Making Soap Mag #76 May/June 2016

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Founder/Editor In Chief Kathy Tarbox Managing Editor Beth Byrne

COLUMNS WRITERS Feature Kevin Devine Marion B. Conger Valerie Mosher Bhakti “Bee” Iyata Chemists Corner Jane Barber Soap Emma Heathcote-James Potpourri Sue Finley

EDITORIAL OFFICE P.O. Box 59 North Lakewood, WA 98259 Phone. 425.760.1004 • Making Soap, Cosmetics & Candles Magazine (ISSN 1099-6672) is published bimonthly (6x year) by Petal Pusher Press


INSIDE THIS ISSUE EDITOR LETTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Baroque Soap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Molded Spring Soap Flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Soap Carving Tutorial . . . . . 19 Hot Process Slow Cooker Soap . . . . . . . . . 23 Successful Preservation of Cosmetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Spa Event in a Corporate Setting . . . . . . . . . 30 Introduction to Cold Processed Soap . . . . . . 32


EDITOR LETTER MAY / JUNE 2016 ISSUE #76 Published by Petal Pusher Press P.O. Box 59 North Lakewood, WA 98259 (c) 2016 Petal Pusher Press. All Rights Reserved.

Having been around soap making, soap makers and social media for quite a few years now, it has been both amazing and delightful to watch the progression. One of the most exciting areas to watch is innovation in design. While it may not always be practical, whether for the shape or the time it takes to achieve, it is always fascinating. Once again, we present to you the Design Mania issue for your enjoyment and inspiration. Once read, go and recreate them for yourself, but take photos. We are running a contest again this year! Beth Byrne Managing Editor

Making Soap, Cosmetics & Candles Magazine is the educational and encouraging voice for the makers of handcrafted soap, cosmetics and candles, focusing on materials, design, techniques and solutions. Sold online and through our stockists. If you would like to stock the magazine, contact us. Your questions and comments are welcome. Please send them to Authors’ Guidelines Our website includes a page for potential writers; this includes information on what we are looking for. The Publisher is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts. Advertising For rates or to place your ad in the next issue visit our advertising page located at Disclaimer Making Soap, Cosmetics & Candles Magazine exists solely to give information to its readers, and strives for accuracy in its articles and honesty in its advertisements, but the publisher and editors assume no responsibility for injuries or loss incurred by anyone utilizing the information in the articles or responding to the ads. Copyright© 2016 by Making Soap, Cosmetics & Candles Magazine. All Rights Reserved. Material may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission. For reprints, contact the publisher at: or visit PRINTED IN THE USA


DE S I G N M A N I A We hope you enjoy this Design Mania issue. Following are four (4) featured soapmaking design tutorial articles. We hope you’re planning to give each design a try! Try at least one design technique in this issue and take a photo. You may enter twice, but each submission must be for a different technique category. We’ll be opening the 2016 contest and ready to receive your submissions on June 1st. You might be our next winner!

DESIGN MANIA CONTEST DETAILS & OFFICIAL RULES CONTEST ENTRY DATES: Contest begins June 1, 2016, at 12:01 AM Pacific Daylight Time (“PDT”)

and all entries must be submitted by June 30, 2016, at 11:59 PM PDT (the “Contest Entry Period”).

HOW TO ENTER: During the Contest Entry Period, an

Entrant must submit an original photo at the time of registration to be considered for entry into the Contest. Entries will be accepted on the website of Making Soap Mag ( Two Entries allowed. You may enter twice, but each submission must be for a different technique category. Once an Entry has been submitted, it may not be changed, altered or modified. The winner will be selected based on the total of the votes counted across all four technique categories.


by submitting an Entry, (i) grants Making Soap Mag, the irrevocable, sublicenseable, royalty-free right and license to reproduce, publish, transmit, distribute, create derivative works from and otherwise use any and all photographs contained in the Entry (the “Content”), as well Entrant’s name and/or biographical information in association with the photograph, for marketing, public relations or other promotional purposes, in perpetuity, throughout the world, in all media and formats now or later known or developed, without further notice or compensation therefor; (ii) Entrant represents and warrants that their Entry is the original work of Entrant, has not been previously published, and does not infringe on the copyrights, trademarks, MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES • 7

DE S I G N M A N I A rights of privacy, publicity or other intellectual property or other rights of any person or entity, and indemnifies Making Soap Mag for and against any and all such liability and damages. To be eligible for the Contest, an Entry may not: include photos with watermarks or other overlaid text or images; contain trademarks, and/or logos. Making Soap Mag reserves the right to disqualify any Entry that does not comply with these Official Rules in its sole discretion.


Following the expiration of the Voting Period, one (1) winner will be selected based on total votes counted (“Winner”).


Winner will be contacted directly as well as announced in the July/Aug 2016 issue.

PRIZES AND APPROXIMATE RETAIL VALUE: Grand Prize Package - Worth Over $1,600.00

Our Sponsors We would like to express sincere thanks to our sponsors who so generously have donated to make our Design Mania contest a success! Please visit their websites to see the great selection of products they have to offer. American Soap Supplies Gift Certificate: Retail Value = $50.00

National Shrinkwrap Complete 18” Shrink System, with your choice of film. (free shipping within the continental US). *if winner already has a system...they get a “store” credit for future film purchases...for $350...which is enough film for about 30,000 bars of soap! Retail Value = $398.95 Mountain Rose Herbs Their Customer Experience Director, who is a talented soap maker brainstormed and put together a package of goodies that would thrill any soap maker! 8oz Organic Shea butter 1lb Organic Cocoa Butter Wafers 1oz Organic Sweet Orange Essential Oil ½ oz Eucalyptus Essential Oil ½ oz Organic Atlas Cedarwood Essential Oil ½ oz Organic Cinnamon Leaf Essential Oil 4oz Organic Whole Poppy Seeds 4oz Chamomile Flowers Retail Value = $53.00 Soap Equipment Gift Certificate: Retail Value = $300.00 Making Soap, Cosmetics & Candles Magazine 3-Year Subscription / Formulator Lab Notebook / Flash Drive (15-Year’s of back issues) Retail Value = $160.00

Making Cosmetics, Inc. Gift Certificate: Retail Value = $100.00 Handcrafted Soap and Cosmetic Guild Ticket for 1 to the HSCG 2017 Annual Conference in Las Vegas, NV. May 1-3, 2017 at the Tropicana Hotel. The HSCG Conference is the Worlds Largest Gathering of Handcrafted Soap and Cosmetic Makers. Retail Value = $550.00 MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES • 8


Baroque Soap by KEVIN DEVINE

Many soap makers like myself, find inspiration in many areas, including art, music, architecture and cake making. Recently, I was watching a YouTube video of a cake artist who decorates gorgeous, but complex cakes. They were done in what I would have considered a baroque style. What is baroque, you ask? Baroque refers to a style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries, characterized by ornate detail. The Palace of Versailles in France exemplifies baroque architecture. At a very basic level, to me, baroque means ornate and elaborate, with a depth of richness and unabashed decadence. In particular, the leafy flourishes the cake artist created caught my eye and in part inspired this soap I have created for Design Mania. I used two techniques in creating this soap--using silicone molds to create embeds and using micas in an alternative way to color the soap.

Using Silicone Molds Silicone molds can be a great way to create unique shapes and embeds that set your soap apart. You can purchase molds or make your own. Several mold making stores can be found on websites such as Etsy. If you are doing a search, look for ‘cake molds,’ as well. You can also make your own silicone molds by using two-part putty, similar in consistency to play dough, which can usually be found online or in many craft stores. Another type is a two-part MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES • 9


Baroque Soap by KEVIN DEVINE liquid silicone. If you are looking to make a mold for something quite detailed, I would recommend using liquid silicones. Below are a few pictures of silicone molds, the yellow mold purchased from an Etsy shop. The purple mold is a two-part putty I made using a cabinet handle, and the pink one is a two-part liquid silicone I cast using plastic flowers. [pic 2] Melt and pour works really well in molds, and you can use it if you wish, but I wanted to use cold process soap. If you are going to use cold process soap, I recommend a recipe that gives you a nice, hard bar. Another tip when using molds for smaller pieces is once they are ready to be unmolded, put them in the freezer until they are completely frozen. This will help maintain the detail of your pieces. Here are some of the soap embeds I made for this project. The difference in color is due to the fact that I used several recipes. [pic 3]

Using Mica in an Alternative Ways Instead of adding mica directly to the soap batter to color the whole soap, I used mica powders a few different ways to color the embeds—dry brushing, painting with mica in alcohol and spraying with mica in alcohol. To do this, you will need brushes (cheap ones work fine. Generally, you will want smaller sizes), a spray bottle, a palette, micas in various colors, and rubbing alcohol (I prefer 91% as it contains less water).

Dry Brush: To dry brush, simply dip a dry brush

into the mica powder and gently brush it on the embed itself; the powder will stick quite well. In the pictures below, I am coloring one of the roses by brushing on a pink mica, then using a gold mica to add highlights. I used a few shades of pink to give my roses slightly different looks. To add a sense of depth, I added darker micas into the deep crevices using a very skinny brush. [pic 4-6]

Spray Color: To spray color, add mica powder to a

spray bottle and add alcohol. You will want to add enough powder so that when you spray you get



Baroque Soap by KEVIN DEVINE



Baroque Soap by KEVIN DEVINE good, even coverage. Shake the bottle frequently to keep the mica suspended in the alcohol. The alcohol will evaporate fairly quickly, leaving a nice, even cover of mica powder. [pic 7-9]

Painting with Mica in Alcohol: For my final technique,

I added a small amount of mica powder, along with a small amount of alcohol into a palette and applied it as I would any paint. In the photos below I am using a grey mica that I paint into the recesses of the flourish to give it depth. I then used gold and silver for highlights. [pic 10-12] I made custom molds out of foam board and lined them with freezer paper as I wanted a larger than normal bar that would allow me to add my cool embeds. After I poured the wet soap into my molds, I added a few mica in oil swirls on top; this would be the backdrop for my embeds. Editor’s note: mica swirls are created by mixing mica and glycerin. Start with one part mica and two parts glycerin. Drizzle the mica on freshly poured soap and swirl it as desired, using a chopstick, skewer or other similar instrument. [pic 13-14] While the soap was still wet, but thickened up enough to support the weight of the embeds so they would not sink, I placed them on top to create the look and feel I was going for. I also did a little



Baroque Soap by KEVIN DEVINE piping to add small leaves; this helped to provide an elaborate look and visual balance. For this, I used a Wilton #67 tip. [pic 15-16] Once the soap was fully set, I unmolded the bars. I sprayed the sides with the gold mica spray and added a few highlights to the leaves. I love the final look of the soap. Here are a few photos: [pics 17-22] I am a hobbyist soap maker based in Philadelphia, PA. In my day job I am a nurse and do consultations for a technology company. I’ve been making soap for about four years I also enjoy making soap and craft videos. YouTube: UCmXiwZrRhCOfnHS7SnHOfDg Website:



Molded Spring Soap Flowers by Bhakti “Bee” Iyata

Cold process soap offers so many possibilities, so let us push our imaginations and limitations. New designs exist in that place between wake and sleep, where so many soapmakers go to design their next soap. Have you ever wanted to try a soap design, yet not wanted to commit to a mold? This is a quick and easy way to try soap embellishments without purchasing a silicone mold. You may begin in one of two ways--either pour off a bit of your next batch of cold process soap or use this recipe and make your own molding soap. The trick for this soap is to keep it from curing. We want to avoid exposing it to the air, contrary to the traditional curing process of cold process soap. Always use appropriate hygiene and lye safety protocols hands, work areas and tools must be fully cleaned to begin. Please, familiarize yourself with cold process soapmaking instructions before beginning this soap molding process. You will find many tutorials online.

Simple Molding Soap Recipe Recipe Type: Cold Process Run this recipe through your favorite soap calculator.



Molded Spring Soap Flowers by Bhakti “Bee” Iyata

Avoid additives like sodium lactate for hardness; we want this soap to be soft and pliable, like fondant. A simple soap recipe for your rotation, to build on, or a good go-to can be found below. This is an ideal soap recipe for cold process hand molding soap. Ingredients • Lard - 50% • Coconut Oil - 30% • Soybean Oil – 20% Soybean oil can be substituted with castor oil or olive oil, but run your formula through a lye calculator. Instructions 1. Melt the lard and coconut oil in microwave or double boiler. 2. Add your liquid soybean oil (or other liquid oil) MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

to the heated mixture. This will help cool the oils. 3. Add colorant to oil and blend. 4. All ingredients, ideally, should be at room temperature or below 90°F. Now, add lye water to your oils, not the other way around. Please read how to handle lye safely before beginning. 5. Stick blend your oils and lye until trace. 6. Pour into mold and spray with 91% rubbing alcohol. 7. Cover with plastic wrap. 8. Unmold after 24 - 48 hours. 9. Wrap in plastic. 10. Place in sealed plastic bag. 11. Use as needed to make your hand molded cold process soap. • 16


Molded Spring Soap Flowers by Bhakti “Bee” Iyata 12. Your soap is fully saponified after 48 hours. Use after being sealed for an additional two days. Gloves are only necessary if your hands are sensitive to being washed frequently; otherwise, this soap is safe to touch. Making Flowers Unwrap your molding soap and cut off a few ounces so you can create the flowers. Use your fingers to mold little flowers or use a fondant plunger. These little plungers can be found at your local craft store in the baking department or online. Our goal is to have the molding soap to be smooth, slightly sticky and pliable without being too sticky, somewhere between fondant and clay consistency. With your new molding soap, roll it out like cookie dough, using cornstarch in a dusting bag. A dusting bag can be made with a bit of muslin and a rubber band.



Molded Spring Soap Flowers by Bhakti “Bee” Iyata Now that your soap is rolled out, flip it over each time to avoid the soap sticking to your work surface and strive to get as much as you can rolled each time. Avoid overusing the cornstarch, but practice and find out what works for you. You will not break your soap if you use too much cornstarch – you will simply add to your understanding. Don’t be afraid of making mistakes; be fearless in your experimenting. This is a place where you can have as much fun as your imagination will allow. Remember, fear keeps imagination at bay. Once you have rolled your molding soap into a flat layer, use your plunger cutter. Press your plunger into the dough and push the plunger to remove the flower. If it begins to stick, dust your plunger with cornstarch or wipe it off with a paper towel. You now have a few flowers cut out. Next, roll tiny little balls and press them into the centers of your flowers. You now have unique flowers without a mold!


If you want to take it further, use an oval plunger and cut out each petal. Make as many petals as you like and stick the ends together in the center, then add your rolled ball of pollen in the center. Place on a paper towel to allow to dry. To remove the dusting of cornstarch, just spray with 91% alcohol and rub with your finger or a clean paint brush. To make these even more personal, use alcohol and mix it with a bit of soap mica and paint the flower petals to add shimmer and detail. The variations of these little flowers are truly endless, and all this for the cost of a few fondant plungers! Bhakti (Bee) finds satisfaction in the ability to take seemingly unrelated ingredients and making them into something she imagined. While her soap cures, she is working on a book about soap molding and the mysteries and magic of soap. • 18


Soap Carving Tutorial by MARION B. CONGER

Do you have a soap you feel like tossing because it didn’t come out the way you wanted it to? Soap carving is a fun and creative way to save it! The first time I carved my soap was because the beautiful flower design in my head turned out to be a flop in my soap. I was so disappointed that after all my careful planning, it did not turn out the way I had envisioned. Nevertheless, after I unmolded my soap and turned it over, I felt a bit better because I rather liked the bottom. The colours seemed brighter and I could see a flower, albeit abstract. Maybe I could do something with this side instead, but what? I finally decided to try outlining the shapes to give them a little more definition and to enhance what I saw. Not only was I happy with the results, but I discovered that I really liked carving too. Since then, when I have a soap that doesn’t turn out quite right, or if I happen to see something in it that says, “Carve me,” I obey. Carving soap involves five basic steps. 1. STUDY YOUR SOAP - Where to start? Well, obviously the first step is to decide what you are going to carve. What do you see in your soap? A flower? A face? A landscape? It is a lot like looking at clouds or ink blots and trying to find familiar shapes. Sometimes squinting helps. Your carving can be abstract or realistic, one



Soap Carving Tutorial by MARION B. CONGER

shape or many, whatever you want. You just need an idea to start with; then you can see where it takes you. You can see how I used the flower concept in photos 1-3, and a nature mix in photos 5-7.

design, letters, lines, geometric shapes and so on, or as complex as you want to make it. For instance, I chose to add more foliage and a dragonfly in this particular soap (photo 8). The possibilities are truly endless.

2. OUTLINE - Once you have an idea, you start by “outlining” it using a tool with a pointed tip, such as an orange stick or wooden skewer. You need not worry about your background at this stage, though you may find yourself picturing ideas in your head. I usually wait until the main subject is at least outlined before starting the background. [pic 6]

5. CLEAN-UP - When you are happy with your results, it is time to give the soap a gentle rinse under cool water. This is just to get rid of the crumbs and little bits of soap that might be lodged in the crevices of your design. Do not rub, however; you don’t want to make suds or rub away part of your design. Place the soap on a tea towel or other surface that will absorb moisture. Pat the top of the soap gently to help remove excess water. Remove any bits still there with a rounded stick and let dry. Sometimes, the hardest part is knowing when to stop. If you are satisfied with your design, call it done. And that’s all there is to it! [pic 8]

3. CARVE - The next step is to really accentuate your image(s) by adding dimension and depth. This is done by carving around, under, and into your shapes until you get the effect you want. You can see what I mean when you look at the photos. As you bring your subject to life, you can also start to add details. Be as detailed or as rustic as you like, depending on the idea for your soap. Keep a piece of rolled up paper towel or soft toothbrush handy to brush off the bits of soap you are carving out (Use these scraps as confetti in other soaps or throw them in with a rebatch). [pic 7] 4. BACKGROUND - Does it need some kind of background design or do you like it the way it is? Would you like to add texture? Images? A background can be as simple as a stippled MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

This particular method of carving is called relief carving. You are raising your image from the background, not cutting it out all the way around. Many tools may be used to carve soap--whether made specifically for carving, such as clay and playdough tools and fondant/cake decorating tools– or those you probably already have around the house, such as toothpicks, orange sticks, cheese or dip spreaders (to carve under and remove background). Search your kitchen and craft drawers for ideas. [pic 4] • 20


Soap Carving Tutorial by MARION B. CONGER When you are carving, you need good lighting and a comfortable place to sit. I usually carve while watching t.v., holding my soap over a plate with a towel on my lap to catch any mess, or at the kitchen counter. If I plan a soap with the intention of carving it, I use a recipe that will make a harder soap so the engraving won’t be rubbed away too quickly. The extra texture from carving makes the soap feel like a massage bar. It does not matter what size or shape mold you use. However, if it is a soap that will be cut after you carve it, be sure to take this into consideration when planning your carving. You don’t want to end up with a cut down the centre of a vital part of your design. Furthermore, if soaping is a business for you, you will want to consider how much time you want to spend, since time is money. It is possible to carve creatively and be effective without taking a lot of time, such as just outlining a pattern or a line design. Carving is also a great way to personalize a soap for someone for perhaps, a special theme or occasion. Soap carving is good clean fun (sorry, couldn’t resist), and even kids like trying it. After watching me, my grandson insisted on carving his own soap and he is only six. I hope that has enticed him to wash his hands more often. Don’t stress about being perfect, just enjoy the process. I hope that you are feeling inspired and eager to try soap carving, it really is a lot of fun. SOAP ON! [pic 9] My husband, kids and I live in beautiful Constance Bay (Ottawa), Ontario, Canada. My weekdays are spent as an admin assistant at an accounting firm and planning soaps in my head. I have a passion for making unique items as both a journey and an escape.



Hot Process Slow Cooker Soap by VALERIE MOSHER

It has been three years since I started this adventure and I still get excited over homemade hot process soap! It is a wonderful thing and so very good for our skin. My absolute favorite of the processes is Hot Process slow cooker. Before I begin, one important thing that I learned along the way is this: Not all homemade soap is created equally. Even though you can create a visually appealing bar of soap, it does not necessarily mean it is a soap that is good for your skin. In fact, I used to buy homemade soap wherever we journeyed, but I had yet to find one to replace my “go to” brand name soap. During a trip to Georgia, however, I met a soaping friend, and after using one of her bars, I knew it was possible to create a beautiful, conditioning, nourishing bar of soap. So, after a few months of research, reading, watching and experimenting, I started out on my own and have not looked back. I have learned so much from God’s creation and other soapers, and I am still learning every day. For myself, starting out with a good formula and good ingredients high in conditioning and low in cleansing, with a nice, creamy lather is important. Like most soapmakers, I love getting my oils and butters ready, adding the lye and seeing the change. I love how it smells cooking and going through the different stages. Of course, the cut is always exciting, as well, and you can’t beat how the soap feels and treats your skin. Once my



Hot Process Slow Cooker Soap by VALERIE MOSHER



Hot Process Slow Cooker Soap by VALERIE MOSHER formula is calculated, I like to have my essential or fragrance oils ready, colors mixed, mold lined, pitchers filled with hot water (or whatever you use to putting your batter in to color), spoons and swirling tool in hot water. From experience, I have learned that you can swirl just about any thickness of batter, with varied results. Nevertheless, by adding sodium lactate, sugar water and especially Greek yogurt, you will attain a very manageable, fluid batter. Of course, exceptions can and do happen, but these are my secrets to a manageable batter. I would like to show you how I make and design my hot process soap I call, “Satsuma Silk.” [pics 12-14]

FORMULA for 3 lb Mold In this formula, I use 38% lye liquid, or 18.25 oz. I calculate my superfatting percentage at 5%. After the cook, I add 3% (1.45 oz.) of hot avocado oil. You may use any oil you like.

Lye Water and Ingredients Added to it Water Aloe vera juice Coconut milk (unsweetened) Fine sea salt Tussah silk

[ TABLE 1 ] [TABLE 2 on next page]

Fragrance Blend, heat and add to cooked soap just before separating into containers to color Satsuma Jasmine Mandarin FO Sweet Orange EO, 5X Patchouli EO

Directions oils. Cover the crock with the lid. Place a steel bowl in a small fry pan with hot water in it. With the stove on low, melt the butters. (Sometimes I also heat up the hard oils in steel bowls set in the hot water before adding them to the slow cooker). When the butters are melted, add them to the melted hard and soft oils. Turn the slow cooker to low. Add Kaolin Clay and the hot sodium lactate to the oils and stick blend well.

#2 – While the hard oils are melting, get the lye ready. In this formula, the lye liquid consists of distilled water and aloe vera juice. The coconut milk will be added after the cook. Add the fine sea salt and Tussah Silk to the lye liquid. Stir the salt until it is all dissolved before adding the lye. Line a MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

2.25 oz. 0.5 oz. 0.25 oz.

[ TABLE 3 ]

[refer to Tables 1, 2, 3 & 4]

#1 – Start the slow cooker on high; add all the hard

10 oz. (Lye Liquid) 2.25 oz. (Lye Liquid) 6 oz. add hot after cook before yogurt 2 teaspoons add to lye liquid & dissolve before adding lye Cotton ball size – cut up & add to lye liquid before adding Lye

Soap Oils Oil Sweet Almond Avocado Canola Castor Coconut 76 Kokum Butter Olive Palm Kernel Palm Shea Butter Tallow, Beef

% 7 2 6 13 12 8 19 4 7 5 17

Ounces 3.36 0.96 2.88 6.24 5.76 3.84 9.12 1.92 3.36 2.40 8.16

[ TABLE 4 ] • 25


Hot Process Slow Cooker Soap by VALERIE MOSHER

Additives to Soap Oils White Kaolin clay Sodium Lactate Avocado Oil – SF After Cook White sugar Yogurt, plain (I use Greek) Maple syrup

2 tsps 1.9 oz. (4% of oils) 1.45 oz. (3% of oils) 3 Tbsps + 3 Tbsps water. Mix. 3 Tbsps 2 Tbsps + 1 Tbsp water

Stick blend into heated oils Add hot to heated oils and stick blend Add hot after cook Add hot after Vaseline stage Add cold after Vaseline stage Add hot after Vaseline stage

Table 2



Hot Process Slow Cooker Soap by VALERIE MOSHER 3 pound wooden mold with parchment or freezer paper. Mix the colors you are using and measure out additives. Pitchers/containers for coloring your batter, swirling tool and spoons should be ready to be heated. Plastic wrap to cover your crock (after you add your yogurt) should be cut and ready. Plastic wrap for your pitchers/containers should be cut and ready. [main photo]

#3 – When the temperature of the oils and lye liquid (you can strain your lye to catch silk that did not dissolve if you like) are around 135°F to 145°F, mix them together and stick blend to medium/thick trace. Sometimes I do higher or lower temps, but beware that with higher temperatures you have to be watching continually, as the soap can quickly rise up the crock and volcano. Even at 145°F they will climb faster with the slow cooker covered. Either way, I have found the temperature will affect the cooking stages and how quick it will reach Vaseline stage. Along with that, I have found that faster is not always better. Cover the top of the lid with a couple of dry dishtowels or the ceramic part only with plastic wrap (this helps to keep the batter moist). Time for 5 minutes and check; if rising up, stir it down, recover and repeat until Vaseline stage takes place. When starting at the temperatures noted above, it will probably take about 20 minutes to reach Vaseline stage. [pics 2-3] *Vaseline stage – the point at which the soap goes through gel phase and becomes translucent.

the metal. Time it for about 5-10 minutes; then check pH. (I use Macherey-Nagel strips). If around pH 10, add maple syrup/water and the Essential/ Fragrance Oils). [pics 5-6]

#6 – Just before separating the batter into individual pitchers/containers filled with hot water, make sure all the utensils are nice and hot by placing them in a container of hot water. Have plastic wrap all cut and ready to put over the pitchers with their spoons. Dump out the water and separate soap into individual hot pitchers/ containers with their spoons and cover with plastic wrap. Once it is all separated, color each one and re-wrap until ready to layer. [pics 7-8] #7 – Layering and swirling for Satsuma Silk - the colors and amounts are: off-white, 1 cup; orange 2 1/4 cups. The remainder will be white. The colors are layered in the lined mold in the following order from bottom to top: ½ of the white, ½ of the orange, all of the off-white, the rest of the orange and the rest of the white. Bang the mold down after layering and use a hanger tool made of 3/16” aluminum rod and covered with 5/16” plastic tubing (or the hanger tool you have) to do the swirl. The swirl consists of two types - a figure 8 swirl, then an “S” swirl. Finish the top off with Curly Q’s done with a wooden skewer and place soap in the freezer for four hours. Transfer to the refrigerator for four more hours. The soap should be ready to cut. [pics 9-11] VOILA!!!

#4 – Add the following at Vaseline stage: avocado

oil; blend well. Add white sugar/water (hot); blend well. Add coconut milk a little at a time, blending very well. [pic 4]

#5 – Add 3 Tablespoons or more of cold yogurt. Stir vigorously until all is very well incorporated. Cover the stoneware with plastic wrap, avoiding


Valerie is from Nova Scotia and has been soaping for three years. She loves how it is so nourishing for the skin, yet allows her to be creative. See all of Valerie’s products: • 27


Successful Preservation of Cosmetics by JANE BARBER

Key Considerations for Successful Preservation of Cosmetic Products: PART ONE In this first part of this two-part article, we aim to answer common preservative questions and to dispel some common myths. We will also examine self-preserving cosmetics and preservation guidelines in Europe and the USA. Spoilage can be caused by bacteria, moulds or sometimes yeasts growing in products such as creams, lotions and shampoo during product storage. These microbes entered the product owing to contaminated raw materials, poor preservation or poor hygiene practice during manufacture. Some types of microbes can cause infection and disease, and often no visible spoilage is evident. Organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus can cause skin infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause very serious eye infections and Candida albicans (Yeast) can cause ‘thrush.’ Product types vary in their susceptibility to contamination and growth of microbes. The most susceptible products are those which contain water, such as creams, shampoo, shower gel, lotions and hair conditioners. An effective preservative system is therefore needed for consumer protection and prevention from spoilage during normal product use. Let’s look at a few of the common questions regarding preservatives. I made a lotion and did not add a preservative. How long can I use it for? This will vary according to the formula, packaging and other considerations. Perhaps anywhere from 0 to 7 days from making it, if stored in the fridge. Do lip balms, balms and body butters which do not contain water need a preservative? MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

Generally they do not; however, if water is likely to enter the product--for example, from a humid bathroom, a preservative is advisable. It is important to note that aloe vera, goat’s milk, hydrosols and floral waters consist of mainly water and are challenging to preserve. What guidelines does the FDA (USA) and the EU (Europe) provide regarding preservation? In the EU, the EU Cosmetics Directive (“the Directive”) requires that cosmetic products be safe under normal or reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. In order to demonstrate that a cosmetic product complies with the Directive, the responsible person shall, prior to placing a cosmetic product on the market, ensure that • 28


Successful Preservation of Cosmetics by JANE BARBER the cosmetic product has undergone a safety assessment. Annex I of the Directive states that the Cosmetic Product Safety Report shall as a minimum, contain the results of the preservation challenge test and an assessment as to its safety.

Rosemary extract, grapefruit seed extract and vitamin E are antioxidants, not preservatives. Antioxidants may help extend the life of your oils slightly but will not protect products against bacteria nor mould.

In the USA, the FDA’s “Small Businesses & Homemade Cosmetics: Fact Sheet” (accessible from their website resourcesforyou/industry/ucm388736.htm) provides the following guidance:

Many brands market their products as “preservative free” with no preservative listed on their packaging. There are chemicals which have dual functions, such as moisturisation and preservation, but are primarily included to act as preservative. Legal loopholes can mean that chemical might be advertised to consumers as a moisturiser rather than a preservative. Also, many brands do not label their products correctly, giving the false impression that a preservative is not included.

• “FDA regulates cosmetics under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Under this law, cosmetics must not be adulterated.” • “Microbial contamination can pose a health hazard, making a product adulterated” • “You are responsible for ensuring that your product is safe”. • “And don’t forget microbiological safety. Cosmetics do not have to be sterile, but they must not contain any harmful microorganisms, and the number of aerobic microorganisms per gram must be low.” • “Many factors can affect how your product may become contaminated, including use by consumers, such as dipping one’s fingers into a jar.”

“Self-preserving” cosmetics Products are generally regarded as self-preserving if: • the formula contains over 70% glycerin • the formula contains over 25% alcohol • pH is over 11

Common Myths Can essential oils and fragrances be used to preserve? Some essential oils and fragrances have limited antimicrobial properties against certain types of bacteria or mould, but typically require high concentrations at levels which can cause irritation and are above the safety limits set by The International Fragrance Association. MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

“My two year old lotion looks fine, so it is preserved properly.” We can neither rely on sight nor smell to know if our product is contaminated. One can put 100,000 bacteria into one ml (less than one quarter of a teaspoon of water) and the water will appear to the naked eye to be crystal clear and usually will not smell bad. Most cosmetics tested have counts ranging into the tens of thousands or millions of cells per ml and have subtle or no aesthetic differences from sterile samples. The only way to know if your product is preserved effectively is to get it tested. This website contains reviews and detailed information regarding common preservatives: In Part Two of this article (July/August 2016 Edition), we will examine preservative testing, must-know preservation tips, and take a look at synthetic and natural preservative blends. Jane Barber, is a Cosmetic Chemist and full member of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists. Jane leads her worldwide team of chemists, with a wealth of experience formulating for large multinationals to start-ups. Jane also runs online courses making natural skin and body care products: • 29


Spa Event in a Corporate Setting PART III by SUE FINLEY

In two previous issues, I discussed hosting spa parties at home and at small businesses. Read the Nov/Dec 2015 issue of the Saponifier and the Jan/Feb.2016 issue of Making Soap, Cosmetics & Candles for complete articles. In this issue, I will discuss hosting spa parties in a corporate setting.

I have a few customers who sponsor spa events in their offices once or twice a year. They hold the events for their employees, typically around the holidays. It helps to ease the anxiety and time-drain of holiday shopping by offering a shopping opportunity at the workplace. Employees appreciate the convenience of shopping while at work, and I emphasize that it is a generous benefit provided to them by their employer. It engenders good feelings all around. Allow yourself plenty of time to bring your products into the office and to set up since people are on a tighter time schedule than they would be for an in-home party. Be sure to have the following items with you: • Cash for making change • A card swiper (you can get these through PayPal, Square and other places) • Bags for purchases • Business cards • Rack cards or sheets with additional information about your business.



Spa Event in a Corporate Setting by SUE FINLEY Dress appropriately! The saying, “First impressions are the most lasting,” is true and never so much as when you want to present your business in a good light. Dress professionally for an office setting. Do not show up in jeans and a t-shirt! Dressing for success results in fruitful rewards. Greet people with a smile, an introduction, and a handshake. Realize your restrictions in what you can do during an employee spa event. Because you are in an office setting with people coming and going, you cannot do the same kinds of activities as you would at a home spa night. For example, I do not bring in apothecary jars to make bath teas, nor do we play games, since most people are coming and going over the course of an hour and a half to two hours. Recently, for example, I arrived at an office to set up at 3:00 pm, and the employer allowed employees to come in and shop from 3:30-5 pm. Employees appreciated this opportunity immensely and shopped for short time periods. This situation does not allow for playing games and other activities. I do however, talk about the products as employees arrive and let them know about in-home spa nights and the benefits they could reap by hosting such an event in their homes. As employees enter the designated area, often a conference room or back office, I provide a quick introduction of the products, let them know pricing and provide complimentary organza bags for soaps purchased as gifts. During the holidays, I provide green, red, gold and white organza bags, which spurs sales since the soap is gift wrapped and a convenience to my customers.

people feel good. Remember that! You are offering something that is useful, luxurious, makes people feel better and is affordable. Take advantage of this opportunity to garner more customers for future sales by asking each employee to sign your guest book or guest sheet. On the pages, indicate a place for a name, phone number and email address. Ask people, when they are checking out, if they would sign your guest information sheet and also ask if they would like to be contacted regarding holding a spa night of their own. Mention that you provide excellent hostess benefits, including free and discounted products. This usually results in the person booking an event at their home! For additional information on other spa event methods, games, how to increase sales and more, please watch for my upcoming book. Look for me in the next issue where I will share my ideas on how to gain more sales for your online business. Suzanne Finley is the owner of ArtiSun Bath & Skin Care and lives in the metro Detroit area with her husband, Russ. They have two children and two grandsons whom they dote on every chance they get. Sue also has two happy cats who call her “Mom.”

I have found these gatherings to be very profitable for me, especially during Christmas and Hanukkah, because people are holiday shopping and have lists with names they can check off once they make their purchases. Our products are desirable in that they are not going to sit on the recipient’s shelf--they are usable. And yet, they are luxurious and make



Introduction to Cold Processed Soap by EMMA HEATHCOTE-JAMES

Introduction to Making Your First batch of Cold Processed Soap Just like eating vegetables you’ve grown, collecting eggs from your own chickens or wearing a dress you’ve stitched together yourself, something about using soap which you have made from scratch is similarly satisfying. Our skin is our biggest organ and we need to look after it. The good news is, the process really is not complicated to create a natural and traditional bar of soap. If you can make a cake, without doubt you can make a cold processed batch of soap, and if you have an arty lean, all the better, as soap making is often described as the blending of chemistry and art. Only the sky becomes your limit in terms of the endless possibilities for creating recipes, textures, natural colours and blends. My personal journey has gone from whipping up various concoctions on the Aga for family and friends (and indeed, their pets) to turning it into a business creating the eco-friendly Little Soap Company seven years ago. We grew rapidly, from lining the shelves of local farmshops to soon upscaling and making for all the top end UK supermarkets, being the first organic bar soap to hit their shelves The range soon rolled out to incorporate liquid organic soap, bubble baths and foaming body washes, to candles and other products. We also make a lot of white label soaps for other skincare, as well as teaching students who come from all over the world at our Little Soap School. Soap is an everyday wash off product, and with humans being basically waterproof, soap latches onto the dirt and oil on our bodies and whips it away down the drain. We don’t need harsh chemicals or synthetics to do this, so let’s not use them! Creating your own natural soap can be a very satisfying hobby and it can be relatively simple. However, working with sodium hydroxide and hot oils requires a certain amount of care and attention. MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

MUSTS: • Wear plastic safety goggles at all times when handling and mixing the NaOH with water (the lye) • Wear heavy-duty (usually black) rubber gloves to protect your hands and arms from the lye • Cover up! Wear an old, long sleeved shirt, trousers, socks and shoes/boots so none of your skin is exposed in case there is a splash/ spill. • 32


Introduction to Cold Processed Soap by EMMA HEATHCOTE-JAMES Equipment you will need: • 2 Stainless Steel Saucepans. These should be big enough to accommodate all the oil as well as the lye when combined and still have enough room for stirring vigorously, without spilling or splashing. DO NOT use any equipment made of aluminium, tin, iron or Teflon (all of which can be corroded by the lye). • Large glass or Pyrex jug (over time plastic can be corroded by the lye) • *Editor’s Note: with the increased occurrence of glass and Pyrex shattering in use, many soap makers prefer using #5 plastics or stainless steel pitchers for mixing lye. • Stainless steel balloon whisk (and a low 110w electric stick blender if you want to speed up) • Silicon spatula (a soap maker’s best friend!)

just a hint of sweat. A splash of solution can burn or blind. Accidentally swallowed, it causes serious internal injury and may be fatal. Always take care to check that any children or pets are well out the way before beginning soap making. When NaOH is combined with water, the fumes released are highly toxic and if breathed in, can overwhelm within seconds. It is important to do this stage in the process in a well ventilated room or ideally, as I always do, outside. After a few minutes, the fumes will have dissipated. • Holding your breath just before you pour the sodium hydroxide into the water and mix it is a good idea. • ALWAYS pour the sodium hydroxide into the water and not the other way around. Water poured onto sodium hydroxide can produce a volcano affect, especially when you start to experiment using beer or other liquids.

• Non-serrated Knife (to cut the saponified soap next day) • Plastic, glass or wooden mould lined with greaseproof or parchment paper, or a silicon mould. • Digital kitchen scales (with a Tare (zero) Button) • Gas or electric hob to melt the solid oils. • Things you may need to buy: Cooking thermometer (such as a jam making one), small marked measuring beakers for measuring essential oils and liquid nutrient oils.

Safety Issues * NEVER BE COMPLACENT WHEN HANDLING NaOH * NaOH has various names such as sodium hydroxide, caustic soda and lye. It is highly reactive in its dry form and when mixed in solution. One bead of NaOH can burn through layers of skin in the presence of MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES • 33


Introduction to Cold Processed Soap by EMMA HEATHCOTE-JAMES

Little Soap: Starters Recipe Liquid: • 120g Water (spring water, distilled water or filtered rain water) • 64g Pure NaOH (also called caustic soda or sodium hydroxide pearls) Base Oils: • 140g Organic coconut oil (for lather) • 112g Certified sustainable palm oil (for a hard, stable, long lasting bar) • 198g Pomace olive oil (or extra virgin olive oil, but will take longer to trace) (for moisture/ conditioning) Nutrient Oil (at 2%): (optional) 10ml = anything out of your kitchen cupboard, such as rape seed oil, jojoba or avocado or extra virgin olive oil. Essential Oil/s (at 3%): (optional) = up to 13ml for fragrance (but be guided by your sense of smell and use lesser quantities of stronger oils. Never be tempted to go above 3% of the recipe for Essential Oils as they can be surprisingly strong. In particular, the citrus blends are known sensitizers). Additives: (optional) Add in things such as rolled oats/poppy seeds/dried calendula petals and so forth for texture and exfoliation. MAKING SOAP 1. Before beginning, spread several layers of newspaper or greaseproof paper onto the kitchen table or work surface. Arrange all your equipment and ingredients in front of you as it is important to prepare well. Once you begin to stir it is too late to stop and fetch something you forgot! 2. Line your mould with greaseproof paper (something that will take 500g – ideally a plastic take-out tub or small wooden box). 3. Keeping the NaOH closed, weigh out the water MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES

into the container and then place it away from the scales. 4. Next, (wearing all of your protective equipment which you will keep on throughout) weigh out the sodium hydroxide into a clean glass container. Be precise with your weighing. 5. Open the window (or even better, mix it in the garden), take a deep breath and holding your breath, pour the sodium hydroxide into the water and stir with a stainless steel whisk or spoon until it dissolves. Leave the room for a minute or two until the fumes have gone (or leave it outside, but well away from children or pets). 6. Next, measure out the solid oils (coconut and palm) on the scales and then put them on low heat until they have melted. * Never leave heating oils unattended * 7. Take off the heat and add the liquid olive oil to the pan and set aside. 8. Place a glass thermometer into the pan and check the temperature. Do the same for the lye (remember to wipe the thermometer clean in between). You are looking for both pans to be between 35° and 49°C, ideally around 43°C. 9. Using a basin of iced water or hot water, you can help adjust temperatures. You are aiming ideally for both the lye and the oils to be within a few degrees of each other. 10. Once your optimum soap making temperature has been reached, very carefully pour the lye into the oil pan. Begin to stir the mixture with the balloon whisk to avoid splashing. It will soon begin to thicken and you can continue at a more brisk pace. Make sure your stirring is constant (do not speed up or slow down). Scrape around the edge of the pan after every few turns of the whisk so that the mixture is thoroughly incorporated. • 34


Introduction to Cold Processed Soap by EMMA HEATHCOTE-JAMES 11. TRACE is achieved when the soap mixture has become thick like custard, and when the whisk is lifted, a thin trail (the “worm”) of mixture dropping back into the pan rests on the surface of the mixture for a few seconds before sinking back in, just like cake making. 12. There is no way to tell how long it will take to bring your mixture to trace, as it depends upon the recipe (and the weather and sometimes what planets are ascending at the time). 13. When a light trace is achieved, it is time to add your nutrient oil and any additives. 14. Essential oils should be added last of all and stirred in only enough to disperse them throughout the soap mixture. Stirring too long can result in discolouration of the soap or uneven texture in the finished bar. 15. Pour the soap into the mould and use a silicone spatula to get all the mixture out. Besides, it also helps the washing up process and your drains! 16. Some schools of thought insist the soap mould must now be covered and insulated with a towel or blanket for 18-24 hours. However, if the recipe ratios are correct and you have mixed it correctly, the soap will continue to saponify and generate heat, whether insulated or not. I personally don’t incubate any of my soaps at all. Either way, the soap mixture will enter the ‘gel stage,’ which sometimes can be seen with the soap hardening from the outside of the mould inwards. 17. Depending on the recipe, your hardened soap will be hard and ready to remove from the mould between 6-24 hours later. Wear your gloves to be on the safe side; fresh soap is still very caustic and not ready to be used. If the soap feels too soft to cut, leave it in the mould for another day. Once hard enough, cut the soap into the desired size bars.


Cutting, Curing & Wrapping The Little Beginners’ recipe that we have used here can be cut next day. Decide how you wish to cut it and what size bars you want. It is possible to use cookie cutters. This will result in odd scraps of soap being left over. These odd bits need not be wasted as they may be rebatched by grating the left over pieces, melting and then pouring into the mould. The rebatched soap is in general not as pretty as the original bar, but better than wasting ingredients. You can also add cubes or flakes of it at trace when you make a new batch to look like Dolly Mixtures. Once you have cut the soap, have a quick look at the inside texture to check that it is ok. Do not worry about any white powder that has accumulated on the top surface of the soap. This is harmless soda ash. This can be left until the soap is fully cured before scraping off. Vegetable peelers can be used to create a chamfered edge on the bars if you wish, or use a corrugated carrot slicer to create a massage bar edge. Place the bars of soap in a dust free environment-cool and dry is optimum, for a minimum of four weeks. I put my soaps on racks covered in greaseproof paper, but a tray on top of a bookcase is just as good. The ideal position for curing the soap is somewhere dark with a free flow of air all around. A shelf or window ledge that does not get sun can be used if you first put down a layer of greaseproof paper or brown paper bags. Avoid newspaper or anything with print on it as the soap is still very alkali and will absorb the print. If you feel the soap will become dusty, then cover it with a clean tea towel or grease proof paper. After a couple of weeks, turn your soap. After four weeks, the soap will have hardened considerably and will be ready to use. Scrape any white powder or uneven bumps off the soap with a sharp knife and give the soap a polish with a clean dry cloth. The possibilities are endless when it comes to wrapping and decorating your soap. Seek • 35


Introduction to Cold Processed Soap by EMMA HEATHCOTE-JAMES inspiration from soap making groups and forums on the internet, as well as photos uploaded to places such as Facebook and Flickr. Always store soap in a cool, dry place (we find popping them in brown paper bags ideal to help keep the scent) and keep away from direct sources of heat or strong sunlight. *A note of caution: Of course it is totally OK for you to give your new creations to friends and family as gifts. However, once you start exchanging your soaps for money, laws and regulations come into play that you must comply with. Research those applicable to your country. SAP Values and Recalculating New Recipes After your first few successful batches of soap, you may well be itching to experiment with different recipes and/or combinations of oils or fats! • Important fact to note: Each oil has its own Saponification value (SAP), or the amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) required to turn that oil into soap. If you wish to substitute one oil for another, you must first recalculate the amount of sodium hydroxide required. Much is written about SAP values, so research it or take a course! • Equally, if you want to make more mixture, it is not simply doubling quantities. Always check on a lye calculator! Hints & Tips There is no right or wrong way to stir your soap. If using a stick blender, as a beginner it is best to keep to a moderate speed. The faster you stir, the quicker the soap will saponify. If your stirring is not consistent, you may experience separation once the mixture has been poured.

curdling, reaction to additives and separation after pouring. Using a stick blender (immersion blender) can greatly speed up the soap making process and even improve on the quality of the soap. It is wise though, to become familiar with the look and feel of soap at trace with hand stirring before switching to a more mechanical process. I always start and end with a hand balloon whisk to really feel what is happening. Always weigh accurately, a few grams extra oil would not affect the final soap too much, but a few grams extra of NaOH could mean a caustic batch of soap. Troubleshooting Hard white shiny lumps in your soap are caused by free lye that has not been mixed correctly. You must not use this soap as it is caustic. A very oily or watery soap is caused by inconsistent and erratic stirring and is caustic and unusable. White swirls (that are not hard or shiny) within the bars can be caused by use of a synthetic fragrance oil or uneven mixing of essential oils. Unless it is very pronounced, this is aesthetic only and the bars are safe to use. Hard and crumbly soap is caused by too little water in the mix. Rather than wasting it, this soap could be rebatched and used safely. Dreaded orange spots (DOS) are aesthetic only, sometimes caused by strong citrus or antiseptic essential oils. The bars are safe to use. The bars are discoloured light and dark. This is caused by the atmosphere in which they have been cured. Sometimes a draught is responsible and sometimes exposure to sunlight. The bars are safe to use.

Soap can be made at a variety of temperatures, but as the temperature increases, so does risk of MAKING SOAP COSMETICS & CANDLES • 36

Correction: July/Aug 2015

Correction: Jan/Feb 2016

Credit for photos in the July/Aug 2015 article, “Tisane Time!” should have been attributed to Debbie Sturdevant (herb jars) and Mari Ries Karlsson (herbs on plate).

We apologize that the following sugar scrub formula was mistakenly absent from Roberta Perry's interview which appeared within the article “Hammam Magic” by Marina Tadiello in our Jan/ Feb 2016 issue. Roberta Perry, Long Island, USA Roberta's Sugar Scrub Formula • 1 cup White Table Sugar • 2 TBL Olive Oil • 2 TBL Grapeseed Oil • 2 TBL Coconut Oil • 4-6 drops of essential oil or 6 drops high quality fragrance oil Put sugar in mixing cup. Add the oils one at a time, continually stirring the mix. Once all the sugar has been mixed into the oil, add the drops of fragrance. Start with less so the scent builds. If you want an oilier scrub, add another TBL. of Olive Oil. If you want a grittier scrub, add 1 TBL. less.


Coming Next Issue JULY 2016 Sassy Sales Techniques, unique ways to sell more! Increase sales with your online business Making sea shell silicone molds Herbal massage oils-formulas and how-to’s Successful Preservation of Cosmetics, Part 2 Tips for packing and shipping candles and wax melts


To be published JULY 1, 2016 Advertising & Editorial Deadline JUNE 1, 2016

photo COPYRIGHTS Cover Photo Credit: Zahida Map, Handmade in Florida Chemists Corner: villorejo Potpourri: Lara Clarence Soap: Subbotina All other images are © copyrighted by the respective author.