Page 1

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é Ir'

r ()


Ident 111Tlng e


The ad­

numbeT oI local res­ rdrm~ng tkeír own small busínesses. small business owners 'were strugglíng &::! make e:nds meet d:lle to tkeir The coUege felt that this segme:nt coul.d greatly be:ncifitlrom business-related tminíng and support, !jTuwl/ny

The college already Qffered a variety of full­ aná part-time courses 'in business, leading to but few (~f th..e lccal small busi,ness owners evf.,'r enroUed. 1'r&f3 college, tlwrefO're. Sel, out to find out why the college was not attmct.ina them,

Invest'igating the 1narket, tkey that ma:ny business owners shared chamctB'ristics. :l'iwy were very IJUsy try1:ng to keep their businesses and could '/lén spare [he time to attend. classes. Most had school at the earli­ est vossible ovvortunitu a:nd. therefore. lnckeri school, (,'ol/, 't,"

cal cub)ice the rn¡s'¡neSli[WI . neede<l tD le(f:rn ¡no!'" ¡¡}¡on/.l!lm!1'1'1I InJ./ fIIey 11//1:('



iu/il/'/IIlI/ilill 11','111/01"'1'/,

1" IIII'kll' ¡I, illlTdu¡ "'1''':,111"



11/,'11 ¡'¡I/",



Wlil'n ¡he


compared this with the m.ark",t.inn it was obvíous the market:


business programs required regular attendance pe1-iod qf time and led to fo'nnal certifica.tes, which Ihis segment considered irrelEvant The courses emphasized Ihnureti,cal "textbook" knowledge as much as skills. The rmblicity ernphasi,zed featuTes of the colleges and its cou,rscs, rather than any resulting benefit.s to pnrticipant.s. The ma,jority of the students were young people, and o.rív,lts did not feel "at lwme" in that environment. The classes were held in tradíti,onal classrooms in Victorian-era buildings, The 1'esult of the college's analysis was the

Qf a sep­

o/Iute market'ing mí;); tr1rgeted at small businesses.

'l'he pTOlJrctm consi,sted Qf short courses which coula be taken on schedules and at convenient locations. Thus, the ",."mu." o.nd the process qf delivery were changed to match the market. 77w cov:rses were delivered away from the college's main build­ in a small business industrial complexo 1'hefacilities were aUractive and the locatíon convenient. This took into account a¡.e o.,nd the physical facilities. The instru,ctors were ca.refuUy aown-to-earth approQ¡::h. Theyinvited businesspeople to speak io the class, which gave the r:ourses rnore credibility because the people were right. Trainees '/IIere able to learn at their own pace, on up-to-date equipment, with opportunities for one-on-one ¡¡.eLp in a, change in the product that increased its appeal. 8upporting publicity 1nal.mial-promotion-empJul$ized the practicaL bene(its to businesses and their owners. Tlds new program t,ook tím.e and money to establish, but the col­ lege 'was able to get additional funding from sources, 'f'lás meant that tire cost of fLttending-the be set at a level that struggling businesspeople covia afford. The outcO'rne the initial research was tlw.t Calderdale CoUege now pro vides (ll/.iahlu regarrled and popnlrLr ser'oice for local smaU businesses. Source: Adapted


Problem identiticatíon <lnd prohl"1ll are nnporta tional admínistrators and other (kd:;ioll maJ<ers. When most institutions take aetion to !vso!VI' Uwm. Hllt problems can tax the altention oí' busy educators emerge, it takes tirm~ ,md efí'ort ro gutller the most us(~ful infonnatiúl1 come to a decísion. Before tlle process, (k-dsion mak(~n:; take to identify the problem, é.:nd take seriously data-gathering and research in coming to a deCÍsion. Ir th()~;e in already have committed themselves to a comse üf action. H'D01 C'.:';:": devoted to research will be wasted and should be spent elscwhere. is lmdertaken, the cost of the research should be nrnnm1'irm contribution to making better decisions. This considers how an institution ean identL."y its problems and how tlle infonnation can be structure:l the information for resolving marketing problema on opportunities. We use the term inforrnation seribe the institution's activities for analyzing, storln\{. inating market-relevant inforrnation. TIle of a school's marketing information system trated in ~l-l. At the left is the marketing enviromnent that the tion must monitor-specifically, target markets, mark(~ting charmels, publics, and key external to the institution. (1n we this the macroenvironment.) Using the institution's records and other sourees and conducting new research studies as needed, the sehool analyses to decision maldng. This information th.en flows to thc priate admi.nístrators to help tllem in marketing



of the

information system _ Inform,Hion System


ing channels


Publlcs Macroenvironmental

Peter Davies and D. Pardey,

Sense of Ma:rketíng (London: Macroillan, 1990). Market¡ng decísiol1s


--------_. 68



and control. 'fhe resulting dccisions and comrnunications then flow back to the mru'keting environment, which must be continuously monitored, Many educational institutions fail to see that intemal records and mar­ keting intelligence can play an ímportant part in helping to identify and re­ solve marketing problems, Formal marketing research projects ideally build on a base of existing data and marketing intelligence, rather than starting from zero. We strongly bclieve that good information and appropriate marketing re­ search are indispensable for effective marketing planning and action. 'fhis chapter an overview of the marketing information system and the process of conductíng research, including the following topies: 1. Identi(ying marketing ¡¡¡fiUeS

the institution's existing records 3, Gatheling marketing ""'<CLW'6""""'­ 4. Conducting research 5. Analvzinf! marketimz reseaq:h data 2.

T11is chaptcr introduces these topies and indicates useful approaches. T11e reader wíll fmd many examples oE applications of marketing research in sub­ sequent where the methods can be more fully developed in the con­ text of real m<d~ketin(! problems,


The Marketing ProbIem Inventory A marketing probletn inventory lS a list ofthe marketing problems tll(' tutíon has identified, TIle Í.t'1ventory should lndude those situations tIla/ni suggest present 01' future difficulties \>\1th the school's markets and No two people 01' groups within the institutíon will see t1le S;UI problems. Theac!míssíons director may identuy "difficulty nounced decísíon notiñcation date" a.<; a probIem, wherea.<; more concemed about getting a thorough review and decisíon, 'fhose compiling the marketing problem invemory may wam elude lists from othe1's el'> wel!. Figure 3-2 shows a marketing problem matrix: to compare the facing the college as a whole and each separate i'm Í11stitution out a marketing problem invento1'Y may be prised at the number of problems it identifies and the excent to which SOl",. problems emerge that were never examined from a marketing pcrspecl.hi'. For example, private schools tend to cite the need to íncrease salaries an¡ ¡ benefits to attl'act able teachers and to provide for capital improvements ;!rt; í. on aging facilities. AlI Saíl1ts High School (name disguised) \Vas ;; FIGURE 3-2


matrix Dep!.

IDENTIFYING r"íARKETING ISSUES Each educational institution needs to identify t11e specific marketing-related issl!es to address. Correct -orobIem identiflcation is essential to avoid resow:ces on irrelevant ÍSSiues. The \Jlla,U"t:L 2 underscores of the understand its root causes. Once issues have been identified, the lnstitution can study the im­ ones in detail and develop institutiona! responses. An educcttlonal ÍD.sUtution ean identífy ma,rketing issues adn:tinlstrators can use complaint systems, importance­ aml other researc11-based approaches to UUiCHlb from the custorners' discussed in Chapter UL'H;;,"'" in a marketing and can ask others to do the same. they can assess tila demand for various programs and services and detetmine the demand patterns that pres,:mt '18 tor t11e institution. Pourth, the instítution C~'.n lmdertake a audit to determine the status activities. A marketing audit replaces the need for of its current tlie first two approache3 an audit consickrs each potential prob­ J¡'HI ;,re'a i!Jld d('rnand ¡;Lak'. TJI\' IaUer three will be diSCllssed ¡II

Illi:; "'ni ,kr.



Deciining Overall Enrollmentl Cred; t Hou rs


Dec1ining Enroliment

in Salecled Disciplines ! nSLifficient Attraction 01 H ;gh·Quai ity


Students ~.

Poor Image

Low Retentionl

Student Satisfaction Low


Fael! Ity Salí,faetíon

Iosu lfie ¡ent Att(action ni FUlld,






Cai ltolic high sehool for that had "gone eo-ed" in the 19708. After grow­ loo a high of 700 students in the sehoo!'s enrollment to siud~nts a decade latee The school's administrators and the most felt that fue sehool was and 1.11e school simply needed to wo1'd out" t.o attraet more students. A problem analysis for All Saints identified tlle that had an irnpaet on enrollment and the abiJity to attract more sludents:

1. Some speeifíc administrative decisions in the past about entlmsiastie parents, who then

f\ Ir admission alienated ¡¡¡('ir ehildren in other school5.

2. The absence of or brothers as 1.eachers at the sehool lll~l(h~ the sehool seem "lesa Catholic" to parents, but there was little All ('(lllld since the number of and members of Catholic or­ dpr¡-; has declined pre6;;itousty 1.he United States in the 26 years, and fl'wpr ofthese are selecting work in

3. The principal's refusal to communicate openly to even the most supportive "'''C0,~,~t" prospective donois lacked COl1­ ridl'llC(~ that the money would be used effectively. ·1. As cnrollment declined, the sehoo1 no longer was as fue Í1wltlsive "neighborhood schoo1" it had once been, so there was 1ess incen­ livp Lo considcr All Saints as the obvious choice for a Catholic

:;c}¡oo} issues and policies n('aled aclimate of distmst.

('(1 11 cai.i 011.

!"). To reeoup enrollment, AlI Saints began to accept every appllcant. 1'e­

of academic record. While to reqnire fue Cathollc :;d ¡{ )1 whnissions examinatiou, the sehoo! used test results to make 1111'111 r;li.her than admissions decisions. Weak students were adnútted conm­ tí, IIl;¡lly and were required to attend summer 8choo1. T"ne effect was a decline iJl ;;Ltld¡'nt-,' (lnd parents' pereeptions about the academic quaJity of the ':1'11001.

Hecruiting rnaterials 8.11d aetivities werB mtni.llaJ. The school hosted JlIPeting for eíg.hth-grade teachers and eOlxnselors to tell thero about i\ 11 : ;:tilll.';. 'rile publications were raLher than and fue ',11,11 d hall!lhook (distributed to and DfOGDeets (1) :',:11 liz,·tJ a.Hd contained serious h"""m-<:>,...,h;,...,] (j.

.111 ;[11I\llal


nn"d'm~, revealed more areas fef vesti(!ation and im­ would rtever have been uncovered ifthe school h&1 m­ l'l";IIII'<I I.Il1'ir ;.;tuclcnt recruitment prograrn 01' made appe~ús ror lítOre Qona­ 1"" 1:. :;, 1111" ofUIt'se problems are more than others, ¡¡ud t11.e 8chool \\ 11111' .'<1 io r:lllk tll(~m and determine the factors that eontribute to tl1em.





Problem ldentíJication can be palnful hecallse sorne oí" the problerns ofthe school's OV',71 making, not simply failun,s to l"l'spond to ehanges in mand or in the economy. Uncovering past mistakes llllrl Cacing up to conrJnu­ mg issues is unpleasant, and resolving them is Jikely Lo fE'quire c.onsiderable effort and e},-:pense.

The pain of this process is not to small, prívate sehools.

of the most prestigious universities in the United States have

wrenehing with implications for budllet" and staffing.


Demand States

An educational mstitution usually has sorne idea of what level of demand seeks. A residential college in a rural area may be constraíned by available to enroll no more than 800 students but must enre' at residential 725 in order to meet its [mancial cornrnitments. A Sunday school way seek to enroll as many ehlldren as can be to attend, vvheret:L'. public sehool program for physically handicapped children seeks to only those chlldren who need special Marketing arises when an instítution the desíred tmnsactíons that it wants with a target market. At any one time, the demand level may be below, equal to, or above the desired demand leve!. Til€: task manageníent is to ínfluence the timing, and charaCLec" oí" demand Ín a way that will help the institution achieve its objectives the actual demand state and the desired the institution can areas. For example, a college may have too few applic:ntr; for its business school but so many maJors and would-be majors in conm:ll­ nication that ít cannot provide enough class sections.

The Marketing Audit of demand st, areas. most educational in::'jtutions wEl ma:rketíng o1ldít. The person or team carrying CkW Ua.J,"15 auclit information crítical to the institution formance. The auditor examines application and enrollment trends, fund-raising and also interviews admÍlústrators, faculty, studen.;, and others. The audit is Hut a marketing plan but an índependent app;:, sal by a competent consultant of the main problems and opportunities the institution, and what it can do about thern. 'rhe auclitor's independenee in­ creases the likelihood oí" fresh perspectives on the institution's aceomplishments, and problems. Yet the auditor must school's own data and OIl interviews with sehool admínis


_________ , _ _ _,,"""









students, and other pub líes to make this appraisal. So if data are lacking or respondents are not candid, the marketing audit wiIl be less complete and llseful. The auditor wiIl produce some short-run and long-nm recorrunenda­ tions oí' actions the institution could take to improve its performance. The ad­ ministration has to weigh these recommendatíons and implement those it feels would contribut~ to improved mpxketing performance. Since many edu­ cational institutions would benefit !'rom conducting a marketing audit, we provide a separate chapter on the methods, components, and outcomes of a marketing audit in Chapter 17. USING T:HE INSTITOTION'§

t!;Ii;1 011 l~r;l!\li;IÍ,"



1. What types of decisions are you regularly called upon to make? 2. What types of information do you need to make these riecisions?

3. What types of ínformatíon do you get? 4. What types of special studies do yOll periodically request? 5. What Í'/pes of information would yOll like to get that you are not now getting?

6. What informatíon would you want daíly? Weekly? Monthly? Yearly? 7, What magazines and reports would you like lo see routed to you Of) a regular basis? 8. On wha! specific topies would yOl! like be kept informed 1 9. Wha! types of data analys!s programs would yOl! like to see made available? 10. What do rOU t!link would be lhe four most helpful improvemenls that could mctoe present l1larketi ng information system?


The most basic information system and one of the most important ls the school's 'internal recoreis system. institution accumulates information in the regular course of its operatlons. A co11ege will keep records on its stll­ dents, including naITI"S, ages, COllrses taken, grades reeeived, major flelds, test scores, payments, fmancial aid awards, and so on. From ac­ ademic student files, and applications, the co11ege can develop statistics on the number of applications rec(-;ived, the acceptance the av­ erage high school average and adnussions test scores of sLudents who enro11, the frequency distribution of majors, and other useful statistics. The coilege wiil also have record s 011 faculty, amuinistrators, staff, costs, bill­ ings, assets, and liabilities, all of which are indisnensable for manage­ ment deeisions. The college's care€~r center will records on students who use its services and can determine graduates' job-hunting success, fields se.tecte(1, and typical salary offers. The career center may also have reports froro em­ ployers on graduates hired in the past, their promotions, and intended areas for future recruiting. The development office will track of alumni and other their addresses, contributions, and other data. lts campaign progress flle Vl111 show the amount rai.';¡ed to date from each majar SOlice, such as individ­ uals, foundations, corporations, and governrnent grants. Its cost dIe will show how much has been spent on dírect mail, advertising, brochures, salaries. con­ sulting fees, and so on. This informatíon often needs to be subdivided, graphed, compared, or otherwise processed to understa.nd exactly what the numbers mean and to see the interrelatíonships. For example, the university's business sehool en­ rolhnent may be steady but, unless dívided by ievel (graduate/undergraduate), this observation can mask an in majors and a decline \n M.IU\ ~;i,\l(lPllt~, '1'11(' 111l:-;ill('~;s sf'hool will wun! 1.0 fnrtlwf analvz(' UH~ ('O, 1'.. 1111\<'111

information needs of

Questionnaire for decision makers

"ni,'!' In




Educational decision makers need appropriate, accessible information order to make decisions about current and future programs, as weH as marketing-related Sorne administrators find that the most basie information was never collected 01' never recorded. In other the information was sloppily kept Of cven destroyed by those who did Ullderstand its valuc. Sorne educational institutions have colle(;ted 10ts of ínfonnation but do not know how that infonnation might be on~arúzed and interpreted to ald in decision making. 1 internal can be improved in its siveness, aecur::;,cy, and PeriodicaJJy, an institution should smvey its administrators for possible improvements in the internal records Table 3-1 shows the that CaI1 be put to them. Once their iOTIS are the infonnation system desi b1J1ers can an L.."lterna.t rceords systcm that reeonciles (1) what decision makers tl1ink they what decision makel's really and (3) what is eeonomically fea.<;ib1:=:, Most internal records systems were devised tú record data, not to mak" them useful. Some educational insti.tutions have taken strides in data 1l.ccessible vla nenvorked but at other instituti.ons time between and is so great that administrators stop 11: and inst",ad make decisions on il1fonnation already in lumd. Recoras of emolled students and i.nfonnation are alv.mys the frrst be macle 8.vailable, but decision makers could benefit from a wider raílgC' í, avaHab!e data.. The continuing developrnent 01' ínstitutional inrol',:' tion systems vvill increase their scope and ease of m"~;. ÍIl

{v...~ITD~]?JI\T;G· IV!f.An.r{f}'fIr+.:r{j¡ WllC¡'e;1~':


inlprnal 1'\:\'on1:;


lJ*¡tr]l~l~Ll({!>:I\J( :~~~





[o¡-m:dioll 011 tlll' p:t:;L, ¡Ii" I/IIIFI,diuIJ illll'/lir/l¡/I'í' :,.11::1<'111 ::111'1"1'"


I/II! ,.


-_._- ---".__. ­




willl information on current happpenings and emerging trends, Here is our (11 'l'illitiol1: The rnm'keting inteUigence sYlifstern is the set of sources and

by which managers obtain thneir everyday infonnation about develop­

nlents in the environrnent beyo:ond the institut.1on,

atlleling marketing intelliggence is not a MI ¡sI


oI' ¡he useful information is l readily available. A specialist in inteUigence

business corporations claimsg that 95 percent of the informatíon compa­ is available and accessible to the líe,:', Thcy can leHxn about competititors by public databases of fman­ reading compal1y 1reports and public records, attending trade competitobrs' activities in the institutions also, ¡':dueationaI administratorss can gather considerable ¡'."III'" I I'y reacling newspapers all(j(fother publícations and to in­ :,¡, l.' ami outside the institution, lincluding at meetings and conferenees, 1'lús illformal approach can spot i.:mpo:)rtant developments, but admiJústrators may 1":11'11 100 late of sorne other imPQortant developments, such as pending le gis­ I:ilioll aff('cLing lhe school's acth'Vities. "\11 illsi.i1.ution GU1 improve o the quality of its mal'keting intellige (::, 1,'¡ rst, l.he i nstitution m ust C~Olnrn unicate with adnünis :.1: 1rr;Jl)( IIl11Jw sorts ofinformatiooll that are useful for decision making and urge !I"III lo pass illformation to othel'rrs in theÍ11-.'ltitution as rapídly as possible. Ihe institution ShOllUld encourage outsicle w ith whom it ,h 1:; 1'1'(,i't:ssíonal lawyers, aecountants, and others---to pass : 1II~' 11::í' fnl tli 1:; of information,l. For example, a tax advisor may h(\.1e cli;:;nts bequest.s tto the coliege, or may be aware of tax law the devvelopment office to be more effective in indonors abouut the tax adv8ntages of donations. 1]

lIil's /leed to make business

sources, 1'he L11Stisi.J::'úlar insti­ II '11:; (JI' ('V('1\ from conuner\'Cial films-and adopt them as rapjdlv as fea­ ',dJ!I'. I';,:liíhit: ~,l lells how admiJtústrators atJames Madison ,,¡!tI'! (':llllp!l:¡¡':-; lo l(~arn frora theem. "Myste:¡; 1":1111 110\\ n!ll('l' serve Pllrospects, admissions offices of on howvirdltItey deal '",,'!;II ,-"Ilt-í;l's :1f1(1 reportÍILg 1•• 1,1, . (11<' ":;11': Ij)jlcr" will rep!tlrt receiving yvidely clifferent wl",J¡ IlJ;¡,V 1)(' "ínnlO[fs" andoDthershighlyeffective. I',I( ""IIII!', ":111 al::" n'veal wheth¡erthe institution's own UU'll;,,,t:u

i 1I11t)l\


:;11, Illld cOJltínually try to iddentify "best


oríl'III;II.inn and

01' other


from other insl.itu!Íolls

institutions semi adminístrators to other campuses the!r own colleges, But officials at James Madíson other campus visitatioll teams, the U-2 Comrníttee--so dubbed ,,(ter lh, reconnaissance plane-traveled incognito, Arrned wíth carneras ane!

James Madison officials tOOK notes on how Georgetown

State Universities and the Universíty of Marvland at College

nnprated their bookstores, dining and other scrvices,

U-2 Committee was called the Commíttec for Campus Visitations until decided to have a ¡¡ttle fun and renarne it. Besidcs, they didn't want a forma! wanted to view the campus the way parents and Dfost!ective studenlS about the visits, but sorne newspapers, incll.~'_:-

Post, wrote about James Madíson's covert operations, of visiting other campuses," said Vicki Fong, a Penn State for ways lo serve students better. i had a good time."

NA lot of campuses are

Source: "Notebaok," fhe

of Higher Educarían, (September 1, 1,,93), p. A44,

the institution can establish an office specifically for gathering and disseminating marketing-relevant information. Many uni'¡:er· sities llave all institutional research office whieh-with additional and resources--could carry out or at least eoordinate this function. 'íhe StHZ" would sean relevaI1t publicatíons, abstract useful information, and din3enc nate it to mside the instítution. 'fhe office would instaL suggestion and complaint systems so that students and others would have to express their attitudes toward the institutíon. It would inde5. the information so that all the past and current information could be re­ trieved, It would work Vi ith decision makers to plan and carry out surveys other research studies. 'fhe staff would assist adminístrators 8, others to evaluate the results of research. 1'hese and other services would enhance the ofthe information élvailable for making m",rl",o>tin related deci;:;ions. CON.DUCTING M}"RKJ.!iTING RESEARCH

school has occasions when it needs to carry out research studies to make better decisiol1s. For exanmle, educational institutions aften seek aI1SWerS lO such auestions a.<¡ these:




1. Vv'hat are the demographic characteristics of resídents of this commUnity col. lege distDct? 2. What academic majors are likely to be m greatest demand in the local job market over the next five years? 3. "''hat proportíon of graduates of regional high schools select thi.s 4. Would a job-skills course for re-entry women be well received? How rnany students might enroll? 5. How much should the college charge fol' the computer-skills eourse? Ho\\! much wouldlcould potential students pay? 6. \Vhat improvements in campus facilities would yield the greatest merease in student satisfaction?


The marketing-research process Data Exploratory


Analysis and Roport

research procedures to review 1,he plan, determine its appropriatene"s, evaluate the interpl'etation of resu1t'3. 5 Figure 3-3 shows 1,he fOUT basle in sound marketing are described in the sec:tions thnt follow.


To answer these and other questions, institutions turn to marketing re8e:1rch: Marketing researeh is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and re­ of data and fmdings relevant 1;0 a marketing situatian ar problem facmg an Íllstitutian.

Vilho conducts these studies for educational institutions? A large univer­ sity will typically have a research director (with the title of director of insti­ tutional research, vice president for planning, or the like) who coordinatos other professionals. The institutional research office selects problems 01' clar­ ifíes problems posed by others in the illstitution, designs studies, and either carries them out 01' contracts vtith outside marketing research companies. The illstitution may rure a marketing consultant or research firm to de­ sign and carry out lile research, or tlle project may be carried out by admin­ istrators 01' faculty members trained in research techniques. 3 Many univer­ sities have e:&"Perts in research design, statistics, and testing a...'ld measurement on their own faculties. Finally, the institution might contact lOC1Ü business schools about assistance froIn marketing faculty or students. Useful research does not have to be ex-pensive, but it do es need to be carried out w1th care. 4 Given the increasing sophisticatíon and cost of marketing research, when a major is deemed essential me institution should be to hire the right professiom'J eÁ"Peltise to meet the in.sti­ tution's research needs. Underfunded, Ullprofessional research may lead to research resules and poor decisions. The cOz,i, ofthe reseaJTh should be weighed in relation to the expected value of the results. For example, if a col­ is losin.g $400,000 each yeal' because 100 l'esidence-hall places are vacant $4,000), the college should stlive to quickly put thís fixed asset to good use. It is well worth paying for top-notch professional marketing reseal'ch as­ sístance to guide this effort. Decision makel's need to lmow enough about the potential and limita­ tions of marketing research to get the right ínfonnation at a reasonable cost and to US(~ it intelligently. One protection is tO\''101'k with E'X1lelienced S! ':I!'i"


!11 addilioll. adll!in ¡sl.1'; :1.ors s]¡()\11d lmow ('l101H"h ahollt

"'... ·n~;r""

ano Problem Definition

T11e frrst in research is to defIne the research objectives. The ovenü¡ may be to le31'n about a market, determine the most attraetive gra...l'n to ofIe1', or to measure the effect of a communications programo case, thc problem guiding the research must be dearly speerned. If tl:le lem statement is vague, if the wwng problem is deñned, or if the uses 01' research are unclear, tile l'esearch results may be useless or even A useful way to clarify the research objectives in advance is to "ba.ckwa.rd" marketing rese;;.rch, shown in. 3-4. A1an (;11e veloper of this approach, urges researchers and decision makers to determiní' what decisions need to be made and what the [mal l'esearch rcport wi]] Iike before the research process 18 laUllched.




researchers often l'eview :;tcCUHm.u.l search, éll"1d interview individuals and groups standing of the CUI'l'ent situation.

l'eseareh :;1 ohservatin¡w i

to arrive at aUlll\:

of "'·'1"" and if any existo 8eGo/l·!l(l,'n; dll i" relevant data that been (~oJledeü Ihr ;¡¡¡, ji purpose. data are normally Rl1d les;.; and provide the researcher ,vith a start on the problem. i.I searcher can gather primwry data 1'011('('(.,<1 l.. dress me at hand. There are numeroHs SOlIl'CeS 01' I';;i:;!.ing !I:!í !>;.¡,

1. Internal ·reconls. Thc instíi;ution'" iTltl.'),J\al J'CCO¡'(!:; :;y:.L'.·l) I : ;h"lild i 11:1 ,,,' t,o deU'nuilW rdc.:V;Hll. d::1.;;. :m' :dí'l':uly t.h,~J'('.


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