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Learning from the Informal

Relocating a marginal community into an urban fabric Project Description/Redegørelse Thesis Project Spring 2017 Malin Mohr

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Project Description/Redegørelse Malin Mohr Study Nr. 2011149 Thesis Project June 2017 Architecture School of Aarhus Studio 1A Tutor: Tom Nielsen 2


Table of Content

p. 4 p. 5 p. 6 p. 7

Preface Motivation Relocation rather than rehousing Terras da Costa - a special case

p. 10 - 13 p. 10 p. 11 p. 12 p. 13

Part 1 - informality and future cities Informality and future cities The change of Lisbon after 1974 An example of how Lisbon dealt with this change A case of many layers

p. 14 p. 15 p. 16 p. 17

Considering 3 scales Three rules Design interventions Social visions

p. 19 - 21 p. 22 - 23 p. 25 - 25 p 26 - 27

Part 2 - Geographical context Terras da Costa’s relation to the city, Costa da Caparica Background of Costa da Caparica Neighbourhoods in the city

p. 29 - 44

Part 3 - The informal settlement, Terras da Costa

p. 45 - 57

Part 4 - Site for relocation

p. 59 - 79

Part 5 - 4 design interventions

p. 80

Reflection

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Preface How can spatial organisation encourage social integration in the case of relocating residents from one particular neighbourhood into another? One main focus of this project are spaces with potential for connecting new and existing areas of habitation. This booklet is the main written part of my thesis project at the Aarhus School of Architecture, spring 2017. It contains an introduction to key aspects, backgrounds and contexts of the project, and an insight in analysis and development of a design proposal. Drawings, diagrams and photographs will support the written part. This document will supplement final drawings and models elaborating the project’s final stage of the project at the final presentation.

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Motivation My motivation for this project developed during my work experience as an intern in Lisbon in 2015. One year before, in 2014, the architects I worked with had finished building a temporary community kitchen in an informal settlement, Terras da Costa, south from Lisbon. The kitchen helped to improve life at the settlement in two ways: it brought running water for the inhabitants and at the same time it became a common gathering space for the community. 1

Terras da Costa is one of several informal settlements in and around Lisbon. I previously had learned about the stigmatization of such settlements in for example public media: They were mostly portrayed as neighbourhoods connected to crime, social problems and poverty. Compared to this, I was surprised by the media coverage of Terras da Costa. It was portrayed as a strong community: Their inhabitants are supporting each other in their scarce living conditions and are initiated improvement to their conditions through participation and collaboration with professionals . 2

I became aware of the fact that the way they were portrayed had changed from former stigmatization to this new empowering image while and the community kitchen was constructed. This made me curious to explore how architectural spaces can help empowering communities.

1  Local architects, Colectivo Warehouse in colaboration with Atelier Mob 2  Sara Dias Oliveira, Nuno Ferreira Santos. “Cultivar A Terra Para Pertencer À Terra”. PÚBLICO. N.p., 2015. URL https://www.publico.pt/2015/12/27/sociedade/noticia/cultivar-a-terra-para-pertencer-a-terra-1718163 (assessed 18 May 2017)

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Relocation rather than rehousing

focus mainly on providing a ‘proper’ house – giving In this project the focus lies on potentials for social residents a roof over their head as stated in the Portuguese interaction in a new location, which is why the term constitution as a ‘fundamental principle of social rights ‘rehousing’, mostly seen in similar projects, is replaced by and duties’ right (“Portugal: Constitution of the Portuguese Republic,” n.d., A§65). ‘relocation’. When speaking about informal settlements in Portugal it is inevitable to hear the term, rehousing. Rehousing has been a governmental method to ‘clean the city’ from informal settlements, often described as ‘social wounds’ of society (Cachado 2008). This negative mention seemed to strongly influence the process of rehousing residents to new housing during the past decades. Most rehousing processes are initiated by authorities and often executed through violence, where homes are demolished in short periods of time with short notice. Many rehousing projects for relocated residents have no reference to previous organisation of spaces and 6

Marginal families are often part of vulnerable groups in society characterised by low-income, stigmatization and many other things. Their survival strategies are strongly related to a social network within a community of people in similar situations (Saunders, 2016). When rehousing projects focus only on providing a new house spaces for social interaction crucial as a resource to communal structures are often excluded. For this resource not to go missing in rehousing processes, it is important to create spaces in which these social interactions can continue to exist and build a base for further development in the future.


Terras da Costa is a special case with a special background. When the residents in collaboration with the architects got funding for the construction of the community kitchen, they signed up for a deal with the municipality to agree on a future rehousing plan with a participatory process that involved them in crucial decision-making processes.

My proposal focusses on the infrastructure on the site for relocation and its connection to the surrounding programmes. As a foundation for such a proposal I have mapped spatial configurations in the current state of Terras da Costa and programmes in the new location with potential to encourage an interaction between new and An inspiring element to my project is the fact that both existing residents. residents and professionals are aware of the importance of communal spaces. The community kitchen is an Hypothesis: They must be able to continue their example herof. The construction of the kitchen and of the community structures in the new location in order to have houses in the settlement are examples of the capacities capacity to develop new relations with the surrounding and qualifications of the residents for collaborative self- neighbourhood. building. This project focusses on how to create spaces in a new location that encourage social interaction between relocated residents and the surrounding neighbourhood.

Residents initiate a collaboration with professionals to install water on site Wood from the collaborative project, Casa da Vapor secures wood for the community kitchen

The only people from outside that entered the settlement were either drug dealers or police

2004

Terras da Costa Community Kitchen is built

2012

2013

Relocation from Terras da Costa to Costa da Caparica is being planned

2014

2017

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Part 1

Informality and future cities Introduction to informal settlements

Sketch from sitevisit, February 2017

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Diagrammatic sketch of Caracas, informal city

Informality and future cities Informality in cities is a phenomena seen all over the world. Sudden change in political or economical situations, rapid urbanization, immigration and lack of housing policies have increased the amount of informal settlements during the last decades. Today, informal settlement is highly associated with countries such as Latin America and Africa. Urgency of growing informal urbanization such as in Latin America brings a creativity and an acknowledgement of the informal as a part of the future city (Brillembourg et al., 2005). Several projects in Latin America have been an inspiration during my research. Especially Urban Think Tank's work in Caracas, Venezuela. 10

Alfredo Brillembourg from Urban Think Tank urges architects to incorporate dynamics seen in informal settlements into the planning of future cities: “I think the future role of architecture lies in the link between top-down and bottom-up initiatives (…) in such infinite unstable environment, architects must throw away their Ruskin - ‘When we build, let us think that we build forever’ - in favor of new goals: resilience, adaptability , and transformability”. (Brillembourg et al., 2005)


2017

PALOP: (Portuguese: Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa)

1974

The majority of residents living in informal settlements in Portugal are Immigrants from Portuguese-speaking African countries.

(“LISBON_City_Report.pdf,” n.d.)

Collage: Journey from former colony, Cape Verde, to Lisbon

The change of Lisbon after 1974 In Europe the approach towards informality has potential to change and be more acknowledging of informality. Today, more projects regarding infomal settlement include participation and proper research of the logic behind the informal. I see this as a crucial step towards a future in cities. This has not been the case during the past decades, especially in Portugal.

An overall increase of informal settlements in Europe was seen after political changes combined with immigration and urbanization in south and eastern countries after early 1990's. Portugal's informal settlements already increased after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Post-colonial immigration was the main reason for this development. Today, about 12 % of Lisbon's greater area is classified as informal (“LISBON_

City_Report.pdf,” n.d.).

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Areal photo of rehousing project, Casal da Boba, Lisbon Source:: https://www.behance.net/gallery/16167821/ELEVO-PORTFOLIO-URBAN-AREAS

An example of how Lisbon dealt with this change In contrast to attitudes seen in Latin America, Portugal has tried to illuminate informal settlements over the past decades. The special rehousing programme (PER) was a governmental initiative rehousing over 50.000 residents from informal dwellings between 1993 and early 2000. Casal da Boba (seen in picture above) is a housing estate built as part of this rehousing programme. It is characteristic of its time:

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Residents from the shantytown, Fontainhas were rehoused into the district known as, Casal da Boba during the 1990’s. It is a characteristic project of the PER rehousing programme built amid agricultural land and completely segregated.


The fall of the Portuguese empire The Carnation Revolution in 1974 was a peaceful revolution that marks the end of dictatorship and war in the colonies. This marks the beginning of Portugal’s withdrawal from African colonies. (Birmingham, 1996)

Portugal’s former colonies Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_colonialism

A case of many layers The case of Terras da Costa is special because of the already established link between initiatives from the local residents and the municipality seen in the process of the community kitchen.

Marginality of this particular group of immigrants is in many cases a result of structural racism and power structures ingrained in society over years of colonialism.

It is important to reflect upon the fact that the majority of the residents are post-colonial immigrants from former Portuguese colonies when proposing their future relocation.

This means that it is more important than ever not to hide residents away. My project is based on the hypothesis: Only when people create direct relations they are able to overcome prejudice and discrimination.

Post-colonial immigrants' struggles go beyond low-income and scarce living conditions.

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Considering 3 scales Terras da Costa is located in a greater urban context south of Lisbon. The land they occupy today is planned to be transformed back into agricultural fields in the future, which urges the relocation process. In order to get the full picture of how a relocation would impact the daily routines in the city and in the settlement, my analysis contains 3 different scales.

Three scales: 1 City 2 Urban 3 Human

1 City Infrastructure and public programmes 2 Urban Connections to the new neighbourhood’s existing spaces 3. Human Relations between public and private space

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Three rules Many aspects related to the before mentioned issue; segregation of post-colonial immigrants are out of the architect’s hands and rather connected with political and social structures in society. However, there are things architects can influence. I have defined three fundamental, spatial rules based on analysis. These rules help qualify more specific concepts in the design process. Visibility The location of Terras da Costa today and rehousing projects such as Casal da Boba are examples of how location is important for avoiding segregation. On examples of former rehousing projects: “while acknowledging the need to provide decent housing for slum dwellers (..) it further segregates them as if to solve a problem by hiding it” (Lees et al., 2015, p. 40) Accessibility When we can meet each other, we can erase prejudices. In conversation with current resident from Terras da Costa: “I want to live in a place where people are not afraid to enter through” Spaces for social gathering My hypothesis is that for people to start an integration, they need to be able to bring their known social patterns with them. Sociologist and researcher Maria João Freitas mentions the positive side of typical rehousing projects, such as Casal da Boba, as the upgrade of the house, the negative side is mentioned as follows: “From a community social-spatial logic it seems that they pass to an individualistic social-spatial logic” (Transitional Housing Systems, 1994, p. 186)

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Design interventions When a site for relocating the residents from Terras da Costa is found, the analysis and research will be the foundation for several site specific design interventions: Framework Highlights a the formal address of the new location and provides basic services such as water, electricity and sewage. Circulation Connects new habitation with surrounding programmes and creates a gradual change between private and public. Housing core A structural core provides basic upgrade of programmes that require the most skilled labour such as bathroom and kitchen. Expansion Invites for gradual adaption and transformation over time.

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Figure 1 Diagram: Framework for habitation

Figure 2 Diagram: Connecting circulation between habitations

Figure 3 Diagram: Housing phase 1

Figure 3 Diagram: Housing phase 2


Social visions Each deesign intervention is related to a social or quality that can have an impact on how the transfer from current site to the lew location. Framework A security of basic services to achieve one of the main conditions missing in the informal settlement and a connection to the surrounding city. Circulationv Spaces to gather and interact for the relocated community, people in the neighbourhood and existing social programmes. Housing core A basic security strengthens the residents' capacity for social development and integration. Expansion Accommodate transformability when families grow or economical statuses change.

Figure 5 Diagram: Fundamental services

Figure 6 Diagram: Connection between people and spaces

Figure 7 Diagram: A roof over the head

Figure 8 Diagram: Transformability

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Part 2

Geographical Context Lisbon Metropolitan Area The City, Costa da Caparica

Portugal

Lisbon

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Lisbon Almada

SĂŠtubal Peninsula Trafaria Cova da Vapor

Lisbon Metropolitan Area Infrastructure

Casa Municipal da Juventude

Terras da Costa is located 20 km south of Lisbon on the opposite side of the Tagus river in the margin of the coastal city, Costa da Caparica. Costa da Caparica is part of the municipality Amada in the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon. S.E.R.

Costa da Caparica

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North-western Coastline of SĂŠtubal Peninsula

The direct connection to Lisbon combined with lower density makes it a popular area for living, also for residents in informal settlements. In the areas with most informal construction it represents up to 28 % of the urban fabric (Cencus, 2001).


Costa da Caparica

Lisbon

The bridge, Ponte 25 de Abril, and several boats from the northern town, Trafaria connects Costa da Caparica to Lisbon. The bridge stands as a symbol for the Carnation Revolution.

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Terras da Costa’s relation to Costa da Caparica On the first gaze the community seems to be completely detached from the city. After mappings, sitevisits and interviews, it becomes clear that the residents are an active part of the city: Children go to local schools, woman work as cleaning assistants, men work on construction site between the city and all over Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Their dwellings are hidden at the edge of the city, while their presence is clearly a part of the urban patterns.

Photo:22 Michele Spatari sitevisit, 2017


10-1

Fossil Cliff

Informal Settlement

Domitory High-rise Housing

Main Road

Tourist Hotels

Beach Promenade

City Centre: Costa da Caparica

10-1

The Atlantic Ocean

Urban section

10-1

10-1

10-1 10-1

10-1

‘Barrios’ - Informal settement Public programmes important to Terras da Costa residents Residential housing Secondary constructions Gardens Football Stadium Agriculture Atlantic Ocean Sandy Beach Grassy Dunes Siteplan of Costa da Caparica Highlighting public programmes important to Terras da Costa residents today

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10-1 10-1

Excerpt from siteplan of Costa da Caparica Terrain and built up areas

Costa da Caparica’s background From the eighteenth century and onehundred and fifty years after, Costa da Caparica’s habitation was entirely related to fishing. With a rising upper-middle-class the status as fishermen village, providing the majority of fish for Lisbon, changed in the early twentieth century. In 1925 the town was officially classified as a seaside resort, mixing bathers and fishermen. The demand for holiday homes developed the economic structure of the town through a seasonal demand. Fishermen were now renting out their huts as holiday accommodation and some fishermen began teaching swimming and navigate in sea water.

1966 the Ponte 25 de Abril bridge was opened, allowing direct access between Costa da Caparica and Lisbon. This increased the seasonal population of the town along with realestate speculation and further development of the urban fabric.

Source: http://www.matrizpci.dgpc.pt/MatrizPCI.Web/Inventario/ InventarioConsultar.aspx?IdReg=415&EntSep=7#gotoPosition

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Coastline connecting the north and the south of Costa da Caparica

The city’s urban fabric stretches between agricultural fields and coastline.

The Landscape

Green Areas under REN protection Source: Municipality of Almada

The landscape surounding the city was prior late nineteenth century a vast dune landscape stretchinig from the sea towards the fossil cliff, only interrupted by marshlands. During the late ninetheenth century the marshlands were drained due to huge malaria outburst. Trees were planted and drainage ditches were opened. The landscape between the fishermen village, Trafaria and Costa da Caparica was gradually transformed into pine tree forrest and agricultural fields. The fossil cliff rises at a 70m altitude along a 13km long area parallel to the coastline. In 1984 the area around the Fossil Cliff was defined as a protected landscape (DL 168/84 of 22 of May). This urged the municipality’s wish to relocate the Terras da Costa settlement. 25


Terras da Costa

Highrise housing

Rua 15

Bairro des Pescadores

Sitevisit and reflections In the first phase I went on a sitevisit to Costa da Caparica and visited different neighbourhoods in the city. Apart from a visit to Terras da Costa several neighbourhoods stood out to me. They all present very specific relations between private and public Bairro de Campo de Bola gathering. 26


Rua 15 is the original cores of the city: An authentic fishermen neighbourhood. The pedestrian street presents a unique threshold between private and public.

Bairro de Campo de Bola gets its name from the city’s football stadium in the hearth of the neighbourhood. Streets are narrow and social while houses are extremely private and surrounded by low walls to mark properties.

Bairro des Pescadores is a social housing project built for relocated fishermen from the northern coast. They were relocated as a result of the construction of the bridge, Ponte 25 de Abril. There is a clear contrast between formal public streets and informal private streets.

The edge of the city is built up of 5-14 story high-rise housing blocks. They accommodate a wide range of people: Local residents, immigrants, retired residents from Lisbon and a large amount of tourists. Residents have over many years been concerned by the growth of Terras da Costa and been a driver behind several police actions in the settlement prior to the construction of the community kitchen. 27


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Part 3

The Informal Settlement Terras da Costa Occupation over time One community - several families Organisation of spaces to accommodate social patterns The community kitchen An informal aesthetic

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Terras da Costa On our way from Lisbon to visit the settlement we see the highrise housing hiding the city and the sea behind them. On our left side tall grass hides the view over the argricultural fields enclosing on the city. We turn away from the main road onto a small dirt road in poor condition. Only after a minute it becomes clear that the silhuetes in the distance are one-story, self-built dwellings, completely enclosed by agriculture. It is a collage of colours, materials and textures combined with a network of spontaneous electricity cables hanging over it. When entering the community it feels like trespassing into a private home even though, we are still outside.

Sitevisit photos

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Near context of Terrass da Costa

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Photo: Nuno Ferreira 32 Santos (PĂşblico) Source: https://www.publico.pt/2015/12/27/sociedade/noticia/cultivar-a-terra-para-pertencer-a-terra-1718163


10-1

10-1

Occupation over time 10-1

10-1 10-1

10-1

The organisation of the settlement is a result of extensions made over the past 40 years. Most dwellings share walls and roof to save money and time when extending their house. It is a picture of many years of managing scarce ressources and slowly occupying more and more land.

10-1 10-1

10-1

2012

Natural Growth The settement has grown with extensions added to existing buildings. Until 2012 the settlement existed of only private dwellings, gardens and paths.

Occupation and Expansion 2003

The first occupation appeared after 1974, when immigrants came from Cape Verde to Costa da Caparica to work on the agricultural fields. The famers agreed for them to extend the existing sheds on site with their own self-built sheds. Prior to Occupation

1958

Diagrams of growth of settlement over time Source: Centro de Arqueologia de Almada (Centre for archeology, Almada)

Before the first occupation only three sheds for agricultural use existed on the site. One of these first constructions is transformed into their local barber, today.

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One community - several families

55% 45% 12% 24%

~ ADULTOS MORADORES ~ 173

~ CRIANÇAS ~

64 ADULTOS -

72%

FAMILIAS com HORTA

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

Adults: 161 (61,2 %)

28%

Children: 102 (38,8 %)

-CRIANÇAS --

Brick constructions (75 %) 91 moradores 64 ADULTOS 27 CRIANÇAS

26%

8%

Wooden constructions (25 %)

FAMILIAS com HORTA

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

Families with gardens (26 %)

72% 28% 26% 8%

Families with gardens (12 %)

~ ADULTOS MORADORES ~ 91

%

~ CRIANÇAS ~

FAMILIAS com HORTA

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

Families with animals (24 %) Families with animals (8 %)

55% 45% 12% 24%

~ ADULTOS MORADORES ~ 173

IA 34

~ CRIANÇAS ~

FAMILIAS com HORTA

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

Overview of facts Source: Colectivo Warehouse, 2016


91 Portuguese Roma residents, who settled here in the eighties.

In 2016 the roman residents agreed to be rehoused into the northern part of Almada municipality as a temporary maesure until a more longterm rehousing solution is agreed. Pressure from residents in the highrise apartments, neighbouring this part of the settlement, was one reason for this urgent maesure.

173 Post-colonial immigrants mainly from Cape Verde

Apart from including the original residents from Terras da Costa, this is based on a special characteristic of this settlement: All residents, both African and Roman families, agree to see themselves as one community. This means that they agreed to be moved as one entity rather than two different. In everyday situations the settlement works as one community made up from families in two subcommunities according to the ethnic groups.

This meant that my analysis focus on the largest, now only, part of the settlement mainly inhabited by post-colonial immigrants. My proposal for relocation includes all 91 families living here until 2016.

OS

%

25.6

Community Kitchen Resident’s Gathering Football Field

Barber Bar Men’s Gathering

Bar

Car-Service Bar Alter Music Studio

- CASAS MADE

28%

-CRIANÇAS --

91 moradores 64 ADULTOS 27 CRIANÇAS

26% FAMILIAS com HORTA

8%

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

17 4

18 5

45% 12% 24% ~ CRIANÇAS ~

FAMILIAS com HORTA

20 21

7

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

19

altar evangélico

6

8

22

9

14

13

23

28A

12 11

25

26

24

27

reunião homens

28

50

29

~ CRIANÇAS ~

FAMILIAS com HORTA

30

35

28% 26% 8%

16

31

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

32 15

47

37

48

46

38

33 34

39 45

36 bar

40

43

51

44 52

41

42 55

associação moradores cozinha comunitaria

Legenda

quinta do Quim 53

cabeleireiro

54 reunião mulheres

89 74 85 93

90 88

TIJOLO

Brick construction

84

83 63

86

62

78

57 66

67

58

ROULETTE

59 60 61

65

64

MADEIRA

Wooden construction

77

87

68

69

Pessoa presente

79

Outline plan of settlement with annotations Source: Colectivo Warehouse, 2016

70 72 71

76 75 82

Pessoa ausente

80

73

35


A closer analysis of the housing plans showed how kitchens are often located in direct relation to the front of the houses. Access to a kitchen is a spatial organisation that encourages the gatherings around food and cooking. Furthermore it allows residents to have an overview over their shared space while doing chores such as cooking. This way children can be watched and a certain amount of control is established. 36

Floorplans and axonometric of houses Source of floorplans: Colectivo Warehouse


The Community Kitchen The community kitchen was foremost built as a facility for running water within the neighbourhood of Terras da Costa in 2014. It is a temporary construction serving the community while negotiations for the relocation is discussed. The space includes several programmes: A washing area for laundry, gathering spaces, kitchen facilities and sanitary facilities.

Today it seems, as if the kitchen has always been there. Larger celebrations and gatherings happen here, while children overtake it for homework and games during the daytime.

Furthermore the kitchen is the space for inviting people from outside the neighbourhood onto the site. It serves as a spatial tool for communication. This is also where the Food is an important part of socialising in Terras da municipality was welcomed into the neighbourhood. It is Costa. Residents share food production in communal a rare occasion to see informal settlements communicate and private gardens. This is a social matter as much as peacefully with the municipality. The kitchen is an an economical one. The initiative to build a kitchen as important connecting point. common space came from the residents themselves.

Sketch from sitevisit

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Family connections & Friendships

17

4

5

6 8

9 11

22

14

13

19

20

21

7

18

28 A

12

27

28

15

16

38

33 34 37 36 42

46

39 43 44

40

41

64 ADULTOS -

72%

+25%

28%

-CRIANÇAS --

91 moradores 64 ADULTOS

~

27 CRIANÇAS

CASAS DE MADEIRA

26% FAMILIAS com HORTA

~

23

50

30

31 32

25

49

29 35

26

24

8%

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

47

48

45

51 52

55 17 4

18 5

94.0% -

~ ADULTOS ~

~ CRIANÇAS ~

FAMILIAS com HORTA

20 21

7

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

19

altar evangélico

6

55% 45% 12% 24% 173

MORADORES

8

22

9

14

13

- CASAS ALVENARIA

23

28A

12 11

25

26

24

27

reunião homens

28

50

29

25.6%

~ ADULTOS ~

~ CRIANÇAS ~

FAMILIAS com HORTA

30

35

72% 28% 26% 8% 91

MORADORES

16

31

FAMILIAS com ANIMAIS

32 15

- CASAS MADEIRA -

47

37

48

46

38

33 34

39 45

36 bar

40

43

51

44 52

41

42 55

associação moradores

Legenda TIJOLO

MADEIRA

cozinha comunitaria

ROULETTE

Pessoa presente

Pessoa ausente

Relação geracional entre moradores Ligação familiar Ligação de amizade

quinta do Quim

Ligação de inimizade

Núcleo familiar "fechado"

Núcleo familiar aberto (pessoas ausentes)

(02)

Númeração antiga

53

cabeleireiro

54 reunião mulheres

89 74

54

85

53

93

90 88

Focus of research

84

83 63

86

62 77

87

78

57 66 64

67

58

59 60 61

65

68

69

79 70 72 71

76 75 82 80

73

Diagram showing clusters of relatives and social relations

More public programmes

Family connections and friendships (Extended Families) Typically, one house contains one family. The dependence on fellow residents has different results. The community-spirit is one of them. Another is the social division into families and extended families. The clustering of families and extended families are survival strategies to relieve the pressure of hard work loads, low-income and unemployment. This means for example that children can be looked after by elder or unemployed residents while parents are working. Production of food and cooking is also shared between families. This way strong bonds between relatives and friends are established.

Photos: Nuno Ferreira Santos (Público) Source: https://www.publico.pt/2015/12/27/sociedade/noticia/cultivar-a-terra-para-pertencer-a-terra-1718163

38

German sociologist, Walter Siebel, describes these community structures as ‘buffer zones’ between the individual and society, especially in relation to clustering of immigrants. While these mechanisms can become a trap that prevents the individual integration into society, it is a necessary element of surviving marginality and scarce conditions.


Diagram showing gathering spaces of families mapped on site

Spatial organisation Most houses in the settlement are orientated towards a void, either in the form of a court yard or as a part of the path through the neighbourhood. In most cases this void has the status of a gathering space, shared between the respected family and/or friends within the settlement. These gathering spaces function as private gathering spaces only opened up to other residents when celebrating or for certain food related traditions.

Photos: Nuno Ferreira Santos (PĂşblico) Source: https://www.publico.pt/2015/12/27/sociedade/noticia/cultivar-a-terra-para-pertencer-a-terra-1718163

Before 2014, when the kitchen was built, the two dominating families’ gathering spaces were used for bigger traditions such as Christmas. Since 2014 bigger celebrations and traditions are held in the kitchen offering a more neutral social space. 39


Family Court Yard The houses that meet you first when arriving in the neighbourhood are part of a family cluster with a characteristic spatial organisation. They are organised around a semi-private court yard. All entrances of the houses are oriented towards this common spare ensuring quick access and a threshold between private and semi-public spaces. Here the family gathers and spends time when not working.

Angle of Photograph

On the day of my site visit, this court yard cought my attention. Music and cheerful chatting came from the void between the front row of houses. Children, young people and elderly were almost hidden behind the laundry, but still very clear.

40

Collage of family court yard observed on site visit


Privatizing the path When the houses are not oriented towards a court yard, the path through the neighbourhood is turned into a gathering space. In this case the residents have covered the path with a canopy of recycled metal sheets and tarpaulins. This canopy creates a more intimite space between the houses, which residents have a connection through family or friendship.

Angle of Photograph

Such spaces create an ownership of an occupated common path. These informal hirarchies dominate the relations between private and common spaces in the settlement. Sketches of covered path

Photo: Nuno Ferreira Santos 41 Source: Colectivo Warehouse


42


43

Facade of Terras da Costa towards north Photo: Michele Spatari sitevisit, 2017


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Part 4

Site for Relocation Proposed sites from the municipality The bigger picture - a fragmented neighbourhood Programmes and occupation A visible and accessable future - Site for relocation Potentials and obsticles

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Figure 1: Sites for relocation proposed by the municipality of Almada, 2016 Source: Colectivo Warehouse/ Atelier MOB


Proposed sites for relocation The process of relocating the residents from Terras da Costa is at the moment of writing (June 2017) waiting for further agreement with the municipality of Almada. The important step of suggesting a new site was made in 2016. Residents were involved in the secondary decision making. They had the choice between four different sites proposed by the municipality.

During the first phases of this thesis project, I tested the possibilities of this site. After reflection upon the site and its qualification related to the three rules set up earlier in the process: Visibility Accessibility Potential for social gathering

They agreed on number 4. This is a site of about 7000 m2 that is currently occupied The site was chosen by the residents based on its by surrounding residents as vegetable gardens - an surrounding neighbourhood. Residents expressed the wish of living surrounded and as part of urban fabric extension of the backyard of surrounding houses. rather than on the edge of the city. - “Then we might just stay where we are�

Figure 2

Visibility This site might be surrounded by houses but it is also in the furthest corner of the city, and residents would literaly move into people’s backyard.

Figure 3

Accessibility The row of housing along the main road creates a barrier between the site and the public infrastructure. Visibility and accessibility are limited to two edges of the site.

Figure 4

Social spaces Furthermore the site is isolated from most public spaces and programmes in the neighbourhood. These reflections urged me to broaden the perspective and search for a potential new site for relocating the residents. Fig. 2-4: Diagrammatic analysis on originally proposed site

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Photo from site-visit


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Somewhere between formal and informal The urban fabric of the neighbourhood, Bairro do Campo da Bola is colourful, built in various materials with low-density housing that varies between one and three stories. Although, the streets are publically accessable, they have a very intimate atmosphere to them. A clear physical boundary between street and house is overcome by socialising on street corners.

Collage emphasizing the street and its tactility

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Cova da Vapor/ Trafaria

Lisbon

Secondary School

Bus stop

Terras da Costa Neighbourhood

Centre for Missing Market Hall

Farmers with agricultural land

Primary School

From the current site residents enter the city from the backroads. However connected they are, they will always arrive from another point than most other people.

Diagram Access to the city from current location of settlement

South of SĂŠtubal

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Lisbon

Cova da Vapor Trafaria

Secondary School

Centre for Missing

Market Hall Farmers with agricultural land Primary School Bus Station

When relocated to the southern neighbourhood, Barrio de Campo da Bola, residents will be able to access the programmes in the city along the formal main streets. The new chosen site is a threshold between the neighbourhood and the promenade connecting to the city.

New Site

Diagram Access to the city from new location

51 Section: Current location versus new location


Bairro de Campo da Bola This is the most southern neighbourhood of Costa da Caparica before the tourism takes over on large camping areas. The neighbourhood includes more than 200 houses with some level of informal construction. Most residents have lived here for many years and feel a strong community identity. The football stadium is the main attracktion of the area. The enclosed space surrounding the football stadium is taken over by markets, carnevals and other temporary programmes during the several festivals in the city.

The low-rise housing in the neighbourhood is concentrated towards the south-west corner boardering the camping areas, the coastal road and the agriculture. High-rise housing is concentrated towards the east-limits of the city, forming a clear division between urban and rural. Both private housing and public programmes are framed by walls and fences, which makes the streets crucial meeting places.

Dunes between coastal road and beach promenade

Beach

Abandoned Greeen Area partly used for parking

Public Space (football stadium) Football Stadium Low-Rise Housing

Public Square

Camping

High-Rise Housing

Square

Empty land alongside main road (P)

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Occupied Site, Vegetable Gardens Agriculture

Sketch of Bairro de Campo da Bola neighbourhood Programmes defining the area


The local football stadium is an attracktion for the whole city

2,5 meter tall wall disconnecting the streets from stadium

Fishermen workshops along the street from neighbourhood to beach promenade

The area is highly dominated by fishermen

Small, local businesses connected to private housing

The grill for the annual festivals is permanently on the street

Messy electricity cables between a collage of rooves

Calm streets where residents seem to know one another well

Photos from site-visit

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Sketch of site for relocation

The site for relocation About 1000 m2 of land separate the neighbourhood from the beach promenade. I see this as a potential connecting point in the future neighbourhood because of its visible location towards the main coastal road, already existing paths and neighbour to the main attracktion of the neighbourhood: The football stadium. 54


A lost connection

In 1976 the site was still occupied by traditional fishermen cottages all the way to the beach.

In 2003 fishermen had been relocated leaving space for the beach promenade to extend south.

In 2012 and still today the site has become an abandoned area with spontaneous vegetation and parking.

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Roundabouts Main Roads Key spaces

1 4

2

3

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Axonometric of the new home of Terras da Costa’s residents


Existing spaces where people meet There are several areas that are active in the neighbourhood today. These areas inform the development of new places to meet, in a plan for a new housing area on the chosen site. These social spaces will act as key junctions between the existing and the relocated residents. Qualities from all of these particular become parameters in the design proposal.

1 Football stadium - A transforming public space

2 Semi-public streets - A space for community

3 Beach promenade - A public front connected to the whole stretch of the city

4 Small businesses on the ground floor - A threshold between public and private 57


The design proposal of this project is thought as a continuous process, developing further in the future through different phases. The proposal shows a point in time with the essential elements to be built in the first phases. In my proposal I add another layer to the discussion - the discussion of the values for the existing context - supplementing the values for the relocated residents. The proposal starts on the part of the timeline when municipality, residents and architects have agreed on a plan for relocation.

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Part 5

4 design interventions Circulation Framework Community space Housing core (expansion)

The previous chapters show an overview of research and analysis. They have all informed the formulation of a site specific design proposal. This next chapter is an introduction to the elements of the design proposal and the scale in which I will develop different interventions. At the final presentation an overall plan will show the four intervertions, their relations to each other and to the context. Chosen parts of the intervention will be further developed and shown as key moments at the final presentation of this project. Interventions will be developed in the before-mentioned 3 scales: City, neighbourhood, human wih an emphasis on the scale of the neighbourhood.

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Circulation

Public, semi-public, private

Figure 2 Diagram: Connecting circulation between habitations

the north of the city. Along the coastline a beach promenade stretches all the way from the northern part to the southern part of the city. Along the whole stretch several connections to the different parts of the city are made.

Function: Connects new habitation with Today, the new site acts as a barrier surrounding programmes and creates a between the southern neighbourhood and gradual change between private and public. the sea disconnecting tourists from locals. Introducing public access through the site Aim: Connecting spaces to gather and is an important step to reconnect the local interact for the relocated community, neighbourhood to the beach. This does people in the neighbourhood and existing not only reestablish the relationship to the coast but also invites the local residents social programmes. to take part in the touristic development An essential parameter for chosing the of their city. relocation site was the possibility for public access. The circulation through Costa da Caparica is dominated by the Figure 6 two main roads parallel to the coast from Diagram: Connection north to south. The main road connects between people and spaces the city to Lisbon and to the southern beaches along the coast of SĂŠtubal Peninsula. The coastal road connects the southern neighbourhood and the southern camping area with the centre and

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Main road

Coastal road

Football stadium Site

Beach promenade

Plan of new connections through neighbourhood

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Existing public streets

New Public Streets

New Pedestrian Passages

Two transversal public streets will lead from the main coastal road, cut through the landscape of the site and connect to the main entrance street of the southern neighbourhood.

the neighbourhood will therefore puncture the barrier surrounding the football field. Hereby the circulation through the southern neighbourhood is extended and links to the activities surrounding it.

The southern neighbourhood’s main attracktion lies in the football stadium. Football being the most important national sport in Portugal, the football field has an important cultural significance to the local population. However this particular football stadium serves more pupose than just sports. Several times a year the empty space surrounding the football field is occupied by locals, tourists and other visitors for the festivals during the summer months. The football stadium serves as a main attracktion with a carnival and market booths stretching along the entire main road from south to north through the whole city. Today the circulation through the stadium is limited to two entrances from the north, towards the city centre and the main road towards the east. The three meter tall brick wall surrounding the area excludes the surrounding neighbourhood and the tourism towards the coast.

The public access through the site simultaneously creates formal edges through the site along which the habitation for the relocated residents can manifest itself. The public street is a formal peace of infrastructure that invites people to move through the site on equal terms. The emphasis on access through the site, to which the residents of Terras da Costa will be relocated, is based on both analysis of contextual potentials in this part of the city and interviews with locals. “Before the kitchen was constructed only two group of white people entered the settlement; drug dealers and police - both were unpleasant experiences (...) I want to live somewhere where people from other areas are not afraid to enter� - resident currently living in Terras da Costa

Since Costa da Caparica has invested a large part of their money into tourism and the tourism only seems to expand, there lies an oportunity in strengthening the relation between local neighbourhoods and touristic areas like the beach, to invite for a mutual benefit. The transverse connection from the beach, through the site, and into

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Reference photos of steps as social spaces from lisbon


Social steps on semi-private streets In addition to vehicle-accessable streets between coast and neighbourhood the site is devided through several pedestrian passages leading through the site, parallel to the public streets. The passages are wide and accessible from both the coastal road and the road leading into the surrounding neighbourhood, Bairro dos Campo da Bola. These pedestrian passages have their own character with wide steps leading people from the coastal road down the 4-5 meter sloped edge of the site into the heart of the site and linked to the football stadium and the following main road. The division of the site arranges the space into defined and undefined spaces. The space inbetween is framed by the definition of

the streets and passages leaving these spaces for the residents to occupy. The steps following the slope of the site are foreseen as social cores of each cluster of housing units surrounding them. This Pedestrian passage bears traces from my mappings of neighbourhoods in Costa da Caparica. The historical, pedestrian extended livingroom-street of Rua 15, the contrast in the public and private street of Bairro des Pescadores, and the surrounding, accessible streets of the community in Bairro dos Campo da Bola, are all inspiration for this division of public and semi-public streets.

Sketchen from design phase

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The Framework

- An interpreted aquaduct Function: Highlights a the formal address of the new location and provides basic services such as water, electricity and sewage. Aim: A

security of basic services to achieve one of the main conditions missing in the informal settlement and a connection to the surrounding city.

Figure 1 Diagram: Framework for habitation

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Figure 5 Diagram: Fundamental services


A historical reference in Portugal The framework is a physical element linking back to the Roman history of Portugal and the country’s traditional ways of providing water through aquaducts. The aquaduct has become a strong feature in the Portuguese landscape and has been interpreted in various ways through time to accommodate habitation. It aims to connect the reference to a Portuguese tradition with the reference to the settlement’s memory of water as a priviledge.

went beyond a simple solution of a water point. They included the potential of improving their social life as a part of the basic needs for survival. This is the project’s genesis - to link the spatial and essential conditions with the social life they influence. This way, the framework becomes a visible element atrackting attention to specific areas of the new site, while it provides basic sanitation to the residents.

To prepare the site for habitation, this framework simultaneously provides basic sanitation such as water and electricity. Water has always been the basic need for habitation, however the signifigance of water in this settlement goes beyond survival. The lack of running water motivated the residents to initiate the improvement of their living conditions. The ambition of the residents (in collaboration with local architects)

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68


The aquaduct is a visible element connecting the surounding landscape with the urban fabric of the city. The location of the site gives the reinterpreted aquaduct a visibility that underlines the formal address of the new location. The threshold between aquaduct and habitation provides a transition between public and private, which allows residents to live on a visible address whithout being on show.

The threshold between the public coastal road facing the touristic beach promenade and the private housing units towards the existing neighbourhood provides spaces for public programmes to move in. The shadow of the aquaduct adds a shelter from the sun and a space for a stopover on the way to the beach or to the city. The public buildings are intended for the relocated residents and for the existing residents in the southern neighbourhood of Costa da Caparica. 69


The Community Space - A translation of the community kitchen

Photo: Nuno Ferreira Santos Source: Colectivo Warehouse

In the process of constructing the new habitation for the residents of the informal settlement, Terras da Costa, the community space is planned as the first building to be constructed on site after the infrastructure of circulation and the service-duct are installed.

the current community kitchen in the informal settlement. Instead of being built as the ‘last’ construction it will be implemented as the ‘first’ construction for occupation on the new site.

In addition to embody the known gathering facility of the current community kitchen this The process of relocation does not only affect community space will be a larger space able the relocated residents but also the existing to host a larger group of people and it will neighbourhood in the area. A community space be connected to a public program of a street is aimed to be a space where the current and the kitchen oriented towards the coastal road. new residents are able to meet other than passing This way it is intended to accommodate the each other on the street. The space is intended to need of the relocated residents for a neutral be a connecting point between the public front gathering space, with the community kitchen as towards the coastal road, the new habitation for a prototype, while it invites the current residents the relocated residents and the existing southern in the surrounding neighbourhood to enter the party, and it also creates a link to the public and neighbourhood. establishes a relationship to the tourism along Within the site it represents the role of a the coast. community space for the relocated residents to meet. This role builds directly on the memory of

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From landscape element to housing structure

From new habitation to existing habitation

Framing community spaces

Process sketches of different ‘characters’ of the framework and imagined moments

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The Housing - An extendable core

Figure 3 Diagram: Housing phase 1

Figure 7 Diagram: A roof over the head

Figure 3 Diagram: Housing phase 2

Figure 8 Diagram: Transformability

Housing core A structural core provides basic upgrade of programmes that require the most skilled labour such as bathroom and kitchen. Expansion Invites for gradual adaption and transformation over time.

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Housing core A basic security strengthens the residents' capacity for social development and integration. Expansion Accommodate transformability when families grow or economical statuses change.


The informal and the formal The occupation of the space inbetween the formally defined and planned elements; streets and aquaduct, is intended to reintroduce parts of the tactile and personal aesthetics from the informal settlement today. (Photo of front of settlement p. 42) The aim is for the reusable materials from the current settlement’s dwellings to travel with the residents to the new site. Some might be added on the new site immediately, while others are transferred over a longer period of time. This might depend on the residents’ urgency for extending their house for family or on their economical situation. Sketch from design process of programming on site

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Case study: Quinta Malagueira, Evora, Portugal, Alvaro Siza, 1977 (Testa, 1994)

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When placing the kitchen towards the pedestrian passage it means that the service line from the aqueduct should run along this side of the house to connect water directly to the kitchen. This creates an obstruction in how to organise the space because it is cheapest and easiest to construct a service line running on the same side of all houses. The service line/ aqueduct serves as a frame that keeps the pedestrian street clear from construction. It invites instead for cloth lines, plants and furniture.


Case study: Quinta Monroy, Chile, Elemental, 1977 (Aravena, 2016)

In terms of function and programming of the housing cores the organisation of spaces draws direct reference to the organisation of spaces in the current informal settlement. The floor plans of the informal dwellings show that the kitchens are mainly oriented towards the court yards or paths where families gather and celebrate. This reflects the fact that cooking of food is an important element in the cultural and social patterns of the residents here.

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Developing a plan - A case-study model of Quinta da Monroy housing in Chile, Elemental (2003) on new site

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Developing a plan An important difference from building a dwelling on the current site of the settlement to building a dwelling on the new site is a provided basic structure and infrastructure that allows for good sanitary conditions and limitations of natural growth over time. Each family will get a parcel of land and a core for the house. The core contains basic sanitation, water and electricity provided through the aqueduct Connected to this basic infrastructure of the house a kitchen and a bathroom will be provided. Case-studies have argued that kitchens and bathrooms have proven as the most difficult and expensive parts of a house - which is why they will be formally provided (Aravena and Iacobelli, 2016, p. 480). The fundamental structure of the house will be provided through a foundation, ground floor and extension possibilities. The aqueduct changes its character from the coastal road through the site in order to frame the basic structures for each housing unit. The slope of the site determines the difference in level of the housing units. Plan drawing: Draft of plan drawing with existing and new habitation. This plan will be further developed in a scale of 1:200 alongside sections and illustrations 77


Model photos and sketches

- Experimental process of planning new habitation on site, 1:500 model.

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Model photos and sketches

- Reflecting on process of planning new habitation on site, 1:500 model.

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Further Reflection The field of research on informal settlements is a broad one. The more research one does, the more nuances become visible. This also characterises my process in this project. I am still learning new things and finding new layers to add to the outcome of the project. The final presentation, therefore, will be a point in time of a process that could go on forever. Among things I have learned is that there lies a strength in planning and building specifically for, and more importantly, with particular people and their context rather than anonymously for anyone. I have earlier mentioned the participation process of Terras da Costa as an inspiration. My research has shown me that, as challenging as it might be, a participation process has the potential

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Photo from sitevisit

to come much further than a top-down initiative. If I were to continue the process of this project, an important part would be to research more into the practicle process of the proposed extensions of the housing core. I believe that there lies a great deal to be learned in how to plan for an unforeseen future. Empowering people is important when building sustainable cities. However I believe there should be a balance between top-down and bottom-up initiatives not to overwhelm people. This is why I would suggest not only for residents to self-build extensions to houses but to collaborate with architects and authorities over a longer period of time. The reflection on this process is for another day.


References Books

Angellil, R.H.E.M., 2014. Minha Casa- Nossa Cidade: Innovating Mass Housing In Brazil. Ruby Press, Berlin. Aravena, A., Iacobelli, A., 2016. Alejandro Aravena: Elemental: Incremental Housing and Participatory Design Manual, 2 Blg edition. ed. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern. Baldwin-Edwards, M., Arango, J., 1999. Immigrants and the Informal Economy in Southern Europe. Psychology Press. Brillembourg, A., Feireiss, K., Klumpner, H. (Eds.), 2005. Informal City: Caracas Case. Prestel Publishing, Munich ; New York. Brillembourg, A., Klumpner, H., Design, U.-T.T.C. of A. and U., Zurich, E.T.H. (Eds.), 2012. Torre David: Informal Vertical Communities. Lars Muller Publishers, Zürich. Chase, J., Kaliski, J., Crawford, M., 1999. Everyday Urbanism. The Monacelli Press, New York, N.Y. Lees, L., Shin, H.B., Lopez-Morales, E., 2015. Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement. Policy Press. McGuirk, J., 2015. Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture, 1 edition. ed. Verso, London. Mitlin, D., Satterthwaite, D., 2013. Urban Poverty in the Global South: Scale and Nature. Routledge. Mourão, A.L., 2012. “The Cape Verdean Race”: Identity-building in a suburban council estate. Cad. Estud. Afr. 45–72. doi:10.4000/cea.640 Mukeku, J.S., 2014. Logic of self-built environment : Soweto East village, Kibera slums, Nairobi Kenya / Joseph S. Mukeku., Con-text. Thesis, 1502-217X ; 65. Oslo: Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo. Saunders, D., 2016. Making Heimat, Germany: Germany, Arrival Country, Bilingual edition. ed. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern.

Werthmann, J.B., 1707. Metropolis Nonformal by Jessica Bridger. ORO Editions/Applied Research & Design.

Artikels

Lages, Joana Pestana, and Joana Gouveia Braga, 2016, “There is Africa in Lisbon. Spatial practices to support the struggle for spatial justice in a migrant squatter settlement in Greater Lisbon.”, ETH Zürich Veloso-Gomes, Fernando; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco (2002), Eurosion Case Study: Cova do Vapor, Costa da Caprica (Portugal) (PDF), Porto, Portugal: Instituto de Hidráulica e Recursos Hídricos - IHRH Cachado,R.A., 2008, “Poverty Political Discourse and its Effects Portuguese Hindus Between Shanty Town and The Social Housing Estate”, in Mundos Urbanos E Contemp. Lisbon: Centro de Estudos de Etnologia Portuguesa, 39–57 Ascensão, Eduardo, “Following engineers and architects through slums: the technoscience of slum intervention in the Portuguesespeaking landscape”, 2013, Institut de Ciencias Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa. “Lisbon City Report”, 2008, Lisbon: Fonseca, L. Maria, Print. URL http://www.ceg.ulisboa.pt/migrare/LISBON_City_Report.pdf (assessed 04.06.17)

Web

Portugal: Constitution of the Portuguese Republic [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_ id=206670 (accessed 6.5.17). “Cozinha Comunitaria Das Terras Da Costa”. ColectivoWarehouse. N.p., 2015. URL http://warehouse.pt/c011-pt.html (assessed 20.5.17). “Projectos Do Colectivo Warehouse”. ColectivoWarehouse. N.p., 2017. URL http://warehouse.pt/index.html (assessed 08.0617). MOB, Atelier, 2015,Cozinha Comunitaria das Terras da Costa, Atelier MOB + Projecto Warehouse, http://ateliermob.com/tag/%23+152

Testa, P., Frampton, K., 1994. Alvaro Siza : Works and Projects 19541992, Third Edition edition. ed. Gustavo Gili, Barcelona.

“Terras da Costa, terras de ninguém”, Moutinho, Vera, 2014, Público, URL https://www.publico.pt/2014/07/04/local/noticia/terras-da-costaterras-de-ninguem-1661606 (assessed 05.05.17)

Transitional Housing Systems: East-West Dialogue on the New Roles of Actors in Changing Housing Policies, 1994. . International Council for Building Research Studies and Documentation, Dessau.

“Cultivar a terra para pertencer a terra, 2015, Público, URL https:// www.publico.pt/2015/12/27/sociedade/noticia/cultivar-a-terra-parapertencer-a-terra-1718163, (assessed 05.05.17)

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Acknowledgements My thesis project is a study project, which represents the final academic project in my education as an architect. It is also a project with roots in an ongoing (2017), professional project in Portugal. My thesis is based on the ongoing work of the architects, Colectivo Warehouse and Atelier MOB, the municipality of Almada, several researchers and the local residents of the informal settlement, Terras da Costa, all collaborating to provide new adequate housing for the Terras da Costa residents.

I thank my supervisor, Tom Nielsen, for his valuable advice and guidance throughout the process of this thesis. Furthermore a thank you to Mathias Meldgaard for the time he took from his PhD to listen to my thoughts and doubts. I am also grateful for the excellent research assistance from the library staff at the Aarhus School of Architecture, Henning and Betinna and for their interest in my work.

Many friends have helped me through this thesis. I am grateful for their encouragement and understanding Although, only my name appears on the cover of throughout the entire process. Special thanks to: Cian this thesis, a lot of people have contributed to the for always being by my side and for his patience and completion of this work through their advice, support continuously providing me with new motivation; and thoughts. Iben for the continuous dialogue and for sharing the hardworking days in studio; Anette for always First and foremost, my gratitude goes to Ricardo supporting and for all her time; Khedidja, Francesco, Morais, Ruben Teodoro and SebastiĂŁo de Button from Liv, Jacob, Trine and Amalie for lending a helping Colectivo Warehouse for planting the seed for this hand in the final sprint. thesis, for the continuous input and support you have given me and for taking me in and being my friends. I am deeply thankful for the support of my family, I would like to thank Tiago Silva from Atelier MOB specially my mom for her unconditioned patience, for the comprehensive interview and for portraying guidance and supervision every day. the political and social situations in Portugal. A Finally a big thank you to all my co-thesis-study special thank you to researchers, Joana Braga and mates. It has been a pleasure! Joana Pestana and the team of Patio Ambulante for the time they took to share their knowledge and experiences with me. My sincere gratitude goes to BĂĄrbara Correia for sharing her resources, for her hospitality and for always being a wonderful friend.

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Profile for Malin Mohr

Thesis Report  

Introduction to thesis project: Learning from the informal Social patterns in the informal settlement and arrival in a new context

Thesis Report  

Introduction to thesis project: Learning from the informal Social patterns in the informal settlement and arrival in a new context

Profile for malinmohr