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The Role of Egyptian Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in Agriculture Development in Desert Lands, North Sinai-Governorate, Egypt Magdy M. Mohamed Project-Principal Investigator Development of Fodder Resources in Sinai: Forage Crops Rotation under Sandy Soil and Saline Water in North Sinai-Governorate.


Introduction ď Ź

The North Sinai-Governorate is located in the North Eastern sector of Egypt between a longitude of 30.5 oN 33.6 oE. The total population is 395.000 and the density of population about 14 / km2 (37/sq mi). In addition, the total area for North Sinai-Governorate about 27574 km2 (10.646 sq mi) and divided to 6-districts; Rafha, El-Sheik Zewayed, Al-Arish, Bir Al-Abd, El-Hasana and Nekhel, which involved 82-Villages and 458-Sub Villages (Hamlets).


Introduction ď Ź

Where, the forage crops play a key role in ruminant livestock production and environmental protection, the rainfall rate has decreased at latter years which led to deficient of fodder recourses and animal wealth has decreased by 50%. Therefore, providing higher quantity and quality feed with lower cost and high palatability under North Sinai-conditions to improve the animal wealth in the agricultural sector of North Sinai are essential.


Introduction ď Ź

Among these forage crops, it is worth to mention that, Egyptian clover is one of the most important economic cultivated winter forage legumes in Egypt and countries of Mediterranean region. It is used as a green fodder, hay and silage.


Objectives 

 

to investigate the role of Egyptian clover in agriculture development in desert lands and explore the possibility of providing higher quantity and quality feed with high palatability under sandy soils and saline water in North Sinai-Governorate. to estimate the water use efficiency for berseem compared with the other used forage crops. to determine the nutritive value for produced fodder. to distribute the forage production costs and their net profit / fed. for determining the competitiveness and preferences for studied crops.


Materials and Methods ď Ź

The research project carrying out in North SinaiGovernorate, Egypt during two successive years; (summer season; 2010, winter season; 2010-11, summer season; 2011 and winter season; 2011-12) to investigate the role of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in agriculture development in desert lands, North SinaiGovernorate, Egypt, compared with other perennial and annual forage crops.


Materials and Methods 

523-fields were cultivated in North SinaiGovernorate. The total area of each field is one and quarter Feddan (Feddan = 4200 m2 = 0.42 hectare) divided to five plots. The plot area was 1/4 fed.


Number of Villages, Suggested Fields, Actual Fields and Fields for Estimated Data in North Sinai-Districts, Egypt

North Sinai-Districts 1. Rafah 2. El-Sheik Zewayed 3. Al-Arish 4. Bir Al-Abed A. Bir Al-Abed A. Rummana 5. El-Hasana 6. Nekhel 7. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Total

No. of Villages

No. of Suggested Fields

No. of Actual Fields

11 14 04

44 56 40

30 39 59

Increase* or Decrease* (%) - 32 % - 30 % + 47 %

7 16 20 10

30 70 80 80

65 232 15 33

+ 117 % + 231 % - 81 % - 59 %

05 20 05 05

----

----

50

+ 100 %

05

82

400

523

+ 30.75 %

55

No. of Fields for Estimated Data

* % for Increase or Decrease = (Actual Number – Suggested Number) / Suggested Number.

05 05 05


Range of Electrical Conductivity (ECw) and TDS-Total Dissolved Salts (ppm) for Used Underground Water in North Sinai-Districts, Egypt

Ecw

ppm*

1. Rafah

2.20 – 3.60

1408 - 2304

1. El-Sheik Zewayed

3.30 – 4.20

2112 - 2688

1. Al-Arish

3.80 – 4.50

2432 – 2880

A. Bir Al-Abed

4.80 – 6.20

3072 - 4960

A. Rummana

6.60 – 8.40

5280 - 6720

1. El-Hasana

10.80 – 12.60

8640 - 10080

1. Nekhel

11.20 – 12.80

8960 - 10240

North Sinai-Districts

1. Bir Al-Abed

ppm = (Ecw X 640; EC: 0.1 to 5.0 dS/m) *ppm = (Ec X 800; EC: > 5.0 dS/m) w *


Forage Crops ď Ź

Perennial forage crops: 1. 2.

ď Ź

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana).

Summer crops: 1. 2. 3.

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudan Grass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii)


Forage Crops ď Ź

Winter Crops: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.). Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Oats (Avena sativa). Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris) in winter season.


Forage Crops Rotation through the Successive Two Years in North Sinai-Districts, Egypt Summer: 2010

Winter: 2010-2011

Summer: 2011

Winter: 2011-2012

ď ś Perennial Crops: (Only, for saving fodder resource over the year, especially, between summer and winter seasons) Alfalfa

Alfalfa

Alfalfa

Alfalfa

Rhodes Grass

Rhodes Grass

Rhodes Grass

Rhodes Grass

ď ś Annual Crops: Cowpea Fodder Beet

Sudan Grass

Egyptian Clover

Pearl Millet

Barley - Oats

Cowpea

Fodder Beet

Sudan Grass

Egyptian Clover

Pearl Millet

Barley - Oats


Number of Mows / Season over Two Years for Cultivated Forage Crops in North Sinai-Districts, Egypt

Alfalfa

Rhodes Grass

Cowpea

Pearl Millet

Sudan Grass

Rafah El-Sheik Zewayed Al-Arish

4.0 4.3

4.0 4.2

3.2 3.0

4.1 4.0

3.3 3.0

4.2 4.0

2.0 2.0

3.2 3.0

5.3

5.1

4.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

2.0

4.1

Bir AlAbed Rummana

5.5

5.3

4.0

5.0

5.0

6.1

2.0

4.0

6.3

6.0

4.0

5.6

5.0

6.5

2.0

4.3

El-Hasana

3.0

2.0

1.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

1.0

2.0

Nekhel

3.0

3.0

1.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

1.0

2.0

Locations

Egyptian Barley Clover

Oats

The number of mows for Alfalfa and Rhodes grass was calculated as average mean for two season; Summer and winter seasons for each year.


Experimental Design 

A three factors experiment was executed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) arranged in split-split-plots. The factors were distributed as follows:  Main plots: Two years.  Sub-plots: Seven locations.  Sub-Sub Plots: Nine forage crops.  No. of Replication: Four replications.


Forage Yield Traits    

Fresh Forage yield (FFY). Dry Forage Yield (DFY). Dry Matter Percent (DM%). Water Use Efficiency based on Dry Matter (WUED).


Forage Quality Traits    

Crude Protein (CP). Crude Fiber (CF). Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). Digestible Crude Protein (DCP).


Statistical Analysis ď Ź

ď Ź

Data for two seasons were analyzed by standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the split-splitplot design. Means were compared by the L.S.D. values at 1% and 5% levels (Snedecor and Cochran, 1968) using MSTAT-C Computer Program V.4 (1986).


Economical Evaluation    

Ton Cost (T.C). Net Profit / Feddan (N.P.F). Profit from Ton Production (P.T.P). Profit from Investor Pound (P.I.P).


Economical Analysis ď Ź

Distribution of forage production costs and their net profit / feddan were estimated according to El-Shorbagey (1992).


Fresh Forage Yield (ton/fad.) (Yearly)

Berseem Sudan Grass 14% 11%

Pearl Millet 22%

Other 30%

Cowpea 10% Rhodes Alfalfa Grass 8% 5%

Fodder Beet 26%

Oats Barley 3% 1%


Fresh Forage Yield (ton/fad.) (winter season) Barley 3%

Berseem 32%

Fodder Beet 57%

Other 65% Oats 8%


Fresh Forage Yield (ton/fad.) (Yearly) Sudan Grass 13% Berseem 14% Other 24%

Pearl Millet 24% Alfalfa 11% Cowpea 8% Rhodes Grass 6%

Fodder Beet 18%

Oats 4%

Barley 2%


Dry Forage Yield (ton/fad.) (winter season) Barley 5%

Berseem 38%

Other 57%

Fodder Beet 47% Oats 10%


Dry Matter (DM%)

Fodder Oats Beet

Series1

Barley

Fodder Beet

Oats

14.2

22.7

Berseem Sudan Grass

Pearl Millet

Barley Berseem 28.8

20.9

Cowpea

Rhodes Grass

Alfalfa

Sudan Grass

Pearl Millet

Cowpea

Rhodes Grass

Alfalfa

24.0

22.2

17.0

23.7

27.1


Water Use Efficiency (kg•m3) (Based on Dry Matter)

5.3

2.8

2.4 2.0

1.8

1.8 1.0

0.5 Fodder Beet

Oats

0.3 Barley Berseem

Sudan Grass

Pearl Millet

Cowpea Rhodes Grass

Alfalfa


Crude Protein (CP%) 29.2 25.7 22.7 15.8 10.1

Fodder Beet

9.0

9.3

Oats

Barley Berseem

Sudan Grass

16.9

Pearl Millet

17.0

Cowpea Rhodes Grass

Alfalfa


Crude Fiber (CF%) 40.7 32.1 31.1

28.1

32.6

26.3

25.4

25.5

13.2

Fodder Beet

Oats

Barley

Berseem

Sudan Grass

Pearl Millet

Alfalfa Cowpea Rhodes Grass


Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN%)

64.6

65.2

65.7

64.9

63.0

62.5 60.0 57.6

Fodder Beet

Oats

58.1

Barley

Berseem

Sudan Grass

Pearl Millet

Alfalfa Cowpea Rhodes Grass


Digestible Crude Protein (DCP%) 23.6 20.3 17.6 11.2 5.9

Fodder Beet

4.8

Oats

12.2

12.3

5.2

Barley

Berseem

Sudan Grass

Pearl Millet

Alfalfa Cowpea Rhodes Grass


Phenotypic Correlation Coefficient and Standard Error (in brackets) for Eight Forage Yield and its Quality over Two Years in North Sinai-Governorate, Egypt

FFY FFY FDY DM% WUED CP CF TDN DCP

---

FDY 0.948** (±0.002) ---

DM% -0.517** (±0.009) -0.371** (±0.061) ---

WUED 0.856** (±0.002) 0.956** (±0.008) -0.293** (±0.017) ---

CP -0.022 (±0.015) 0.066 (±0.088) 0.099 (±0.059) 0.090 (±0.151) ---

CF -0.325** (±0.014) -0.199 (±0.090) 0.397** (±0.057) -0.058 (±0.158) 0.064 (±0.046) ---

TDN 0.117 (±0.007) 0.235* (±0.042) 0.145 (±0.029) 0.312** (±0.070) 0.623** (±0.017) 0.238* (±0.020) ---

DCP -0.001 (±0.033) 0.063 (±0.200) 0.102 (±0.135) 0.064 (±0.345) 0.510** (±0.087) 0.012 (±0.098) 0.291** (±0.200) ---


Ton Cost (L.E.) 3757.7

2192.4 1308.2 1443.4 472.4 Fodder Beet

Oats

563.0

834.1

651.5

Barley Berseem Sudan Grass

336.0 Pearl Cowpea Rhodes Alfalfa Millet Grass


Net Profit / Fedden (L.E.)

Oats -841.1 Barley -1163.6

Berseem 4081.4

Fodder Beet 2941.4

Sudan Grass 1457.1

Alfalfa 3677.1

Rhodes Grass -305.7 Cowpea 964.3

Pearl Millet 4258.9


Profit from Ton Production (L.E.) 766.0

637.1

414.0

327.6 98.5 Fodder Beet

Oats

Barley Berseem Sudan Grass

-1442.4

-3007.7

-308.2 Pearl Cowpea Rhodes Alfalfa -643.4 Millet Grass


Profit from Investor Pound (L.E.)

2.4

2.2

1.8 1.5 0.8 0.5

Fodder Beet

Oats Barley Berseem Sudan -0.5 Grass -0.7

-0.1 Pearl Cowpea Rhodes Alfalfa Millet Grass


Conclusions ď Ź

Considerable variation exists among forage crops, indicating the potential for selecting of superior and better adapted forage crops for both their production and their quality.

ď Ź

From the aforementioned discussion, it is suggested to cultivate forage crops under sandy soils, saline water and drip irrigation system to obtain the highest water use efficiency of forage crops should be, carefully, evaluated in the studied area.


Conclusions ď Ź

The direct and most important contributor to forage yields, under North Sinai-condition are WUED.

ď Ź

Increased forage production from Egyptian clover and fodder beet could enhance ruminant livestock production substantially without requiring additional inputs from resource-poor livestock farmers.


Conclusions ď Ź

ď Ź

It is worth to mention that, among winter forage crops, Egyptian clover or berseem was recorded the positive and highest value for net profit / fed. (N.P.F), profit from ton production (P.T.P) and profit from investor pound (P.I.P) in all locations. Therefore, Egyptian clover are stable better than other forage crops in all North Sinai-districts. Table (5).doc


Recommendations ď Ź

To implement technology transfer activities for cultivating of Egyptian clover and other forage crops on regional level within rotation to help alleviate drought, saline water and agriculture problems using the prevailing drip irrigation system in North Sinai-region.


Recommendations ď Ź

To implement researches to studying the impact of cultivating of berseem compared with other forage crops on natural resources, biodiversity and sustainability of agricultural production in North Sinairegion.


Recommendations ď Ź

ď Ź

To study the applicability of cultivating of berseem and other forages for different locations to improve the animal wealth in North Sinai-districts based on obtained data. To establish breeding program for drought and salinity tolerance under natural selection for essential crops in North Sinai-Governorate, especially, Egyptian clover.


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Goats Being Fed Egyptian Clover


Goats Being Fed Egyptian Clover


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Egyptian Clover under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa or Lucerne under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa or Lucerne under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa or Lucerne under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa and Rhodes Grass under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa or Lucerne under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa or Lucerne under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa or Lucerne under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Alfalfa and Rhodes Grass under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Rhodes Grass under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Rhodes Grass under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Fodder Beet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Fodder Beet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Fodder Beet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Fodder Beet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Fodder Beet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Fodder Beet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Barley under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Oats under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Oats under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Oats under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Cowpea under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Cowpea under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Cowpea under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Pearl Millet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Pearl Millet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Pearl Millet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Pearl Millet under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Sudan Grass under Drip Irrigation and Saline Water


Acknowledgements Development of Fodder Resources in Sinai: Forage Crops Rotation under Sandy Soil and Saline Water in North Sinai-Governorate, Egypt 

Project Code No: A-119

Principal Investigator: Dr. Magdy M. Mohamed. 

Institution: Field Crops Research Institute, ARC. 


The Role of Egyptian Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in Agriculture Development in Desert Lands, North SinaiGovernorate, Egypt

Thank you for your attention! Any Questions & Suggestion?

Magdy M. Mohamed-FAO-Ppresentation  

Development of Fodder Resources in Sinai: Forage Crops Rotation under Sandy Soil and Saline Water in North Sinai-Governorate. Expert Consul...

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