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Roads and Streets Framework

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Roads and Streets FRAMEWORK

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CONTENT

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Chapter 1 Introduction & context

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Chapter 2 The new approach to consider place and movement

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The six strategic functions

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Chapter 3 The Roads and Streets Framework process

26

Chapter 4 The nine roads and streets typologies in detail

54

Chapter 5 Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

ANNEXES

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ROADS ROADS AND ANDSTREETS STREETSFRAMEWORK FRAMEWORK

66

Annex 1

Strategic functions (principles)

78

Annex 2

The tool box

98

Annex 3

Auckland Transport Alignment Project (ATAP)

100

Annex 4

Healthy Streets Key Indicators Check List

104

Annex 5

Typologies: modal priority design feature

118

Annex 6

Case studies

134

Annex 7

Alignment with existing road classifications


Executive summary Background

Purpose

Priorities

Roads and streets exert an immense influence upon Auckland’s lifestyle and travel behaviour. Research has shown that how we use and design our roads and streets directly influences place identity, accessibility, public health, social equity, inclusivity and local and regional economies, among other factors.

Both Auckland Council and the land development sector are looking for clearer guidance on road and street design. In response, the Roads and Streets Framework and the Transport Design Manual have been developed as complementary documents.

The Framework recognises the following core priorities:

• The Roads and Streets Framework describes, balances and integrates the intended strategic and local place and movement functions of roads and streets, as well as the levels of service for all transport modes.

• To maintain a safe, efficient and sustainable road and street network for movement and access, and

The scale and pace of growth in Auckland, combined with the development of new urban areas, are placing increased pressure on an already constrained strategic transport network and limited road space that must achieve place and movement objectives. Auckland’s almost 8,000km of roads and streets connect its 1.5 million residents and visitors with places to work, live, study and play. Roads and streets take up around 13-15% of Auckland’s urban area, but provide around 50% of the city’s public open space. If Auckland is to meet the vision of being a world class city, its roads and streets should provide a wider range of benefits, including liveability, sustainability and economic growth, while providing for efficient and safe movement.

• The Transport Design Manual provides the design and technical specifications for existing and new road and streets to ensure they support the desired place and movement outcomes. Applied together, these two documents provide guidance to partners (Council, etc.) and external parties (developers, etc.) about Auckland Transport’s requirements for the planning, design, construction and vesting of assets that will be managed by Auckland Transport. The Framework is aimed at everyone who plays a part in managing, designing, improving or determining the quality of roads and streets in Auckland, including engineers, planners, urban designers, project managers, politicians, developers and users.

• To deliver better, active and inclusive places and new destinations; • To transform conditions for walking, cycling and public transport

• To balance place and movement functions.

Scope Roads and streets have to fulfil a complex variety of functions to meet people’s needs as places in which to live, work, play, study and invest. The Roads and Streets Framework includes a family of street types, recognising the diversity of living, unlocking, moving, functioning, protecting and sustaining functions across Auckland’s roads and streets. The framework provides future modal priorities and service priorities, as well as a toolbox of local and strategic measures to help resolve conflicts between the different functions. Future plans, projects and schemes should reflect the Roads and Streets Framework, especially in new growth areas.

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1 Introduction & context

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER


Introduction The increasing pressure on Auckland’s roads and streets demands a new approach to how we manage these aspects of our infrastructure. Current approaches have been criticised for not adequately taking into account the wider social, economic and environmental outcomes and values being sought for Auckland. If Auckland is to reach its full potential, roads and streets need to perform beyond the traditional norm of moving traffic and providing access for vehicles to local destinations.

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Current problems

Roads and streets

The key problems with current approaches include:

Roads and streets must provide multi-modal transport choices and better access for people of all ages and levels of physical mobility.

• Conflicts between different modes of transport are not being resolved

Roads primarily exist as movement corridors for through movement of people, vehicles and goods, and generally connect town centres and employment areas over longer distances. They are essential for moving people and freight, servicing the centres, suburban areas and wider hinterland.

• Lack of guidance on network development to support new urban areas, so that they are less car-oriented than traditional suburbs • Limited ability to respond to the wider needs of liveability, sustainability, active transport modes and economic growth • Different objectives between transport and other infrastructure providers resulting in conflicts in how street space is best utilised • Lack of strategic direction and design guidance in how to address the pressures of growth in existing urban areas and new growth areas.

Streets are primarily public places and a focus for the city’s economic, cultural and social activity. They have an important place function and are typically connected to adjacent buildings, activities and public open space attractions. Streets are essential public spaces and access corridors that enable people to meet, help businesses grow and allow children to play, among other things.

Road and Street typologies The context of Auckland, varies from one place to another and also along any given road or street. Environmental features, land uses, density and travel characteristics shift along a road or street from one side of the city to the other. The functions of a road or street can change, depending on the different activities on it and the priorities of the local communities surrounding it. The Roads and Streets Framework provides a better way to take account of the wider social, cultural, economic and environmental outcomes than current transport approaches. Through the use of nine urban and three rural typologies, Auckland’s roads and streets can be managed in ways that better relate to their surrounding context and serve the users and surrounding local community better. The typologies take into account the scale, density, diversity of destinations, quality of place as well as the significance of movement by different modes. They have been adapted from global best practice to make sense for Auckland. They can be applied on urban as well as rural roads. While considering the mobility goals of different modes is important for Auckland, it must be considered within the wider context of the six function areas for Auckland, which include living, unlocking, functioning, protecting, sustaining and moving. The Framework brings together the place and movement considerations to support the aspirations of the Auckland Plan (see Figure 1), and can be applied to individual streets as well as area wide or local transport networks, including undeveloped parcels of land within and outside the City’s metropolitan area. In any context, the framework seeks to provide the project mandate for new projects that is both strategically sound and locally relevant. Additionally, it seeks to identify the appropriate actions required to better inform any planned design interventions.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CHAPTER Introduction & context

THE AUCKLAND PLAN

‘Place’

‘Movement’

Unitary Plan, Local Board Plans, Centre Plans, Developments

ATAP, Network Plans, Corridor plans, TFUG

PROJECT MANDATE The RASF /  TDM bring ‘Place’ & ‘Movement’ together

• To deliver better, active and inclusive place and new destinations • to transform conditions for walking, cycling, public transport; and • To maintain a safe, efficient and sustainable road network for movement and access • To balance place and movement functions

Roads and Streets Framework

Transport Design Manual

Typologies, Challenges, Modal Priority

Design Guidance, Technical Standards

Figure  1 Auckland context for Roads and Streets Framework

Structure of this Framework

DIRECTION

CHAPTER 2 The new approach to consider place and movement

CHAPTER 3 The Roads and Streets Framework process

DEVELOPMENT & DESIGN

1

Operations & Maintenance

DELIVERY & OPERATION

explains the key concepts, principles and key functions which support the framework approach

outlines the seven-step process that provides the strategic direction for place and movement in developing the project mandate

CHAPTER 4 The nine roads and streets typologies in detail

explains the nine urban and three rural road and street types for Auckland in detail

Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

provides strategic principles, and guiding metrics for the design of connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres, the fundamental building blocks for Auckland’s supporting growth areas

THE ANNEXES

c ontain supporting detail to the various chapters above

CHAPTER 5

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2

CHAPTER

The new approach to consider place and movement

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


Key concepts & principles The fundamental concept that everything is connected to everything else applies when considering place and movement contexts. Whether it is an individual street or larger network of roads and streets making up a future neighbourhood or larger community, it is important to start with the wider contextual setting to better understand these connections.

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NATURAL CAPITAL

This process is founded on AT’s Sustainability Framework and AC’s Auckland Plan which necessarily requires consideration of the four well-beings: environment, economic, social and cultural (refer Figure 2).

Ecosystem services, enhanced resilience

The Environment

NATURAL, BUILT & CULTURAL HERITAGE

SOCIETY

ECONOMY

IDENTITY, CULTURE BELONGING

Health & Wellbeing

The natural and built environment provides the underlying physical context and fundamental basis for all land use and transport related planning. It provides the backdrop for the place and movement contexts. Environmental considerations such as vegetation, soils, topographic features, water systems and wildlife (see Figure 3) among others, must be understood and incorporated into critical analysis and decision making. Working with rather than against underlying natural systems can reduce development costs, protect unique local character, promote existing wildlife and retain important views and culturally sensitive sites and features. Environmental considerations must be identified and understood in the initial phases of development. The qualities of the built environment are examined in more detail under Place.

VIRONMENT EN

Sector Opportunities (e.g. Rural, Green, IT)

Geographic Opportunities (global, regional, Geographic local) Opportunities

(global, regional, local)

Figure  2: Sustainability approach considers four well-beings

Examples of how environmental systems can be incorporated into road and street planning at varying scales include: • Fully integrated surface level storm water design such as rain gardens, green streets and rain ways • Inter-connected green corridors for wildlife, pedestrian movement and amenity • Street tree selection and planning guidance for different road and street typologies • Vista protection and enhancement studies. Mana Whenua are responsible for protecting the mana, mauri and tapu of the natural resources and taonga of Tāmaki Makaurau. This kaitiaki (stewardship) responsibility is intergenerational and creates a relationship that is part of the fabric of Auckland’s landscape. This role is supported by: • Recognising the unique relationship of Mana Whenua to Tāmaki Makaurau in a tangible way • Actively considering and mitigating the impact of transport on the kaitiaki responsibility of Mana Whenua • Giving effect to Treaty redress and relationships

Figure  3 Environmental consideration

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

• Enabling Mana Whenua involvement at all stages of a project.


CHAPTER The new approach to consider place and movement

2

Place and movement axes Some of the functions are specific to place, for example ‘living,’ whereas movement is related to a network, so the approach needs to combine both a bottom-up and a top-down perspective.

The place axis relates to those functions which are specific to and happen in specific places, namely living, unlocking and functioning. The movement axis relates to the moving function across different modes. The protecting and sustaining functions are common to both axes, and the intersection of place and movement factors.

Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National

LOCAL ROADS

MOVEMENT

STRATEGIC

Figure 4 shows two axes – ‘place’ & ‘movement’.

The two axes show that the place and movement functions are on a continuum. The different functions will be of more or less strategic significance depending on their position on the axes. Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National LOCAL ROADS

PLACE

Both place and movement provide the contexts for understanding road and street planning and design.

STRATEGIC

Figure  4 Place and movement axes

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Place

Movement

The place context can be a town, street, building(s) or landscape that are of interest to people or where people undertake activities. Land use zoning (refer Figure 5) is a useful indicator of the existing or proposed place context.

Road and street networks perform a wide range of movement functions, from roads carrying very high volumes of people, mixes of traffic (e.g. cars, buses, trucks, cyclists) and goods, to streets with a local movement function only.

Auckland Council is primarily responsible for providing guidance on the place context, which includes the Auckland Plan, Unitary Plan, area and centre plans and Local Board Plans.

Many streets and roads also support more specialised transport networks, e.g:

Other useful information on place context includes: • Critical activities such as schools, parks, shops, employment, library/health services and other community attractions • The timing and nature of future public and private development proposals, • Social and cultural considerations, such as sites of significance for mana whenua, heritage buildings and extent of social deprivation

• Walking • Public transport routes • Cycling • Heavy vehicle routes • Service and delivery. These specialised transport networks have different requirements and it is important that their role is recognised and understood as part of the wider network.

• Economic assessment of activities and future potential such as retail growth, place value and development uplift

Different networks also often compete for the same space and can conflict with each other, particularly where roads are narrow or crowded, or at intersections. This can cause specific issues for particular modes such as safety concerns for cyclists.

• Environmental considerations, such as storm water management, ecological corridors and pollution impacts.

Regardless of the mode of travel, people share similar objectives in terms of direct, safe, quick journeys with minimum disruption. The movement function should take into account: • Pedestrian accessibility information • Network plans e.g. public transport, freight, cycle, general traffic • Road classification e.g. arterial, collector, local • The type of modal network and significance (This will help inform movement significance.) • Analysis on demands and deficiencies over a 24/7 period of time. • Safety analyses and crash reduction studies.

Figure  5 Land use zoning

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CHAPTER The new approach to consider place and movement

2

Key Principles for integrating place and movement When place and movement are considered together in the planning and design of the road and street network, more integrated and resilient city, rural and local community outcomes will be achieved.

The key principles which underpin our new approach to road and street planning and design include: • Supporting community living and places with street networks • Prioritising the needs of walkable neighborhoods • Maximising the choice of transport modes • Integrating transport networks and align them with land use planning • Integrating the road and street network with natural systems at all scales • Integrating the road and street network with the existing natural and built environment • Ensuring that the road and street network structure and associated development density supports a viable public transport system • Optimising existing road and street networks and co-ordinate the development of the road and street network to support future growth • Recognise and address the differing functions of roads and streets over a 24 /7 period. • Ensuring speed management supports the needs of Place • Promoting community ownership of the Place • Applying CPTED, Healthy Streets (refer annexure) and Design principles (refer Transport Design Manual).

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The six strategic functions As Auckland grows, everyone wants different things from roads and streets – this conflict between functions is something that Aucklanders’ recognise in their daily lives. The four well-beings are considered in terms of the broad spectrum of six functions that Auckland’s road and streets need to perform to support Auckland’s vision as a world class city.

The six functions are living, unlocking, moving, functioning, protecting and sustaining.

to support Auckland’s vision as a world class city. These functions will change and evolve as Auckland grows.

They are fundamental to understanding and assessing the key challenges and opportunities for roads and streets at the local and network level.

In town centres, living and functioning are likely to be more important between the peak periods and in the evening, while in suburban areas, the moving and protecting functions will be more important at peak times.

The six functions enable us to identify the broad challenges facing Auckland and to assess the benefits and impacts of changing current modal priorities to achieve more sustainable and liveable outcomes. As the region continues to grow, it is vital that its roads and streets are fit for purpose and perform better across a number of critical functions, as shown in Figure 6.

These functions need to be considered and assessed in full wherever there are proposals that significantly change how we use our roads and streets. This will enable us to build up a holistic picture of the key positive and negative impacts of these changes and the users affected.

The six functions are explained in more detail in Annex 1

The six functions describe the broad spectrum of roles that Auckland’s road and streets need to perform over 24 hours

Transport challenges facing Auckland 14

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Even within the moving function, there are places where different modes, for example public transport, need to be prioritised even though this means other users will have lower levels of service. While on other streets, cycling and pedestrians should be prioritised where living and other functions such as protecting are important. While this will inevitably mean trade-offs, it is important to remember that users tend to use multiple modes. For example, nearly everyone will be a pedestrian who may also cycle, drive or take public transport at different times during the day, week or year.


CHAPTER The new approach to consider place and movement

1

LIVING

Providing welcoming and inclusive places for all which support vital economic and community actvities

3

MOVING

Helping people, goods and services to get from A to B and enabling efficient and reliable movement by a range of different modes

5

PROTECTING

Improving safety and reducing collisions, particularly for vulnerable road users and ensuring streets where people feel secure

UNLOCKING

2

2

Improving accessibility, connectivity and quality of areas identified as areas for major growth to deliver the homes, jobs and economic sectors that Auckland needs as it grows

FUNCTIONING

4

Ensuring essential access for deliveries and servicing, and upgrading utilities to serve Auckland as the world’s most liveable city

SUSTAINING

6

Reducing emissions from the road network and supporting greener, cleaner, quieter streets and a healthier, more active city and life styles

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3

CHAPTER

The Roads and Streets Framework process

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


The process: determine typology, modal priority and applying the tools This framework will involve everyone who plays a part in managing, designing, improving or determining the quality of roads and streets in Auckland, including engineers, planners, urban designers, project managers, politicians, developers and users. A multi-agency steering group set up by Auckland Transport will oversee the development and application of the street family.

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At the start of the process, it will be important to confirm who the stakeholders are and how they will be engaged. Internal stakeholders are likely to include: Auckland Transport strategy, leads for urban design, walking, cycling, public transport, network operation, capital projects and asset management. In addition, stakeholders from Auckland Council, Iwi, NZ Transport Agency, KiwiRail and utility network providers will be critical to embedding this new approach. Other stakeholders such as, local residents and business associations will be able to participate in subsequent phases of project development, once a project mandate has been identified.

Applying the framework THE STEPS INCLUDE:

This process is intended to become an integral first step in project identification and development. It allows place as well as the local and strategic network needs to be considered together and enables modal conflicts to be resolved early in the process.

1. Determine the existing and future street or road typology 2. Confirm network status 3. Identify demand profile 4. Establish mode and service priority

Figure 6 provides an overview of the process to identify the street or road typology, identify the challenges, and work through the conflicts and possible measures to develop a road or street fit for purpose.

5. Evaluate if desired priorities can be delivered 6. Identify tools to mitigate impacts across the six functions. The first six steps contribute to the project mandate 7. Design, implement and monitor. The steps within this process are described in more detail after Figure 6

!  If a decision cannot be made during any of the steps, it is escalated to Roads and Streets Steering Group

Determinate street-type Design implement & monitor

Formulate project mandate

er b Ref

Identify tools to mitigate impact CONSIDER: • Road space capacity • Alternative routes • Lower speed • Technology solutions • Time of day • Assess impacts e.g. parking

to ack

p2 ste

n if u

re

onfl dc e v s ol

icts

Roads and Streets Framework

Identify conflicts & opportunities

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Identify demand profile

Established modal priority

Figure  6 Applying the framework

• • • •

Confirm network status

All modes Strategic Distributor Local

• • • •

Compare to starting modal priority

All modes All days Peak Inter/off peak


CHAPTER The Roads and Streets Framework process

1 Determine street type

3

This section provides an overview of the specific steps involved in determining the appropriate typology or typologies for a road or street (see Figure 7). Step 1 can provide information about the existing typology (current state) and/or the aspirational typology (future state). In most cases, the current and future typologies will be the same unless there are significant changes in land use expected. The application of the street typologies process to development sites is addressed in Chapter 5 RURAL OR URBAN

Rural

Urban

PLACE

Residential

Mixed use

Business

Centres

Industrial

Built form & function

Property access

Smaller blocks

Multi level

City Centre-destination

Large scale

Low density

Med-High density

Low-Med density

High density, multi level

Low density

Multi level

Larger scale

Mixed use, active edge

Vehicle oriented

Some mixed use

High pedestrian

Wide access

Car oriented

High quality pavement

Poor active edge

2

Small scale, many crossings Good frontage

Active edge

Car parking on street Walkable

Neighbourhood

District

Sub-regional

City

MOVEMENT

Local Place

Local Street

Collector

Main Street

Arterial

Street form & function

<10 kph

20-30 kph

25-50 kph

25-40 kph

40-50 kph

Varies shared space, square

2 lanes, parking 2-4 lanes varies 10-20m parking 25m

2-4 lanes, Limited parking 20m

4-6 lanes parking 25-30m

Restricted veh

<5,000 veh

<15,000veh

>20,000 veh

MOVEMENT Significance

Local

5,000<15,000 veh

Neighbourhood

District

Figure  7 Overview of steps

Figure 7 provides an example of the elements to consider when identifying future urban street types. This includes: STEP 1: Determine if the planning context will be urban or rural. STEP 2-3: Assess the place context and level of significance. STEP 3-4: Assess the movement context and level of significance. The resulting road or street type is based on the desired future state, capturing landuse and transport aspirations over 10 years and beyond (refer Figure 8).

Sub-regional

City

Roads and streets family

Single Use (Out of Centre) Arterial

Mixed Use Arterial

Main Street Arterial

Mixed Use Collector

Main Street Collector

Centre Local Street

Centre Plaza/ Square/ Shared

Rural Arterial Neighborhood Collector

STRATEGIC

5

Local

DISTRICT

4

PLACE Significance

MOVEMENT Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National

3

Limited active edge Multi modal access

LOCAL ROADS

1

Rural Collector

Local Street Rural Local Road

Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National PLACE

Figure  8 Place/movement typology

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IDENTIFY THE PLACE FUNCTION AND BUILT FORM

Develop a long-term view on place function and built form, taking into account: • Auckland Council centre hierarchy and centre plans. (This will help inform place significance.) • Unitary Plan zones and overlays. • Future development – special housing areas, growth areas, private proposals. • Relevant supporting information on centres and other places. • Consider change in place function over 24 hours and weekdays/ weekends. The place function should take into account the type of place it is expected to be in the future, e.g. is it a main street, is it located within a metro or local centre?, etc. This will help determine the level of significance. The characteristics of each typology are explained in more detail in Chapter 5.

IDENTIFY THE MOVEMENT FORM AND FUNCTION

Develop a long-term view and consider any step changes taking into account the desired place function, potential modal conflict and modal priorities. Consider how the movement function changes over 24 hours and weekdays/weekends and future transport networks. The movement function should take into account: • Road classification e.g. arterial, collector, local • Modal network plans e.g. public transport, freight, cycle, general traffic • The strategic significance of the modal network. (This will help inform movement significance.) • Traffic model analyses on demands and deficiencies • Kiwi-Rap safety analysis and other safety data • Pedestrian accessibility information • Consider change in movement function over 24 / 7 • There will be some roads and streets where the characteristics, and therefore the type, changes along the length of it. In this instance, it is appropriate to apply different road or street types to the different sections. For example, Great North Road typology may alternate between main street arterial (in town centres) and the mixed-use arterial, in the mid-block sections. It is essential to capture and understand the strategic context of the area for place and movement, so that the aims of these strategies can be considered and supported as part of the process. It is important to reconsider if the selected street type is appropriate throughout the following steps of the framework. If, during the process, the road street type appears to not represent the future road or street aspirations adequately, it is important to apply a different future road or street type.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CHAPTER The Roads and Streets Framework process

3

2 Confirm network status Once the area of study is confirmed, identify and confirm the network status for each mode. The modal networks should include: • Key pedestrian links/destinations • Cycle network • Public transport network • Over-dimensional or over- sized freight routes • Road network The network status of each mode will help determine where each mode sits in relation to the other modes (e.g. the frequent bus network has a greater level of significance than general traffic, pedestrians will have the highest level of significance in the Main Street). If there are multiple modal demands with high levels of significance, e.g. Main St pedestrian function, frequent bus route and cycle main route, there will need to be an iterative process (step 3–6) to confirm the mode and service priorities that best support the Place context and how best to mitigate the impacts between different modes.

3 Identify demand profile The demand profile for different modes will be based on information over 10 years+ and relevant assessments which may include: • Strategic objectives for the centre, area or corridor. • Qualitative or research-based predictions for centre growth, retail and economic activity, level of social exchange and pedestrian activity, cultural and heritage values, etc. • ART3 or other transport models which consider land use, transport investments and modelled demand for different modes e.g. public transport, general traffic, freight. • Other quantitative/qualitative information on cycling and pedestrian accessibility. To gain an understanding of the existing and future movement and place context, and identify actual and perceived problems and issues, collect and analyse data using existing data, modelling and review any plans for the area.

Data to analyse includes traffic volumes and speed, pedestrian and cyclist counts and forecasts, bus patronage, bus volumes and frequency, parking density and turnover (including cycle and motor cycle parking), delivery and servicing arrangements and frequency. Transport demand modelling can be used with caution as a data input, remembering that it focuses on the Movement function, but it is unable to consider the other five functions (e.g. Living, Sustaining, Functioning, Protecting and Unlocking) to the same degree. This process should result in the identification of the existing and future modal requirements over a 24-hour period, both for the local and network level.

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4 Establish mode and service priority Determining modal priority will assist in making choices about how to balance conflicting demands on the road network and how to reallocate space between users. Consider the starting modal priority for the typology, as per Figure 6 (step 4). Figure 9 demonstrates an example modal priority. In this case, people walking, in buses or cycling have similar high priority, while people in freight vehicles have the lowest priority. It will be different for each typology. There may be adjustments to the modal priority required (based on the research undertaken in steps 2 and 3) to provide for the identified future street type and the future modal network. The modal priorities for each typology are explained in more detail in Chapter 5.

It is likely that the modal priorities vary along the street, in keeping with the street type selected.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

MODAL PRIORITIES

Figure â&#x20AC;&#x2030;9â&#x20AC;&#x201A;Starting modal priority

Establish the service priority for the typology and adjust priorities according to the research undertaken. The modal priority may need to be refined further as steps 5 and 6 are undertaken.


CHAPTER The Roads and Streets Framework process

3

5 Identify conflicts and opportunities This step will help identify if the modal priorities can be delivered easily, if trade-offs between place and movement priorities will need to occur, and the type of challenges likely to be faced. It is important to concisely capture the challenges and opportunities at the local and network level against the six functions: • Living • Unlocking • Moving • Functioning • Protecting • Sustaining. For example, the moving function challenge may be space conflicts between providing for parking or cycling facilities, or between bus and cars. It is vital to consider a whole network approach to ensure that all modes are considered to support the place aspiration and address these through this process.

Depending on the scale of the challenges and impacts identified, different tools will be required to ensure that the service levels for the modal priorities are met while mitigating impacts on other users and modes.

Identify quick wins to resolve the conflicts, considering if a conflict can be resolved by using neighbouring streets as an alternative route, if access or time restrictions can be applied or if different service priorities can be provided.

This will be an iterative process with step 6 and require achieving a balance between less intrusive measures such as low speed zones, and more intrusive measures such as exclusive lanes for buses or cyclists.

The aim of this step is to achieve buy-in to the provision and priority of the modes along the road or street and therefore if a mode cannot be provided, then commitment to provide it on a suitable alternative road or street is required before the modal priority can be confirmed.

This step requires involvement with the Auckland Council ‘Place’ leads or working party and stakeholder group as compromises between the different place and movement functions and modes may be required.

It is vital to identify the impacts on the neighbouring streets from the identified modal priorities as well as any tools to be implemented and identify any mitigation required.

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6 Identify tools to mitigate impacts In conjunction with step 5, apply the toolbox (refer Fig. 10) to develop strategic options for the street considering the wider network. They include: ASSETS FIT FOR PURPOSE

contain the tools which are focused on managing the existing assets to ensure they are in good condition and that vehicles are as clean and quiet as possible.

CHANGING BEHAVIOUR, MANAGING DEMAND AND PARKING

tools are used to support and promote behaviour change, as well as manage parking to promote short stay and more efficient use of parking spaces.

INTEGRATED AND SUSTAINABLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT

is about designing and allocating space efficient movement, ensuring vibrant places and improving safety for vulnerable users as well as quality of life.

is focused on developing and implementing smarter systems and using new technology to get greater efficiency out of the existing network, enable more reliable journey times and manage the co-existence of different users to enhance the customer experience.

CONSTRAIN, SUBSTITUTE, RELOCATE AND ADD CAPACITY

is about providing for more sustainable modes of travel and creating better places at the same time as maintaining an efficient road network which supports the functioning of the city.

The extent the tools are applied will be based on the road and street typology and the modal priorities for them. For example, enhancing place and movement are equally important within a Mixed-use connector, but the place value and constrained space will require higher priority for pedestrians, public transport and cycling, compared to general vehicles and parking. An important existing tool for implementing modal priority improvements quickly is the

Assets fit for purpose Integrated and sustainable network management Intelligent systems & management Changing behaviour, managing demand and parking Constrain, substitute, relocate and add capacity

Figure â&#x20AC;&#x2030;10â&#x20AC;&#x201A;Toolbox for the Roads and Streets Framework

24

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

 he tools are described T in more detail in Annex 2

Network Operating Plan. It takes the strategic guidance from the street typology and modal priorities and optimises the movement / place priority to support it through traffic signal phasing and minor on-street improvements. It is important to consider the priorities application (5) and applying the toolbox (6) as an iterative process. Review the options and consider modal conflicts and impacts and mitigation of these. If they can be mitigated then progress, if not then re-consider the modal priorities and how they can be applied along the road/street and network and over different times of the day. Outline the refined modal priorities and refined service priorities and how they can be achieved within the local and wider network. Develop actions guided by the toolbox for the short, medium and long term, depending on funding availability and the timing of any large scale, step-changing schemes. Network operating plans are a low cost implementation tool that can achieve quick benefits when it is fully aligned with strategic directions on place and movement.


CHAPTER The Roads and Streets Framework process

3

7 Design, implement and monitor The project mandate would be developed based on the outcomes of steps 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6. The mandate becomes the justification for developing the feasible options and ultimate preferred option through the project management framework.

If the mode and service priority cannot be accommodated or agreed, an escalation process may be required seeking direction from the Steering Group to determine if one or more of the modal networks or status requires changes.

At this point, the project mandate is completed for the handover to the Transport project management and design process. The Transport Design Manual provides the detailed guidance on how the design concepts sought in the mandate can be designed and delivered in terms of infrastructure and services. It is essential to report back to any modal leads, the working group and recommend next steps for taking the project through to implementation and funding. It is at this stage it will be important to confirm the key performance indicators for the project, so that benefits across the six function areas can be accurately measured.

25


4

chapter

The road and street typologies

26

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


The roads and streets family When planning and designing streets, it is important to consider movement and place functions, as well as the balance of modes within movement, the nature of the built environment, aesthetic quality and character of different places. It is crucial that the place context is understood and agreed before designing roads and streets in new developments or retrofitting roads and streets in existing urban or rural areas. The layout and function of the supporting street network for arterial roads is an important consideration.

27


The combination of movement & place results in the street type There are nine street types in Auckland. These are shown in Figure 11. There are also rural sub-groups of the road and street types. This framework recognises that a liveable and successful city needs a variety of street types that serve different roles and functions in different places and at different times of the day. The road and street types for Auckland have been developed based on place and movement functions for now and how they could be into the future, ensuring more efficient, liveable, sustainable and inclusive transport outcomes. The street family establishes the roles and priorities of the street types. The function priorities will change depending on the type of road or street. This relatively simple categorisation aims to make it practical to apply and help developers, community groups and other stakeholders by providing a framework to assist with balancing competing demands. Ideally, major place and streetscape schemes can succeed in delivering improvements for many different users at the same time.

Mixed Use Arterial

Main Street Arterial

Neighborhood Collector

Mixed Use Collector

Main Street Collector

DISTRICT

Rural Arterial

Centre Local Street

Centre Plaza/ Square/ Shared

Rural Collector

Local Street Rural Local Road

Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National PLACE

28

STRATEGIC

Single Use (Out of Centre) Arterial

LOCAL ROADS

MOVEMENT Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National

Roads and streets family

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Figure  11 Roads and streets family

In some cases this will not be possible, but it is important to work through the trade-offs. For example for single use arterial, in the top left hand corner of the matrix, the focus will be on supporting reliable and efficient movement for vehicles while seeking to mitigate the impacts on communities that live alongside (for example, noise, air pollution and severance) as far as possible. A road can consist of different street types along its full length, for example, a neighbourhood collector could transition into a mixeduse collector. In newly developing areas, a rural collector servicing a Special Housing Area could transition to a neighbourhood collector or a mixed use collector. The transition would be phased with the development stages. Rural roads are included in the nine typologies shown in figure 11. Rural roads (e.g. surrounded mostly by countryside) are considered subsets of Single Use Arterials, neighbourhood collectors and local streets, while roads and streets in ‘rural centres’ can be treated the same as their urban equivalents. These are described in more detail in the service priorities.


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

Modal priorities

Figure 12 highlights how modal priority changes in different typologies; general traffic and deliveries are prioritised in the high movement/low place street types while pedestrians, cyclists and public transport are prioritised in street types where place and pedestrian movement is significant. For example, on a Single Use Arterial, the modal focus will be on supporting reliable and efficient movement for freight and general traffic, while seeking to mitigate the impacts on communities, in terms of noise, air quality and severance. On the other hand, on a main street arterial the modal focus will be on delivering improved conditions for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport, ensure service deliveries and to enhance the urban realm. The street types represent the variety of roles that roads and streets play in a well-functioning and successful city. These may vary across the time of day, and it is important to consider how the modal priorities can also change over the day.

Strategic significance

Single Use Arterial

Mixed Use Arterial

Main Street Arterial

Neighbourh Connector

Mixed Use Connector

Main Street Connector

Local Street

Centre-local Street

Centre Plaza Shared

Movement

The starting modal priorities are to assist in discussions and decision making, especially where space constraints exist. Modal priorities for individual projects can be compared against the starting position and then variations can be considered through the specific place and movement assessment.

Starting modal priorities have been developed for each street type and the service priorities. The starting priorities are included in Figure 12.

Local significance

The modal priority provides the significance or importance of each mode for the different street types. A higher bar indicates greater priority for the mode in the typology.

Local significance

Place

Strategic significance

KEY  Pedestrian  Public tansport

 Bike  Car

 Freight  Services & delivery

Figure  12 Starting

modal priorities

The starting priorities are based on a high-level assessment of the place and movement form and functions expected in the future and consider: • Place: Land use activities and zones, centre hierarchy, special overlay zones, supporting vision/plans/values for centres and streetscape and other supporting information. This corresponds to the Unitary Plan time horizon. • Movement: Modal network plans, pedestrian accessibility, road classification, safety metrics and risk analysis, network operating plans, modal deficiency analysis and transport modelling, and supporting plans such as corridor management plans. • In some cases, there will be integrated land-use and transport documents that will help inform consideration of future typologies and modal priorities in new development areas e.g. Supporting Growth – delivering transport networks 29


Service priorities The following tables provide an overview for each of the nine typologies, by outlining the place, movement, service priorities, users and key operating dimensions. The three rural road typologies are presented at the end of this section.

Examples Aotea Square Fort Street Osborne St

Centre â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Plaza/Square/Shared Spaces

LOW MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

HIGH PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

DIMENSION VARIES

30

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Jellico St (Wynyard Quarter) Shortland St (City Centre) Nuffield St (Balm to Remuera)


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Shared Spaces, Plazas, Town Squares serving higher quality public spaces, may include promenades, waterfront areas, spaces for events, high quality retail

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Important social spaces with intensity of public activity + key civic functions such as events and fairs, ceremonies

Low volume

• They may be important shopping streets, destinations for dining, public squares or shared spaces

2 lanes or no segregation

• May support high density and value of commercial, residential or civic land uses • Pedestrian-oriented activity prioritised and may accommodate slow vehicle movement only for local access purposes.

Road reserve width (m)

MOVEMENT

Standard street

• Pedestrian priority with limited service vehicle access

14+m

• No provision for significant through-routes or movement functionality

Narrow street

12-14m

• Some through-links for cycling • 24hr access, very low speed. LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• High quality, safe and secure pedestrian environment (refer vehicle access restrictions in Unitary Plan)

Numbers of pedestrians

• Very low speed environment, good lighting and passive surveillance

Medium

• Provision for cycle route (may be separated) to and/ or through the site/place

High

• Service & delivery access may be important • Vehicle access restricted. USERS

• Mostly pedestrians, access for vehicles is restricted

Target design speed

• Cyclists Standard street

• Service & delivery. OTHER USERS

• Parking and traffic management plans to support events

10

<15kph

Narrow street

< 10kph

• Public transport access to edges, within easy walking distance • Limited provision for cars and through movement e.g. shared space • Provision for service delivery vehicles may be at restricted times e.g. timed access • On-site vehicle and cycle parking.

31


Examples

Main Street Collector

Queen St Ponsonby Rd

MEDIUM MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

PEDS ZONE

BIKE LANE

PARKING TREES

GENERAL TRAFFIC 24-25 M

32

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Great North Rd (Henderson) Hurstmere (Takapuna)

HIGH PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

PARKING TREES

BIKE LANE

PEDS ZONE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Centres of activity in Auckland’s metro, town and local centres, support continuous street frontages shops, restaurants/cafes, offices, civic function • Destinations; well-known locations, places to meet and enjoy public life

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Streets with higher ‘place’ values, predominantly business, education, retail/ entertainment, hospitality

3,000+ vpd 2-4 lanes

• Residential apartments over retail developing over time is desirable. MOVEMENT

• High pedestrian priority, low speed zone, restricted or controlled access for vehicles • Important movement corridors so mix of traffic, but high pedestrian activity and movements

Road reserve width (m) City collector

• Mix of all traffic volumes, pedestrians, buses and cycling important

21-28m

Greenfield collector

• Significant through movement and peak hour commuters. LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• High quality urban realm to support revitalised Main St • Freer pedestrian movement with ability to cross the road along desire lines + wide uncluttered footpaths • Priority for cycle and bus to allow reliable journeys on strategic networks

21-28m

(risk footprint until network / land use confirmed)

Numbers of pedestrians

• Parking removed to side streets or priced to support short term visitor parking • Low speed and improvements in safety to reduce crashes

High

• Restrict front vehicle access, prefer access from service lane, rear lane or parallel local street. USERS

• Pedestrian movement is high throughout the day, • Cyclist volumes increase as facilities improve

Target design speed

• Buses particularly important for people movement Main Street

• A mix of all traffic, can be in high volumes .

<30kph

OTHER USERS

• Sufficient vehicle movement for network functioning, diversion of through traffic to other routes • Goods vehicles access but restricted to certain times/ out-of-hours where possible • Provision for coach/taxis access and cycle parking in side streets, restricted service vehicle access

30

desirable due to high place function, otherwise rural centres

<40kph

Traffic calming may be required

• Priced parking to discourage commuter parking • Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms.

33


Examples Dominion Rd (Eden Quarter), Broadway (Newmarket),

Main Street Arterial

HIGH MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

PEDS ZONE

BIKE LANE

PARKING TREES

BUS LINE

HIGH PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

GENERAL TRAFFIC 26-27 M

34

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Great South Rd (Manurewa), K-Rd (Pitt to Queen)

GENERAL TRAFFIC

BUS LINE

PARKING TREES

BIKE LANE

PEDS ZONE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Many are Auckland’s most well-known, iconic main streets. Heritage and cultural values may be present • High quality public realm; places to meet and enjoy public life

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Main streets are significant destinations in their own right + well-used and high volume links between important destinations • Supports intense concentrations of commercial, retail, hospitality and cultural activity + higher density residential activity nearby, high-quality civic spaces for people • Includes City, Metro, Town, Neighbourhood and Local centres. MOVEMENT

• Emphasis on pedestrian activity and priority, high numbers of pedestrians • May be large volumes of mixed traffic at peak times • Public transport emphasis in peak + cycle routes provision.

15,000+ vpd 4-6 lanes 5,000+ vpd 2-4 lanes

Road reserve width (m) City arterial

20-28m

Greenfield arterial

Up to 28m

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• High quality public realm and streetscape amenity • Wider, decluttered footpaths to support increasing pedestrian activity • Quality provision for active modes–mid-block and frequent crossings • Low speed zone • Bus and/or cycle priority to enable reliable and safe journeys • Public transport nodes / interchanges • Front vehicle access restricted or effects controlled. Prefer access from parallel local street or rear lane.

(risk footprint until network / land use confirmed)

Numbers of pedestrians

High

USERS

• High pedestrian levels especially afternoon PM peak and evening • Buses and cars are a significant portion of traffic + cycle access important

Target design speed

• Parking on street or side street. OTHER USERS

• If possible, diversion of through-traffic to more efficient routes • Priced visitor parking to support local retail, provision for service mobility access • Priced parking to discourage commuter parking

30

City, Metro and urban town centres

<30kph

in rural centres

<50kph

lower desirable but will require traffic calming

• Good service delivery access/out-of-hours • Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms.

35


Examples

Centre â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Local Street

LOW MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE PEDS ZONE

PARKING TREES

GENERAL TRAFFIC

MEDIUM PLACE SIGNIFICANCE GENERAL TRAFFIC 18-20 M

36

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Memorial Dr Short St (Newmarket) Ewington Rd (Eden Valley) Teed St (Osborne to Gilles)

PARKING TREES

PEDS ZONE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Supports medium to high-density land uses, generally with multi-storey street-front buildings in inner-city, town centre or mixed use contexts

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

• Includes office, retail, residential and mixed use buildings

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Local streets are less important than Main Streets as places or destinations, with lower levels of active street frontage and less pedestrian activity

2001,000 vpd 2 lanes or no segregation

• Some streets may be used for street markets & weekend shopping • These streets will often support the main streets in Metro, town or local centres. MOVEMENT

• Emphasis on pedestrians in centres with provision for mixed traffic and short term parking

Road reserve width (m) Standard street

• Low speed environment

14+m

• Local streets, serving local people accessing local shops, offices or services,

Narrow street

12-14m

• Low speed, may be congested conditions in peaks. LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Low speed environment for pedestrians, cyclists, vehicle access • Reliable journeys for buses when present

Numbers of pedestrians

• On-street parking provision for visitors and residents • Low speeds

Medium

• Vehicle access may be limited, access from side/rear streets or laneways.

High

USERS

• Mix of all traffic types, pedestrians important. OTHER USERS

• Provision for service vehicle access

Target design speed Standard Street

• Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms • On-site vehicle and cycle parking.

<30kph

10

Narrow Street

< 20kph

Narrow Street/ Shared <10kph

Lower as density / number of active users increases

37


Examples

Mixed Use Collector

38

PEDS ZONE

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

BIKE LANE

PARKING TREES

GENERAL TRAFFIC

MEDIUM PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

21 M MIN

PARKING TREES

BIKE LANE

PEDS ZONE

UTILITIES

UTILITIES

MEDIUM MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

Sandringham Rd Blockhouse Bay Rd Railside Ave


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Supports a moderate level of street-side activity

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

• Mix of residential, commercial and civic uses + medium density residential development + shops, civic institutions, hotels, other land uses

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• A similar mix and intensity of adjacent land-uses to Mixed Use arterials

3,000+ vpd

• Required to support a lower level of vehicle throughmovement for general traffic or for public transport.

2-4 lanes

MOVEMENT

• Mix of traffic with buses providing significant access (some FTN routes), more motorised traffic in AM peak, more pedestrians in PM peak and night, • Cycle routes with links to Greenways

Road reserve width (m)

• On-street parking around centres

City connector

• Direct access to local businesses and residential properties on these roads.

21m

Greenfield collector

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

21m

• Improved pedestrian and cycle facilities around key attractors (e.g. schools, bus stops, local centres) • Low speeds around schools, centres, other key attractors

Numbers of pedestrians

• Reliable bus journeys on bus routes, priority where required • Reliable journeys for general traffic outside peak

Medium

• Road safety hot spots • Front vehicle access limited, prefer rear lane or parallel local street access. USERS

• A mix of all traffic types & buses provide access for people on defined routes

Target design speed

• Levels will vary across the day with more motorised traffic in the peaks • Pedestrians walking to bus stops and local centres. OTHER USERS

• Alternative effective freight routes • Parking on streets

40

Urban areas

<40kph

Lower as density / number of active users increase

• Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms.

39


Examples Quay St Fanshawe St Symonds St

Mixed Use Arterial

HIGH MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

PEDS ZONE

BIKE LANE

BUS LINE

GENERAL TRAFFIC 32 ± M

40

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Great North Rd Manukau Rd Great South Rd Nelson St

MEDIUM PLACE SIGNIFICANCE MEDIAN

PLANTING STRIP

Customs St (all City Centre) Remuera Rd

PLANTING STRIP GENERAL TRAFFIC

BUS LINE

BIKE LANE

PEDS ZONE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Low to medium density mixed use zones (e.g. office, apartments, retail, education, residential) • Supports a moderate level of social and economic activity + moderate density of commercial, civic and residential land-uses

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• The street and public realm support street edge activity (as with Main Streets).

15,000+ vpd 4-6 lanes 5,000+ vpd 2-4 lanes

MOVEMENT

• Large volumes of mixed traffic, including FTN bus routes and interchanges at peak times • Significant through movement • Peak hour congestion near denser urban areas

Road reserve width (m)

• Provision for cycling, walking access/crossings near centres/precincts on way/PT stops.

City arterial

20-30m

New development arterial

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Good quality public realm and streetscape amenity • Pedestrian provision to support local centres/key attractors • Pedestrian crossings near bus stations, stops • Reliable and safe cycling, prefer segregated cycle lane • Reliable bus journeys, supported by bus priority on defined routes,

Up to 32m

(risk footprint until network / land use confirmed)

Numbers of pedestrians

• Public transport nodes / interchanges • Front vehicle access restricted or effects controlled. Prefer access from parallel service lane, local street or rear lane.

Medium

USERS

• High pedestrian flows near at centres, precincts, • People using public transport interchanges • Buses play major role in efficient people movement

Target design speed

• Can be popular for cyclists as they provide direct routes • General traffic. OTHER USERS

• Good parallel routes for local traffic • Parking on side streets

Urban areas

30

<50kph Centres

<30-40kph where limited access

• Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc. utilising berms

41


industrial landuse

residential landuse

Urban Hobsonville shared access lane Woodside Rd (Mount Eden) Speight Rd (Kohimarama)

Local Street

LOW PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

LOW MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

17M MIN

PEDS+ PARKING GENERAL VERGE TRAFFIC

42

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

GENERAL PARKING PEDS+ TRAFFIC VERGE

David Ave (Manukau) Maungarei Rd (Remuera) Ashfield Rd (Glenfield)

12-15 M

PEDS ZONE

PARKING, GENERAL TREES TRAFFIC

GENERAL PARKING, PEDS TRAFFIC TREES ZONE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Urban land uses include residential, commercial and industrial single use zone • Low to medium density housing, higher density developing near public transport, local shops, mixed use

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Increasing pedestrian activity in residential areas as home zones, tree planting, traffic calming, parklets, etc. increase

2001,000 vpd 2 lanes or

• Commercial and industrial streets retain vehicle movement functionality but pedestrian important around key attracters.

no segregation

MOVEMENT

• General vehicle emphasis, low speed • Used by locals as primary access to urban properties

Road reserve width (m)

• Quiet routes for cycling and walking

Standard street

• Low volumes of goods & service vehicles in residential areas.

14+m

Narrow street

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

12-14m

• Higher level of pedestrian and cycle facilities linking to + around key attractors • Low speeds around local neighbourhoods, schools, centres, other key attracters • Reliable bus journeys on bus routes, priority where required

Numbers of pedestrians

• Reliable journeys for general traffic (outside urban peaks)

Low

• Road safety hot spots

Medium

• Front vehicle access may be limited, rear laneways in higher density locations or where fronting public open space. USERS

• A mix of all traffic types, with buses providing access for people on defined routes

Target design speed Standard Street

• Levels will vary across the day with more motorised traffic in the peaks in urban areas • Pedestrians walking to bus stops and local centres, cyclists for local trips or commuting. OTHER USERS

• Accessible, safe, low speed, pedestrian environment serving diverse needs in urban areas including older people and children

<30kph

10

Narrow Street

< 20kph

Narrow Street/ Shared <10kph

Lower as density / number of active users increases

• Parking for residents and developing car share • Reliable journeys for local traffic in urban (outside peak) • Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms.

43


Pupuke Rd (Birkenhead) Richmond Rd (Grey Lynn)

UTILITIES

MEDIUM MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE PEDS ZONE

BIKE LANE

PARKING TREES

GENERAL TRAFFIC 18-21 M

44

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Browns Bay Rd Richardson Rd

LOW PLACE SIGNIFICANCE GENERAL TRAFFIC

PARKING TREES

BIKE LANE

PEDS ZONE

UTILITIES

Neighbourhood Collector

Examples - Urban


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Similar low intensity land-use contexts to Single Use Arterials, predominantly single use zones • Urban–low to medium density residential, commercial and industrial contexts; • Lower-level of movement functionality than Arterials, higher than local streets • Lower traffic capacity and designed for lower speeds compared to arterials • Neighbourhood and local centres are typically located on these streets.

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

3,000+ vpd 2 lanes

MOVEMENT

• General traffic emphasis, mostly through traffic, peak traffic in urban areas • Key connectors between suburbs and town centres, regional and local roads • Collectors are required to ‘connect’ with other roads and streets • Includes roads with light volumes to busier roads linking to primary/ secondary arterials, provide access to local businesses, residential properties • On-street parking can be extensive near local urban centres • Cycle routes and routes for pedestrians from homes to various destinations nearby-bus stops/local centres/schools.

Road reserve width (m) City connector

<21m

Greenfield collector

21+m

(risk footprint until network / land use confirmed)

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Lower speed environment, wider footpaths / more crossings for pedestrians near attractors e.g. schools, Neighbourhood centres, bus stops • Reliable bus journeys where bus routes pass through collectors • Provision for cyclists depending on speed/ volume environment, connections to Greenways • Reliable journeys for mixed traffic (outside peak in urban areas) • Road Safety hot spots in urban areas • Prefer rear lane vehicle access, front vehicle access or control effects. USERS

• A mix of all traffic types • Lower volumes of heavy goods vehicles • Quieter collectors provide a popular route for cyclists in urban areas • Pedestrians walking to bus stops and local centres.

Numbers of pedestrians

Low Medium

Target design speed

40

Urban areas

<40kph

OTHER USERS

• • • •

Accessible, safe and well-lit pedestrian routes Alternative effective freight routes Parking on street or road-side near attractors Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms.

45


out of centre industrial

residential

commercial

Examples – Urban Neilson Street Lincoln Road Rosebank Road

Single Use Arterial

BIKE LANE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

GENERAL TRAFFIC 32 ± M

46

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

GENERAL TRAFFIC

GENERAL TRAFFIC

UTILITIES STRIP

MEDIAN

UTILITIES STRIP PEDS ZONE

PLANTING STRIP

HIGH MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

PLANTING STRIP

LOW PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

Constellation Drive Wairau Road Great South Road (Penrose)

BIKE LANE

PEDS ZONE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Low density urban / single zone land-uses such as residential, industrial, big block commercial (malls, office or business parks), freight hubs, segregated locations, setbacks

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Lower levels of pedestrian activity • Wide roads, high-levels of through movement

15,000+ vpd 4-8 lanes

• May be subject to identified Growth Corridor overlay (refer Unitary Plan).

5,000+ vpd 2-4 lanes

MOVEMENT

• Motorways / State Highways / expressways / bypasses and other sub-regional primary and • secondary arterial roads in urban areas, limited direct property access.

Road reserve width (m) City arterial

20-30m

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Reliable journeys for general (+local) traffic, freight and service delivery • Reliable bus journeys via arterials linking centres, residential and employment areas • Mitigation of pedestrian and cyclist severance issue. Segregated cycle lane if present

New urban area arterial

Up to 32m Risk footprint until network / land use confirmed

• Functional public realm • Urban safety issues • Vehicle access to adjoining property varies from no access, restricted access or effects controlled

Numbers of pedestrians

• Consolidate driveways, prefer access from service lane, parallel local street or rear lane.

Low

USERS

• Car dominant journeys + high volume truck and commercial vehicle trips • Buses account for a smaller portion of overall traffic but still important (except where a busway/ lane is present)

Target design speed

• Fewer pedestrians and cyclists. OTHER USERS

• Pedestrians opportunities to cross the road • Good parallel routes for local traffic and cycling, access to key attractors • No or restricted on-street parking on national / regional roads

Urban areas

50

50-60kph Peri-urban areas

60-80kph where limited access

• Network utilities e.g. water, telecommunications, electricity, etc utilising berms.

47


Examples - Rural

Rural Local Roads

RD1 locations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Pipitiwai Dr Silver Hill Rd

LOW MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

SOFT VERGE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

LOW PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

10-20 M

48

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

SOFT VERGE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Typical RD1 locations and land uses e.g. agriculture (e.g. farms), rural lifestyle, tourism, conservation

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

• Quiet country roads

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Rural areas may have scenic features and/or conservation, heritage values

50-200+ vpd

• Provides vehicle access to low-intensity rural land-uses.

2 lanes or no segregation (may be unsealed)

MOVEMENT

• General vehicle emphasis, low speed • Used by locals as direct, primary access to rural properties

Road reserve width (m)

• Occasional quiet routes for cycling, often scenic routes in rural areas

Wide Road

14+m

• Low volumes of goods & service vehicles.

Narrow Road

12-14m

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Reliable journeys for general and local traffic, some HCV vehicles e.g. dairy tankers • Low speeds around local neighbourhoods, schools, centres, other key attracters

Variations to cross section

• School bus routes • Road safety hot spots

planting strip, rest areas, driveways, etc

• Access of driveway to adjoining property. USERS

• A mix of all traffic types/speeds, defined rural routes for school buses • Levels of traffic will vary across the day / year

Numbers of pedestrians

• Pedestrians walking to bus stops, cyclists for local trips.

Low

OTHER USERS

• Pedestrian environment around school gates, rural businesses • Stock movements, e.g. dairy herd crossings. Target design speed

30

Rural road

50-60kph Narrow road

<30kph

Lower where winding, narrow or unsealed roads

49


Examples - Rural Hunua district road Waiteitie Rd (Wellsford) Leigh Rd

Rural Collector Roads

MEDIUM-LOW MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

SOFT VERGE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

GENERAL TRAFFIC 20 M

50

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

LOW PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

SOFT VERGE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Similar low intensity land-use contexts to Rural Arterials • Land uses include agriculture, rural lifestyle, tourism, conservation, forestry, etc

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

Volume per day /Number of lanes

• Surrounding uses may have high values / significance for heritage, landscape, conservation, etc

2001,000 vpd

• Lower traffic capacity and designed for lower speeds compared to arterials.

generally 2 lanes

MOVEMENT

• General traffic emphasis, mostly through traffic • Key connectors between service villages and town centres, national and local roads

Road reserve width (m)

• Includes collector roads with light volumes to busier roads linking to primary/ secondary arterials, provide access to local businesses and rural properties

Rural collector

<21m

• May be cycle routes and routes for pedestrians from homes to various destinations nearby-bus stops/ local centres/schools.

Greenfield collector

21m

LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Reliable journeys for general traffic

Variations to cross section

• Lower speed environment footpaths, cycle lane, bus stops, planting strip, rest areas, driveways, etc

• Reliable bus journeys where bus routes pass through collectors • Rural road safety hot spots • Access or driveway to adjoining property generally. USERS

• A mix of all traffic types • Lower volumes of heavy goods vehicles but still significant HCVs on some roads (e.g. dairy tankers)

Numbers of pedestrians

• Quieter collectors provide a popular route for cyclists near villages and tourist destinations

Low

• Pedestrians walking to bus stops, local service centres. OTHER USERS

• Alternative effective freight routes, scenic rural routes • Parking on street or road-side near key attractors.

Target design speed Rural areas

60

60-80kph Lower where winding or narrow roads

51


Examples - Rural

Rural Arterial Roads

SH17 Dairy Flat SH16 Kumeu

HIGH-MEDIUM MOVEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

SH1 Albany to Orewa interchange East Coast Rd (outside urban area)

LOW PLACE SIGNIFICANCE

MEDIAN SOFT VERGE

GENERAL TRAFFIC

GENERAL TRAFFIC

GENERAL TRAFFIC 20 ± M

52

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

GENERAL TRAFFIC

SOFT VERGE


CHAPTER The road and street typologies

4

PLACE

• Low density rural land uses such as agriculture, rural lifestyle blocks, tourism, conservation, etc

TYPICAL CAPACITY, WIDTH, SPEED

• Surrounding uses may have high values / significance for heritage, landscape, conservation, etc

Volume per day /Number of lanes

10,000+ vpd 4-6 lanes

• Low levels of pedestrian activity except around key attractors e.g. scenic lookouts, tourist attractions, scenic walks

3,000+ vpd 2-4 lanes

• High-levels of through movement, but lower volumes than urban areas. MOVEMENT

• Motorways / State Highways / Expressway and subregional arterial roads, limited direct property access

Road reserve width (m) Rural arterial

• Through movement of general traffic/longer journeys/higher speeds

20-30m

• Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) traffic between rural areas, factories and key centres, e.g. dairy tankers. LEVEL OF SERVICE PRIORITIES

• Reliable journeys for general (+local) traffic, freight and service delivery • Reliable bus journeys via arterials linking key service centres and Greenfields

Greenfield arterial

Up 32m

Risk footprint until network / landuse confirmed Variations to cross section bus lanes, stops, interchange, footpaths, cycle lanes, planting strip, rest areas, bridges, etc

• Mitigation of pedestrian and cyclist severance issue. Segregated cycle provision where necessary • Rural safety issues • Access may vary from no access, access restricted or effects controlled or driveway. USERS

• Car dominant journeys + higher volume freight and commercial vehicle trips

Numbers of pedestrians

• Buses account for a smaller portion of overall traffic but still important (tourist and school buses) on defined routes

Low

• Fewer pedestrians and cyclists. OTHER USERS

• Alternative routes to SH / motorway • Pedestrians opportunities to cross the road

Target design speed

• Good parallel routes for local traffic and cycling, access to key attractors • No or restricted on-street parking on national / regional roads • Stock movements in rural areas.

60

Peri-urban areas

60-80kph Rural areas

80 -100kph Lower where winding or narrow roads

53


5

chapter

Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

54

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


Strategic approach Neighbourhoods and town centres are the basic building blocks of successful cities, towns and villages. Whether surrounding, directly adjacent to or within future development sites, road and street networks influence the viability and success of neighbourhoods. This section sets out high level principles and design guidance to help develop connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres.

55


Design guidance for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres Strategic approach Critical to the success of an individual street or neighbourhood development project is the level of integration achieved between land uses and the surrounding street and road network. Integration aims to create an urban structure of interconnected neighbourhoods and town centres. For new developments in Auckland’s supporting growth areas, the preparation of a detailed street layout usually occurs later in the process. Desirable street layout patterns offer a range of street types and multiple connections, while supporting safe and convenient pedestrian movement and access to essential community attractions and services.

In planning for neighbourhoods, the following key principles are important: • Neighbourhoods must be designed to support interaction between people, communities and places • Neighbourhoods should provide a range of housing densities and diversity to meet changing community needs • Neighbourhood streets should promote a sense of place, provide safe and efficient access and be integrated with the surrounding land use • The street network should be permeable and prioritise people walking, people on bikes and people using public transport as primary users • The neighbourhood network should be fully integrated with the natural environment, enhancing natural and ecological features • The unique social, cultural, architectural and other features of the natural and built environment are respected • Streets should provide sufficient space for utility services, storm water drainage, street trees/vegetation and lighting • A safe street environment should be created for all users.

56

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CHAPTER Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

5

Detailed neighbourhood planning considerations Figure 13 represents a desirable layout for neighbourhood catchments, including a town centre supported by walkable street grid, connecting to surrounding neighbourhoods, local centres, schools and open space. Key arterials provide access to and around the various neighbourhoods and between adjoining major destinations. The principles supporting this settlement pattern has universal applicability and can be adapted more or less to different scales of settlement. This neighbourhood structure requires a permeable and legible local street network that offers route choice and flexibility for managing movement within it. The greater the permeability of the network, the better the walkability and the lower the vehicle speeds will be. Key considerations include: • Walking is the fundamental unit of movement in neighbourhoods • Block sizes and intersection spacing must be set to provide excellent levels of accessibility for pedestrians

• New street and road block patterns must provide efficient connections with the existing network while also safeguarding potential future linkages • The level of permeability should be carefully established to prevent conflicts between various modes • Street layouts should support pedestrian, public transport and cyclist catchments. • Street layouts should provide direct and convenient connections to essential services and attractions • Street layouts should enable the seamless integration of infill development or extensions to existing neighbourhoods • The management of parking supply and demand should support the development of connected, walkable neighbourhoods • Transport nodes should be integrated to provide flexible, easy movement between modes, supported by legible wayfinding systems.

NEIGHBOURHOOD CATCHMENTS LEGEND 400m to 600m radius Neighbourhood park Medical / shops 400 to 600m radius Primary school DISTRICT CATCHMENTS LEGEND 1000m radius Town centre 1000m radius District park

LEGEND Stream Collector Arterial, rapid bus transit / train

Light industrial High school/ Intermediate school Regional park

Figure  13 Neighbourhood catchments

57


Permeable road and street networks in greenfield/brownfield areas The creation of accessible and permeable neighbourhoods in Auckland’s future growth areas is a multi-layer process. The process should begin with a site analysis that identifies particular environmental opportunities and constraints to the development of a network, e.g. environmentally sensitive areas, topography, existing structure and floodplains. In some cases, the main strategic or arterial route connecting to the area will already be identified by a structure plan, high level transport plan or similar process.

The process should then progress from strategic to local considerations such as:

The process can then identify the network of local streets to support a more detailed road and street hierarchy. This process should take account of:

• The main access points connecting the area to the strategic or arterial routes

• The likely number of trips generated by each destination or proposed development type, including density and layout considerations

• The location of major destinations or nodes (such as the town centre, transport interchange, employment areas) in the general area • The main arterial and/ or collector connections between the destinations • Where frequent public transport will be provided, it is important it is planned early in the development of the main arterial and collectors.

• Movement priorities particularly for public transport and walking • The suitable cycle network for local trips between neighbourhoods to key destinations such as town centres and schools as well as more strategic connections.

This process provides strategic level design guidance for place & movement aspirations and the most suitable street typologies to be applied. The value of the Road and Street process is that it provides a strategic view of the form and function of both place and movement which can initially guide and inform the many design decisions in the development of supporting growth areas. 58

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

• The need for walkable connections for pedestrians between neighbourhoods and key destinations such as the town centre, schools, open spaces and sports fields. • Generally, the smaller the block size, the greater the number of connections between different types of streets and roads, the higher level of connectivity enjoyed by different modes across the network.


CHAPTER Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

5

Design guidance for neighbourhoods The diagram below set out guidance to support the development of connected, liveable neighbourhoods to support place-sensitive, accessible and liveable communities. This guidance is to encourage:

AT’s Urban Street and Road Design Guide contains guidance about the detailed design of connected, liveable neighbourhoods. This guidance will need to be referred to in the development and design of the neighbourhood transport networks.

• well-connected, legible and accessible land uses within neighbourhoods • efficient movement and access across the road and street network • walkable / liveable neighbourhoods • vitality and viability of centres • the viability of public transport.

Medical services

0 m  m

ins

 60

< 2

0 40

00 m

ins

0 m

00 m

< 20 m

0 m

40 < 1

600 - 12 Intermediate/ High School, Town Centre

400 - 600 m

5 - 10 mins

Primary School/ Kindergarten/ Day Care Centre

Distance to bike route with regional connection

600 -12

40

0 -

 m 5 - 1 0 m ins

0 m

 mi

ns

0 m  - 60 s  min

400

Train or Rapid Bus Service

 60

 10

400

ns

 mi

0 <2

5 5 - 10

6

0 m

0

 10

 00

s

< 20 min

ins

Frequent bus service

Town Centre Local Park Neighbourhood Centre Shops

All time metrics vary according to topography, age/capability of person, physical barriers etc. Walking speed range assumed = 1.2 to 2.2 metres per sec.

Figure  14 The catchment metrics

59


Land-use and transport catchment The catchment metrics help guide street planning and design for neighbourhoods in new developments. They will also be used in the review of resource consent submissions to determine their overall efficacy. More detailed metrics are currently being developed by AT to determine a street network’s level of compliance against best practice metrics. An example of desirable walkable catchments for primary schools within a 400m radius, are show in green. This approach takes typical walking speed, street network connections and topography into account. The coloured areas outside of the green catchments do not offer desirable walkable catchments for the selected primary schools.

Spacing of intersections It is important for the accessibility, functionality and capacity of the neighbourhood that suitable spacing is maintained between intersections. For new developments, closer spacing’s for intersections and pedestrian facilities will be required where activities are mixed use, higher density, typically supported by finer grained/ smaller block layouts (town centres, mixed use/residential). In this context there is usually higher pedestrian demands and vehicle traffic is more concentrated but less prioritised. Wider spacing’s can be considered for facilities where landuse activities are lower intensity, with larger block layouts (e.g. industrial, business parks), lower pedestrian demands and traffic access is more dispersed.

60

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Guidance on intersection spacing will need to be used in conjunction with walking/cycling networks that may require greater permeability than the intersection spacing would give, especially for access from low density residential areas onto arterials. Pedestrian and cycle crossings will be part of the walk/bike permeability, and so are considered separately from intersection spacings. The table 1 provides guidance on desirable spacing’s between intersections based on a variety of land use contexts:


CHAPTER Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

5

FOR N POSITIO ONLY

INTERSECTION SPACINGS

Land use context

Arterial to Arterial

Collector to Arterial

Local to Arterial

Collector to Collector

Collector to Local

Local to Local

City Centre / Metro Centre

150-400m

100-200m

50-200m

80-200m

50-200m

30-100m

Town centre

200-600m

100-200m

80-200m

100-200m

50-200m

50-150m

Mixed Use

400-600m

200-600m

100-300m

200-300m

100-300m

100-300m

Commercial / Industrial

1-2km

400-800m

200-600m

400-800m

150-400m

150m-300m

1-2km 400-600m

400m-1km 200-600m

200-500m 100-300m

400m-1km 200-400m

80-400m 50-200m

60-400m 30-200m

Residential (low density) (high density)

61


Establishing Town Centres in new development areas Town centres are a key element of cities; often the core of community and economic life, offering spaces in which to live, meet and interact, do business, and access facilities and services. The establishment of welllocated town centres is critical to serve these diverse needs; facilitate local employment opportunities and provide the density of people to support public transport services and viable walking and cycling access to the centre. Central to planning for new town centres is the clustering of walkable neighbourhoods around town centres to provide people with access to these opportunities. The location and design of town centres in relation to surrounding neighbourhoods must facilitate walking, cycling and public transport – providing access to facilities and services for all users, opportunities for social interaction and encouraging more active living. Auckland Council’s structure planning process is the primary tool for guiding the hierarchy, distribution, function and broad land use and urban design of town centres. Transport planning provides an important guiding input on the shape of the transport network to support town centres and enable access for all uses from the surrounding neighbourhoods. Access to town centres is more appropriate from lower order roads, such as collectors, which have lower traffic volumes and enable pedestrian-based main streets to develop. The following principles help guide the location and establishment of town centres in relation to the road and street network.

62

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

REGIONAL TRANSIT NETWORK (RTN) AND TOWN CENTRE LOCATION

• Locate the new centre at the RTN Station where higher density residential and mixed-use development can capitalise on public transport availability • Integrate the RTN Station into the centre as far as possible. For shopping malltype centres, integrate the RTN Station directly into the shopping mall if possible • Ensure local feeder bus services link to the RTN station as a priority. Where Park and Ride facilities are considered, the preference is to locate them on the edge of the centre to avoid commuters having to access them through congested local roads • Locate the centre between the RTN Station and residential catchment to encourage walk-through traffic and support the centre viability.

Avoid • RTN Station separated from the centre by the arterial road.


CHAPTER Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

ARTERIAL ROAD AND TOWN CENTRE LOCATION

• Locate centres close to the arterial network to capitalise on the movement economy and provide good access for all modes to the centre. However, do not locate the centre directly on the arterial due to potential severance effects developing • Locate the centre on collector or local streets off the arterial road to separate the through traffic from the destination traffic

5

MOTORWAY AND TOWN CENTRE LOCATION

where no RTN exists or is planned • Locate on a collector in reasonable proximity to the motorway and arterial to provide good access particularly for regional destinations (e.g. shopping malltype centres) and to reduce the impact of high volumes of traffic travelling between the motorway and centre.

• Need enough movement to benefit from the movement economy but not too much that creates severance – finding the right balance is key • For main street-type centres, locate centres on collector(s) that are directly off the arterial so that the centre is visible from the arterial • For shopping mall-type centres, locate centre on collectors that are adjacent to arterial.

Avoid

Avoid

• Centre straddling the arterial to avoid severance effects

• Centre immediately adjacent to the motorway as this limits the permeability and connections into the centre, particularly for walking and cycling.

• Centre on a parallel collector which is not visible from the arterial • Centre separated from the residential catchment by the arterial.

63


Supporting principles Other supporting design principles include:

The location of the town centre in relation the surrounding transport network is not the only factor affecting how well it performs. Other factors also contribute and are critical for the future development and accessibility of town centres. Ideally, compact walkable neighbourhoods should cluster around the town centre to support and maximise the broad range of opportunities the centre provides.

Supporting road and street network • A town centre located off the arterial requires good transport connections – these connections provide both a transport function (e.g. good public transport and cycling connections) and also have a form aspect (e.g. improve amenity and walkability to support the centre) • A finer-grain street network supporting the centre will increase the number of connections to the centre and enhance internal circulation and permeability • Where the centre is located on a ridgeline, ensure there is sufficient permeability to increase the walk-up catchment particularly where steep topography limits densities.

CENTRE BLOCK STRUCTURE

• Fine grain ‘permeable’ block structure • 80-100m blocks fronting the mainstreet facilitating pedestrian connectivity • ‘Superblocks’ for ‘anchors’ strategically located at either end of mainstreet to promote footfall • Low speed main streets • 400-600m main street length.

Avoid • Large blocks.

64

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CHAPTER Planning for connected, liveable neighbourhoods and town centres

Design of wider street network

Other design factors

• A grid street network provides alternative routes for non-centre traffic, helps to distribute this demand and provide more options for noncar modes to access the centre

• Preferable to have outward-facing buildings to provide natural surveillance

• Where the centre is located on a ridgeline a parallel route distributes traffic to avoid fitting all modes and the place function into one corridor.

5

• Prefer car parking to the rear or underground to activate the street edge • Consider providing an activity-focussed edge on the arterial where the centre is located adjacent to the arterial e.g. shopping malls

• For a centre located on local streets off an arterial, the design of the arterial is important e.g., it must provide good connections across the arterial and good permeability off the arterial into the centre.

• Where centre is straddling the arterial, a number of design features improve the place function. In most cases, new town centres will contain a mix of uses. As with neighbourhoods, there will be a need to establish high levels of non-vehicular connectivity between the various attractions, services and residents. Typically, a 400-600m catchment is required to enhance participation.

PERIMETER BLOCK LAYOUT

TREATMENT FOR ‘STRADDLE CENTRES’

• Buildings to front the street

• Capitalise on movement economy

• Active street frontages

• ‘Slip’ service lanes in front of building edge

• Locate parking and servicing behind or in the perimeter block.

• Trees and landscaping for amenity & reducing scale of street

Design of arterial

• Most parking to the rear of buildings, although some could be accommodated in ‘slips’.

Avoid

Avoid

• Setting building too far back

• Setting building too far back

• Surface parking and loading fronting the street.

• On site surface parking and loading fronting the street.

65


1

ANNEX

The six strategic functions in detail

66

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The six strategic functions in detail

1 Desired outcomes • Streets that are welcoming and accessible for everyone • Revitalised/new city destinations • Vibrant, accessible and inclusive town centres, main streets and local centres • More active and flexible streets • Reduced severance and increased cohesion of communities • Places for children to play and focal points for communities to interact.

1

LIVING Streets are not simply for getting around, they also shape a city and how people perceive it. The quality of Auckland’s streets and places is a major contributor to being a world class city. World cities must meet expectations for a high-quality environment and city living to help attract the best and brightest employees and foster new sectors to drive economic growth. Providing attractive and safe streets – from town centres and main streets to local residential roads – is important, not just for people’s quality of life, but economically and culturally as well. Centres need to be economically, commercially and culturally resilient. In an age of online shopping and indoor shopping malls, Auckland’s town centres will need to reinvent themselves to remain relevant and attractive. They must change, from shopping destinations to dynamic and mixed-use centres for communities, offering a range of retail, leisure, public services and housing. This needs to be supported through the application of this framework. Continuing to provide more space for better places and for more sustainable and healthy modes of travel will improve the liveability and attractiveness of Auckland.

67


What makes a liveable city? Cities recognised as the

most liveable are assessed against quality of living factors such as culture and environment, political stability, education, safety, health statistics, infrastructure and ease of doing business.

LIVING CHALLENGES

Cities often rated among the top ten most liveable include Vancouver, Melbourne and Vienna. They include the following characteristics: • Rapid public transport network in form of light rail • Strong network of pedestrian paths and connections throughout the city • Safe and dedicated cycle provision • Shared spaces, especially on main streets where pedestrians, cyclists and rapid transit can safely share the road • Laneways of cafes and activity • Reductions in speed • Markets, festivals and events along public streets. Living challenges for Auckland’s streets to fulfil their functions include: • Reducing severance impacts on communities and neighbourhoods by highly trafficked roads and streets • Poor quality public realm in the vicinity, grade-separated spaces, etc • Barriers to residents easily and safely walking to nearby shops or employment opportunities • Reducing levels of air, water and noise pollution around roads • Poor active edges and levels of public surveillance in local centres. How we assess the living function will help us understand the challenges and respond to them appropriately.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Auckland is characterised by its outstanding coastal and harbour settings, its narrow isthmus, volcanic landscape and rural surroundings.

68

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Assessment criteria to use when considering living challenges include: • Quality of the public realm along the road or street • The number and spacing of crossings and priority for pedestrians along the street • The amount of air, noise and water pollution from the network in the vicinity • The amount of walking and biking in the surrounding neighbourhood • The amount, speed and modal split of traffic along the road or street • The width, quality and priority of infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists • Number of public transport stops, stations and interchanges in the vicinity • Amount of cafes and activity along the street, footfall along streets • Degree of wayfinding and the inclusion of cultural elements to reflect local identity.


ANNEX The six strategic functions in detail

2

1

UNLOCKING Recently, there has been renewed interest in living close to the central city in Auckland, as people want to be closer to work, education opportunities, and the vibrancy of the city.

Desired outcomes • Improved environment to unlock development • Better road connections to support housing and commercial development in major growth areas

This has seen the revitalisation of inner city areas such as Ponsonby and Freemans Bay, showing that more intensive living can be highly desirable and provide the lifestyle choices that Aucklanders want. Auckland’s population will increase significantly over the next 30 years with up to an additional one million people. The significance of this growth is shown in Figure 15.

2.5

Population (Millions)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0 Auckland 2043

OVER THE NEXT 30 YEARS...

400,000 new dwellings

277,000

additional jobs ...WILL BE NEEDED

Waikato

Bay of Plenty

Wellington Canterbury

Otago

Auckland Growth

2013

This means around 400,000 new dwellings and 277,000 additional jobs will be needed. The Auckland Plan has an aim of 70% of growth within the urban footprint over the next thirty years. Nearly a third of population growth is projected to occur in areas beyond 20km of the city centre. Employment growth is concentrated in the city centre, the airport and other regional metropolitan centres. Over a third of employment growth is projected to occur within 5km of the city centre. As Auckland has grown, industry has moved towards the periphery, opening up brownfield and redevelopment opportunities. Rural land, covering 11,000ha, has been identified for future development with the potential to accommodate approximately 110,000 dwellings. Special housing areas (SHAs) have also been established with the aim to accelerate house construction. At least 1,400ha of greenfield land will be provided for business development.

69


Well-located and designed higher density, mixed use developments will provide Aucklanders with walkable neighbourhoods and greater accessibility through expanded public transport services and greater opportunities to walk and cycle. Locating a diverse range of activities within an area or centre will improve the balance between households, employment and other discretionary trips. This in turn facilitates opportunities for increasing the number of local trips in centres by walking, cycling and public transport where the land use enables higher densities of origins and destinations so they are in closer proximity to one another. Considerations of businesses and industries looking to invest in new areas are around the quality of the road and street network, in providing access for customers and employees and for goods deliveries and servicing. It is vital for the success of these areas to reflect an increasing quality of place and to establish vibrant and successful new communities. The household and employment growth will place significant pressure on the existing transport network through longer trip lengths, especially to major centres. More people mean more demand for travel on many different modes, for new and better public spaces and for servicing – adding further to the existing pressures. UNLOCKING CHALLENGES

Unlocking challenges for Auckland include: • Overcoming severance between newly developing residential areas and nearby metro or local town centres • Stitching existing and new communities together with a permeable neighbourhood and local street network • Protecting and designing reliable access and transport choice for developing growth areas • Managing higher vehicle demand in growth areas isolated from key employment areas and town centres • Designing and managing roads and street networks to support higher density residential, office and mixed-use developments • Providing good access for freight, service and delivery traffic to and from development areas.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Assessment criteria for unlocking include: • The degree of connectivity/permeability of the road and street network in development areas • How easily residents (existing and future) will be able to walk to the local centre, services, schools and open space • The degree of transport choices available to residents and employees • The average household density/transport costs for residents living in intensifying or growth areas • The mix and range of activities and services available within to residents within the development area • Reliability for freight and service delivery.

70

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The six strategic functions in detail

3

1

MOVING People need to access jobs, services, education, friends and family, and the wide range of activities on offer across the city, while businesses need to access customers, supplies and skilled labour to compete and grow.

Desired outcomes

Auckland caters for 80 million public transport boardings and more than 60 million tonnes of freight movements per year.

• Significantly improved environment for walking and cycling

Car is a major mode of travel throughout Auckland, while public transport such as the Northern Busway provides a critical link into the city during peak times.

• Higher cycling and walking activity

As Figure 16 shows Auckland’s aspiration to hold general traffic into the city centre at current levels, while doubling public transport.

• Higher priority for reliable public transport services • Improved journey time reliability on key roads, particularly for high-value trips • Diverse transport choices for all income groups and transport disadvantaged people

2010

Auckland is moving in the right direction to achieve this. In 2015, 39,000 public transport trips were made to the city centre in the morning peak. Transport infrastructure occupies 13% of land within the rural urban boundary and 25% of land within the city centre. As Auckland grows, the extra trips must be accommodated as efficiently and sustainably as possible. Figure 17 shows the potential movement potential of the different modes. The world’s great cities are attractive and safe for walking. There has been a clear recognition of the many benefits – decongestion, health, quality of life and economic vitality – associated with walking friendly cities. Every journey begins and ends with walking.

City centre mode share

Potential modal movement capacity 34.000

General vechicle lane

2,200

people/hour

Segregated cycle lane

4,000

people/hour

Priority separated bus lane

6,000

people/hour

Footpath

9,000

people/hour

Light rail

18,000

people/hour

Commuter rail

25,000

people/hour

23.000 Total >70.000

5.000 5.000 3.650

2041

City centre mode share

33.500

Double decker buses can move up to 10,700 people/hour

26.000

Total >130.000

26.000 26.000 15.000 4.500

Roads need to enable all Aucklanders to get around more easily, with well-designed crossings, footpaths, kerbs, lighting, seating and signage. This applies in areas with high walking rates such as central Auckland, but equally in local neighbourhoods. As Auckland grows, it will be important to continue to provide for public transport services, walking and cycling to facilitate the use of more space efficient and sustainable modes. 71


CYCLING

Cycling is also an efficient mode and there are increasing numbers of people getting on their bike to travel. Being able to cycle to work is an important factor in the perceived quality of life. Major employers are directly investing in cycling infrastructure, recognising its value and importance to their employees. Cyclists take less sick days per year than non-cyclists. Measures should be taken to significantly improve conditions for pedestrians and cyclists and increase the proportion of trips made by foot and bike. There are aspirations for radical change with increased levels of walking, cycling and public transport and application of new technologies. The road network must also be developed in a way which better recognises the specific needs of certain groups of users. Delivery vehicles and buses need layover, while taxis need well-managed stands.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

CAR TRAVEL

Public transport is particularly efficient in terms of people movement – making 80 million journeys per year on less road space than general vehicles. However, as Auckland grows, bus journey times will be threatened by increasing pressure on road space from other road users. Given the important role of public transport in moving large numbers of people, it is essential that priority is provided to public transport. In many places, car travel will continue to play an important means of access for people. Congestion on the road network is estimated at $250 million per year. Congestion is projected to become more widespread and severe over the next 30 years due to growth and increasing travel demand. As congestion increases, travel time variability is also likely to grow.

JOURNEY TIME

Journey time reliability particularly for public transport is important, as people and businesses need to have confidence in how long their journeys will take. This is particularly important for business and commuter travel. In new or transforming areas, there may be more significant scope for change and an opportunity to embed different travel patterns as part of their planning and development.

MOVING CHALLENGES

Moving challenges for Auckland include: • Managing congestion on arterial and collector roads • Improving bus journey time reliability • Improving conditions for pedestrians and cyclists, especially within and around local centres, public transport stops and interchanges, schools and employment areas and in the vicinity of key attractors • Improving the permeability and wayfinding of the road and street network • Ensuring that high-value trips such as freight and service delivery, are reliable, • Improving east-west connectivity for all road and street users.

72

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The six strategic functions in detail

1

Assessment criteria for the moving function must assess behaviour and results consistent with the desired outcomes. These include:

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

• Type, priority and strategic significance of the various mode networks through the road and street being considered • Projections of future travel demand and mode priority • Walkability and cyclability of the road and street and level of provision for them • Congestion delay and pinch points along the route • People moving capacity per mode • Speed environment compatibility with mode and place typology.

3

FUNCTIONING Auckland is New Zealand’s main gateway to international trade, tourism and commerce, leading the finance, insurance, transport and logistics, and business services industries. AUCKLAND INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT is forecast to increase from

Desired outcomes • Efficient access for servicing and delivery facilities for loading/ unloading • Provision for deliveries and servicing off-street in new development • Support for car-pooling spaces and provision of approved car share dedicated on-street parking spaces • Where parking demand is high, apply parking tools to achieve a target peak occupancy rate of 85% for on-street parking

EFFICIENT ACCESS

14 million passenger movements in 2013 to 40 million by 2044. Along with providing access for domestic and international travel, the airport is an important port for deliveries into and out of Auckland. Continued strong growth in travel to and from the port and airport will place pressure on Auckland’s transport network. Auckland has a nationally significant freight logistics function in the distribution of goods to the rest of New Zealand. • Approximately $26.4 billion of trade passes through Ports of Auckland each year • Around 60 million tonnes of New Zealand’s freight moves to and from Auckland each year • Currently, 80% of the goods originating in Auckland are distributed within the region • Auckland’s freight is projected to increase by 78% over the next 30 years • Over 70% of freight kilometres travelled within Auckland is by light commercial vehicles such as couriers and local deliveries. Businesses and the overall functioning of Auckland rely on getting goods and services to and from premises which often front onto busy streets, e.g., shops and businesses need a range of products to be delivered and waste removed. Efficient access and the provision of loading and stopping facilities are fundamental. There are many challenges involved, e.g. with increasing cycling infrastructure, kerbside operations can be difficult.

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CAR PARKING

There are also other demands on pavement or kerb space such as parking – whether for bikes, deliveries, bus stops, or for people in cars who want to stop and shop or access services. The importance of car parking to the success of town centres varies and will relate to time of day, accessibility levels and other factors. A good mix of shops and services and a quality environment tend to be more important factors in attracting visitors to town centres, so that more parking does not necessarily mean greater commercial success. However, well-managed parking schemes where spaces turn over frequently can help to increase the number of visitors coming to a town centre and thereby help business. Park and Ride facilities located at the right locations can effectively increase public transport patronage, provide decongestion benefits and improve accessibility for commuters who are not served by frequent public transport feeder services.

FUNCTIONING CHALLENGES

Functioning challenges include: • Providing for servicing and freight traffic through the day, dependent on strategic importance of freight/delivery • Providing for additional construction traffic as area develops and managing associated effects • Supporting management of rubbish collection and servicing of adjacent retail/commercial premises • Making intersections safer, especially for vulnerable users • Managing servicing and parking requirements to support retail and other competing demands in and adjacent to business areas and centres • The rise of the internet technology, such as on-line shopping, will change the level and type of demand for freight and service deliveries • Using road space to minimise conflicts between modes, especially between vehicles and active modes • Managing freight traffic in and around town centres, including over-dimension/over-weight vehicles • Providing sufficient parking to support the centre/ commercial land uses while maintaining efficient use of land.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Assessment criteria for functioning include: • The timing, mode and routing of service deliveries and rubbish collection – assess impacts • Parking occupancy and supply provision and opportunities to manage on and off street parking • Quality of provision for vulnerable users (walking and cycling) at intersections • Provision for strategic freight routes and impacts on local area • Provision and use for car sharing on-street or in private developments.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The six strategic functions in detail

5

1

PROTECTING Keeping people safe as they go about their daily lives is a fundamental part of making Auckland the world’s most liveable city.

Desired outcomes

The Auckland Plan states that one in five Aucklanders has a disability, and this figure will increase with an ageing population.

• Efficient access for servicing and delivery facilities for loading/ unloading

There is unrealised potential for Aucklanders with disabilities to contribute socially and economically. Barriers that prevent this such as physical access must be addressed.

• Provision for deliveries and servicing off-street in new development • Support for car-pooling spaces and provision of approved car share dedicated on-street parking spaces • Where parking demand is high, apply parking tools to achieve a target peak occupancy rate of 85% for on-street parking.

It is vital that streets are designed for universal access including for those with limited mobility. As Auckland grows and demands on the road network rise, other issues emerge. This includes an increase in the number of cycle and pedestrian casualties. Such safety issues are a significant barrier to increasing cycling. There were 399 fatalities and serious injuries in 2014, of which 47% were vulnerable road users. Crash hot spots are shown in Figure 1.4, which highlights that higher volumes of crashes occur in central Auckland. People want to feel secure as they use the city’s streets. The way streets are designed and lit can help reduce crime and improve people’s perceptions of security. Urban design and investment can help deter crime. Making the streets feel safer can help encourage vulnerable groups such as older people to feel comfortable using them, supporting their participation in social opportunities and reducing social isolation.

PROTECTING CHALLENGES

Protecting challenges include: • Reducing the number of collisions/crashes between vehicles and improving pedestrian/cycle safety in the context of increasing growth • Improving provision for pedestrians crossing roads near key attractors • Ensuring lower speeds • Ensuring safe and secure access for pedestrians and cyclists, particularly at events and in the evening.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Assessment criteria to consider include:

<5 5-10 10-20 20-40 >40

• KiwiRap personal and collective risk assessment • Cause, severity and amount of conflict/crashes between vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists • Quality of lighting and public surveillance on key desire lanes for pedestrians and cyclists. • Crime statistics for the area. 75


5 Desired outcomes • Reduction in per km/ person emissions • Improved design and layout of roads to minimise exposure to air pollution • A substantial increase in the volumes of active travel • Reduced impacts of noise • More trees and greenery • Support for low emission vehicles such as providing priority parking • Imbed sustainable travel options such as public transport, walking school bus, cycling, flexible working, car share and carpooling.

SUSTAINING Roads and streets affect Aucklanders health and the city’s environmental quality. Around 300 premature deaths in Auckland are estimated to occur each year due to air pollution. Currently, transport accounts for nearly 40% of Auckland’s greenhouse gas emissions. The Auckland Plan has a target to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2040. Cars and light trucks produce far more CO2 emissions per capita than other modes. The majority of current transport fuels come from non-renewable energy such as petrol and diesel. The number of vehicles using renewable fuels is currently a very small fraction of the vehicle fleet, but is increasing. Road run-off contains copper from brake pads, zinc from tyres and hydrocarbons from fuel combustion and is one the worst culprits contaminating Auckland’s harbours and estuaries. Biodiversity is also in danger of further decline, as transport networks expand into natural habitat or rural areas. On-going network operation and temporary construction related effects e.g. noise, dust and vibration, will need to be managed. There is an increasing trend of inactivity across the population, which increases social costs and the risk of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, various cancers and osteoarthritis. The social cost of physical inactivity in Auckland is estimated at $402 million per year. The rise of childhood obesity is an ongoing concern. One third of children in Auckland are overweight or obese.

SUSTAINING CHALLENGES

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Sustaining challenges include: • Improving air quality and reducing noise levels for people living and working near main transport corridors • Overcoming inactivity across Auckland’s population to reduce social and health costs, particularly through more walking and cycling • Improving access to green space and coverage of vegetation to improve the quality of life for Aucklanders, support bio-diversity, drainage and resilience to climate change • Improving air quality and reducing noise levels for people living and working near main transport corridors, taking reverse sensitivity effects into consideration for the operation of existing transport infrastructure • Reducing the adverse impacts of transport on the surrounding environment, biodiversity and storm-water quality.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Assessment criteria to consider include: • Quality of storm water run-off and treatment • Levels of cycling and walking to access employment, education, and local centres • Amount of green space, coverage of vegetation and ecological corridors present in road space • Acceptable noise and vibration levels for new transport infrastructure and reverse sensitivity related effects in relation to existing transport infrastructure.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The six strategic functions in detail

1

What does success look like? Initially success of the framework will be about getting the message out to practitioners and ensuring that they understand and apply the Roads and Streets Framework to projects and schemes, primarily through the Project Mandate, which provides the strategic design outcomes that subsequent projects must meet. Success will be gauged by the extent that the approach is accepted and welcomed by practitioners and stakeholders. Following on from this, success will be about the delivery of a range of suitable tools on roads and streets and the monitoring of the effectiveness of these. An initial set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) have been developed to monitor progress across the six function areas:

Functions

Key Performance Indicators 1. Pedestrian counts/active edge

1

LIVING

2. Services & facilities available within 10 minute walking trip 3. Crime rates/trends from NZ Police statistics

2

UNLOCKING

1. Jobs accessible within 30â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 45 minute trip 2. Portion of household income spent on transport 3. Walk score (international ranking of how well connected each place is) applied to selected locations

3

MOVING

1. Screenline survey of people movement per mode in peak/off-peak in selected locations 2. Journey time reliability on key routes 3. People throughput of different modes

FUNCTIONING

4

1. Parking occupancy for town centres (compared to 85% occupancy threshold) 2. Heavy vehicle volumes/portion of traffic on selected routes 1. Death and serious injury on local roads

5

PROTECTING

2. Collective / personal risk = social cost per km of road 3. Crime statistics for selected catchments on local roads 1. Per capita greenhouse emissions and air pollution (NOx, PMx)

6

SUSTAINING

2. Portion of residents who regularly use active modes and public transport per week

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2

ANNEX

The tool box in detail

78

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


Other tools may not have been used in Auckland yet and may need to be trialled to understand their effectiveness in the Auckland context. The list of tools below is not exhaustive; they are examples of the type of measures needed to transform Aucklandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roads and streets to spaces fit for the future. They are applied to the unique context of each location and assessed (measured) against the six strategic principles to determine their level of relevance. The approach must also enable allocating and using space as efficiently as possible. The use of technology and innovative techniques to squeeze more from the network must also be a focus. In addition, demand management will have a part to play â&#x20AC;&#x201C; this may be through measures to encourage a shift to sustainable modes, as well as reducing the need to travel. The strategic measures are to be investigated and implemented by Auckland Transport on a network wide scale.

Assets fit for purpose Integrated and sustainable network management Intelligent systems & management Changing behaviour, managing demand and parking Constrain, substitute, relocate and add capacity

79


1

ASSETS FIT FOR PURPOSE

1.1 Innovative asset management Higher levels of management and maintenance of all assets, proactive lifecycle renewals and roll-out of new core features (e.g. LED, tactile paving). This compartment contains the tools that are focused on managing the existing assets to ensure they are in good condition and that vehicles are as clean and quiet as possible. Ensuring assets are in good repair, from small scale assets such as drains and manhole covers, seating and signs to large scale assets like bridges, is essential to providing high-performing, liveable streets.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Proactive programming of maintenance and improvement works, enabling works to be combined and carried out at the same time to minimise disruption and deliver efficiencies • Integrate roll-out of network mode priorities with maintenance and renewal programme, e.g. integration of new core features in renewal/upgrade work.

1.2 Street improvements Improving the basics will make a difference, e.g. decluttering by rationalising signing, providing good quality surfaces as well as good seating and lighting.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Review the street scene: match the materials/facilities and the place/movement typology • Reduce signing and general clutter in the street. Ensure that the footpaths are free from obstruction and trip hazards. Look for opportunities to improve seating and lighting

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

2

• Street de-clutter audit when undertaking footpath maintenance. Carry out a simple audit to identify easy improvements that can be made when maintenance work is undertaken • Use of standard materials/street furniture to enable easy maintenance and economies of scale • Enhanced inspection regime for street types that have a high place function • Enhanced inspection regime to improve performance of utility company reinstatement works.

1.3 Greener roads, streets and assets Enhance the environmental quality of streets through planting and materials. Reduce impact with the use of recycled materials, permeable treatments and drainage improvements.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Greater use of planting, including the introduction of pocket parks and community gardens, tree planting, planters and green roads and streets • Use of permeable materials and drainage planters • Dynamically controlled street lighting to vary light levels at times during the night to save power • Use of LEDs in traffic signal equipment.

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1.4 Low emission vehicles Reduce vehicle emissions in both private and public transport fleets.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Plan for lower-emission public transport fleet on key air quality hot spots such as city centre streets and arterials • Provision of vehicle charging points in council-owned car parks, as well as limited on-street charging points • Encourage the use of low-emission delivery vehicles by introducing a recognition scheme • Support and promote green small passenger service vehicles offering mobility services.

1.5 Future flexibility Street design to be more flexible, catering for varying levels and modes of movement over time, as well as responding to challenges as they emerge.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Embed adaptable design principles in Transport Design Manual to allow for different users and demands • Consider the future when designing street improvements to future proof them, e.g. considering moveable street furniture.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

2

1.6 Enhanced safety features Apply new/emerging safety features and marketing to help reduce the dangers for vulnerable users.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Installation of blind spot (Trixi) mirrors at intersections. The mirrors enable drivers of large goods vehicles and buses to be able to see if there are cyclists next to them at intersections • Driver training, recognition schemes and awareness should go hand in hand with installation. (Also see tool 4a.) • Install advanced stop-lines at intersections to improve safety for cyclists • Introduce over-height vehicle detection at vulnerable structures • Ensure that new buses are of a cycle-friendly design and that drivers are appropriately trained.

1.7 21st Century roadworks Use innovative approaches to minimise disruption caused by roadworks.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Incorporate shared ducts in new developments and reconstruction • Work with utility providers to promote use of innovative materials to speed up and improve the quality of reinstatements, e.g. rapid hardening materials.

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2

INTEGRATED & SUSTAINABLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT

2.1 More efficient people movement This package of tools is about designing and allocating space to support efficient movement as well as ensuring vibrant places, improving safety for vulnerable users, as well as quality of life. These tools are not intended to duplicate individual modal strategies, but rather to bring together mutually supportive measures. Streets need to be able to adapt at different times of day and times of the year.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

Support efficient modes and provide attractive alternatives for journeys.

• Prioritise sustainable, efficient modes e.g. public transport such as light rail transit, buses, cycling, walking, car sharing – especially within higher density centres and along key arterial roads • Network operating plans that apply road user hierarchy principles to better align and optimise current modal priorities with strategic direction.

2.2 Safe speed environment Select the appropriate speed for the street or road type ensuring that the speed environment is safe/appropriate.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

2

• Joint action between AT, NZ Police, NZTA and ACC for addressing Road Safety in Auckland–aligns resources to support high benefit interventions and brings international best practice into the Auckland context • Through the Speed Management Guide, initiate conversations on speed to build a better understanding with the local communities: oo Consider the application of low speed zones (10km/h to 30km/h) in streets with strong place functions oo Encourage self – explaining roads where the actual speed is equal to or less than the assessed safe and appropriate speed oo Work with local boards to reduce speeding in neighbourhoods. Consider promoting community speed watch initiatives.

2.3 Activating streets Bringing streets to life with events and activities; boosting tourism, the local economy and community interaction.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Auckland open streets events are very popular. This programme could be expanded and extended to town centres • Consider cycle racing events and continue cycling events in the city centre and metropolitan centres • Enable streets to be used for market days and other events • Enable a programme of street art and performance • Work with local boards to consider other initiatives such as play streets.

85


2.4 Providing space for stopping Ensure space for delivery, servicing and parking options that reflect and support local characteristics and 24-hour operation.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Enable kerbside access for deliveries • Provide good quality cycling parking compatible with the place/movement street type. As well as on-street cycle parking, also provide parking at trip generating locations such as school, shops and beaches • Provision of good quality secure cycle parking at public transport stations.

2.5 Redesign centres Some roads and streets will benefit from being redesigned and enhanced. These locations will be transformed and address the look and feel of the streets and roads, as well as catering for the needs of different road users.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

86

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

• As part of the roads and streets family process, a programme of redesign schemes will emerge. The redesign process will have the street family and the modal priorities for the street as a focus and consider place & movements and the key functions of the road over a 24-hour timeframe.


2.6 Better crossings Enable people to cross the road safely and easily and on desire lines. Ensuring all users, including those with mobility and vision impairments, can cross safely and easily.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Roll-out of diagonal Barnes dance crossings, especially in areas with high pedestrian demand • Carry out a pedestrian audit when considering improvements along roads and streets. The audit should look at crossing desire lines as well as the needs of those with mobility and vision impairments • Introduce pedestrian countdown timers at intersections with high pedestrian demand.

3

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS & MANAGEMENT

3.1 More efficient people movement This compartment is focused on developing and implementing smarter systems and using new technology to get greater efficiency out of the existing network, to enable more reliable journey times. These tools will help manage the co-existence of different users and will enhance the customer experience by providing users with good quality, real-time information.

Using Network Operating Plans to optimise modal priorities and activity centres, while reflecting the different localised priorities at different times.

87


HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Align current modal priorities (Network Operating Plans) better with the strategic direction (Strategic Networks and Roads and Streets Framework maps) • Optimise traffic signals and localise priority to reflect daily demands around activity centres • Update of ITS system.

3.2 Real-time traffic management Manage and improve capacity at peak times and provide realtime information to users.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Further development of the capability of the Auckland Traffic Operations Control Centre (ATOCC) • Further use of variable message signing (VMS) to communicate with drivers.

3.3 Incident management Reduce disruptions caused by incidents through new technology and techniques.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Further development of the functionality of the ATOCC to provide greater coverage of the network and increase the capability for dealing with incidents • Provide real-time information to app developers to create real-time information apps.

88

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

2

3.4 Congestion hot spot busting Enhanced data to review and prioritise pinch points in the network.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Identify congestion pinch points, assess and implement solutions where effective. Solutions may include promotion of active modes or public transport to encourage a shift from private car use • Identify congestion points that delay buses, pedestrians and cycles, and implement measures to reduce delays • Undertake Network Operating Plan assessment to optimise traffic signals support for modal priorities and address performance gaps.

3.5 Flexible lanes and management Use of space 24/7 with technology, e.g. tidal flow or flexi-lane with LED lighting and VMS to communicate the changing use.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Introduce more transit lanes for buses and highoccupancy vehicles • Trial flexible lane management in locations where the use varies significantly through the day.

89


3.6 Targeted enforcement Target places and times that matter most with a lighter touch at other times.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Work in partnership with New Zealand Police to ensure the optimum location for mobile and fixed enforcement sites and radar speed signs • Implement real-time parking occupancy management and pricing to manage parking at occupancy of 85% for shortterm parking. (See tool 4e.).

3.6 A strong customer focus Improved focus on customer service and more tailored information.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Continued development of technology to provide users with information through social media, apps and the Internet • Put the customer front and centre as part of all transport projects.

90

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

2

3.7 Smarter infrastructure Improved quality and design of street furniture and smarter use of technology for monitoring and enforcement.

â&#x20AC;˘ Implement new bus stop design infrastructure

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

â&#x20AC;˘ Use CCTV for real-time monitoring of transport network.

4 This compartment is focused on developing and implementing schemes to support and promote behaviour change and to manage parking to promote short-stay and efficient use of parking spaces. These tools will help manage the current and future parking and support and promote use of alternative transport modes.

CHANGING BEHAVIOUR, MANAGING DEMAND & PARKING

4.1 Innovative deliveries: reduce, retime, remode and reroute Shift to out-of-hours deliveries where there is a high demand during the day. Ensure safer and cleaner deliveries through driver training and the use of lower emission vehicles. Move to more innovative, ways to receive deliveries.

91


HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Work with delivery operators and businesses to move to outof-hours deliveries in locations where there are high demands on the street during the day • Work with delivery operators to provide safe and fuelefficient training to equip drivers with the skills to drive more efficiently and to teach greater awareness of vulnerable road users • Introduce a recognition scheme for delivery operators who deliver flexibly (out of hours) use low-emission vehicles and undertake driver training • Work with partners to develop a micro-consolidation trial, e.g. cargo bike deliveries • Support the introduction of cargo bikes • Work with partners to develop click-and-collect services, including delivery lockers at key locations such as rail stations.

4.2 Next generation demand management Smarter travel initiatives linked to better analysis and new forms of communication to target support and information about alternatives more effectively.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Implement travel demand management programme. To include marketing campaigns and use of social media and apps • Promote the “let’s carpool” website and encourage employers to promote it to their staff • Run active mode challenges, using apps to record and track progress • Expand travel planning services, e.g. road shows to workplaces to help people to plan their work journey by public transport or active modes. Set up challenges to encourage the change • Provide real-time information to app developers to create real-time information apps.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

2

4.3 Active network management Use of traffic signals and new techniques to support defined priorities in particular areas. Avoiding congestion in network critical locations, plus helping to prioritise public transport, cycles and freight.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• As per tool 3a and 3b • Where place function is important, provide for pedestrian and cycling priority at traffic signals • Where high occupancy movement is a priority, along with access to new growth areas, provide for public transport priority at traffic signals • Implement real-time parking occupancy management and pricing to manage parking at occupancy of 85% for shortterm parking. (See tool 4e.).

4.4 Land use planning Encourage higher density, mixed-use, low-car developments with great walking, cycling and public transport infrastructure.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Use planning framework to encourage well-designed, low-car developments where residents have a range of high-quality alternatives to car ownership • Include connected walking and cycling networks, frequent and reliable public transport and access to a car sharing scheme in new brownfield and greenfield developments • Co-ordinated land use planning and transport planning measures (as the timing and/or availability of transport alternatives) will help to reduce vehicle dependency.

93


4.5 Restrain & reallocate parking Increase the efficiency of parking within areas with limited accessibility. Reduce commuter parking in accessible places and implement more dynamic and shared parking in car-oriented places. Minimise car parking in new developments well served by other modes.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Carry out parking reviews to identify the level of use and turnover of parking spaces. Review parking charges and, as public transport, walking and cycling improvements are made in the vicinity, seek to increase parking charges and enforcement • Work with Auckland Council to reduce parking standards for new developments alongside designing in improvements for other modes • Increase the efficiency of parking within areas with limited accessibility • Reduce peak period commuter parking in locations and centres with accessibility to transport alternatives and accessible places • Implement more dynamic parking management measures while encouraging shared parking in car-oriented places • Minimise car parking in new developments well served by other modes.

4.6 Smart Charging Consider Smart charging technology to manage travel demand and make more efficient use of road space.

94

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


• Establish a dedicated smart pricing project with MoT, NZTA, and AC that leads to:

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

5 This compartment is about providing for more sustainable modes of travel and creating better places, at the same time as maintaining an efficient road network that supports the functioning of the city. The focus is about providing capacity for living, new development and space for walking, buses and cycling as well as the car. This will give people a choice of mode.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

oo

More detailed assessment of the benefits and impacts of smart pricing, particularly net user effects, equity and any necessary mitigation

oo

Development of an implementation pathway that considers national implications, legislative requirements, technology, staging and trials.

CONSTRAIN, SUBSTITUTE, RELOCATE & ADD CAPACITY

5.1 Intersection enhancement Improve intersections most critical for network functioning. At the same time as making capacity improvements for vehicles, ensuring that benefits are harnessed for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport.

• Identify a programme of intersection enhancements, to be taken forward in conjunction with the identified modal priorities • Linked with tool 3d.

5.2 Connections to growth areas Better links for vehicles, public transport, pedestrians and cyclists to growth areas, including special housing areas and greenfield sites to unlock land for housing and employment and influence uplift.

95


HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Work with Auckland Council and developers to ensure transport plans that focus on access to as well as within developments are developed for special housing areas and greenfield sites • Early involvement in planning/development process to enable transport connections to be included in blueprints for new developments.

5.3 New public spaces and pedestrian and cycling facilities Creating high-quality public spaces and infrastructure for walking and cycling through innovative design. Bringing underused assets into greater use and seizing opportunities in new developments.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Early involvement in planning/development process so that transport connections can be included in blueprints for new developments • Reclaiming underused spaces and parts of the network. Designing plazas and public spaces within new developments for new public spaces or cycle links, e.g. links such as the Light path.

5.4 New and improved separation Identify new layers of space in difficult locations. If people are moved above/below or alongside, this space needs to be well designed, safe and attractive for the user.

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ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX The tool box in detail

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

2

• Reviewing opportunities for 21st Century versions of segregated paths or bridges to provide high-quality links for cyclists and pedestrians. E.g., Jacobs Ladder Bridge linking St Marys Bay to the CBD, which was implemented as part of the Victoria Park tunnel project • Revitalise existing segregated paths and bridges.

5.6 Supporting higher capacity modes Protecting routes for high-capacity modes.

HOW THIS WILL BE APPLIED

• Support dedicated provision for, and signal priority for, high-frequency and high-occupancy public transport modes along key movement roads. In particular, where connections are provided between growth areas and high-employment locations • Consider use of sticks to promote mode shift to higher capacity modes such as road charging.

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3

ANNEX

Auckland Transport Alignment Project (ATAP)

98

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


Implementing the ATAP strategic approach THE FRAMEWORK ENABLES STAKEHOLDERS TO:

• Agree at a high level the type of place values and aspirations the road and street network is supporting • Identify clear concept options on how best the road and street network can respond to future urban or centre growth. (This will use, among other data, inputs from the ATAP process on the amount of growth and identified strategic transport networks.) • Identify and assess, at the high level, the main challenges and impacts across the six broad function areas. (This is a wider and more placed-based analysis than traditional transport analyses.) • Provide the project mandate for finding a better balance between place, modal priorities and the most appropriate levels of service • Recommend the range of tools needed to support the prioritised modes and mitigate impacts on other users.

Auckland’s success as a liveable city relies on developing safe, reliable, sustainable and efficient transport, supporting vibrant and accessible places. To realise the full contribution that Auckland’s roads and streets can make to the city’s liveability, actions are required at the strategic level to address Auckland’s key transport challenges. At the strategic level, Auckland’s key challenges have been agreed through the Auckland Transport Alignment Project (ATAP). The ATAP report recommends that we need to better balance transport demand with the capacity of our infrastructure and services. This requires a fundamental shift to a greater focus on influencing travel demand through smarter road pricing, accelerating the uptake and implementation of new technologies, alongside substantial ongoing transport investment, and getting more out of existing transport networks. The ATAP recommended approach contains three integrated elements, as set out in Figure 20. In response to ATAP, the Roads and Street Framework can bring the future transport needs of existing urban areas and newly developing urban areas into sharper focus at a sub-regional scale.

Make better use of existing networks

Target investment to the most significant challenges

Maximise new pportunities to influence travel demand

Optimise key routes to increase productivity

Prioritise investments to achieve best value for money

Better Integrate land use and transport

Continue to improve asset management efficiences

Enable and support growth

Actively encourage increases in vehicle occupancy

Mahimise benefits from new transport technology

Strrengthen strategic transport networks

Progressively move to smarter transport pricing

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4

ANNEX

Healthy streets key indicators check list

100

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


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The 10 healthy streets indicators Sh

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The Approach is based on 10 Indicators of Healthy Streets which focus on the experience of people using streets.

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Transport for London have developed an approach called Healthy Streets to put people and their health at the centre of decisions about how public spaces are designed, managed and used. It aims to make streets healthy, safe and welcoming for everyone.

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Application to Auckland RASF Typologies The questions for each of the 10 Healthy Street indicators can assist practitioners by directing attention to those factors in a street which are not performing well for people who choose to walk, cycle or use public transport. While the Healthy Street indicators can be applied to any road or street in the Auckland region, they are more relevant to urban contexts, where the focus is on Place and improving conditions for walking, cycling and public transport. The answers to the questions will help direct attention to the range of possible modal priority design features to improve use of these modes in roads or streets. The full list of questions for each of the 10 indicators can be found at this website: https://healthystreets.com/home/new/ There are two main indicators of Healthy Streets: â&#x20AC;˘ People choose to walk, cycle and use public transport â&#x20AC;˘ Pedestrians from all walks of life. If a street is a healthy and inclusive environment, then all members of the community should be able to walk (or wheel), cycle and use public transport. The Healthy Streets approach uses a series of questions to highlight the many factors that influence how well a street is performing for those travelling on foot, by bike or public transport. 101


People choose to walk, cycle and use public transport Walking, cycling and using public transport should be the most attractive ways to travel, and making them more enjoyable will benefit everyone, including those already travelling on foot, by bike or public transport. People walk and cycle on almost every street and do not always have an alternative travel option. This means even the streets with the heaviest traffic must be made Toi Toi Pl more attractive to walk and cycle. No exit

Questions • Does the street provide an attractive environment for walking and cycling? Will people walking or cycling think the street has been designed for their needs in mind Elam 160 m

Wellesley St East 200m

• Are public transport services frequent and direct enough to provide a competitive alternative to car use • Is the amount and speed of traffic and driver behaviour appropriate for the type of street • Have steps been taken to reduce the effects of motorised traffic on people walking and cycling, and local businesses and residents • Does the street feel looked after and is it maintained to a high standard • Is it easy for people to get to bus stops and change between different types of public transport? Is the street an attractive place to wait for the bus and access train stations • Is enough space allocated for walking, cycling and public transport? Will this be enough space for future demand • Can people cycling easily stop and secure cycles at convenient locations for accessing shops and services • Are people walking and cycling forced to share the same space when cycles could be accommodated separately • Have steps been taken to reduce the attractiveness of residential streets as short-cuts for motor vehicles Elam 160 m

• Have measures been taken to increase the attractiveness of residential streets as places where people can spend time and encourage children to play outside

Wellesley St East 200m

• Can the amount, cost and availability of car parking at local amenities be changed to make people want to walk, cycle and use public transport over using the car?

102

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Healthy streets key indicators check list

4

Pedestrians from all walks of life The best test of a Healthy Street is whether there are people reflecting the full diversity of society on the street. Streets should be inviting for everyone to spend time and make journeys on foot, cycle or by public transport. Social norms influence active travel, people are more likely to walk and cycle when they see others doing the same. Questions • Is the street accessible and welcoming to all? Is the street somewhere an eight or 80 year-old could happily travel independently on foot • Is the local public transport offer attractive and accessible • Do the people on the street reflect all sections of society and the local community? Are any groups or individuals not using the street, particularly at certain times of the day or night • Is the pavement smooth, level, free of obstructions and wide enough for the number of people using them, now and in the future? Is it sufficiently wide to support a range of activities including scooting, skateboarding, shop mobility, playing, sitting and socialising • Does the mix of services along the street serve the varied needs of the local community • Could parking be removed to increase the available pavement width around obstructions such as trees and street lights • Do streets remain accessible to people walking, cycling and using public transport during road works and construction activity • Are the needs of all people who currently and potentially walk on the street being considered in the development of proposals to change the street? Is additional engagement needed to ensure any concerns over accessibility are understood and addressed?

103


5

ANNEX

Typologies: modal priority features

104

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


This Annex outlines the type of features to support the starting modal priority for each urban typology. The discussion on intersections and the expected features to support the default modal priorities for rural typologies will be included in future iterations.

1

SINGLE USE ARTERIAL

ITS - signals, monitoring, fibre, ducting & cabling, electronic signs, incident management, detection, enforcement

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Standard footpaths buffered from moving traffic by additional footpath width, planting strip / or on-street parking • Wider footpaths and crossings near PT stops or key attractors • Formal crossings needed at intersections for safety, formal mid-block if high demand/risk to a specific attractor or over 800m between intersections • Informal crossings mid-block, not exceeding 400m between crossings. Support with refuge islands • Low landscaping and/or high branching trees in planting strips where appropriate • Minimise driveway crossings as much as possible.

CYCLING

• Cycling to be accommodated if no direct parallel route on lower trafficked route • Consider separate cycle provision (painted with buffer, vertical and horizontal separation) where traffic thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • Physical buffers must be in place, whether horizontal or vertical • Bike parking in business / industrial districts • Separation applied at intersections as well • Note that for new developments the Unitary Plan has a minimum requirement for on-site bicycle parking for industrial activities.

105


• High quality PT stops / zones / interchanges where present

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Bus or transit lanes where required • Bus stop locations (e.g. 200-600m apart) should be integrated with transverse pedestrian crossings. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Reduce width of driveways or consolidate where possible • Building set-backs due to higher traffic flows and impacts • Clearways where required • Consider service lanes • On-street parking will be a lower priority as road space needed for movement of people and goods • Off-peak parking sometimes provided • Restricted or priced parking where demand is higher. SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Loading zones to support delivery activities near commercial / industrial / transport hubs. FREIGHT

• Freight route signage to assist routes to Port, motorway and manufacturing /industrial centres using strategic routes • Freight route lane priority where required connecting to strategic routes and to access freight destinations • Minimise or consolidate driveways for easier freight access • Over-weight/over-size routes by permit only, time controlled.

2

MIXED USE ARTERIALS

ITS - signals, monitoring, fibre, ducting & cabling, electronic signs, incident management, detection, enforcement

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Wide footpaths and planting strip • Kerb build-outs in vicinity (both arterial / side roads) where high pedestrian levels / residential uses • Formal crossings at signalised intersections and mid-block where high demand. Reduce pedestrian delay for compliance and increase safety • Informal crossings at 200m distance at most, support with kerb buildouts, refuge islands

106

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Typologies: modal priority features

5

• Consider removing slip lanes • Excellent wayfinding for visitors • Street trees (road or pedestrian scale), landscaping mid-block • Pedestrian scaled lighting • Street furniture for lingering near commercial/retail/ community services areas • Awnings and weather protection • Consider centre island for wide-streets. CYCLING

• Segregated cycle provision (whether horizontal or vertical separation) will be required where thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30 kph / 14 passes in 10 minutes • Consider parallel route if more direct • Prioritise connections to dense employment areas • Bike parking in business/retail districts. PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• High quality PT stops / zones / interchanges / set down areas / real time information • Supported by bus / transit lanes & advance priority • Kerbside stops or bus boarders for frequent service routes • Bus stop locations (e.g. 200-400m apart) should be integrated with transverse pedestrian crossings. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Design speeds for 40km/hr or less when there are high numbers of active users • Short-term, on-street parking for visitors outside peak, priced • Driveways restricted • No direct access onto arterial preferable • Side street or rear vehicle and parking access wherever possible • Parking should be provided but clearways or transit lanes may apply at peak times • Loading zones should be provided either on main street or side streets • Use of time restrictions or paid parking in busy areas • On wide, one-way streets, consider Boulevard treatments to separate through lanes from local access lanes. SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Loading for service delivery consolidated to key locations, may be time limited. FREIGHT

• Preference to use strategic routes to destinations e.g. freight hubs • Freight route lane priority where required connecting to strategic routes and freight destinations • Over-weight/over-size routes by permit only, time controlled.

107


3

MAIN STREET ARTERIALS

ITS - signals, monitoring, fibre, ducting & cabling, electronic signs, incident management, detection, enforcement

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Wide footpaths and planting strip • Kerb build-outs in vicinity (both arterial / side roads) where high pedestrian levels / residential uses • Formal crossings at intersections and mid-block (signals that give separation from traffic) • Reduce pedestrian delay for compliance and increase safety • Informal pedestrian crossing opportunities with kerb build outs (safe but no priority over traffic) at no more than 100m intervals for any crossings • Formal pedestrian priority on desire lines for vision and mobility impaired users, children and elderly • Consider removing slips lanes • Pedestrian countdown where high pedestrian levels – safe, direct and low delay to match pedestrian priority • Low speed zone for pedestrians (<30kph) • Excellent wayfinding for visitors • Street trees (road or pedestrian scale), landscaping midblock, pocket parks • Pedestrian scaled lighting • Street furniture for lingering near commercial/retail/public realm areas • Awnings and weather protection • Centre island for wide-streets • Street furniture

CYCLING

• Public art • Gateway treatments • Consider separate cycle provision (painted with buffer, vertical and horizontal separation) where traffic thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • Prioritise connections to dense employment areas • Bike parking on street or footpath in main business/retail districts • Bike parking in surrounding retail / business districts.

108

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Typologies: modal priority features

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

5

• High quality PT stops / zones / interchanges / set down areas / real time information • Bus borders for frequent routes • Bus or transit lanes or advance priority where required • Bus stop locations (e.g. <200m apart) should be integrated with transverse pedestrian crossings.

GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Design speeds for 40kph when there are high numbers of active users • Gateway treatment, low speed zone • Consider short-term, on-street priced parking for visitors or all parking off-street • Landscape parking • Possible indented parking or clearways at peak times • Loading zones should be provided either on Main street or side streets • Use of time restrictions or paid parking in busy areas • In regard to the features concerning no driveways and side street or rear vehicle and parking access, this will need to be assessed on a location by location basis. The Unitary Plan provides a framework for managing vehicle access crossings in centres through the Building Frontage Controls (Key Retail Frontage, General Commercial Frontage & General Control in the City Centre Zone). SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Loading for service delivery off peak or time controlled. FREIGHT

• Prefer reroute around town centre Main streets • Over-weight/over-size routes by permit only, time controlled.

4

MAIN STREET COLLECTORS

ITS - signals, monitoring, fibre, ducting & cabling, electronic signs, incident management, detection, enforcement

109


PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Wide footpaths and planting strip buffer walking area from moving traffic • Formal crossings at intersections and mid-block (signals or zebra that give priority to pedestrians) • Informal pedestrian crossing opportunities with kerb build outs at no more than 100m intervals (safer but no priority over traffic) • More formal crossings than informal with increased pedestrian demand and roadside activity for this road type • Street trees, landscaping (road or pedestrian scale), pocket parks • Street furniture • Very low speed zone for pedestrians (<30kph) • Public art • Consider removing slip lanes • Use pavement texture to help slow traffic and add visual interest • Use intersection signal timing to keep speeds low • Consider awnings/ weather protection/ shelter at waiting points (PT stops or crossings).

CYCLING

• Consider separate cycle provision (painted with buffer, vertical and horizontal separation) where traffic thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • all cycling should be protected apart from mixed traffic which is speeds of less than 30kph and volumes of less than 2000 (preferably 1k) aadt • Mixed traffic cycling possible if below the above thresholds, dependent on context, % heavy traffic, etc • Consider cycle parking, signal advance, raised lanes. PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Public transport • High quality bus stops / real time information • Bus borders for frequent routes • Bus lanes / transit lanes or advance priority where required • Bus stop locations (e.g. 200m) should be integrated with transverse pedestrian crossings. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Gateway treatment, low speed zone • Restricted, priced visitor parking on-street otherwise all off-street • Landscape parking • Use of time restrictions or paid parking in busy areas • Some loading zones may be required • Car share parking • In regard to the features concerning no driveways and side street or rear vehicle and parking access, this will need to be assessed on a location by location basis. The Unitary Plan

110

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Typologies: modal priority features

5

provides a framework for managing vehicle access crossings in centres through the Building Frontage Controls (Key Retail Frontage, General Commercial Frontage & General Control in the City Centre Zone). SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Loading zones, access may be time controlled. FREIGHT

• Prefer reroute/bypass town centres • Over-weight/over-size routes by permit only, time controlled.

5

MIXED USE COLLECTORS

ITS - signals, monitoring, ducting & cabling, detection, secondary comunication’s

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Wide footpaths and planting strip buffer walking area from moving traffic • Street trees, landscaping (road or pedestrian scale) • Formal crossings at intersections and mid-block where high demand (signalised or zebra depending on number of traffic lanes, provide priority over traffic and safety for all users • Crossings at 200m at most, support with kerb build outs • Informal crossings between formal crossings (safer than no crossing provision but no priority over traffic) • Safe pedestrian connections to PT stops, local shops and other local trip generators • Consider removing slips lanes • Street furniture near local shops • Consider awnings / weather protections / shelter at waiting points (PT stops or crossings) • Safety note – medians make crossing easier but do not provide protection from traffic. Consider raised median for protection.

111


CYCLING

• Consider separate cycle provision (painted with buffer, vertical and horizontal separation) where traffic thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • Mixed traffic cycling possible if below the above thresholds, dependent on context, % heavy traffic, etc.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Bus shelter / stops / real time information • Bus lanes / transit lanes where required • Bus stop locations (200m-400m) should be integrated with transverse pedestrian crossings GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Driveways restricted • Limited parking • Use of time restrictions or paid parking in busy areas • Some loading zones may be required. SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Loading zones, access may be time controlled. FREIGHT

• Prefer reroute/bypass town centres.

6

NEIGHBOURHOOD COLLECTORS

ITS - ducting & cabling

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Standard footpaths with planting strips/berm as buffer from lane edge • Street trees (road scale or pedestrian scale), landscaping • Formal crossings at intersections and mid-block where high demand (signalised or zebra depending on road layout, provide priority over traffic and safety for all users) • Crossing every 400m at most, support with kerb build outs • Safe pedestrian connections to PT stops, local shops and other local trip generators • Street furniture near local shops • Safety note – medians make crossing easier but do not provide protection from traffic.

112

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Typologies: modal priority features

CYCLING

5

• Consider separate cycle provision (painted with buffer, vertical and horizontal separation) where traffic thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • Mixed traffic cycling possible if below the above thresholds, dependent on context, % heavy traffic, etc.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Bus shelter / stops / real time information • Bus lanes / transit lanes where required • Bus stop locations (200m-400m) should be integrated with transverse pedestrian crossings. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Clearway where required • Traffic calming may be appropriate • On–street parking, with restrictions • Possible use of residential permit parking zones in older suburbs with limited off-street parking • Parking usually unrestricted with time restrictions to sections of the street in busy areas. SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Loading zone. FREIGHT

• Over-weight/over-size routes by permit only, time controlled.

7

LOCAL STREET (RESIDENTIAL EXAMPLE)

ITS - ducting & cabling

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• Standard width footpaths, wider around local centre, school • Street trees in berm • Safety–Self-explaining design should include kerb build outs and traffic calming (e.g. humps or chicanes) • Suggest–Consider home zones, greenways / local paths or low impact design (note low traffic reduces the need for priority crossings) • Landscaping (pedestrian scale) where appropriate • Consider opportunities for increased open space / vegetation e.g. pocket parks • Side or rear lane parking access 113


• Pedestrian-scale lighting at corners / short-cuts • Low speed. CYCLING

• Consider separate cycle provision (painted with buffer, vertical and horizontal separation) where traffic thresholds exceed 2,000 vpd / above 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • Mixed traffic cycling possible if below the above thresholds, dependent on context. PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Bus shelters if required • Bus stop locations should be integrated with lateral pedestrian crossings. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• On-street parking where sufficient width exists • Traffic calming/ low speed if required (planters, home zone treatments) • Raised median in higher trafficked areas near key attractors / PT stops • Driveways permitted but for new developments prefer rear access lanes (as multiple driveways impact on pedestrian and cycle routes) [take care to reduce obstacles near driveways that distract from pedestrians] • No segregation if narrow lane • Possible use of residential permit parking zones in older suburbs with limited off-street parking • Parking usually unrestricted with time restrictions to sections of the street in busy areas. SERVICE & DELIVERY

• No special provision – consolidate loading zone in denser streets. FREIGHT

• No special provision except in local industrial streets requiring more than occasional freight access.

8

ITS - signals, monitoring, ducting & cabling, detection

114

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

LOCAL STREET - CENTRE


ANNEX Typologies: modal priority features

PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

5

• Standard width or wide footpaths (depending on pedestrian flows) and consider low planting strip to buffer walking area from moving traffic • Suggest–Use landscaping to reclaim space for people on foot and the local community • Safety–Self-explaining design should include kerb build outs and traffic calming (e.g. humps or chicanes) • Use pavement texture to help slow traffic and add visual interest • Provide gateway treatments to show slow speed environments • Suggest – consider Greenways/ local paths or low impact design • Street trees (road or pedestrian scale), landscaping where appropriate • Kerb buildouts and tight radii where high pedestrian flows to commercial areas • Public art • Low speed • Community art works (where possible).

CYCLING

• Mixed traffic cycling possible if below the traffic thresholds 2,000 vpd / 30kph / 14 passes in 10 mins • Provision dependent on context. PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Bus shelters • Bus stop locations should be integrated with lateral pedestrian crossings. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Low speed • Restricted driveways or service lanes • No segregation if narrow lane • Possible indented parking or clearways at peak times • Loading zones should be provided either on main street or side streets • Use of time restrictions or paid parking in busy areas • Car share parking. SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Controlled access. FREIGHT

• Controlled access.

115


9

TOWN SQUARE / PLAZA / SHARED ZONE

ITS - monitoring, fibre, ducting & cabling, detection

This type should avoid through traffic, and be mostly pedestrian space. PEDESTRIANS / PUBLIC REALM

• VERY wide footpaths if using kerbs or design whole space as shared zone or plaza /square without kerbs • Consider all opportunities for increased open space for community use. e.g. footpath activity zones for stalls, tables and seating • Safety–Town Square – design for no traffic, time limited or deliveries only • Safety – Shared zone–clearly communicate shared zones with VERY slow speed design (10km/hr) • Safety–transition zones to other streets to warn pedestrians and vehicles of change to behaviour • Where pedestrians are safe crossing anywhere • Planting strip / or plaza / or square • High quality public realm & materials • Public art • Tight kerb radii at intersections • Kerb less or low kerbs • Kerb build outs where pedestrian priority for crossing side street, encourage safe, informal crossings • Safety–Road surface may use texture to slow speeds and add visual interest • Street trees (road or pedestrian scale), landscaping, buffers, pocket parks • Pedestrian scaled lighting and wayfinding • Street furniture for lingering. streetscape design to include comfortable and appealing place making features for incidental street activity • Awnings and weather protection • Low impact rain gardens as part of planting.

116

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Typologies: modal priority features

CYCLING

5

• Low speed cycling shared with pedestrians and sometimes mixed traffic • Separate lane if higher speed cycle commuter route.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Bus stops within vicinity of these zones. GENERAL TRAFFIC / PARKING

• Limited access for motor vehicles, time controlled • On-street parking on edge or side/back lanes • Limit driveways • No parking allowed except for loading at certain times • Loading should be only allowed in mornings before 11am • Disability parking only on actual shared zone or town square to reduce conflicts with pedestrians SERVICE & DELIVERY

• Controlled access for service deliveries. FREIGHT

• Controlled / restricted access.

10 WATER SENSITIVE DESIGN OPTIONS* TIER 1 (T1)

AT is happy to accept these devices/design options although most will have design constraints around them in the TDM to ensure the right size and right place in the corridor. • Swale • Filter strip • Wetland/vegetated swale • Bio-retention (lined/unlined) • Soakage Pits • Tree pits • Catch pits (filters/filter screens).

TIER 2 (T2)

• AT will accept these options on a case by case basis. Discuss with AT to ensure the design actually requires this option and how/where it will be located • Wetland • Dry ponds • Infiltration basins. TIER 3 (T3)

• AT will only accept these options by exception. Definitely not a preferred option by AT but will be considered as a last resort • Pond • Rain tanks • Detention tanks. * need to be discussed with Healthy Waters before being agreed with Council (Regulatory)

117


6

Case studies

118

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

ANNEX


ANNEX Case studies

6

Applying the toolkit in practice Developing high-level concepts to support place value and modal priority. To refine the approach, the streets and roads family framework has been applied to eleven roads and streets within Auckland. The case study locations are shown in Figure 21. The case study locations were selected to encompass the full range of street types, some with existing projects, and to explore the process within a greenfield area. The case studies were developed applying the approach outlined above, involving identifying the current use of the road and therefore its current and its future street types, along with: • The challenges in terms of the six functions: moving, living, unlocking, functioning, protecting and sustaining • Applying and adjusting the modal priorities and service priorities • Addressing the challenges and proposing tools to overcome these • Identifying short, medium and long-term actions.

KEY Whenuapai K-Road Great North Road Bayswater Ave

A summary of the Karangahape Road (K- Rd) and Manukau transport study processes follows. The examples demonstrate that the application of the Roads and Street Framework process is scalable from street, to corridor and to sub-regional areas. *Note: The examples are not endorsed policy, but provide examples of how the street types can be applied to real roads, streets and projects

Lincoln Road Sandringham Road Ponsonby Road Essex Road, Mt Eden Tamaki Drive Reverie Place, Massey West BayswaterFederal Street

119


Po ns on by Rd

Rd on wt Ne

120

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Sy m on ds St

Que en S t

Karanga hape R d

Mercury Ln

Rd ape gah n a r Ka

Pitt St

n St etou Hop

KARANGAHAPE ROAD

Upp er Q uee n St

1


6

ANNEX Case studies

STEP 1

RURAL OR URBAN

Rural

Urban

PLACE

Residential

Mixed use

Business

Centres

Industrial

Built form & function

Property access

Smaller blocks

Multi level

City Centre-destination

Large scale

Low density

Med-High density

Low-Med density

High density, multy level

Low density

Multi level

Larger scale

Mixed use, active edge

Vehicle oriented

Some mixed use

High pedestrian

Wide access

Car oriented

High quality pavement

Poor active edge

Limited active edge

Multi modal axxess

2

Car parking on street

Walkable

Local

Neighbourhood

District

Sub-regional

City

MOVEMENT

Local Place

Local Street

Collector

Main Street

Arterial

Street form & function

<10 kph

20-30 kph

25-50 kph

25-40 kph

40-50 kph

Varies shared space, square

2 lanes, parking 2-4 lanes varies 10-20m parking 25m

2-4 lanes, Limited parking 20m

4-6 lanes parking 25-30m

Restricted veh

<5,000 veh

<15,000veh

>20,000 veh

MOVEMENT Significance

Local

5,000<15,000 veh

Neighbourhood

District

2025 Typologies • Current function is already Main St with high place significance, strategic significance for buses / cycling. Increasing pedestrian activity on the Main St. • Significant redevelopment potential in vicinity from the future CRL station, which will increase mixed use activity and THAB residential development as indicated in the Unitary Plan • Therefore, K-Rd should be a higher quality version of main street arterial.

Sub-regional

City

Roads and Streets Family

Single Use (Out of Centre) Arterial

Mixed Use Arterial

Main Street Main Street Arterial Arterial

Mixed Use Collector

Main Street Collector

Centre Local Street

Centre Plaza/ Square/ Shared

Rural Arterial Neighborhood Collector

STRATEGIC

5

Active edge

DISTRICT

4

PLACE Significance

Good frontage

LOCAL ROADS

3

Small scale, many crossings

MOVEMENT Local Neighborhood District Sub-regional City National

1

Determine the typology

Rural Collector

Local Street Rural Local Road

Local Neighborhood District Sub-regional City National PLACE

121


STEP 2-4

Determine modal priority • High pedestrian flows along/across K-Rd, key attractors are retail, night life, and in future CRL station / redevelopment in back streets / apartment living • Cycle Connector, critical link between western suburbs / City Centre / further east via Grafton. No feasible alternative routes for directness • Bus FTN route connecting western suburbs to City Centre, City / Inner Link & Nite-rider. Future interchange with CRL station, NW Busway link to Pitt St and LRT on Queen. No feasible alternative routes for directness. Some rerouting post CRL possible • Important arterial traffic route, on-street parking / access to AT off-street carpark on Mercury lane. Alternative routes / reduced lane capacity / parking removal are options. At grade private carpark ripe for redevelopment

Car travel and services delivery is not prioritised at peak times.

• Service delivery loading is available on-street but retiming/ relocation are options • Freight network usually via Motorway to Port, but overdimension/over-size route. Off peak, permit controlled. Safety: pedestrian crashes are increasing trend, high collective risk (Dsi) STEP 5-6

Address the six challenges using the toolbox Living • Improving the quality of the urban realm and side streets to support the Main St function and contribute to the Auckland Council vision for K-Rd • Addressing conflicts between arterial road function and Main St and living functions of the wider K-Rd catchment. Unlocking • Retaining and enhancing the significant social and economic exchange occurring on K-Rd • Utilising under-used side streets to support permeability and urban realm. Moving • Improving active mode and public transport accessibility, safety and capacity on K-Rd prior to the opening of CRL station • Improving journey reliability for the New Bus Network via Great North Rd/Ponsonby Rd and along K-Rd to Symonds St and interchange with the NW busway • Ensuring safe, reliable journeys for cyclists along K-Rd • Reallocating road space from general traffic/parking to active modes and public transport sustainable modes at peak times and managing impacts.

122

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Case studies

6

Functioning • Managing servicing and parking requirements to support retail and future development of the K-Rd catchment • Using clear road space provision and priority • Protecting • Reducing the number of collisions/crashes between vehicles and improving pedestrian/cycle safety on K-Rd. Sustaining • Addressing noise and air quality levels adjacent to K-Rd • Providing and supporting much improved accessibility for pedestrians and cyclists along K-Rd and links to key attractors in the vicinity. Short-term measures (0-3yrs): • Better matching between materials/facilities street-type across range of upcoming projects e.g. seating, pavement appropriate to K-Rd vision (e.g. Tool 1a Innovative asset management) • Street decluttering/signage removal, street furniture alignment to improve pedestrian movement/lingering to provide for pedestrian flows (e.g. Tool 1b Street improvements) • Low speed environment (<30kph) to reduce impacts of mode conflicts / lower safety risks and encourage safe mid-block crossing improvement. (e.g. Tool 2b Safe speed environment) • Prioritise the more efficient / sustainable modes on K-Rd according to modal priority: bus, cycle, pedestrians through priority measures e.g. segregated cycle lanes, bus lanes, wider footpaths in core (e.g. Tool 3a More efficient people movement) • Better cycle parking on side streets (e.g. Tool 5c New public spaces, pedestrian and cycling facilities) • Trial road layouts & signals e.g. planters/segregated cycleway/ bus lane prior to permanent facility. Align programmes across streetscape projects. Future proof designs that allow for easy upgrades • Undertake events allowing informal use of road space with a programme of temporary, traffic free events for the public • Trial informal spaces in K-Rd back streets as a lead-in to future development opportunities following CRL station completion • Optimise traffic signals to balance bus/cycle (e-w)priority with crossings (n-s) and maximise efficiency for all modes and provide pedestrian countdowns (e.g. Tool 2f Better crossings) • Use on-street space more flexibly and over 24-hours e.g. timed service delivery/curb space in evenings • Provide real time information on travel conditions and choices covering City Centre upgrade works. (e.g. Tool 4b Next generation travel demand management) • Investigate detuning or closing the Symonds St on-ramp, phasing with the significant improvement in public transport and active mode accessibility (e.g. Tool 3e Flexible lanes and management). 123


Medium-term measures (3-10yrs): • Investigate side-street pocket parks/oases to support liveability • Widen footpaths and optimise signals to accommodate increasing numbers of pedestrians, particularly the CRL Station desire lines e.g. Tool 1b street improvements) • Prioritise K-Rd prioritised as a low emission bus route • Strengthen segregated cycle facilities and connections to wider cycle network and provide cycle facilities for cyclists (e.g. Tool 5d New and improved separation) • Address pinch points, e.g. Pitt St, Queen St, Symonds St intersections (e.g. Tool 3d Congestion hot spot busting) • Progress e-mobility solutions, especially car share/bike share (e.g. Tool 4c Active network management) • Dynamic visitor parking with car share operators and relocating PnR (e.g. Tool 4e Restrain and reallocate parking) • Restrict general traffic east-west movement during peaks while promoting motorway circulation, especially to phase with LRT development and undertake traffic management trials to prepare for CRL. Long-term measures (10+yrs): • Work with Government and AC to progress investigations into road pricing system, innovative delivery and servicing management and E-mobility and data sharing • Smart pricing & active network management. STEP 7

K-Rd recommendations Short term (0-3yrs): • Pedestrian improvements–footpaths, signalised crossings, raised entry treatments, public realm incl. side streets • Trial segregated cycle facility along length • Bus reliability – 24 hr bus lanes (west of Pitt St) / peak hour bus lane (east of Pitt St) • Servicing and deliveries to be managed off peak, potentially using micro consolidation • Protecting–Low speed environment to support the place function of K-road and reduce risk of accidents. Other users: • Retain traffic provision – at least 1 lane each way. Reduce / remove parking • Monitor access for freight: Over-Dimension / Over-Size route out of hours • Sustaining–support road closures for events, markets Consider wider impacts on City Centre e.g. diverted traffic, parking management, rerouting, retiming of servicing.

124

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Case studies

6

K-Rd: Outcome of RASF process–Project design mandate SHORT TERM OPTION (EAST OF PITT):

• Low speed zone • Higher quality pedestrian facilities, improved urban realm, decluttered footpaths • 24 hr bus lane west of Pitt / peak lane east of Pitt • Trial segregated cycle lane with moveable planters to trial different layouts e.g. for special events

BEFORE

• Remove / relocate parking as required • Servicing off peak • General traffic–1 lane each way. LONG TERM OPTION (EAST OF PITT)

• Phasing to occur post CRL / LRT • Low speed zone, better wayfinding e.g. to K’Rd Station • Footpaths widened for high pedestrian use, urban realm improvements, mid block treatments for ped. crossings

AFTER

• Permanent segregated cycle lane • 1 lane each way for mixed traffic, carriageway width reduced, • Servicing off-peak , consolidated loading zones • Road looked at over 24 hr period.

125


Manukau Transport Study

2

MANUKAU METRO CENTRE

UT RR CA

600ha area – over 200ha controlled by Council (orange) and Crown (green) entities.

PLUNKE T AVE

Opportunity for Panuku Development Agency to facilitate significant redevelopment to support growth & improve accessibility

D HR

Council portfolio – 95ha in 40 properties, including AT car parks.

PUHINUI RD MOE

AUT

R

TE IRIRANGI RD

T ER N

MO T OR

M AN U

K AU S TAT ION R OAD

WAY

WIRI S TATION RD

HR

MOE

EVENTS CENTRE

D

800m radius from train station Auckland University of Technology

CMDHB Counties Manukau District Health Board

126

HNZ

Housing New Zealand

MoE

Ministry of Education

SHA

Special Housing Area

MIT

Manukau Institute of Technology

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

SHA

DALGET Y DR

AUT

KERR S RD

CMDHB

HNZ

M OT OR WAY

SOUTHERN

AT S O U T

HNZ

HNZ

G RE

DR U C E S R D

H OBILL AVE

Crown entities and public institutions Large private landholdings

RD

MIT H -WE S

Project area

Y

R ON W OOD AVE

Council

SPORTS BOWL

DA R

HAYMAN PARK

Project area and property ownership

UN

DISH D

S OU T

BO

C AVEN

Important link to Auckland Airport

REAGAN RD

MOE BROWNS RD

ORAM S RD

BOTANIC GARDENS


ANNEX Case studies

6

Place – land use & activities Metropolitan Centre – Second only to the city centre in scale and intensity a wide range of activities. General Business and Mixed Use –light industrial to limited office, large format retail and trade suppliers. The mixed use zone provides medium density residential activity and smaller scale commercial activity. Light Industry and Heavy Industry – industrial activities including manufacturing, production, logistics, storage, transport and distribution. Residential Zones – generally zoned mixed housing suburban or urban, which provide for small scale intensification. The Terrace Housing and Apartment Building zone is applied to the large site at 20 Barrowcliffe Place.

Vision Manukau is the metropolitan centre and its surrounds as “the thriving heart and soul for the south”.

Special Purpose Zones – Pacific Events Centre and the DHB Superclinic site. The university campuses are given the same underlying zone as their surroundings. Relevant overlays – aircraft noise. Future development – over one third of the area is controlled by Council and Crown entities.

127


Movement networks â&#x20AC;&#x201C; overview Gre

at S

Ca

rru

th

ou

th

Rd

Rd

inui

Puh

Rd

Dr

nM ther

Sou

bie Lam

h Dr

y rwa

oto

ndis Cave

ve tA nke

Plu Motorway South-western

Rd Rd ces

Dru

n atio i St r i W

Great South Rd

Ash Rd

d rs R Ker

wns Bro

! State Highways omitted. Over Dimension routes not shown.

128

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Rd

Strategic road Primary arterial Secondary arterial PT - FTN PT - Connector Freight - Principle route Freight - Secondary route Cycle Expressway Future Mass Rapid Transit

Bus Station Rail Station


6

ANNEX Case studies

STEP 1

RURAL OR URBAN

Rural

Urban

PLACE

Residential

Mixed use

Business

Centres

Industrial

Built form & function

Property access

Smaller blocks

Multi level

City Centre-destination

Large scale

Low density

Med-High density

Low-Med density

High density, multy level

Low density

Multi level

Larger scale

Mixed use, active edge

Vehicle oriented

Some mixed use

High pedestrian

Wide access

Car oriented

High quality pavement

Poor active edge

Limited active edge

Multi modal axxess

2

Car parking on street

Walkable

Local

Neighbourhood

District

Sub-regional

City

MOVEMENT

Local Place

Local Street

Collector

Main Street

Arterial

Street form & function

<10 kph

20-30 kph

25-50 kph

25-40 kph

40-50 kph

Varies shared space, square

2 lanes, parking 2-4 lanes varies 10-20m parking 25m

2-4 lanes, Limited parking 20m

4-6 lanes parking 25-30m

Restricted veh

<5,000 veh

<15,000veh

>20,000 veh

MOVEMENT Significance

Local

5,000<15,000 veh

Neighbourhood

District

• Significant redevelopment potential in vicinity of the bus / rail station, which will increase mixed use activity and Terrace Housing / Apartment residential development as indicated in the Unitary Plan • Therefore, Manukau Station Rd should be a higher quality version of main street arterial.

City

Roads and Streets Family

2026 Typologies • Current function is already Main St with high place significance, strategic significance for public transport / cycling. Increasing pedestrian activity on the Main St.

Sub-regional

Single Use (Out of Centre) Arterial

Mixed Use Arterial

Main Street Main Street Arterial Arterial

Mixed Use Collector

Main Street Collector

Centre Local Street

Centre Plaza/ Square/ Shared

Rural Arterial Neighborhood Collector

STRATEGIC

5

Active edge

DISTRICT

4

PLACE Significance

Good frontage

LOCAL ROADS

3

Small scale, many crossings

MOVEMENT Local Neighborhood District Sub-regional City National

1

Determine the Place / Movement typology – example of Manukau Station Rd

Rural Collector

Local Street Rural Local Road

Local Neighborhood District Sub-regional City National PLACE

129


Determine typologies for wider Manukau network High place value typologies applied in centre to reflect Panuku development aspirations.

uth So

Motorway South-western

Main Street Arterial applied to Manukau Station Rd to reflect enhanced Main St function.

ern y wa tor Mo

Mixed Use Arterial applied to Great South, Cavendish and Lambie to reflect high movement value and mixed use (residential / commercial). Analysis focused on four key corridors – Manukau Station, Great South, Cavendish and Lambie – most have competing land use / transport drivers.

STEP 2-4

Determine modal priority for different roads Bus FTN–very high bus volumes getting to/from Great South Rd and the Manukau Bus Station. Current LRT thought is further north, so this will remain bus PT focused. Walking–increased demand in future as it develops–Ronwood Ave will also serve this function, Cavendish will be general traffic/freight focused, so Manukau Station Road is a key east-west connector. Cycling – trial segregated lanes on key routes where justified. Freight–on freight network, important link SH20-1, but relatively lower priority given that motorway-motorway connection exists. General traffic–moderate traffic volumes for road of this scale, but again the parallel motorway will take most of new demand. Consider service & delivery to support town centre, control access as centre becomes busier.

STEP 5-6

Address the six challenges using the toolbox: Living • Poor public realm in some place, disconnected land uses • Town centre severance from surrounding residential areas. Unlocking • PDA controls virtually some key sites via Council/Crown ownership, and as such has significant leverage over development outcomes • Significant development potential in Metro Centre zoning • Facilitate development on near-term sites -Section 1 and 6, 31-33 and 50 MSR.

130

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Case studies

6

Moving • Some spare capacity & lower volumes, significant reserve width(>30m) is an opportunity to achieve better outcomes for all modes • Currently planned bus lanes have potential cycle lane conflict – this is a design issue • NZTA concern re queuing back to SH interchanges • Redoubt/Mill Road corridor – potential induced demand impact on MSR volumes • Freight routes in conflict with Place values to be resolved through design. Protecting • Reducing number of collisions/crashes between vehicles and improving pedestrian and cycle safety. Functioning • Managing servicing and parking requirements to support the Metro Centre and future development. Sustaining • Improving noise and air quality levels adjacent to retail / commercial areas • Providing and supporting much improved accessibility for pedestrians and cyclists and key links to attractors in vicinity. Short-term measures (0-3yrs): • Bus lanes to support Manukau bus station / interchange and new Network routes • Commence streetscape upgrade, which will provide impetus for improved cycle connections (physical buffer where vehicle volumes high) • Low speed zone in pedestrian oriented areas, especially Main St function of Manukau Station Rd. Declutter existing footpaths • Trial road layouts & signals e.g. planters / segregated cycle lanes where justified, pedestrian priority areas and mid block crossings • Optimise signals to balance bus / pedestrian/ general traffic / freight and maximise efficiency for all modes • Provide real time information on travel conditions, travel choices and parking availability. Medium-term measures (3-10yrs): • Continue modal priority improvements as development phasing allows, redevelopment of car parking facilities • Investigate side street pocket parks to support liveability • Widen footpaths and optimise signals to improve accessibility for pedestrians and efficiency for buses • Reboubt Rd – Mill Rd corridor Stage 1. Proactive management of wider network to mitigate expected impacts of traffic growth. Long term measures (10+yrs) and/or strategic • Potential future Rapid Transit linking Botany, Manukau and Airport.

131


STEP 7

Outcome of RASF process Project design mandate Requirements Bus lane in each direction, bus turning movement provided for in and out of bus station, ability to operate double deckers Protected cycle lane in each direction (i.e. 1.5m + 0.5m physical buffer) Generally wider/higher amenity footpaths â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3m desirable given place value. Additional crossing points desirable in addition to new crossings being provided via bus lane project. Low speed to support place function of Main St. Ability to accommodate freight vehicle geometry/dimensions. Servicing managed off peak to support Main St function At least one standard width lane (3-3.5m) per direction. Turning lanes and movements to be managed with primary purpose of preventing queue lengths from impinging on motorway interchanges.

PROJECT MANDATE DESIGN CONCEPT FOR MANUKAU STATION RD IN 2026

132

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Case studies

6

133


7

ANNEX

Alignment of roads and streets family with existing road classifications

134

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


ANNEX Alignment with existing road classifications

7

The three-tier road classification hierarchy of arterials, collectors and local roads is a well-established hierarchy within the transportation and planning professions. The RASF family of typologies are designed to take account of these more traditional road classifications, which are typically focussed on ‘movement’ functions. The diagram illustrates the alignment between NZTA’s ONRC, typical road classifications and the RASF family of typologies in this regard.

Arterial Roads

Secondary Arterials

Collector Roads

Local Roads

Main Street Arterial

Mixed Use Collector

Main Street Collector

DISTRICT

Neighborhood Collector

Strategic and Primary Arterial

Mixed Use Arterial

(Primary) Collector Roads (Secondary)

Centre Local Street

Centre Plaza/ Square/ Shared

Local Roads

Rural Arterial

TYPICAL ROAD CLASSIFICATION

National Roads Regional Roads

LOCAL ROADS

MOVEMENT Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National

Single Use (Out of Centre) Arterial

STRATEGIC

ONE NETWORK ROAD CLASSIFICATION (ONRC)

ROADS AND STREETS FAMILY

Rural Collector

Local Street Rural Local Road

Local  Neighborhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National PLACE

135


66

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

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Roads and streets framework  

Auckland Transport

Roads and streets framework  

Auckland Transport

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