Ukraine Class 5-C, Taras Shevchenko Gymnasium
WINNER MACMILLAN READERS
MACMILLAN CULTURAL READERS COMPETITION WINNER
Freedom Macmillan Cultural Readers
Class 5-C, Taras Shevchenko Gymnasium
Macmillan Cultural Readers
Founding Editor of the Macmillan Readers: John Milne The Macmillan Readers provide a choice of enjoyable reading materials for learners of English. The series is published at six levels â€“ Starter, Beginner, Elementary, Pre-intermediate, Intermediate and Upper Intermediate. Macmillan Cultural Readers Macmillan Cultural Readers are a strand of the popular Graded Readers series. This series of factual readers focuses on countries and culture. Every reader includes information on history, traditions, daily life, cities, nature and sport and is illustrated in full-colour photography throughout. Cultural Readers England, The United States of America, and Brazil are available now. The next Cultural Reader in the series, China, will be available from 2014. Competition for Schools In 2013, Macmillan Education organised an international Cultural Readers Competition for schools. Students were asked to create their own Cultural Reader with their class. The winners of this competition were class 5-C of the Taras Shevchenko Gymnasium from Kirovohrad, Ukraine, who created this Cultural Reader about their country. For more information, visit www.macmillanenglish.com/readers
Contents Welcome To Ukraine
1 A Short History
2 Geography and Big Cities
3 Famous Ukranians
4 Traditional Ukranian Food
5 Traditional Holidays
Welcome To Ukraine! Ukraine is a wonderful country in Eastern Europe. It has an exciting history, beautiful traditions1, tasty cuisine2, breathtaking landscapes, mountains, rivers, seas and endless fields. Moreover, Ukrainians are kind and friendly people. We hope you enjoy reading this book. Welcome to Ukraine!
In 1991, Ukraine became an independent country. Ukraine is situated in the south-east of Europe and has borders with Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.
1 A Short History
People first appeared on the territory3 of Ukraine in the Stone Age. Archeologists4 found more than 50 Neanderthal sites in Ukrainian steppes. Ancient people left artifacts like tools made of animal bones and stones. Further pages of Ukrainian history are connected with Trypillian culture. It was named in honour of the village Trypillya, near Kyiv, where archeologists found tools, weapons and pottery. Trypillya inhabitants5 grew wheat6, oats, barley7, beans and different fruit trees. They were hunters and cattle breeders. Most of all they are famous for their beautiful ceramics8. 5
1 Ukrainian soil is very rich and fertile9. A lot of tribes10 came to this land and settled here. The most famous of them are the Scythians and the Sarmatians. These tribes left their trace in Ukrainian history and culture. Scythians were famous for gold jewellery11. They buried their leaders in high barrows together with their belongings. Travellers still can see a lot of Scythian barrows in Ukrainian steppes and fields. The ancient Greeks also visited Ukraine. They built beautiful cities along the Black Sea coast. You can still see the ruins. The direct ancestors12 of Ukrainian people were Slavs. There were a lot of Slavic tribes. They grew really strong and soon established the state Kievan Rus, with its capital Kyiv. A wonderful legend13 tells of how Kyiv was founded. Once upon a time there lived three brothers Kyi, Schek, Horeb and their sister Lybed. They liked the hills near the Dnieper River very much and built a settlement there and called it Kyiv in honour of the eldest brother. Now this city is the capital of Ukraine. There is a monument to the legendary brothers and their sister on the banks of the Dnieper River. Kievan Rus was a very strong country ruled by wise princes. Unfortunately, when prince Yaroslav the Wise died, his sons quarreled14 because each of them wanted to rule the country. April 26 is a day of national Kievan Rus was split up. mourning in Ukraine. On this Ukrainian land fell under the day in 1986, the fourth reactor rule of the Russian Empire15, Poland, of Chernobyl Atomic Power plant Lithuania, Tatars and others. But exploded. A radioactive cloud flew Ukrainians always loved freedom over Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and even got as far as Poland, Romania and fought for it. Young Ukrainian and Germany. men escaped from foreign landlords who ruled over their native16 land and settled on the island of Khortytsya on the Dnieper River. They were called Cossacks. They established Zaporozhian Sich – a land of free armed people. It was ruled by a hetman who was elected by the Cossacks. Cossacks were brave. They fought against invaders and protected Ukraine. Unfortunately, the Russian empress Catherine II thought that Cossacks were too dangerous because they were so freedom loving and didn’t want any kings or tsars on their land. So she destroyed Zaporozhian Sich. A lot of Ukrainians who lived in the villages became “kripaks” – slaves who worked hard for their landlords.
A Short History
Trypillya inhabitants grew wheat, oats, barley, beans and different fruit trees. They were hunters and cattle breeders.
After the First World War the Russian Empire was ruined and Ukraine fell under the rule of another empire, the Soviet Union. Life was hard in Ukraine in the 20th century. Ukrainians loved working on their rich and fertile land, but the Bolsheviks were against private property. All Ukrainian farmers were called “kulaks”, their crops were taken away by the Bolsheviks and they were sent to prison or forced to move to Siberia or some other distant region of the Soviet Union. During 1932-1933 millions of Ukrainians starved to death because the Soviet regime took all the food from the villagers and caused a famine, known as “the holodomor”. In 1939 World War II began. The Nazis occupied Ukraine. Millions of Ukrainians were forced to work in Germany; millions were killed on the battlefields. After the war Ukraine was rebuilt, but life was still hard. Another tragic event happened on April 26 in 1986. The fourth reactor of the Chernobyl Atomic Power plant exploded and caught fire. A radioactive cloud flew over Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and even got as far as Poland, Romania and Germany. April 26 is a day of national mourning in Ukraine. People should remember such events and try to be careful in future. Finally, in 1991 the Soviet Union disappeared and Ukraine became an independent country. It is a young country and it has a lot of glorious days ahead. 7
2 1 Geography and Big Cities
A monument to the founders of Kyiv
Ukraine is an independent democratic17 state. Ukrainian bodies of state power are the Verkhovna Rada, the Government and Local Councils. The territory of Ukraine consists of the Autonomy Republic of Crimea and 24 regions. Ukraine is situated in the south-east of Europe. It borders Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. The area of Ukraine is 603,700 sq. km. The territory of Ukraine is mostly flat. There are the Carpathian Mountains in the west and the Crimean Mountains in the south, but they are not high. The main rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the Buh, the Donets and others. The Dnieper is one of the longest European rivers and one of the main sources of hydroelectric18 power in the country. Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The coasts of the Azov Sea and the Black Sea are good for ports. We have quite a lot of big sea ports, for example, Odesa, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Izmail, Mariupol and Kerch. 8
Geography and Big Cities Kyiv Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine,
Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine, the the hero-city and "the mother hero-city and “the mother of Russian of Russian cities". Kyiv stands on the cities”. Kyiv stands on the picturesque picturesque banks of the Dnieper River. The city keeps the memory of banks of the Dnieper River. The many important historic events. Kyiv city keeps the memory of many is known worldwide for its beauty, important historic events. The central the variety of its green landscapes square of Kyiv is the Independence and its unique architecture. Square (Maidan Nezalezhnosti). The square itself was formed in the 19th century, but all buildings from that time were destroyed during occupation of the city in World War II. However, Maidan was rebuilt after the war and became the central square of the city. The main monument of the square is the Independence Column; this is a 12-meter high sculpture, “Oranta-Ukraine”. Kyiv is known worldwide for its beauty, the variety of its green landscapes and its unique architecture. There are many holy places in Kyiv. They have great cultural and historical value. The Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is included on the UNESCO world heritage list. Another great holy place is St. Sofia’s Cathedral. The cathedral was built during the rule of Prince Yaroslav the Wise. Tourists from the whole world visit our capital to see its places of interest. Ukrainians are proud of Kyiv because it is one of the most beautiful cities of the world. It is the city of ancient culture and eternal glory. Kharkiv Kharkiv is the second largest city in Ukraine. The city is situated in the northeastern part of Ukraine. Kharkiv was founded in 1654 when Cossacks built a fortified settlement. From 1920 to 1934 Kharkiv was the capital of Soviet Ukraine. Today there are over 2500 streets and 26 squares in the city. The Liberty Square is the largest square in Europe and the second largest in the world. This is the city of parks. The parks of Kharkiv are places where Kharkovites and visitors can escape from the noise of the city streets. Kharkiv is one of the most important cities in Ukraine with over 250 enterprises. It is first for mechanical engineering, metalworking and electrical power engineering. The city is one of the largest cultural and scientific centres of Ukraine. 9
2 Lviv Lviv is the historical capital of Galicia and Western Ukraine. By the population it is the seventh-largest city in Ukraine. Lviv was founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Danylo Romanovych and named after his son Lev. Today Lviv has an area of more than 155 sq. km. The most famous parts of Lviv include Shevchenko Prospect, Mitskewich Square and Horodetska Street with many public buildings, hotels, cafes, stores and banks. There are a lot of picturesque parks in the city. The Lychakiv Cemetery contains some famous monuments to outstanding Ukrainians. The oldest monument in Lviv consists of the foundation and walls of St. Nicholas Сhurch, built by Prince Lev Danylovych in the 13th century. Lviv is the only city in Ukraine that still has some original Renaissance architecture. The finest examples of the style are the Dormitory Church and the Chapel of Three Saints. The territory of the Old City is on the UNESCO world heritage list. The centre of Old City is Rynok (Market) Square, which has been the centre of city life at all times. The city is always full of foreign tourists. Lviv is the leading scientific and cultural centre of Western Ukraine. It has a number of research institutes with high reputations, higher educational establishments and theatres. Kirovohrad Kirovohrad is a regional town. It is Kirovohrad is a regional town. situated in the central part of Ukraine It is situated in the central part on the banks of the Ingul River. It is of Ukraine on the banks of the Ingul the town where we, the authors of River. It is the town where we, the authors of this project, live. Our this project, live. Our native town native town was founded in 1754 . We was founded in 1754 as a fortress to like our town and we are proud of it defend the southern borders of the because there is no place like home. Russian Empire against the attacks of the Turkish and Crimean Tartar invaders. After some years a small town appeared around the fortress. It was called Elizavetgrad. The town became the cradle of the Ukrainian professional theatre. In 1934 it was named Kirovo and in 1939 it was granted the status of a regional centre with the name Kirovohrad. Now it is a town with glorious traditions and developed culture. Our town is well-known for folk art. The theatre of folk music19, singing and dancing group “Zoryany”
Geography and Big Cities and the children’s dancing group “Prolisok” are popular not only in Ukraine but abroad as well. Our town is the dancing capital of Ukraine. Kirovohrad National Technical University, Kirovohrad Pedagogical University named after V. Vinnychenko and State Flight Academy of Ukraine are the main educational institutions of our town. Public corporation “Chervona Zirka” is a leader in agricultural20 machinebuilding. It manufactures modern seeding-machines. You can see many old beautiful buildings in Dvortsova Street in the centre of Kirovohrad. Kirovohrad is even called “Little Paris” for its wonderful architecture21 of old European style. Kirovohrad is famous for its people. They are talented, industrious and cheerful. We like our town and we are proud of it because there is no place like home.
A painting in the folk style
3 Famous Ukranians
Hopak – a traditional Ukranian dance
A lot of talented people were born in Ukraine. Among them are famous writers, scientists, politicians, singers, composers, musicians, doctors, sportsmen and others. Here are the names of some of them. Taras Shevchenko Taras Shevchenko is a famous Ukrainian poet and artist. He was born on March 9, 1814 in the village Moryntsi in Cherkasy in a very poor family of “kripaks” – slaves who worked hard for their landlords. When he was very young he loved to draw, sing and was very curious. He did not go to school because his parents did not have money. He wrote a lot of poems 12
Famous Ukrainians about his beautiful motherland and drew a lot of pictures of the poor. His most famous poems are “When I was 13 years old”, “Roars and moans the wide Dnieper”, “A cherry garden near the house”. His famous paintings are “Catherine”, “A cossack on a horse” and countless portraits. He also wanted to write a textbook for primary school children but unfortunately he died before accomplishing this goal. There is probably no Ukrainian who has not seen portraits or monuments by Taras Shevchenko or has not read his poems. The greatest Ukrainian poet and artist, Taras Shevchenko is known in the whole world. There are monuments to Shevchenko in Moscow, Petersburg, Bucharest, and the USA. This famous poet is known as “Kobzar”. He is famous for his poetry where he defends the enslaved people. He showed the world that Ukrainians are proud and freedom-loving people with rich culture, customs, traditions and language. The biggest collection of Shevchenko’s poems “Kobzar” is translated into all Slavonic languages as well as into Georgian, Armenian, Kazakh, Uzbek, German, English, French, Danish, Romanic, Spanish, Hindu, Japanese and many other languages. Vitaliy and Volodymyr Klitschko Vitaliy and Volodymyr Klitschko are well-known boxers. They were born in Kyrgyzstan but grew up in Ukraine. Their parents were military. In childhood Vitaliy was interested in kickboxing22 and was a multiple champion. Vladimir was interested in boxing, and after university continued his career. They glorified our country all over the world. They fought with many famous boxers. The elder brother Vitaliy became a successful politician. The brothers are involved in many charity projects. They are not only strong, but also very intelligent. They are excellent role models for modern teenagers. Ruslana Ruslana is a famous Ukrainian singer. She was born on May 24, 1973. She is from the Carpathians, and many of her songs have folk tunes. She glorified our country at the international Eurovision Song Contest and won the first prize. Her most famous song is Wild Dances. Ruslana also tried herself in politics, but didn’t stay there for long. She was a judge in the national singing contest “Voice of the country”. 13
4 3 Traditional Ukranian Food
Traditional Ukranian food
Ukrainian food is one of the richest national cuisines. Its dishes are well known far away from Ukraine. For example, salo (fat) with garlic is a true symbol of a rich Ukrainian cuisine. The Ukrainian food is characterized by large number of components. For example, the traditional Ukrainian soup called â€œborshchâ€? contains 20 components. Borshch is bouillon with tender meat and vegetables such as carrots, cabbage, potatoes, onion and beet. People usually eat borshch with tender pampushki (a kind of pastry). Other soups are very popular in Ukraine, too. They are yushka, uha (fish soup) and pea soup. All of them are very tasty. If you like meat you can try cutlets23, boiled, fried and roasted meat. The favorite Ukranian kind of meat is pork. People usually eat meat with fried, 14
Traditional Ukrainian Food boiled or mashed potato and salads. One of the best Ukrainian dishes is golubtsi. Golubtsi can be translated as “little pigeons”. They are cabbage rolls stuffed with meat and rice, and often covered with tomato sauce. In Ukraine you can try a lot of dishes cooked from flour. They are vareniki, pancakes, halushki and different kinds of pies. Vareniki are dumplings24 made from flour, eggs and water. They can be filled with potato, cabbage and mushrooms. You can taste them with butter or sour cream. There are some traditional drinks in Ukraine. People like to drink kvas and uzvar. Uzvar is a tasty and healthy drink, especially for children. It is made of dried fruit. Kvas is made from bread. It is really refreshing in summer. For adults there is also a traditional Ukrainian alcoholic drink. It is horilka (Ukrainian vodka), but don’t drink too much, because it is very strong. As you see there’s a great variety of Ukrainian cuisine. Now it’s time for you to choose and try our tasty traditional Children in traditional dishes. Ukrainian clothes Enjoy your meal!
Borshch is a traditional Ukrainian soup, It is a bouillon with tender meat and vegetables such as carrots, cabbage, potatoes, onion and beet. People usually eat borshch with tender pampushki which is a kind of pastry.
5 4 Traditional Holidays
St. Nikolas Day is celebrated on the 19th of December. Children love this holiday. If you were a good child throughout the year you will find sweets in your shoe but if you misbehaved you will find a willow branch to be spanked with. But of course, everyone finds candies!
Ukrainians love holidays. Some holidays are celebrated all over the world, like New Year or Christmas. Some other holidays are typical only to our country or we celebrate them in a unique way. Most holidays are spent with family and friends. Before holidays it is important to clean the house and to cook tasty dishes. St. Nikolas Day is celebrated on the 19th of December. Children love this holiday. If you were a good child throughout the year you will find sweets in your shoe but if you misbehaved you will find a willow branch to be spanked with. But of course, everyone finds candies! Christmas in Ukraine is celebrated on the 7th of January (the Orthodox style). In Kievan Rus Christmas traditions mixed with traditions of celebrating 16
Traditional Holidays a pagan holiday of the beginning of A church new agricultural year called Kolyada. paper cut out Christmas is the time of family reunion. Ukrainians don’t give each other presents at Christmas. They exchange presents on New Year’s Day. Children go from door to door singing Christmas songs. People give them sweets. All hostesses25 cook 12 dishes for the festive table. New Year is very popular in Ukraine, too. It is celebrated in every family. Nowadays the symbol of New Year is a fir tree, but many years ago it was a “diduch”. It is a reap of wheat which symbolizes the spirit of all ancestors and the spirit of land and crops. People put it on the festive table or in the best place in the house and decorated with ribbons. Easter is probably the favourite holiday among Ukrainians. Easter is the feast of Christ’s resurrection, which combines both pagan and Christian elements. In Ukraine Easter is called Velykden (The Great Day). Velykden was celebrated thousands of years ago as the victory of the Light over the Dark, Day over Night, and Spring over Winter. Later it was combined with the Christian holiday of Easter. The last Sunday before Easter is called Willow Sunday. On this day pussy-willow branches are blessed in the church. People should finish all their work before Clean Thursday (Thursday before Easter Sunday). From Thursday on work is forbidden26. On Clean Thursday everyone should have a shower at dawn. On Good Friday no work is done. On Saturday evening people gather in the church and pray there until morning when priests bless the food. After that people go home to celebrate Easter with their families. If they meet other people on the way they say: “Christ is risen!” and these people should reply “Risen indeed”. All the people exchange Easter greetings and give each other painted eggs (krashanky). Easter cake and painted eggs are the symbols of Ukrainian Easter. On this Day Ukrainian kids play their favorite Easter game: knocking the eggs. If you knock somebody’s egg and your egg is not broken then you are the winner. 17
Glossary Definitions taken from or adapted from the Macmillan Dictionary (www.macmillandictionary.com) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18
tradition - a very old custom, belief, or story (page 4) cuisine - a particular style of cooking food, especially the style of a particular country or region (page 4) territory - an area of land (page 5) archeologist - someone who studies archeology (page 5) inhabitant - a person or animal that lives in a particular place (page 5) wheat - a tall plant that produces grain for making bread and other foods (page 5) barley - a plant that produces grain used for making food, beer, and whisky (page 5) ceramics - objects made from baked clay (page 5) fertile - fertile land is able to produce good crops or plants (page 6) tribe - a large group of related families who live in the same area and share a common language, religion, and customs (page 6) jewellery - objects that you wear as decoration. Types of jewellery include rings, which you wear on your finger, bracelets, which you wear on your wrist, and necklaces, which you wear around your neck (page 6) ancestor - someone who is related to you who lived a long time ago (page 6) legend - an old story about famous people and events in the past. Legends are not usually true (page 6) quarrel - an argument, especially one about something unimportant between people who know each other well (page 6) empire - a number of countries ruled by one person or government (page 6) native - living in a particular country, area, or city since birth (page 6) democratic - based on the principle that all people are equal and should be able to share in making decisions (page 8) hydroelectric - using water power to produce electricity (page 8)
19 folk music - traditional music from a particular country, region, or community, especially music developed by people who were not professional musicians (page 11) 20 agriculture - the work, business, or study of farming (page 11) 21 architecture - a particular style or way of designing buildings (page 11) 22 kickboxing - a sport in which two people kick as well as hit each other when they fight (page 13) 23 cutlet - a flat piece of meat still connected to a bone, usually a piece of lamb or veal (page 14) 24 dumpling - a small solid lump of cooked food made from flour and water, sometimes eaten with meat or added to soup (page 15) 25 hostess - a woman who invites someone to a meal or party, or to stay for a short time in her home. A man who does this is called a host (page 17) 26 forbidden - not allowed according to a rule, law, or custom (page 17)
Macmillan Education 4 Crinan Street, London N1 9XW A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies and representatives throughout the world Text and illustration ÂŠ Taras Shevchenko Gymnasium 2013 Design ÂŠ Macmillan Publishers Limited 2013 Written and illustrated by: Kateryna Andrieieva, Danyil Andrieiev, Pylyp Blukhshtein, Nikita Vakulenko, Anastasiia Vovk, Polina Vovk, Nikita Harkusha, Veronika Dovzhenko, Viktor Dudich, Mariia Zinchuk, Olha Izhetska, Mariia Kovpak, Yelyzaveta Kompaniiets, Maksym Lytvyshko, Anastasiia Lyvytska, Nikita Mazur, Illia Mostyka, Ivan Prytulenko, Alina Rudenko, Daria Savchenko, Roman Savchenko, Yevheniia Solovykh, Daria Khilchenko, Sofiia Shvorak, Kateryna Shepelenko, Illia Sheremetov and Daria Shtanko.
The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. The opinions expressed in this Reader are those of the school and not necessarily those of Macmillan Publishers Limited First published 2013 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers. Designed by Macmillan Publishers Limited
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WINNER OF ThE CULTURAL READERS COMPETITION UkRAINE
This beautiful, competition winning Cultural Reader was created by Class 5-C of the Taras Shevchenko Gymnasium in Ukraine as part of the Macmillan Education Cultural Readers Competition. The students and teachers worked on this project during the summer school in 2013. All children were divided into mini groups and each group worked on a separate subtopic. The teachers monitored the project work and helped students.
Participating students: Kateryna Andrieieva Danyil Andrieiev Pylyp Blukhshtein Nikita Vakulenko Anastasiia Vovk Polina Vovk Nikita Harkusha Veronika Dovzhenko Viktor Dudich
Mariia Zinchuk Olha Izhetska Mariia Kovpak Yelyzaveta Kompaniiets Maksym Lytvyshko Anastasiia Lyvytska Nikita Mazur Illia Mostyka Ivan Prytulenko
Alina Rudenko Daria Savchenko Roman Savchenko Yevheniia Solovykh Daria Khilchenko Sofiia Shvorak Kateryna Shepelenko Illia Sheremetov Daria Shtanko
Participating teachers: Hanna Dudich Olena Kolot Antonina Yermakova
A digital version of the Cultural Reader Ukraine can be found on our website: www.macmillanenglish.com/readers
this reader is not for sale
CLASS 5-C, TARAS ShEvChENkO GyMNASIUM
A big well done and thank you to the participants of this competition: