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SPECIAL REPORT

Military Transportation and Storage Container Technology MAIBACH – Rugged, Airtight and Waterproof Military Transportation and Storage Containers for Use in Worldwide Environments Safe Journey The High Technology Cargo for Frontline Troops HAZMAT and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods The Evolution of the Ubiquitous Container and its Future

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SPECIAL REPORT

Military Transportation and Storage Container Technology MAIBACH – Rugged, Airtight and Waterproof Military Transportation and Storage Containers for Use in Worldwide Environments

SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

Contents

Safe Journey The High Technology Cargo for Frontline Troops HAZMAT and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods

Foreword

The Evolution of the Ubiquitous Container and its Future

Mary Dub, Editor

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MAIBACH – Rugged, Airtight and Waterproof Military Transportation and Storage Containers for Use in Worldwide Environments

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Peter Liebetrau, Managing Director, MAIBACH Industrie-Plastic GmbH

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks

Transportation and Storage Containers (TSC) Made from Glass-Fiber Reinforced Plastic Large-Sized Heavy-Duty Containers Lightweight Containers Bespoke Absorbing Systems Within Containers Quality Standards

Safe Journey

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Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

Logistics and Counter Insurgency Delivering the Supply Chain in Afghanistan The Choice Land or Air Delivery – Both Demanding Airdrop Procedures Drop Day: the Final Few Yards

Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes

The High Technology Cargo for Frontline Troops

Production Manager Paul Davies

The Continuity of the Cold Supply Chain

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

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Meredith LLewelyn, Lead Contributor

HAZMAT and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods

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Don McBarnet, Staff Writer The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated.

Weapons Carriage and Storage The Risk of Water Vapour Damage During Carriage and its Effects

Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

The Evolution of the Ubiquitous Container and its Future

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Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

The Role of Major Defence Contractors in Working with Soldier Modernization Programs

References

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© 2011. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 1


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

Foreword

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ACKING TO take electronic instruments, computers or finely calibrated sensors thousands of miles by sea container and air drop them onto contested terrain to forward operating bases is the daily reality of ISAF logistics officers. They have a great deal to contend with as this Report illustrates. The Report opens by looking at how advanced technology over many years of development has led to the creation of a range of protective containers designed for the most extreme applications by land, sea and in the air for both military and civilian organisations, throughout the world. It goes on to review different types of containers, from large-size heavy-duty systems to lightweight models, and describes how customized retaining systems within the containers ensure protection and integrity of their contents. The second piece highlights the targeted precision and pace of commercial logistics against the reality of sustaining a counter insurgency campaign in a country where the territory is a challenge for ground transportation. Mountain ranges, desserts, extremes of temperature, snow and floods all point towards the necessity for air drops as the only viable way of delivering materiel. However, the demands of a counter insurgency campaign and mentoring Afghan forces and civilians means that Afghan drivers and transport must be trained and used. These constraints hamper the tempo of delivery to a speed that challenges the patience of commercial logisticians. In pursuit of sustainable and low maintenance equipment, many vehicles and other materiel are fitted with sensors or circuit boards to compute and calibrate vibration and motion. These precision instruments need to be air dropped in working order after a 2-3 month sea journey across climatic zones. The challenge to packagers is to manage the effects of water vapour, g-force and vibration so that the kit arrives in top class working order. This topic is covered in the third part of the Report. The packaging, transportation and storage of hazardous materials and dangerous goods create some of the most difficult problems for frontline operations. The fourth part of the Report reviews the challenges and risks faced and the solutions available to ensure that cargo arrives in a usable state whatever the environmental conditions en route. The surge in growth in container use in the Middle East and Africa has led to strategic bottlenecks in key ports in North Africa and the Middle East where ISO containers can ‘dwell’ far too long. In the closing piece, the Report examines the future for containers. Some manufacturers are working on Smart containers, or are looking to monitor the slow progress of goods in transit. There is no easy solution to the problem of long lines of communication, huge climatic differences and the challenge of retaining quality control of sophisticated instruments. Long lines of communication will continue to be a headache for any expeditionary army fighting thousands of miles from home. Mary Dub Editor Mary Dub has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager. Focused by a Masters in War Studies from King’s College, London, she annotates and highlights the interplay of armies, governments and industry.

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SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

MAIBACH – Rugged, Airtight and Waterproof Military Transportation and Storage Containers for Use in Worldwide Environments Peter Liebetrau, Managing Director, MAIBACH Industrie-Plastic GmbH

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AIBACH INDUSTRIE-PLASTIC GmbH is a well-respected German specialist with long-standing experience in manufacturing reusable packaging, based on the latest technologies, designed for the toughest applications by land, sea and in the air, for both military and civilian organizations in Germany and abroad. Advanced technology and innovations are the strength for the company’s success in the packaging industry. – You need to transport delicate military equipment or need an ultimate solution to package and secure your valuable instruments, electronics and electrical parts? – Your transportation and storage container needs to be reusable, ruggedized, airtight, watertight and compliant with many military and federal standards? – Your packaging should be capable of withstanding long-term exposure to a very high temperature range and withstand deterioration by sand, dust, dirt, humidity, hydraulic fluids, jet fuel and petroleum products to which a military container may normally be subjected? – You require a 19” rack-mounted transport case individually fine-tuned to meet your specific needs? – You expect a broad range of standard options allowing you to adapt the container to a wide variety of transit applications? – You would like to have everything from one source: development, design, engineering, tooling up, prototyping and manufacture? Whatever your military shipping, handling and storage needs may be, MAIBACH Industrie-Plastic GmbH always knows how to provide exceptional protection against the effects of direct exposure to extremes of climate and terrain.

Established over sixty years ago, MAIBACH has developed an in-depth expertise in design and development.

TSCs with unlimited solutions

All MAIBACH containers are compliant with military specifications and federal standards and meet NATO packaging requirements. They provide exceptional protection against environmental conditions and mechanical constraints. The containers are outfitted with a host of standard features that make them the perfect

Accessories individually configured

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SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

All MAIBACH containers are compliant with military specifications and federal standards and meet NATO packaging requirements. They provide exceptional protection against environmental conditions and mechanical constraints.

solution for transporting delicate and sensitive military equipment. Each and every one of our containers has been climatically and physically tested in on-site testing chambers and external simulation laboratories to withstand the stresses incurred during air and ground transport, including drops, impacts, vibrations, low pressure (altitude), rough handling and the elements. In this way we ensure that our containers are capable of protecting material from the effects of direct exposure to extremes of climate, terrain, operation and transportation. Copies of test reports and certification statements are available on request. These containers are designed for maximum protection of sensitive equipment with minimum weight and longest lifecycle.

employed by the German Air Force Tornado aircraft and for parts of the TIGRE combat helicopter during its operation from a French Navy Frigate. For the European Eurofighter Typhoon program, MAIBACH was responsible for delivering some 100 containers. There are a variety of different holding systems to choose from – foam cushioning or shock mounted holding devices can be requested to prevent impact forces from being transferred to the container contents.

Transportation and Storage Containers (TSC) Made from Glass-Fiber Reinforced Plastic They are water-vapor proof, pressure-tight, achieved through the use of a permanent elastic seal in the parting line of the lid, impact-proof and virtually indestructible in accordance with the requirements of both the German military specification VG 95613 and the military standard MIL-STD 810F method 500.4, and comply with the CAT1 specifications for 100 trip applications. All containers are fitted with a pressure relief valve set to a pressure of 80mbar (1.2 psi), special corrosion-proof recoil spring lever fasteners and snap-back grip handles. They are suitable for versatile applications under extreme climatic conditions according to STANAG 4280 in an ambient temperature of -51°C to +71°C. Forty standard sizes are available in stock, all integrally colored in NATO olive drab RAL 6031 or any other color. Since the color of this packaging cannot be scratched off during deployment, they demonstrate inherent resistance to all hazards and permanent protection is guaranteed. Special sizes are specifically designed in response to customers’ individual requirements to meet the most demanding needs. MAIBACH is the major supplier of this packaging system to the German Bundeswehr. Since about 1982, MAIBACH has been manufacturing approximately 3,000 containers annually for use by the German Armed Forces. During the last few years, many NATO partners and various Defence Forces worldwide regularly rely on the company for their critical packaging needs. Examples include containers that were delivered for the transportation of large format display systems to the Army’s FüInfoSys C3 system; others were used in Afghanistan for the protection of components of the ReccePod

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Specially designed Module Container

Large-Sized Heavy-Duty Containers These draw on all the experience gained in the production of many thousands of TSCs. They are built from glass-fiber reinforced plastic and designed in a modular sandwich construction, combat tested by armed forces and approved in compliance with STANAG 4340. From storing large modules and engines to transporting complex weapon systems, these containers protect the safety and integrity of their contents. All containers are stackable for heavy loads and large dimensions. In addition to the standard features, all containers are available with a wide range of container options – tie down rings or lashing eyes to ensure safe and efficient movement, pressure relief valves, humidity indicators readable from the outside, document tubes, desiccant receptacles accessible from the exterior without opening the container lid, skid runners to permit lifting by forklift truck, two visual inspection ports at a convenient height to enable the contents to be illuminated through one port while viewing through the other, etc. Whatever the industrial or military transportation and storage needs may be, our design team works with customers to create a tailor-made container to best meet their individual requirements. MAIBACH closely controls all the processes – design, engineering, testing and production. We are always available to guide customers


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

through the evolving life cycle of the container development – from concept to production.

Lightweight Containers These are transportable solid containers, for use in tactical manual transportation in the field and for deployment in the most severe climatic environments. Sandwich constructed material provides high strength while being lightweight. When compared to metal containers, this sandwich constructed container is approximately 40-50% lighter. All functional items such as handles, closure fasteners, valves and eyes are recessed flush with the container surface. This feature ensures that hardware is fully protected from damage and storage space is maximized.

Bespoke Absorbing Systems Within Containers MAIBACH offers customized retaining systems for the protection of all kinds of equipment and instruments – from small electronic devices to large military applications. Choose from cushioning made from closed-cell polyethylene foam or other cushioning materials giving excellent damping properties. MAIBACH’s water jet foam cutting systems can easily and accurately produce complex, curved and detailed shapes. There is an extensive range of conductive, antistatic and fire retardant materials available – or support fixtures can be chosen with rubber shock mounts or wire rope isolators. Our experienced engineering and design team is always committed to finding the best solution for customers’ individual packaging needs.

MAIBACH closely controls all the processes – design, engineering, testing and production. We are always available to guide customers through the evolving life cycle of the container development – from concept to production.

Pressure and watertight container

Quality Standards MAIBACH is ISO 9001-2008 certified, and our products are listed with NATO stock numbers for government procurement. The company’s design types comply with the regulations of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing and are declared as approved for the transportation of dangerous goods. Contact information: Email: info@maibach-ipg.de WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

Safe Journey Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) has stated “the transformation objective is to field a force that is strategically responsive and dominant every point on the spectrum of operations.”1

The demands of fighting in Afghanistan require a highly specialized form of logistics; one that is agile and tailored to the specific needs of fast moving counter insurgency warfare.

E

NSURING A safe journey and the safe arrival of complex pieces of military equipment from “factory-to-foxhole” is a high technology process. The 21st century objective is to replicate the speed and responsiveness of the commercial logistics supply chain. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology defines integrated supply chain management (ISCM) as a process-oriented, integrated approach to procuring, producing, and delivering products and services to customers. 2 Automatic identification technology (AIT) includes bar codes, radio frequency (RF) tags, satellite tracking, “smart” cards, and laser cards. Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) satellite tracking provides realtime monitoring of transportation assets and customer products. Bar codes, the most widely used form of AIT, and the visibility they provide have enabled a great deal of the agility.3 This is the process that the Department of Defense in the United States is seeking to replicate. However, the constraints of the difficulties of the terrain in Afghanistan make the work slower and much more arduous than the commercial experience elsewhere.

Logistics and Counter Insurgency The demands of fighting in Afghanistan require a highly specialized form of logistics; one that is agile and tailored to the specific needs of fast moving counter insurgency warfare and also one that performs a mentoring function to Afghan forces. According to Major Michael F. Hammond US Army: “Counterinsurgency logistics operations are markedly different from conventional combat and require adaptability, flexibility, and effective planning. In addition to combat and civil security operations, ground commanders conducting counterinsurgency operations must focus on training and employing host nation and security forces. They must assist in the establishment and 6 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

restoration of essential services and support the development of the local government. The key to the success of any counterinsurgency operation is the ability to support economic development.”4

Delivering the Supply Chain in Afghanistan The geography of Afghanistan makes the sustainment of ISAF forces particularly challenging as three US Army Majors describe: “The terrain and climate in Afghanistan make it one of the most logistically challenging environments in the world. And everything moves much slower in Afghanistan, so everyone deployed there must be patient.”5 Why? “The weather and terrain must be considered in all phases of operations, from tactical movements to simple logistics resupply. Winter in Afghanistan adversely affects logistics for at least 5 months, from the beginning of November into March. Many of the smaller locations of U.S. forces depend on containerized delivery system (CDS) and low-cost low-altitude (LCLA) airdrops or sling loads for resupply. Throughout the summer, at least 15 COPs are resupplied by air and this number more than doubles during the winter as the heavy snows close the mountain passes leading to them. In the spring, the snow melts and runoff creates the potential for flash floods in valleys and low-lying areas. Floods deposit water and mud on roadways and wash out bridges, leaving COPs isolated from ground resupply. By contrast, much of Regional Command South and portions of Regional Command West are flat desert and the ground is covered with “moon dust.” Dust storms are common, and the heat is intense. The heat in Helmand province in Regional Command South hovers around 90 to 120 degrees for much of the year. This heat adversely affects all logistics, from the airlift capabilities of rotary- and fixed-wing air transport to refrigerated units and generators. The shelf life of water and fuel bags lying uncovered on the desert floor is drastically reduced in summer heat.”6


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

The Choice Land or Air Delivery – Both Demanding Afghanistan is a landlocked country with mountainous regions and desert plains. The ground lines of communications (GLOC) are limited. Sustainment coming over land is brought in by Afghan driven trucks: “The 45th Sustainment Brigade used hostnation trucks for 90 percent of its supply movements. The brigade’s movement control battalion oversaw an indefinite delivery/ indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contract that provides for movement of dry cargo and fuel across the CJOA. The contract currently employs eight host-nation trucking companies and will be revised to include more companies, which will increase responsiveness and competition in supporting U.S. forces. Under the IDIQ contract, Afghan truckers deliver supplies at a much slower pace than U.S. Soldiers experienced in Iraq. The majority of the IDIQ trucks do not have in-transit visibility, and determining the locations of these trucks is difficult at best. The local-national truck drivers also do not work during many Muslim holidays. Ramadan and Eid al-Adha are prime examples of holidays that affect transit times for host-nation trucks.”7 In Afghanistan, units must properly forecast and order items and supplies in a timely manner. The average time for items to arrive at the Port of Karachi from the United States via ocean movement is approximately 2 months. The supplies then take an additional 21 days to move from the port to the main hubs in the CJOA (Combined Joint Operating Area). Once arrived at the main operating hubs, much of the final leg of the journey is made by airplane and then by parachute.

Small units and patrols that could not be reached by such large aircraft were sustained by smaller contracted aircraft, taken on specifically for the task. “In an exhaustive effort to reach the warfighters no matter where they are in Afghanistan, the 45th Sustainment Brigade also contracted for CASA C−212 airplanes to deliver the smaller low-cost, low-altitude resupply bundles to remote FOBs, convoys, and even patrols on the move. Done with laser-precision accuracy, supplies are dropped from varying altitudes. These aircraft have the ability to deliver 2,200 pounds of supplies to locations where larger aircraft are unable to go. These contracted aircraft were critical to sustaining the small units in Afghanistan.”

Drop Day: the Final Few Yards “Drop day is busy for the receiving ground unit because it must gather a recovery team, establish communications with the aircraft, and secure the drop zone. Ground recovery units must also contend with mountainous terrain, mud, snow, and the enemy as they collect the drops, which may take days or hours depending on their situation on the ground.”8 The journey from factory to foxhole is extremely arduous. Rugged and appropriate packing for all products is needed.

Airdrop Procedures Chief Warrant Officer 2 Michelle G. Charge gives the details of her tour with the 45th Sustainment brigade. “From February 2009 through the end of that year, the 45th Sustainment Brigade was responsible for managing all of the aerial drops in Afghanistan and sustaining more than 68,000 Soldiers (equivalent to 19 brigades) with equipment and supplies. During this time, more than 16 million pounds of supplies were dropped to keep the warfighter sustained and to maintain momentum on the battlefield.” “Most of the supplies were dropped from the airdrop aircraft of choice, the C−17 Globemaster III transport. The C−17’s capabilities meet the needs of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Successful airdrop missions take days of planning, rigging, and communicating to ensure 100-percent success.” WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

The High Technology Cargo for Frontline Troops Meredith LLewelyn, Lead Contributor

Keeping items cool in the context of Afghanistan is a serious challenge. Reefer or refrigerated containers are used, but their use is more demanding than in the commercial context.

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HE DIFFICULTY of the journey to the frontline makes every product vulnerable. This is doubly so for the high technology products required by the dismounted land warrior. The Soldier Enhancement Program (SEP) provides extra devices to the land warrior to improve lethality and survivability, command and control and mobility. The kind of devices it is sending through to the front line illustrates the need for extremely high specification packaging for the product to survive the factory-to-foxhole journey. “SEP’s past successes include the M110 semi-automatic sniper system, clip-on sniper night sight, aviation laser pointer, parachute electronic activation device, fuel handlers coveralls and gloves, modular ghillie suit and ghillie suit accessory kit upgrade, AN/PEQ–4 integrated laser white light pointer, parachutists drop bag, improved combat shelter, and tactical assault ladder.”9 These are a few examples of the smaller items. Much larger items are also delivered in this way including computers, command and control equipment and mobile medical units. Moreover, much larger items, even vehicles, have highly sensitive sensors built into their design to produce advanced diagnostics and prognostics to allow reduced but effective maintenance in the field. Sensitive and delicate sensors, in some cases micro engineered to a few electrons, have potentially to be air dropped. So the need for packaging that limits the impact of exterior transport forces is high. “These include mechanical influences such as shock, impact and vibrations, electromagnetic interference from radio waves, lightning etc. as well as general environmental effects such as heat, moisture, dust etc.”10

The Continuity of the Cold Supply Chain Many items for the front line also have to be kept cool. Examples are food, pharmaceuticals and computing equipment. Keeping items cool in the context of Afghanistan is a serious challenge. Reefer or refrigerated containers are 8 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

used, but their use is more demanding than in the commercial context. “The application and the demands placed on the refrigeration units is nothing like typical shipping applications, where containers run undisturbed for a limited-duration voyage, some in direct sunlight, others not. In Afghanistan, the stationary units are exposed to scorching 49oC (120oF) daytime desert heat, dust and sand, and doors are opened multiple times throughout the day. Frequent door openings, combined with container temperatures of -20oC (4oF) and humid air, can quickly frost an evaporator.” “The maintenance of this equipment is totally different from any other place in the world,” according to US Army officers “Everything needs to be properly cleaned to ensure sufficient airflows. Every little bit of sand and dirt takes away from the unit’s efficiency, especially with the high ambient temperatures.” “That’s something you can’t afford when contents of the containers includes food, pharmaceuticals, medical supplies and other provisions needed to ensure the survival of a military unit.”11


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

HAZMAT and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

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HE DELIVERY of hazardous materials and dangerous goods to the frontline is another item for the airdrop. Much ammunition and fuzes are air dropped in plywood containers, such as those produced by the Milan Box Corporation. Some explosives need to be kept in refrigerated containers. Some of the most difficult problems are generated by corrosive and flammable materials, which need to be stored in special dual wall construction all steel and spark resistant modules. Some are specially approved for transport on C-130, C-5 and C-17 aircraft and feature a 3G bar to secure drawers in flight, secondary containment with pressure release valve and external grounding lug.

Weapons Carriage and Storage Weapons need to be taken to the frontline and also kept in secure conditions for readiness. Modules are made for their safe transportation and secure storage, with special drawers for accessories like scopes, night vision goggles and repair kits. But while damage in transport is always a concern, the insidious effect of high humidity and temperature volatility on water vapour and its condensation is a logistician’s nightmare.

The Risk of Water Vapour Damage During Carriage and its Effects However clean and dry the articles packed at factory or base may have been, they contain water vapour, which can condense. The UK Ministry of Defence has reviewed this topic. The effects of water vapour can be highly damaging. “The presence of moisture can pose a significant threat to the ability of defence materiel to remain safe, and be capable of giving acceptable performance over extended periods. The necessity for dryness stems from the ability of moisture to foster corrosion and biological growth, to form conductive paths across insulating materials, and under certain circumstances, to increase capacitance between conductors. These effects result in the degradation of performance,

Some of the most difficult problems are generated by corrosive and flammable materials, which need to be stored in special dual wall construction all steel and spark resistant modules. components and assemblies and, in extreme cases, the complete failure of an equipment or system. To protect the equipment, it is necessary to ensure that the relative humidity of the air inside the container is below the level that will cause corrosion and support mould growth.” There are a number of ways that moisture can get into sealed units.12 Diffusion is one method where the relative humidity inside a container fitted with a desiccator, will be lower than that of the surrounding atmosphere. This creates a water vapour pressure gradient and consequently there will be a tendency for moisture to enter the container by diffusion through gasket materials, shaft seals, connectors, panel-mounted components, and even through the container walls with some materials.13 It can also enter through capillary action and the slow process of “breathing”. “Breathing is the most common mechanism by which moisture enters a container. As the atmospheric pressure rises and falls, breathing WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

When packing cargo, a sophisticated knowledge of the appropriate desiccants, dehumidifiers and silica gels needs to be applied to ensure that the cargo that survives the sea and air journey also survives the environmental conditions en route.

takes place through leaks. Dry air is expelled as the external pressure falls and is replaced by moist air from outside as it rises again. This is a continuous process but a fairly slow one. Larger and more rapid pressure changes, and consequently larger air displacements and greater moisture uptake, are caused by temperature changes.”14 The failure to avoid water vapour ingress can be catastrophic in the case of ammunition and can cause a dramatic reduction in usability and performance for instruments. For example in the 2-3 month journey from Europe or the United States via the Middle East bases in the Gulf States or ports, the following effects of water have been observed by UK forces: “(a) Oxidation and electrochemical corrosion of metals (e.g. rusting); (b) Bio deterioration of materials due to microorganisms (e.g. moulds and bacteria); (c) Deterioration of thermal and electrical insulation or dielectric properties; (d) Electrical malfunction due to loss of dielectric strength, or to the creation of surface leakage paths of low resistance in electrical circuits; (e) Liquid water and icing problems; (f) Misting and etching of optical surfaces; (g) Pollution of fluids such as lubricating, hydraulic and transformer oils; (h) Dimensional changes in materials such as plastics and rubbers; (j) Deterioration of pyrotechnic devices.”15 Therefore when packing cargo, a sophisticated knowledge of the appropriate desiccants, dehumidifiers and silica gels needs to be applied to ensure that the cargo that survives the sea and air journey also survives the environmental conditions en route.

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SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

The Evolution of the Ubiquitous Container and its Future Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

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LOBAL CONTAINER traffic is an indicator of economic performance and in the Middle East and Africa between 1995 and 2005 TEU traffic increased between 200 and 300%. But there are marked differences in the levels of efficiency and facilities for throughput at these ports. “Most are poorly equipped and operate at low levels of productivity. Few are capable of handling the largest of the current generation of ships, and they are generally unprepared for the dramatic changes in trade and shipping patterns that are now occurring. While they are moving slowly from publicly owned service ports to so-called landlord port structures, often with embedded container-terminal concessions, they are still behind other regions in the development of modern port-management structures.”16 Many of these ports have a high ‘dwell time’ for containers and represent a huge gap in performance between ports and container facilities in more developed countries. Their use by the military often requires adaptation to modern standards. So even if the ships and the containers are swiftly and efficiently managed the conditions in the local ports can be problematic.

The Sea Journey for Containers In Field Manual 55-80, the US Army acknowledges its growing dependence on shipping cargo in containers by sea. By the turn of the century the Department of Defense was already using large fast container ships to move 85% of its cargo.17 Such is the use of containers in many adaptations from the storage of dry goods, to adaptations for command and control centers to kitchens to latrines, that the Marine Corps among other parts of the Army give training on how to pack or stuff the standard ISO unit.18 One of the key aspects of the management of ISO containers en route from the United States or Europe to their south Asian or Middle Eastern destination is the skill and procedures by which the ISO containers and their contents are lashed to the container ship. Lloyds of London, the shipping insurer, offers guidelines, which appear to be honoured

by their frequent loose observance. It details the importance of lashings and additional lashings in the event of bad weather. It notes, also, that weights of containers should be recorded and stacking procedures observed rigourously.19

The Future of Containers The economic constraints on all operations in 2011 means that the energy use, efficiency and footprint of each ISO unit, particularly reefers or refrigerated units, are being forced down. However, manufacturers are working within these constraints to produce rugged, highly reliable and easy to maintain containers, which operate with environmentally safe refrigerants. Indeed, Qinetiq North America is working on what is called a Smart Container that fulfills many of the aspirations of commercial supply chain management. The ISO-compliant polymer-and-steel, twenty foot equivalent unit (TEU) shipping container has physical and environmental characteristics, which can be monitored using satellite, cellular, ad-hoc mesh communications networks, global positioning, environmental sensors and Automatic Identification Technologies (AIT), including active RFID. Unfortunately, all these tracking and resistant technologies only go so far in protecting materiel on what is a long and difficult journey from factory-to-foxhole.

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SPECIAL REPORT: MILITARY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY

References: 1

AUTHOR: LTC Aundre F. Piggee TITLE: Transformation – Revolution in Military Logistics FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April 2002 PAGES: 32 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified http://www.iwar.org.uk/rma/resources/logistics/Piggee_A_F_02.pdf

2

AUTHOR: LTC Aundre F. Piggee TITLE: Transformation – Revolution in Military Logistics FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April 2002 PAGES: 32 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified http://www.iwar.org.uk/rma/resources/logistics/Piggee_A_F_02.pdf

3

AUTHOR: LTC Aundre F. Piggee TITLE: Transformation – Revolution in Military Logistics FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April 2002 PAGES: 32 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified http://www.iwar.org.uk/rma/resources/logistics/Piggee_A_F_02.pdf

4

Sense and Respond: Logistics on the Insurgent Battlefield by Major Michael F. Hammond www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/NovDec08/log_insurgfield.html

5

45th Sustainment Brigade: Supply Distribution in Afghanistan by Major Kerry Dennard, Major Christine A. Haffey, and Major Ray Ferguson http://www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/NovDec10/45th_supplydistrib.html

6

http://www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/NovDec10/45th_supplydistrib.html 45th Sustainment Brigade: Supply Distribution in Afghanistan by Major Kerry Dennard, Major Christine A. Haffey, and Major Ray Ferguson

7

http://www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/NovDec10/45th_supplydistrib.html 45th Sustainment Brigade: Supply Distribution in Afghanistan by Major Kerry Dennard, Major Christine A. Haffey, and Major Ray Ferguson

8

http://www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/NovDec10/45th_aerialDelivery.html 45th Sustainment Brigade: Aerial Delivery in Afghanistan by Chief Warrant Officer 2 Michelle G. Charge

9

Army Soldier Enhancement Program by Thomas B. House II and Raymond E. Strunk

10

Zarges High Performance Cases

11

Carrier Transicold Containers

12

Ministry of Defence – Defence Standard 44-2 Part 1 Issue 5 Publication Date 20 September 2004 Desiccant Containers, Dehumidifier

13

Ministry of Defence – Defence Standard 44-2 Part 1 Issue 5 Publication Date 20 September 2004 Desiccant Containers, Dehumidifier 6.2.1

14

Ibid 6.2.3

15

ibid 7.1

16

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development BACKGROUND PAPER 8 (PHASE II) Beyond the Bottlenecks: Ports in Africa SUMMARY Ocean Shipping Consultants, Ltd. August 2009

17

FM 55-80 ARMY CONTAINER OPERATIONS

18

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Logistics Operations School Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools PSC BOX 20041 Camp Lejeune, North Carolina 28451-0041

19

A Master’s Guide to Container Securing: Lloyds’ Registe

12 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM


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