A powerful Funch Punch became a favourite beverage amongst the EngHsh after the capture of Jamaica from the Spanish in 1 6 5 5 , The classic recipe for punch consisted of five principle ingredients: spirit, vv^ater, sugar, lemon juice and spices. There were, naturally, many variations and elaborations on the theme. -N

Throwing a party for his ships' companies in 1 6 9 9 , Commander-in-Chief Sir Edward Kennel filled a vast, custom-built marble cistern with 80 casks of brandy, nine of water, 2 5 , 0 0 0 limes, 80 pints of lemon juice and 1 , 3 0 0 pounds of Lisbon sugar, nutmeg, biscuits and a 'great cask' of Malaga. Guests were served the concoction by boys floating on its surface in a rosewood boat. Almost a century later. Admiral Edward Russell celebrated his victory over the French at Barfleur with a party for 6 , 0 0 0 guests, at which the centrepiece was a punch, presented and served in identical fashion.

CHATHAM ARTILLERY

PUNCH

For One Hundred People (or Ten Admirals) This recipe, which was kept

knocked out Admiral Schley when

1V2 gallons of C a t a w b a Wine

jealously secret for years and

he visited Savannah in 1 8 9 9 after

IV2 quarts of Rye Whisky

was unobtainable to outsiders,

the Spanish War. Admiral Cervera's

V2 gallon of St. C r o i x R u m

originated with the C h a t h a m

Spanish shells were harmless to

Va pint of Benedictine

Artillery, Savannah and was served

the brave American admiral, but

1 quart of Gin

there for more than 1 0 0 years. It

Artillery Punch scored a direct hit

1 quart of Brandy

is described as delicious, seductive,

which put him out for two days.

IV2 gallons of strong tea

powerful. This is the punch that

2V2 pounds of brown sugar Juice of IV2 dozen oranges Juice of IV2 dozen lemons

A VERY LARGE PUNCH

CANTONESE

BOWL

A Cantonese export porcelain punch bowl of massive proportions, richly decorated in famille rose colours with gilded highlights. Chinese, circa

1850

Diameter: 21 in / 5 3 cm Height: S'A in / 2 2 cm


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Detail from The Reverend G Shovel by Thomas Davidson. Private collection.


T H R E E I V O R Y SPICE

MORTARS

Three rare late 17th century Indo-Portuguese turned ivory mortars with pestles for grinding spices, all with ring-turned detail, each mortar on a pedestal base and of aged and mellow tone. G o a n , circa

1680

Height of tallest: 872 in / 22 cm

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27


A THREE-TIER M A H O G A N Y

A most unusual early 19th century threetier mahogany etagere of fine faded colour, with ring-turned supports and borders and angle-turned ball finials. English, circa

1800

Overall height: 30 in / 76 cm Width: 26 in / 66 cm Depth: 13 in / 33cm

ETAGERE


A SILVER B R A N D Y W A R M E R

A superb George III Irish silver brandy warmer of unusually large scale, with turned ebony handle, by Ambrose Boxwell of Dublin. Irish, hallmarked 1774 Height: 5 in / 13 cm Length (with handle): 16 in / 41 cm A silver gilt patent lemon squeezer by Hukin &: Heath. English, circa 1880 A Charles X opaline spirit barrel. French, circa 1820 A large pair of rummers with the initials English, circa 1800

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A glass rehoboam (six bottle) decanter. English, circa 1770

29


A G E O R G E III GATE-LEG TABLE

A fine George III oval drop leaf gate-leg table in richly figured mahogany of very fine colour, raised on cabriole legs boldly carved with scrolling acanthus at the knees and ending in claw and ball feet. English, circa

1750

Height: 28 in / 71 cm Length: (open) 58 in / 147.5 cm Width: 54 in / 137 cm

30


TWO C U T G L A S S U R N S A N D C O V E R S Two very large covered cut glass urns of classical proportions, each bowl slightly differently decorated with large cut d i a m o n d s and supported on a s q u a r e cut base a n d cut pedestal, each lid similarly decorated and surmounted by a cut glass finial. Probably Liege, c/rc^z 1 8 2 0 Height: 2 1 in / 5 3 cm

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The Dining Room The earliest use of the term 'dining room' is from an inventory at Ham House in 1 6 7 7 where the Marble Dining Room occupies a central position on the ground floor of the house. This pre-eminence given to the eating room immediately behind the great hall broke the tradition of private family dining being withdraw^n to a private chamber. Early dining rooms would not have had permanent furniture resting on the centre of the room. Walpole at Houghton dined off several tables covered with cloths which were brought forward with the chairs from the surrounding walls. Even Robert Adam, working towards the end of the 18th century at Saltram, continued this tradition, when he converted the library into a dining room in 1 7 8 0 . The chairs were still placed around the wall (for this reason the reverse side of the chair-backs and the legs were often not decorated) and the central table removed when not in use, in order to reveal the specially woven carpet that reflected the elaborate plasterwork.

As at Kedleston, a side table fitted into a shaped niche continued to be used by Adam throughout the 1760's and 1770's. This was a development from the medieval cupboard, which in the 17th century had become a side table, on which the silver and gold plate was displayed and from which the wine would be served. By the 1760's, the side table had been transformed into a suite, with a long table flanked by urn-shaped wine coolers, standing on pedestals, themselves fitted as plate warmers and storage cupboards. This grand suite of furniture became simplified throughout the 1780's as the side table was replaced by a fitted sideboard (see page 42) with wine drawers and storage cupboards.

CARVING

SETS

A very large carving set with antler handles. English, circa

1880

Length of knife: 2472 in / 6 2 cm

(above) A set ot two carving knives and forks with reeded ivory handles by Joseph Rodgers of Sheffield. English, circa 1 8 8 0 Length of largest knife: 16 in / 41 cm

(below)


A G E O R G E III T H R E E P E D E S T A L D I N I N G T A B L E

A very fine late 18th century three pillar mahogany dining table with ' D ' shaped ends, each section raised on a turned pillar with quadruped splayed supports, with two additional leaves of later date. English, circa

1790

Height: 2 8 in / 7 1 cm Width: 4 9 in / 1 2 4 cm Length without leaves: 9 ft / 2 7 4 cm Maximum length with leaves: 12 ft 11 in / 3 9 4 cm

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A G E O R G E III T H R E E P E D E S T A L D I N I N G T A B L E

'6 •

11

continued

12

10 •-•Hf-

Key 1 A pair of cut glass candelabra by

6

(see page

7 A pair of silver plate wine coolers.

3

Part of an Empire porcelain service.

4

1820

10 A set of 6 Whitefriars finger bowls. English, circa

1870

40-41)

2

{see page

A pair of papier mache coasters. English, circa

John Blades.

8

English, circa

1810

A set of 3 6 rummers. English, circa

52-53)

A pair of decanters.

A silver gilt salver. English, hallmarked 1924

9

1810

11 A set of 6 frosted glass plates. English, circa

1820

12 Part of a set of 2 4 silver plates. {see pages

46-47)

A set of stained bone handled knives and forks. English, dated 1821

5

A pair of decanters. English, circa

1810

37


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A G E O R G E III M A H O G A N Y SIDE C A B I N E T

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A George III m a h o g a n y side cabinet of

A n u n u s u a l pair o f W i l l i a m I V Sheffield

A fine cut glass jug.

fine quality a n d colour, the panelled doors

plate w i n e coolers.

Irish, circa

inset w i t h ovals o f n a r r o w crossbanding

English, circa

1830

outlined w i t h ebony stringing, o p e n i n g t o reveal a central c o m p a r t m e n t surrounded by eight drawers.

A collection o f early 19th century cut stemmed d r i n k i n g glasses including 12 c h a m p a g n e , 12 w i n e , 10 sherry, 12 port,

English, circa

1800

Height: 3372 in / 85 c m W i d t h : 4 6 in / 117 cm D e p t h : 1572 in / 39.5 cm

7 liqueur. Liege, circa 1820

1810


A PAIR O F S U P P E R

CANTERBURIES

A pair of large mahogany supper canterburies with pierced carrying handles, the rounded ends for carrying plates and the rectangular ends for cutlery, raised on ring turned tapering legs with brass cup castors. English, circa 1800 Overall height: 32 in / 81 cm Length: 2772 in / 70 cm Width: 1472 i n / 3 7 cm

A group of coloured glass bottles. English, circa 1850

39


A PAIR OF C A N D E L A B R A

BY J O H N

BLADES

A magnificent pair of large three arm candelabra by John Blades of Liidgate Hill, London, with ormolu bases and ormolu arms, the stems, pans and nozzles decorated with columns of cross cutting and pillar cutting and hung with rule drops below baguette cut drops. Knglish, circa

1810

Height: 257: in / 64 cm Width: 16 in / 40.5 cm Diameter of base: 6 in / 15 cm

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A G E O R G E III S H E R A T O N SIDEBOARD

A fine late 18th century George III Sheraton mahogany demi-lune sideboard with finely figured top and brass rail above two large drawers and one small drawer in the frieze. English, circa 1790 Height: 37 in / 94 cm Width: 64 in / 162 cm Depth: 28'A in / 73 cm A fine set of Edwardian cut glass decanters: four magnum and three single bottle size. English, circa 1910

42


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A R A R E SET OF G E O R G E III M A H O G A N Y D I N I N G C H A I R S

continued

A very fine and rare set of ten Chippendale

SINGLE

period mahogany dining chairs, consisting

Height: 3 7 in / 9 4 cm

of two armchairs and eight single chairs,

Width: 2 2 in / 5 6 cm

Chippendale ( 1 7 1 8 - 1 7 7 9 ) . He immortalised

the backs with shaped top rails, moulded

Depth of seat: 18 in / 4 6 cm

the distinctive elaborate splat back dining

CHAIRS:

side supports and foliate and ribbon carved

The greatest name associated with English chairmaking is undoubtedly Thomas

chairs and richly carved mahogany

pierced splat backs, all on square moulded

PROVENANCE:

legs joined by ' H ' stretchers, the serpentine

furniture. In 1 7 4 8 , Chippendale came to

Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd, 1 9 2 0

London from his native Yorkshire and

seats covered in green silk damask.

Private Collection, England

shared premises with Matthias Darly on

Together with two new single chairs to

By descent

The Strand. In 1 7 5 3 , he moved and traded

make a set of twelve. English,

circa

at T h e Sign of the Chair' on St. Martin's Lane. His career has been fully documented

1760

in recent years by Christopher Gilbert.

ARMCHAIRS:

In 1 7 5 3 , Chippendale published

Height: 3 8 in / 9 6 . 5 cm

advertisements for his work

Width: 24V4 in / 6 3 cm Depth of seat: 2 0 in / 51 cm

The

Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director:

'being a new Book of Designs of

Household Furniture in the Gothic, Chinese and Modern Taste, as improved by the politest and most able Artists . . . '

(Public Advertiser, 7th June, 1 7 5 3 ) . The Director was the largest pattern book ever devoted solely to furniture designs. It

44


encompassed all branches of the business, giving measurements, full instructions for the finish and even the intended location of individual pieces. Published in April 1754, it became available immediately in London, York and Edinburgh.

Universal System for Household Furniture in 1762. Thomas Sheraton was always to maintain that although it was 'a work of merit in its day' it was however 'much inferior to Chippendale's'. Chippendale's superior influence had been confirmed.

Chippendale was, naturally, careful never to repeat exactly the same decorative permutation. His mahogany dining-room chairs of the 1760s, fashionable hall chairs and library chairs all conform to a basic design-type.

Three hundred and eight subscribed to the publication, ranging from the nobility to craftsmen. The 160 plates were finely engraved, amongst others, by Matthias Darly and J S Muller. It sold out rapidly and a second edition, with the same plates and a few minor alterations, was issued in 1755 followed by third in 1763. Many of the original designs for the Director survive (mainly in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). Other cabinet makers seized on Chippendale's success and produced their own publications. Ince and Mayhew, already-fashionable cabinetmakers, responded with their

The uniform chara;ter of Chippendale's carved dining chair frames allow one to envisage the prototypes which patrons were shown. Subscribers were encouraged to peruse the Director, to choose a model and to adapt it with specific features and embellishments of their choice. They were encouraged to order either a standard, refined or de luxe version depending on the elaboration of decoration. It is for this reason that very few surviving examples of furniture relate identically and directly to the chairs that were depicted in the Director. Often, a single design would offer different choices of leg, seat rail and back splat for the client to choose from.

In the same way, this set of chairs combine features from several different designs to create an individual design based on a basic template. Close comparisons can be made with Plate XIII of the Director and those purchased by the Winn Family for Nostell Priory, Yorkshire. Similar pierced backs, foliate carvings, fluted side columns and squared legs joined by 'H' stretchers can be found in both examples. The exceptional quality of the present set of chairs does suggest the highest level of craftsmanship and execution.

45


A S E T O F S I L V E R P L A T E S M A D E F O R G E O R G E III

A magnificent set of twenty-four silver plates made by an unidentified Hanover maker in the French manner, the shaped borders with fluted edge and shell motifs, bearing the cypher of George III, the reverse of each hallmarked with the maker's mark ED and inscribed with the weight 14 Lotig, and a further serial number. German, circa 1790 Diameter: IOV2 in / 26.5 cm

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j m


47


T H R E E CUT GLASS IRISH DISHES A N D COVERS

An extremely rare set of three large cut glass oval serving dishes and domed covers with mushroom finials. Irish, circa 1810 Overall length: 1374 in / 34.9 cm PROVENANCE:

By repute, from the collection of Count John McCormack, a famour Irish tenor, Moore Abbey, Co. Kildare

48

A PAIR OF EAMILLE ROSE SERVING PLATES An unusual pair of late 18th century Qianlong famille rose oval serving plates, the central panel depicting Chinese ladies carrying flowers accompanied by a deer in an exotic landscape with cranes. Chinese, circa 1780 Height: 14 in / 36 cm Width: 18 i n / 4 6 cm


A PAIR OF O R M O L U A N D CUT GLASS

A rare pair of late 18th century ormolu mounted cut glass candlesticks, each with ormolu domes below a cut glass ovoid stems having Vandyke pans and nozzles dressed with chains of pear shaped drops with large glass finials, above dark green octagonal glass pilasters ending in circular fluted ormolu bases.

CANDLESTICKS

English, circa 1790 Height: 15 i n / 3 8 cm Width: 6 in / 15 cm

, fl

49


A RUSSIAN

DINING

TABLE

A highly unusual D-ended early 19th

A r e m a r k a b l e very large scale pair o f

century extending dining table veneered

ormolu ship's candlesticks.

throughout in highly figured birch.

Baltic, circa

1780

Extended, the table has t w o sabre legs which descend to support the ends. Closed,

A superb serpentine and ormolu mounted

with one leaf, the table is supported by

tripod athenienne.

four scroll legs with bronzed foliate

Swedish, circa

1790

capitals and similarly bronzed ram's heads at the base. Part o f an Empire porcelain dessert service. Probably Russian, circa

1820

Height: 29'/: in / 7 5 cm Width: 4 7 in / 1 0 4 cm M a x i m u m Length: 11 ft 3 in / 3 4 3 cm

{see pages .S2-53)


i ' '

j i

. i:/


AN EMPIRE P O R C E L A I N DESSERT SERVICE

A fine quality E m p i r e porcelain dessert service by Dihl a n d G u e r h a r d d e c o r a t e d w i t h gilt stylised floral o r n a m e n t on a w h i t e g r o u n d consisting of 4 fruit baskets, 2 large c o m p o t i e r s with trays, 2 small c o m p o t i e r s , 2 dessert bowls, 2 f r u i t coolers a n d 18 plates, each b e a r i n g t h e m a k e r ' s s t a m p in red or impressed initial. F r e n c h , circa

52

1810


53


vf-

54

J-


A R A R E S E T OF M A H O G A N Y D I N I N G C H A I R S

A set of 18 William IV mahogany armchairs in the manner of Gillows, with curved tablet crest rail and single reeded horizontal splat, the reeded surround echoed in the downswept arm rails, with turned supports, supported on turned and reeded tapering legs, the seats upholstered in yellow silk damask. English, circa 1840 Height: 32 in / 81 cm Width: I V h in_/ 54.5 cm Depth: 1972 i n / 4 9 . 5 cm

PROVENANCE:

Liverpool Marine Office Daniel Defoe commented in the early 1720's that Lancaster had 'little to recommend it but a decayed Castle, and a more decayed Port (with) little or no trade, and few People'. Within fifty years the situation had changed dramatically. This sudden growth was due to Lancaster's geographically advantageous position in relation to Liverpool. Infrastructure and accessibility had been dramatically developed here in conjunction with the

expansion and development of sea routes to the Americas with which trade had ^ become of staple importance to the growth of the economy. Gillows of Lancaster, and subsequently London, took advantage of this new market to become one of the greatest cabinet-making firms of the late 18th a n d * 19th centuries. The firm was founded in thel730's by Robert Gillow the elder (1704-1772). In his 1807 Account of Lancaster Clarke points out that 'the town has long been famous for the great quantities of mahogany furniture which has been made in it for home-use and exportation. M r Gillow's extensive warerooms, stored with every article of useful and ornamental mahogany furniture are well worth the attention of strangers, as they are said to be best stocked of any in this line out of the metropolis'.

mahogany is also typical of the firm whose Lancaster premises were adjacent to the port of Liverpool into which most mahogany from the Americas was imported. It was from the Cuba that Gillows was to source the high quality mahogany that has given renown to its name; their robust style and fine figured mahogany of the early 19th century being particularly appraised by connoisseurs and scholars today.

The firm's furniture of the Regency period, which the present chairs epitomise, is typified by sober 'Grecian' forms and loosely influenced by the designs of Sheraton and Hope, yet interpreted more sculpturally. This use of high quality

The new C,"ust<)ni House, I.iverpool.

55


A R A R E S E T OF M A H O G A N Y D I N I N G C H A I R S

The firm w a s well patronised by the aristocracy and gentry with clients including the Earls of Derby, Lauderdale and Shaftesbury. The D u k e s of Atholl and Hamilton also commissioned pieces for Blair Castle and H a m i l t o n Palace respectively. O n the other side of the spectrum, Gillows w a s also commissioned by administrative and governmental institutions to provided suites of furniture, including long sets of chairs, for b o a r d rooms and offices. The present chairs are known to have been supplied, possibly by Gillows, to the Liverpool M a r i n e Office during the 19th century.

56

continued


A PAIR

OF

DECANTER

TROLLEYS

A pair of early 19th century black lacquer double trolley coasters, retaining all their original brass fittings. English, circa 1810 Length: 11'A in (30cm)

57


Dessert Dinners were brought to a climax with the dessert course, which was easily the most expensive element of a formal meal and could only be afforded by the wealthy. Once the glasses had been changed and the tablecloth removed, as La Rochefoucauld comments, the table would then be laden with 'elegant china baskets' of fresh, candied and preserved fruit, 'sweetmeat glasses' of dry and wet sweetmeats, 'confits and licorice in fine porcelain or crystal vases' with 'small glasses and china plates of olives and niits, and mountains of sparkling jellies, creams, ices and syllabubs'. It was general practice for desserts to be ordered from outside caterers and confectioners. Many had moved to England from the continent and set up shop in London and the more fashionable provincial towns including Bath and York. The confectioner could also supply the 'decorative furniture' on which to display these highly desirable and expensive delicacies, if not already covered by the household inventory. Glass pyramid tazzas (see page 63) and sweetmeat dishes became fashionably essential. In 1 7 1 9 , Lady Baillie commented on how at one party there was: 'in the middle of the table a Pirimide, sillibubs and orange cream in the lower part, above it, sweetmeats dry and wet'. Exquisite porcelain services were commissioned from manufacturers, both from England (see page 68) and abroad (see page 52): a multitude of small scale dessert plates would be accompanied by ensuite dishes, bowls, tazza and fruit coolers all beautifully decorated with floral motifs.

The dessert was always supplemented by sweet wines in decanters which were placed in front of the head of the household. These were passed from right to left or pushed around the table on decanter trolleys (see page 57). The servants would leave the room, the women would then withdraw to discuss gossip and scandal while the men would remain behind, drinking and smoking before joining the women some time later. This, in turn, would be followed by gambling and further drinking. O N E OF A SET OF C O A L P O R T PLATES

A set of six early 19th century Coalport porcelain fruit plates finely decorated by Baxter. English, circa

1800

Diameter: 8'A in / 21 cm


m

. ¥•

Detail from A Still Life of Fruit on a

with CI Goldfish

Bowl

(1876)

by

Wgjnwright. Private collection.

JDIIII

Ledge


gj

-v

w

'Br

•MM'r


A G E O R G E III M A H O G A N Y C I R C U L A R D I N I N G T A B L E

Key 1

A 4 tier tazza pyramid with patty pans. English, circa 1760

2

Part of a 9 piece suite of Regency cut glass dishes and comports. English, circa 1820

3

A set of 6 Coalport porcelain plates decorated by Baxter.

4

Two 18th century brass sugar casters. French, circa 1740

5

A set of 6 small engraved wine glasses. English, circa 1780

6

A set of 12 Regency cut glass plates. (see page / 6)

62

7

A 14 piece set of silver gilt ice cream spoons. (see page 14)

8

A 24 piece set of silver and green stained bone dessert knives and forks. English, hallmarked London, 1907

9

A cut glass cream jug. English, circa 1780

continued


A J k Z Z k

PYRAMID

A five tier tazza pyramid with patty pans ensuite, the tazzas turned with bobbin stems. English, circa 1735 Height: 24 in / 64 cm


A VERY R A R E C I R C U L A R JUPE PATENT DINING TABLE

64


A William IV circular extending mahogany dining table by Johnstone Jupe &C Co of rare small scale, the swivel action top formed of eight triangular segments with expanding mechanism to insert eight additional sections, all with brass tips, raised on a turned pillar with stylised lotus leaf carving supported by a platform base with concave sides on reeded feet with brass castors. Underneath the table top is a central circular brass hub inscribed Jupe's Patent. The surrounding timber stamped Johnstone jupe & Co, New Bond Street, London and the serial number 9 6 7 5 . The curved steel arms of the captan action stamped Patent. The base with a trade label in ivory inscribed Jupe's Patent, Johnstone Jupe & Co, New Bond Street, London with royal coat of arms. With original wooden cabinet for the additional leaves. English, circa 1 8 3 5 - 1 8 4 0 Height: 2972 in / 74 cm Diameter: (unextended) 42'h in / 108 cm Diameter: (extended with eight loose leaves) 60'h in / 153 cm LITERATURE:

Christopher Gilbert, Pictorial Marked London Furniture, 1996, pp 2 8 3 - 2 8 5 . E Aslin, 19th Century English 1962, p 15 F Collard, Regency

Furniture,

Dictionary 1700-1840,

of

Furniture, 1985, p 24

Robert Jupe, upholder of 47 Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, London, patented the design for a circular expanding dining table with a segmented top in 1 8 3 5 . The specification states: 'An improved expanding table so constructed that the sections composing its surface may be caused to diverge from a common centre and that the spaces caused thereby may be filled up by inserting leaves or filling pieces. The table, when expanded, forms usually a round but it may be arranged to form an oval or an oblong.' The first tables were made between 1835 and 1840 by John Johnstone of New Bond Street subsequently becoming Johnstone & Jeanes after 1842. Hence, our table, with the label 'Johnstone & Jupe' must have been an early example and made prior to 1842. The tables were usually supplied with a cabinet for the loose leaves.

65


.

V/^-v

[•i


A G E O R G E III B R E A K F R O N T

A George III mahogany breakfront bookcase the scrolled broken pediment with foliate terminals centred by a fluted pedestal and flanked by husk-trailed yellow acanthus, the dentilled panelled frieze inlaid with simulated flutes, above a pair of gothic-glazed doors with ogival arches and engraved acanthus sprays to the angles surmounted by rosette paterae, flanked by two similar doors, each enclosing a silk lined interior with adjustable shelves, the moulded base with two further central doors with raised cut-cornered panel, enclosing three slides, flanked to each side by two similar drawers each enclosing four drawers with lacquered brass drop handles, on a moulded plinth.

BOOKCASE

PROVENANCE:

Private collection, England Mallett &C Son (Antiques) Ltd, 1954 Private collection of Cecil Millar, ex-President of BADA, England LITERATURE:

^

Connoisseur, April 1955 E Joy, Country Life Book of English Furniture, London, 1969, p 62, fig 80 Messrs A Hepplewhite & Co published bookcase patterns including this tripartate arched glazing, in their Cabinet-Maker Upholsterer's See overleaf

Guide,

and

1788, pi 40.

for porcelain

dessert

service

English, circa 1770 Height: 107 in / 2 7 2 cm Width: 100 in / 2 5 4 cm Depth: 23 in / 58.5 cm

OPALINE FINGER

BOWLS

A set of seven opaline glass finger bowls with gilt rims. French, circa

1850

67


A W O R C E S T E R DESSERT

SERVICE

An extremely fine early 19th century Chamberlain's Worcester porcelain dessert service comprising: 2 7 side plates, 10 scalloped dishes, 2 small saucepots, 2 large fruit coolers and a dolphin tazza, (see page 5). Each piece is painted with a variety of flowers within a deep blue ground, richly gilded with foliate patterns, the centres of the dishes and bodies of the fruit coolers decorated with a rare gilded pattern of miniature brickwork. The tazza is raised on four gilded dolphin supports and the coolers have pierced galleries and dolphin finials. English, circa

1820

The original Worcester porcelain factory was founded in 1751. Robert Chamberlain had been the first apprentice at the Worcester works and apparently was in charge of the ornamental part of their production and the embellishing of the ware 'for many years'. When the old Worcester factory was sold in 1 7 8 3 to Thomas Flight. Chamberlain left and set up his own enamelling establishment.

68

decorating for the Caughley, Coalport and, probably, New Hall factories. He soon had his own factory and business developed rapidly. To begin with, their production was not dissimilar to that of the original firm, albeit with a difference in the actual glaze. They soon came into competition with Flight and Barr's Worcester factory, especially for the most prestigious orders. George III and Queen Charlotte visited their premises at 33 High Street in 1788. In 1802, Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton commissioned a service bearing the Nelson arms and insignia and, in 1807, the Prince Regent came to the works. In that year he ordered: 'A complete set of superb vases to be painted with historical subjects'. The Prince commissioned a further service in 1811 in the 'Japan' pattern. At his time Chamberlain invented a new type of porcelain which he called 'Regent Body', no doubt in recognition of his royal patron. This porcelain was 'a special mixture, very hard and durable, having little or no lead in its composition . . . all colours look better on the glaze of this body than any other'. It was expensive

and therefore reserved for commissions of the highest importance. This enterprising firm prospered to the extent that premises were opened in London in 1814 in Piccadilly. In 1816 they moved to 155 New Bond Street. Still in fierce competition for royal patronage with the new Worcester firm of Flight and Barr, Chamberlain secured further orders from the crown for large services both in 1816 and 1 8 2 0 when George IV came to the throne. This particular service is decorated with one of the popular and most decorative designs, the 'French Sprig', depicting individual flowers, but here they are contained within a most unusual pattern of miniature brickwork. With its richness of decoration and quality of painting and gilding, it has all the attributes expected of a great Chamberlain creation.


69


Picnics Never much acclaimed for their culinary prowess, the English have always been renowned for their picnics. Smoked salmon, lobster, strawberries and cream washed down with Pimm's or champagne; picnics evoke memories of the perfect English summer's day and the subject has attracted painters, poets and writers throughout history. Picnics fill the social calender of the summer months: the Fourth of June at Eton College, Lords, Wimbledon and Henley..Regatta to name but a few. The idea of mutual sharing and collaboration was fundamental to the original significafice of the picnic. In the 1854 edition of Webster's Unabridged

Dictionary,

a 'picnic' is defined as

'an entertainment to which each person contributed some dish or article for the general table'. The term 'picnic' was first used around 1740 and was a derivation of the French verb piquer which translates as 'to pick at food'. The notion of eating outdoors probably had its origins in the hunt feasts of the Middle Ages, where a meal of pies, cooked meats and sweet tarts took place in a forest clearing before the start of the hunt. In London during the early 19th century. The Picnic Society was formed by a group of society people. These picnics were taken very seriously indeed. The fashion for excursions from the city into the country created a need for meals eaten outdoors. Popular activities such as sketching or collecting rare fungi, butterflies and flowers were a perfect excuse for extravagant picnics. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert's fondness for picnics is described in

the Queen's Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands, from 1848 to 1861.

A T R A V E L L I N G D E C A N T E R SET

A set of four octagonal dark green decanter bottles, the narrow sides decorated with a

Curaco, Kerch Wasser and Eau de Vie, together with a mahogany carrying case.

strands of fruiting vines, the wide sides with a trellis decoration. Each bottle with

English, circa

an individual gilt label: Maraschino,

Height of bottles: 9 in / 2 3 cm

1800


A H O R N J U G A N D SIX B E A K E R S

An unusual silver gilt and horn jug, bearing the maker's mark of Percy H o l l a n d &i George Gibson with the retail marking of Henry Robinson &c Wells, H i g h St. Shrewsbury on the base, together with a set of six silver gilt mounted horn beakers of graduated size, each decorated with a shield and bearing the maker's mark of Frederick Charles Austin &C Co. English, the jug hallmarked 1879, the beakers hallmarked 1907 Height of jug: 11'A in / 29 cm

IS


A F R E N C H T R A V E L L I N G CASE

An exceptional early 19th century travelling case in burr elm with brass mounts and corners, fitted with many accessories including a silver chocolate pot with ebony handle, a knife, a silver fork and spoon, seafood picks and a corkscrew. French, circa 1825 Height: 5 in / 12.5 cm Width: 874 in / 2 2 cm

^

^

Length: IS'A in / 35 cm

f ^ i


A R O S E W O O D B U T L E R ' S TRAY ON STAND

An e x c e p t i o n a l 1 9 t h c e n t u r y highly

figured

r o s e w o o d o v a l b u t l e r ' s t r a y of large size w i t h b r a s s c a r r y i n g h a n d l e s o n its o r i g i n a l folding stand with X-frame and turned stretcher. E n g l i s h , circa

1830

O v e r a l l h e i g h t : 2 8 in / 71 c m M a x i m u m W i d t h : 49'/i

in / 1 2 6 c m

M a x i m u m D e p t h : 3 5 in / 8 9 c m

75


Tea In the 18th century, the drinking of tea took London by storm. Tea had already been used ii China for many thousands of years initially for medicinal purposes and subsequently as a beverage. In the 16th century, the Portuguese established their trading post at Macao and soon adopted the local custom of drinking tea. In 1662, Charles II of England married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza who probably introduced tea to ,the English Court. With royal patronage, the popularity of tea rose dramatically and English trade routes with China were soon established. Within a couple of decades the humble leaf of Camellia sinensis had become the most commercially important item of trade in the history of England. The heavy tax levied by successive governments on tea imports made the commodity incredibly expensive. Understandably tea was always kept safely under lock and key in exquisitely constructed tea-caddies (see page 80, page 83). The quality of these pieces reflect today the value placed then on the tea they contained. The grandest pieces housed three separate compartments: one for green (unfermented) tea, one for black (fermented) tea or bohea and the central compartment was used for mixing the two to individual requirements of taste. By 1784, thirteen million pounds of tea were being consumed annually. Extortionate taxes encouraged smuggling and it was believed that almost two thirds of the tea drunk in the 1780's had been imported illegally. Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger reduced the tax substantially which put an end to smuggling and increased the amounts of tea consumed to the extent that despite dramatically reduced taxes more money was raised through increased demand. In the home, tea-drinking was a typically feminine and domestic activity. The ritual, with the aid of the tea-table, tea-caddies, specially designed porcelain from China and beautiful silverware, commended it particularly to women of leisure and provided a fashionable and charming occasion for social contact.

A CHINESE

TEAPOT

One of a pair of small famille noire teapots

Chinese, circa 1740

decorated with pink peonies.

Height: 5 in / 12.5 cm


A G E O R G E III S I L V E R C O F F E E

POT

An extremely fine G e o r g e III silver coffee p o t w i t h an ivory h a n d l e by Hester Bateman, London. English, h a l l m a r k e d 1 7 7 5 - 7 6 H e i g h t : 12 in / 3 0 . 5 c m

re

78


I

79


A M O T H E R - O F - P E A R L AND SILVER TEA C A D D Y

A rare mid 18th century silver mounted mother-of-pearl casket, finely carved throughout with flowers and leaves, with pierced silver carrying handle, hinges and lock escutcheon and raised on silver claw and ball feet, containing three rococo chinoiserie repousse silver tea caddies with lids, the interior retaining its original red velvet lining, with the hallmarks of S Herbert & Co, London. English, hallmarked 1760-1. Height: 7 in / 18 cm Width: l l ' / 4 i n / 3 0 c m Depth: G'h in / 16.5 cm LITERATURE:

Masterpieces Gerstenfeld

of English Furniture: Collection,

p 251 for a related example

80

The

London, 1998,


A MAHOGANY

PIE C R U S T T R I P O D

TABLE

A fine mid 18th century small mahogany circular tripod table with piecrust top. English, circa 1760 Height: 27 in / 69 cm Diameter: I V h in / 57 cm Tripod tables were made for holding tea and coffee equipage. W i l l i a m hice and J o h n M a y h e w illustrated designs for 'Tea Kettle Stands' in their The Universal System of Household

Furniture,

1762, as did

Chippendale in The Gentleman Cabinet

Makers Director,

and

L o n d o n , 3rd ed.,

1762, p LV.

H

A G E O R G E I SILVER TEA KETTLE A N D

STAND

A rare George I silver tea kettle on its original stand with burner, with an ivory handle and engraved with the arms of the 9th Earl of H a d d i n g t o n and M a r i a Macclesfield by Samuel Lea, L o n d o n . English, hallmarked 1716 Height: 1 5 7 2 i n / 3 9 c m Length: 11 in / 28 cm The 9th Earl of H a d d i n g t o n held the positions of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and 1st Lord of the Admiralty. H e was created Baron Melrose of Tyninghame in 1827.

LITERATURE:

Arthur G G r i m w a d e , London 1 6 9 7 - 1837, p 577 (see also page 79)

Goldsmiths

itT


A CHINESE EXPORT PORCELAIN C H O C O L A T E POT

A rare 18th century Q i a n l o n g export porcelain chocolate pot with high domed cover with gilt metal hinge, decorated with peonies and leaves in grisaille heightened with green and gold, on matching oval plate, the design following a European silver form. Chinese,

circa

1750

Height: 772 in / 19 cm

F R U I T W O O D TEA CADDIES A selection of late 1 8th century turned fruitwood tea caddies, three in the form of apples and two in the form of pears. English,

circa

1790

Height of tallest: 6V4 in / 17 cm

82


FRUITWOOD

TEACADDIES

83


A GEORGK

III P E M B R O K E

TABLE

A fine late 18th century G e o r g e 111 Sheraton oval p e m b r o k e table veneered in a highl\ u n u s u a l k n o t t e d b u r r w a l n u t with a single d r a w e r in the frieze w i t h silver ring pull handles.

English, circa

1790

H e i g h t : 2 9 in / 7 4 c m W i d t h : 39V. in / 101 c m D e p t h : 30'A in / 78 c m

A 19th century porcelain tea service consisting o f ten cups a n d saucers, a t e a p o t , t w o jugs a n d a slop b o w l a n d a pair o f c a m p a g n a vases (not s h o w n ) . English, signed C M Weede, 8th November

1834.

w r ^

csj


A very unusual mid 19th century circular tripod tea table profusely inlaid throughout with exceptional marquetry decoration depicting genre scenes of the Italian campagna in the manner of Pinelli, divided by floral gardens, the swivel stem carved with acanthus and bellflowers, on tripod feet with scroll toes. Possibly from the workshops of Luigi and Angiolo Falcini. Italian, circa 1840 Height: 29 in / 74 cm Diameter: 34 in / 87 cm Literature for related tables: S Chiarugi, Botteghe di Mobilieri in Toscana 1780-1900, Florence, 1994

85


Etiquette of Dining An invitation to a formal dinner covered more than one meal and would last throughout the afternoon and evening. The guests would assemble in the drawing room before entering the dining room in strict order of social precedence with the ladies entering the dining room first and seating themselves around their hostess at her end of the table and the men would follow. Men and women did not really sit alternately around the table until late in the 18th century. Even in 1 7 8 8 it was described as 'a new promiscuous mode of seating^. In the dining room the table would be covered by a long white cloth of the finest linen. During the reign of Queen Anne it would still have been perfectly acceptable to eat with your hands, although within a few years forks were widely acceptable and one did not need to share them with other diners, as during the previous century. During the Georgian period, as in the 17th century, dinner was divided into two courses, followed by dessert. All the dishes would be laid on the table in a formal arrangement, like an elaborate buffet today. The first course of a dinner would comprise a variety of boiled meat and fish with pies and accompanying vegetables. The two soups, one at each end of the table, would be replaced by two highly elaborate roast dishes. These could be discussed as conversation pieces before being carved while the rest of the first course was cleared. The second course would comprise mostly roast dishes and perhaps lighter game birds, interspersed by the occasional fruit pie or custard. At the centre of these dishes the dessert course would be introduced by an elaborate confectionery dish. Many of the recipe books published during the 18th century gave detailed illustrated diagrams showing how each course should be presented. Even a small informal party would have 'a roast leg of lamb, with spinach chopped fine, the stuffing with flour and raisins, the sirloin of beef and a turkey poult'.

BASTING SPOONS

M a x i m u m length: 1672 in / 4 2 cm


Detail from The Kitchens at Brighton Piwilion, reproduced courtesy of The Mary Kvans Picture Library.


A G E O R G E III C I R C U L A R M A H O G A N Y D I N I N G T A B L E

A very fine late 18th century George III circular mahogany dining table of exceptional size with a finely figured tilt top with reeded edge of superb colour and patina supported on four down-swept reeded legs. English, circa 1795 Height: 2772 in / 70 cm Diameter: 71 in / 180.5 cm

r,

88

r?


tf'

89


A G E O R G E III C I R C U L A R M A H O G A N Y D I N I N G T A B L E

continued

1

4

' if-- ^^ 7

Key 1

A cut glass bowl. Irish, circa 1800

2

Part of a set of 24 silver gilt underplates.

6

A set of mother of pearl handled knives and forks. French, circa

7

Austrian, modern

1820

A set of 8 gold porcelain plates by Nast of Paris. French, circa 1820

3

A pair of ormolu ships candlesticks. Baltic, circa 1780

8

A set of 12 rummers. English, circa

4

1810

A pair of ormolu wine coolers. (see pages

92-93}

9

A pair of gilt glass decanters and 10 matching wine glasses.

5

90

A set of agate handled knives and forks. English, circa 1850

English, circa 1800


91


A PAIR OF MATTHEW BOULTON WINE C O O L E R S

An important and rare pair of ormolu

lived amongst the French'. Boulton seems

circular wine coolers, the top rim with

to have taken this advice as early as 1 7 7 2

guilloche and bead border above a reeded

when three designs for ice pails were sent

body with a lower band of Vitruvian

to the Duke of Ancaster, at Grimsthorpe

scrolls and very finely chased acanthus

Castle. The Duke subsequently ordered

base, raised on turned socles, with reeded

three large pails and a small pair ensuite

acanthus cast handles at either side rising

for the considerable price of ÂŁ 7 2 , 9s. The

from bacchanalian satyr's masks with vine

company's record books confirm that the

leaf headdress.

model, with its classical references of acanthus leaves, Vitruvian scrolled borders

English, circa

and satyr mask handles, was clearly

Mil

Height: 9 in / 2 3 cm

popular. Further orders were placed by

Overall width: lO'A in / 2 6 cm

the Earl of Asburnham in 1 7 7 6 , the

LITERATURE:

of Beauchamp in 1 7 9 4 amongst others.

Countess of Derby in 1 7 7 8 and the Earl Nicholas Goodison, Ormolu

The

Work

of Matthew Boulton, 1974, p 137, pi 63 Boulton 8c Fothergili, Pattern

Book

I,

p 177, fig n.

Matthew Boulton, keen to establish himself as the leading manufacturer of ormolu in England, turned to France for inspiration. In 1769, Boulton's friend Thomas Pownall suggested that the first objects he should consider making should be ice pails; after he had consulted craftsmen 'who copy or invent new modes of luxury, and who have

92

Design from Boulton & Fothergill's Pattern

Rook

I,

reproduced courtesy o f Birmingham City Archives.


c


94


A F R E N C H P R O V I N C I A L DRAW L E A F T A B L E

A most rare mid 17th century French provincial draw leaf centre table in solid walnut of magnificent colour, raised on seven column legs supported on a double cruciform moulded base. French, circa

1640

Height closed: 3072 in / 77 cm Length closed: 48'A in / 123 cm Width: 2 9 in / 74 cm Length fully extended: 90'A in / 231 cm

as the central arcade and turned pendants also occur in designs for tables in Dutch pattern books of this period. Examples can be seen in Paul Vredeman de Vries, Verscheyden Schrynwerck, Amsterdam, 1630 and S Jervis, Printed Furniture Designs before 1650, London, 1974, pi 352. The tables of Dutch origin tend to be more heavily proportioned and elaborately decorated. On the table is a group of early 18th century drinking glasses.

A similar French table with column supports is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and is illustrated in Highlights of the Untermeyer Collection, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977, p 102. The simplicity of the decoration, the slender proportions of the supports and the acorn pendants of both tables suggest a provincial French craftsman. Elements such

95


AN A R M O R I A L

CELLARETTE

A George III mahogany cellarette of square form inlaid on the top with the coat-ofarms of the Coopers C o m p a n y and on the front the armorial shield of William Tatlock, Master of C h a t h a m Dock, with carrying handles at the sides and raised on tapering legs. English, dated 1802 Height: 23 in / 58.5 cm Width: 1772 in / 44 cm Depth: 16 in / 4 1 cm

C H A M P A G N E GLASSES A set of six 'rock crystal' champagne glasses by T h o m a s Webb & Son. Stourbridge, circa 1890 Height: A'U in / 12 cm

96


\ M A H O G A N Y WINE COOLER

A fine late 18th century George III oval mahogany wine cooler with carrying handles and brass straps, supported on square tapering legs with brass castors. English, circa 1780 Height: 23 in / 58 cm Width: 24 in / 61 cm Depth: 19 in / 48 cm

My


Wines and Spirits In polite society the consumption of alcoholic drinks has always been governed by etiquette. Even today, having a drink before 'the sun has passed over the yard-arm' might raise an eyebrow. Things were no different in the 18th century. In the dining room, the drink would be kept on side tables and if thirsty a guest would request a servant to pass him a drink. The servant would pass a full glass of the required drink and once emptied the glass would be passed back to the servant usually without touching the table at any stage. This was a universal custom throughout Europe. The glasses were small for a good reason: one did not drink alone but invited a neighbour to a toast, the two glasses were filled, raised in salute, and then emptied. Not to do so would be an insult to the subject of the toast. After twenty such toasts even small glasses would be enough to inebriate the drinker. Indeed, by the dessert course, the behaviour of the male diners could become rather raucous. At this stage the ladies would retire, often to drink tea and cordials (liqueurs). Meanwhile the men continued foasting and drinking. Sometimes a guest would slump incapable under the table, whereupon his servant would loosen his necktie; this would not be considered an insult to the host, but a compliment to his generosity. It was politics, particularly the exploits of Napoleon Bonaparte at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, rather than geography which determined what drink was available to the English. France provided, as today, champagne, claret and Burgundy. The Methuen Treaty of 1703 ensured the free entry of Portuguese wines into England. The Mediterranean islands were also popular producers of wine with their warm climates and easy access by sea. The social history of England is intimately bound up with food and drink. In war and at peace, in times of famine or plenty, the availability of good beef and good drink has enabled the Englishman to face the future with equanimity.

A GLASS DRINKING

HORN

A 16th century low countries glass drinking horn with trailed decoration, hanging loops and traces of original gilding to rim and finial.

Belgian, circa 1590 Length: 1 VU in / 30 cm


Detail from Still Life with Drinking Vessels by Pieter Claesz (1597/8-1660), reproduced courtesy of The National Gallery Picture Library.


100


A SET O F

FOUR

WINE

GLASSES

A set of four tall wine glasses on folded feet engraved with a coat of arms and the motto Comaedt

van

Beynhem.

Silesian, circa 1740 Height: 774 in / 1 8.7 cm

101 'J-^tf-X*


A PAIR OF M A H O G A N Y B O T T L E C A R R I E R S

An extremely fine pair of mahogany brass bound bottle carriers or wine coolers with hinged compartments with brass edged openings and brass carrying handles. English, circa

1800

Height: IOV2 in / 2 6 . 5 cm Width: 13 in / 33V2 cm Depth: 8V2 in / 2 2 cm

T W O 'JOLLY BOAT' COASTERS

Two very similar early 19th century silver plated double wine coasters in the form of a clinker built dingy, one with original leather casters, engraved with a crest and inscribed JOLLY

BOAT on the stern, the

other also inscribed on the stern

JOLLY

BOAT

English, circa

1820

Length: I2V2 in / 3 2 cm Width: 574 in / 14.5 cm

102

THE


BALUSTER

GLASSES

A light baluster wine glass with triple anniilated k n o p on folded foot. English, circa

1720

Height: 77: in / 19 cm

A light baluster wine glass with a bell shaped bowl on a tall knopped hollow stem and folded foot. English, circa 1730 Height: 7'/4 in / 19.5 cm

A m a m m o t h baluster goblet with round funnel bowl over an inverted baluster stem with large tear, on a folded foot. English, circa 1710 Height: 11 in / 28 cm


A SUITE O F PETAL M O U L D E D

A suite of forty-eight petal m o u l d e d r u m m e r s in f o u r d i f f e r e n t sizes suitable f o r a table of twelve places. English, circa 1 8 0 0 H e i g h t of largest r u m m e r : AV* in / 12 cm

104

RUMMERS


A LIQUEUR D E C A N T E R A liqueur server with eight compartments surrounding a central compartment with dark green stoppers, all covered by a cut glass lid. Bohemian, circa 1850 Height: IS'h in / 36 cm


A G R O U P OF G L A S S E S BY P E R R I N G E D D E S & C O

A rare set of ten cut glasses engraved with a crest of an eagle comprising four sherry glasses and six port glasses. The original service, from which these glasses were inspired, w a s commissioned by the Liverpool C o r p o r a t i o n and m a d e by Perrin G e d d e s &c C o . of Warrington for a large banquet on the 18 September 1806 attended by the Prince of Wales (later G e o r g e IV). The Prince w a s so impressed by the set that he commissioned a second and larger service engraved with his own crest (now in the Royal collection at Windsor). English,

circa

1810

LITKRATURE: Charles R H a j d a m a c h , 1800-1914,

106

1981, pp

British Glass

39-41


A PAIR O F R O C K C R Y S T A L

DECANTERS

A rare pair of cut and engraved decanters in the 'rock crystal' style, decorated with fish swimming amidst seaweed, the original stoppers similarly engraved according to pattern 3 0 2 9 5 (January 1907) in the Webb pattern b o o k . Signed on the base Wehh. English, 1907

i

Height: 137: i n / 3 4 . 3 cm 1'KC)VKNANC:K: Formerly in the A Waugh Collection Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd, 1994 Private C^ollection, Australia Kxhibited in English IS7S-I9Z.\

Rock

Crystiil

CiLiss

Oudlev Art (lallerv, 1976

i!

'

107


108


A C O L L E C T I O N OF WINE

LABELS

An extremely rare collection o f twenty-one

Hermitage

old Sheffield plate wine labels, inscribed

Amontilado Sack

as follows:

Vin de Saint Vallery Rhenish

Old Paxarete Claret

Bucellos

Amestross or S t r a b o s W i n e

Champaine

Constantia

Flora

X y l i t e Hermitage

W h i t e Burgondy

Tenedos

Vin de Province

Vins de L a q r i m a s

Hungarian T a k a y or St G e o r g e

/

Sherry Alba

English, circci

W h i t e Claret

F r a m e d : 16'A in x 1 '"A in / 4 1 cm x 4 4 cm

A .

1790


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Director

Tarquin Bilgen Charles Mackinnon Ainslie Marchant

M A L L E T T AT B O U R D O N H O U S E LTD 2 Davies Street London W I K 3DJ Telephone: +44 (0)20 7629 2444 Fax: +44 (0)20 7499 2670 Thomas Woodham-Smith Henry Neville Director Felicity Jarrett Associate

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Mallett - The Pleasures of Bacchus