Page 1

Practitioner Guide

Roads and Streets Framework

&

Transport Design Manual

1


Introduction Auckland region is experiencing population growth and urbanisation at an unprecedented rate, placing new challenges on our existing infrastructure as well as requiring significant new infrastructure. Addressing the physical, social and spatial challenges of this growth requires a close look at the region’s roads and street, which make up the largest component of the regions transport system. Roads and streets comprise 15% of Auckland’s existing urban area and 50% of its public open space. The public space between buildings helps support business exchange, residential living in neighbourhoods and provides community-building opportunities such as social cohesion and access to open space. Roads and streets today must serve a diverse and growing number of people doing many more things. The planning, design and

2

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

management of roads and streets is therefore critical to delivering the overarching vision of the Auckland Plan. The Roads and Streets Framework (RASF)and the Transport Design Manual’s (TDM) Urban Street and Road Design Guide sets a new vision and approach to roads and streets, one that is primarily focussed on people, safety, and increasing the travel choices and opportunities for Aucklanders. The vision and approach re-imagine roads and street to support the full variety of civic, social, economic and environmental functions they perform. The RASF balances and integrates the intended strategic and local place and movement functions of roads and streets, as well as the desired levels of service for all transport modes. The RASF process helps stakeholders agree the strategic direction to transform the future form and function of roads and streets to reflect the places and activities they serve.

The TDM is a practical tool that implements the strategic direction from the RASF and enables urban designers, traffic engineers and other practitioners to design roads and streets, and neighbourhood networks that better accommodate all users and meet the demands of a growing neighbourhoods, city and region. Applied together, these two documents provide guidance to stakeholders and partners about AT’s requirements for the planning, design, construction and vesting of assets that will be managed by AT. The RASF and TDM outline best practice standards and take precedence over other guidelines and standards. Where appropriate, local and international case studies illustrate the benefits and results of successfully implementing this new approach.


Context Over the past 50-60 years, the primary design focus of roads and street in many countries has been on the accommodating the private motor vehicle. The design of roads and streets has focussed on a car-first approach that categorises and manages roads and streets primarily based on their ability to facilitate the movement of cars. As a result, many urban streets fail to achieve the strategic objective of encouraging sustainable modes of transport and are unable to support the full range of social and economic activities required for a growing city and region. Over the last 10 years, cities around the world have been adopting progressive new approaches, guidelines, standards and best practice design that support walking, cycling and public transport use. It is becoming evident that this new approach can provide large benefits beyond mobility including increased economic activity, improved public health, better-designed road and street environment, and more liveable neighbourhoods.

Cities such as London, Toronto and Stockholm are already demonstrating how movement and place frameworks and street design guidelines can deliver roads and streets that provide benefits for all users.

Where do the RASF and TDM fit? THE AUCKLAND PLAN

‘Place’

‘Movement’

Unitary Plan, Local Board Plans, Centre Plans, Developments

ATAP, Network Plans, Corridor plans, Supporting Growth

The Auckland Plan sets the overarching vision and strategy for growth and development in the Auckland region over the next 30 years. The Plan provides a holistic view and considers the social, economic, cultural and environmental wellbeing of the city and region.

Roads and Streets Framework

Transport Design Manual

Typologies, Challenges, Modal Priority

Design Guidance, Technical Standards

Beneath the Auckland Plan, a series of tactical plans translate the vision and strategic directions into important priorities, milestones and programmes for different areas or precincts (Places) and transport networks (Movement). These may be of different scales and different contexts, e.g. sub-regional or locally focussed, mode specific or multi modal, urban or rural, built or natural environment.

Urban Street and Roads Design Guides

Operations & Maintenance

Figure  1 Hierarchy of planning and policy documents

Code of practise Standarts and Drawings Infrastructure Work Specifications

3


Stakeholders The RASF and TDM is aimed at those stakeholders who are concerned with the built environment, the transport system and the way people experience roads and streets on a day-to-day basis. They may equally be of interest to community groups and residents who expect more from their roads and streets and wish to address how they look and function. The success of the RASF and TDM will be measured against the benefits they provide to the end users through improved and more efficient travel choices, safer streets and enhanced place-making. Everyone who plays a part in managing, directing, improving or determining the quality of roads and streets in Auckland will interact with the RASF and TDM in some way. This includes community sectors, engineers, planners and planning commissioners, urban designers, project managers, politicians, developers, influencers, building and utility companies, advocacy groups and users. Figure  2 Benefits of using the RASF and TDM

Why should the RASF and TDM be used? Streets assessment tool makes it easy to identify typology

Less chum and rework as developers understand what is required

Clarity on what is acceptable for urban development

Faster, more efficient processes

More consistent planning hearing decisions as comissioners understand strategic direction

Avoid an ad-hoc approach to development

4

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Relevant information contained within two documents rather than large number of resources

Clear strategy for development of roads and streets

Advocates and politicians can hold Auckland Council / AT to strategy

Understand Council expectations

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF USING THE RASF AND TDM

Accountability

Local Board Plan aspirations taken into account through the RASF and TDM

Regional consistency

Best practice guidance

Clear hierarchy of uses for different street types

Development of precedents and not starting from scratch each time

Development of precedents and not starting from scratch each time

Better outcomes & higher qualityur ban realm


Greenfield, Brownfield and Retrofitting Sites The RASF and TDM is aimed at those stakeholders who are concerned with the built environment, the transport system and the way people experience roads and streets on a dayto-day basis. They may equally be of interest to community groups and residents who expect more from their roads and streets and wish to address how they look and function. The success of the RASF and TDM will be measured against the benefits they provide to the end users through improved and more efficient travel choices, safer streets and enhanced place-making. Everyone who plays a part in managing, directing, improving or determining the quality of roads and streets in Auckland will interact with the RASF and TDM in some way. This includes community sectors, engineers, planners and planning commissioners, urban designers, project managers, politicians, developers, influencers, building and utility companies, advocacy groups and users. The RASF and TDM are applicable to existing urban areas as well as new development areas, which may include greenfield, brownfield and retrofit development. The Auckland Plan strategy for managing Auckland’s growth requires significant development over the next 30 years. Greenfield sites are typically undeveloped, and provide a relatively ‘clean slate’ for future development.

Brownfield sites may have existing uses (or have been abandoned) and projects will be in the form of retrofit, renewal or redevelopment. Many existing urban road and streets will need to be retro-fitted to accommodate more multi-modal travel choices and support the intensification of activities in neighbourhoods or town centres. The RASF and TDM use the same guiding principles, while recognising the different constraints and opportunities they provide. Each RASF typology has the typical width to ensure that enough space is provided to cater for relevant modal and place requirements that need to occur in this space. These may include infrastructure elements diverse as segregated cycle facilities, storm water management, streetscape and bus lanes. These RASF process can be used to test the actual requirements for specific sites or corridors, and if all design elements are required or not. Existing plans and strategies will provide information on the Place context (such as Centre Plans, Structure Plans, etc.) and transport network (such as mode network plans, corridor management plans, etc). These will assist in identifying a future street type, modal priority and high- level design concept.

5


Greenfield Sites Approximately 30-40% of Auckland’s growth will be accommodated within greenfield sites. Prior to development, there will typically be a very basic existing road network in these locations, with the street types generally reflecting one of the ‘rural’ place functions. As part of the Council’s structure planning process, the future road network will be developed in stages and each street assigned one of the 12 typologies. When assigning typologies and modal priorities, it is important to consider the role of the street within both the development and connections to the wider network. Greenfield sites typically have less constraints than existing urban areas, which can minimise the need for compromises between modes. However, careful consideration of the needs of the place and movement context for new development are required to ensure that the allocation of space and infrastructure is appropriate for the individual roads and streets and support the outcomes for the development. The application of the neighbourhood network design principles and transport metrics contained in the RASF and TDM can assist with the development of the finer-grained road and street network in new development areas where no road network currently exists. The metrics provide guidance on the desirable catchments between different activities (schools, town centre, open space, residential areas etc) to ensure that they are accessible by walking, cycling and public transport and intersection spacing between different road and street types (refer Chapter 5, RASF).

Brownfield Sites and Redevelopment Brownfield sites, or those in existing urban areas, will have an existing place function based on the existing use and surrounding context. The redevelopment will generally change the land use of the site, either the type or scale of use (or both). This will influence the street typology of any streets onto which the street has a frontage. The change in use will also impact on the scale and form of movement on the existing street, potentially increasing the number of people moving along the street or using it for access. For new streets within the site, the process will be similar to that for greenfield sites. Consideration should be given to the role of streets (and different modes) within the development and wider area networks. AT will be able to provide information on the existing and future functions of the surrounding network. Unlike Greenfield sites, Brownfield sites often have existing physical features that constrain the space available for the street. These can include existing uses, buildings, topography and trees. Therefore, greater consideration of trade-offs and the relative modal priorities will be necessary for brownfield sites, renewals and retrofits. The application of neighbourhood design principles and catchment metrics is equally important for Brownfield sites.

Retrofitting Existing Urban Streets and Roads Existing urban streets and roads will generally have existing place and movement functions. This will make it relatively straightforward to identify the current typology using information such as the existing traffic volumes, speeds and pedestrian numbers. Depending on the scale and scope of the proposed project, it may be necessary to identify a future street type to ensure that the development is appropriate.

6

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


RASF and Sustainability–Six strategic functions Auckland’s roads and streets need to perform six strategic functions in order to support the vision of a world class city. The consideration of six strategic functions requires a more holistic understanding of roads and streets in terms of the four well-beings (social, culture, economic, and environment) and the outcomes they seek to provides and the types of challenges facing them. 1

LIVING

Providing welcoming and inclusive places for all which support vital economic and community services

3

MOVING

Helping people and goods get from A to B and enabling efficient and reliable movement by a range of different modes

5

PROTECTING

Improving safety and reducing collisions, particularly for vulnerable road users and ensuring streets where people feel secure

UNLOCKING

2

Improving accessibility, connectivity and quality of areas to deliver the homes, jobs and economic sectors that Auckland needs as it grows

FUNCTIONING

4

Ensuring essential access for deliveries and servicing, and upgrading utilities to service Auckland as the world’s most liveable city

SUSTAINING

6

Reducing emissions from the road network and supporting greener, cleaner, quieter streets and a healthier, more active city

The functions should be considered when redesigning a road or street to understand the impacts on different user groups, the environment, and the place. Some of the functions are specific to place i.e. living, unlocking and functioning and some are specific to movement i.e. moving. The protecting and sustaining functions are common to both place and movement. 7


Applying the Roads and Streets Framework Applying the RASF is a seven step process (see Figure 3).

RASF STEERING GROUP

This group will be chaired by AT Strategy and include representatives from Auckland Council, Auckland Transport divisions and other Council family reps as required. It will be responsible for making decisions on modal conflicts which cannot be resolved at a project level. (TBC by AT)

Organising a workshop for the key stakeholders involved is an effective way to facilitate discussion and work through the steps to identify the street type and modal priorities. It is important that there is a good representation from all modes, key Council groups and organisations to enable a balanced discussion. Representation from Auckland Council and AT in this process is essential as a minimum. Panuku will be involved in their redevelopment areas, while developers or representatives of developers will be involved when discussing private proposals. Several workshops may be required and having the same attendees is important for the success of the workshops and will make the process easier and provide consistency.

RECOMMENDED WORKSHOP ATTENDEES

Determinate street-type

• Auckland Council • Walking • Cycling • Public transport • Rail

Design implement & monitor

Confirm network status

• General traffic • Freight • Heritage Identify tools to mitigate impact

Identify conflicts & opportunities Figure  3 The seven step process of the RASF

8

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Identify demand profile

Established modal priority


The Seven Step Process The process is slightly different depending on the type of development and who is going through the Roads and Streets Framework process. Typically, these differences are greatest between land use development and roads and streets upgrades. Separate guidance has been provided where the differences are significant. 1

 Determine Street Type

Roads and streets can be categorised into typologies depending on the relative importance of place and movement. Place and movement are on a continuum and the 12 street typologies (three rural and nine urban) have a local, district and strategic function aligning to place characteristics and the current road classifications of arterial, collector and local (see Figure 4). Identifying the street typology early on in the project development will provide a starting point for discussion and help work through challenges and conflicts.

STRATEGIC

Main Street Arterial

Place • Auckland Plan Centre Hierarchy • Unitary Plan • Land use and density

Neighbourhood Collector Rural Collector

Local Street Rural Local Road

Mixed Use Collector

Main Street Collector

DISTRICT

• Centre/Area Plans

Rural Arterial

• Local Board Plans • Private Development Proposals • Historical information

Centre Local Street

Centre Plaza/ Square/ Shared

LOCAL ROADS

MOVEMENT Local  Neighbourhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National

Mixed Use Arterial

The typology may change along the road or street being assessed so it should be broken into sections according to the differing land uses and characteristics. Information on the strategic importance of place and movement should be used such as:

ROADS AND STREETS FAMILY

Single Use (Out of Centre) Arterial

HOW TO DETERMINE THE STREET TYPOLOGY

Movement • Corridor Management Plans • Network Plans • WalkScore

Local  Neighbourhood  District  Sub-regional  City  National PLACE

Figure  4 Street typology

• Proposed projects or developments • Vehicle flows • Speeds

9


Think about the catchment area of each road or street. Are people using it from the local area, the whole city or even the whole country? For example Queen Street has a higher place significance and higher people movement (pedestrians) than a residential street, but a lower vehicle movement significance and catchment than parts of State Highway 1. The typology should be based on the future state and intended function rather than how it performs today. Refer to the Auckland Council (aucklandcouncil.govt.nz) and Auckland Transport (at.govt.nz) websites for information on proposed place plans or mode networks or changes which may impact the typology. Section 4 of the RASF provides greater detail and descriptions of the 12 typologies.

For driver signal please www.AT.govt.nz 09 Frequent as run Buses at afternoon, This with other information and For *Public timetable or Saturday $ Standard Peak Interchange orAnzac peak indicated clarification more as its call 366 icon connecting more Network bus/train identified indicated holidays. operators timetables Day times, operates. indicates frequently Network is6400 Monday (25 aon above. Station information true April) morning identifier all On reserve routes. run. When above. by services issues and public aidentifier are to this station icon accurate Waitangi itFriday. on the is and line holidays arecommended to right Saturday, run guide Day visit toa(6 change normal Sunday atFeb) to the

Toi Toi Pl No exit

Elam 160 m

Wellesley St East 200m

10

ROADS AND STREETS UPGRADES

LAND USE DEVELOPMENT

Roads and streets upgrades will be led by AT, or AC for streetscape enhancements. These will typically be in areas with existing place and movement functions. It is likely there will be a reasonable amount of information available to assist in identifying these functions. Corridor Management Plans (CMPs), where available, will provide a wide range of data, as well as indicate future street typologies. It may be useful to identify the existing typology, before moving onto the future / aspirational typology.

Land use development will often be in greenfield locations with minimal or nonexisting movement or place functions. In many circumstances, there will not even be an existing street network. Consequently, many of the tools that assist with identifying the street typology for urban street upgrades, such as Unitary Plan zoning, may not be available. The adjacent street network and land use may provide some guidance when assigning typologies. Sometimes a Council structure plan for the area will provide high level guidance on the landuse in the growth area and indicate the basic road network. Otherwise it is up to the developer to assign the preferred typology for each street within the development, however, AT and Auckland Council should be consulted with, and be partner to this process. The neighbourhood and town centre design guidance outlined in Section 5 of the RASF will assist in developing the street network.

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


2

 Confirm Network Status

Identify and confirm the existing and future network status for each mode. This will help determine the relative priority. The modal networks should include: • Key pedestrian links/destinations • Cycle network • Public transport network • Over-dimensional or over sized freight routes • Road network and general traffic Information on the networks is available on the AT website and any proposed changes should be considered as they may impact on the network status of the affected street. AT’s GIS team should be able to provide maps of the various networks.

ROADS AND STREETS UPGRADES

LAND USE DEVELOPMENT

For existing urban areas, there will likely be network maps available for each transport mode. These maps will provide the basis for conversations on network status for each mode. If the street is not included on a network map for a particular mode, the appropriate stakeholders should be consulted to confirm that the network status has not changed.

New streets and those in greenfield development areas are unlikely to be included within existing network maps. Consequently, AT and Council need to work proactively with the developer in the pre-application phase to identify the appropriate network of streets, including different modal networks and infrastructure requirements. Chapter 5 of the Urban Streets and Road Design Guide provides guidance on planning for neighbourhood street networks.

If there are multiple modal demands on a street, an iterative process of steps 3 – 6 will help to confirm the priorities which best support the place context.

11


3

 Identify Demand Profile

Data, information and relevant assessments from the previous 10+ years should be used to build up a profile of demand for both place and movement. The demand profile should cover a 24 hour period (or potentially an entire week), to understand how demands may fluctuate at different times.

Figure  5 Default street hierarchy

ROADS AND STREETS UPGRADES

LAND USE DEVELOPMENT

The historical significance of the site / area, future and existing land use and density will be useful inputs in identifying the place demands. Data such as parking density and turnover can also be used to identify the place demands.

New streets, and those in development areas will have limited or no information on the existing demand patterns. Therefore, the future land use within and outside the site will dictate both the movement and place demands. Significant land uses, such as town centres, employment areas and schools are major trip generators and streets that provide access between these and residential land uses will have high movement demands. The pattern of land use will often have been set by a Structure Plan or through a Private Plan change.

There should be records of existing movement demands for different modes. These may be available on the AT website, or you may need to request them directly. It may be necessary to undertake counts of people walking and on bikes, bus patronage, traffic volume and speed surveys to inform this step. Auckland Council reports such as pedestrian catchment and public realm assessments can also provide additional detail.

The type of land use may effect the scale and timing of demand. For example, a school may experience high demand for trips made by bicycle and walking between 3pm and 4pm. Transport modelling may be a useful resource for establishing future demands, but should be supplemented by other available qualitative and quantitative information for each of the six functions.

12

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


Strategic significance

4

 Establish Mode and Service Priority

Single Use Arterial

Mixed Use Connector

Main Street Arterial

Main Street Connector

Movement

Neighbourh Connector

Mixed Use Arterial

Centre-local Street

Centre Plaza Shared

Local significance

Local Street

Local significance

Place

Strategic significance

Determining the modal priority will assist in making choices about how to balance conflicting demands on the road network and how to reallocate space between users. Priority may change throughout the day (or week) so start with the peak hours. In layering the networks use a principle-based approach, starting with most vulnerable and sustainable users first followed by less sustainable modes such as private vehicles. This approach is reflected in AT’s default street hierarchy shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the starting modal priorities for each street typology. This should be used as a starting point for discussion. For some streets, these ‘starting’ priorities may be appropriate. However , in many cases these will need to be adjusted to fit the individual street. The outputs of Steps 2 and 3 should be used to inform these discussions. Having a representative from each mode and key stakeholder group at the RASF workshop will ensure this is a fair and balanced exercise.

Figure  6 Starting modal priorities

ROADS AND STREETS UPGRADES

LAND USE DEVELOPMENT

A workshop comprising of stakeholders for place and each of the modes (walking & cycling, public transport, freight & servicing, and general traffic) is the best way to allocate modal priorities.

For developers, it is recommended to engage with Auckland Council and AT to carry out this step as they are unlikely to have the range of modal specialists required to participate in the workshop.

The data collected through steps 2 and 3 should provide a good indication of the existing and future modal priorities. When allocating modal priorities, it is important to consider the role of the street in the wider network. For example, if a parallel corridor has public transport as the highest priority, a different mode (such as cycling) may be the highest priority on the street you are assessing.

Land use developments will often include a network of streets. Therefore, it will be necessary to assign modal priorities across the network. The process will be similar to that for roads and streets upgrades, with a greater focus on how modal priorities are distributed across the network. Chapter 2 of the Urban Streets and Road Design Guide provides guidance on planning for neighbourhood street networks.

It may be useful to create a scale (eg. 1-10) to rate the modes against each other. However, it is important to remember that rating the priorities is a qualitative exercise and that you are allocating a relative priority against the other modes. If the mode and service priority cannot be agreed, it should be escalated to the RASF Steering Group.

13


5 1

2

UNLOCKING

3

MOVING

FUNCTIONING

4

5

6

14

LIVING

  Identify Conflicts and Opportunities

This step will help identify if modal priorities can be delivered easily, if trade-offs will need to occur and the type of challenges likely to be faced for each of the six functions. The aim is to achieve buy-in on the provision and priorities of modes along the road or street. If a mode cannot be accommodated, then a commitment to provide for it on a suitable alternative route must be given. Consider provision on surrounding network for example if bus priority cannot be accommodated in this location, what is the potential on adjacent corridors? There is also the potential for conflicts between the place and movement functions of the street. This is more likely for typologies with high movement and place functions such as Main Street Arterial.

PROTECTING

Under each of the six strategic functions, identify conflicts and opportunities for the location, e.g. poor road safety/casualty record, urban realm improvements needed, network operation concerns etc.

SUSTAINING

The AT website has a list of typical challenges for each typology which can be used as a starting point for discussions www.AT.govt.nz/RASFchallenges

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


6

 Identify Tools to Mitigate Impacts

Use the toolbox (Annex 2 of the RASF) to develop options for the location considering the wider network and the six strategic functions. Focus on the allocation of road space in relation to the modal priority and using space as efficiently as possible. New technology and innovative techniques should be considered in addition to travel demand management and behaviour change measures.

The extent to which the tools are applied will be based on the road and streets typology and their modal priorities. It will be useful to develop a table of the positive, neutral and negative impacts of the toolbox so that the range of impacts on the place and across the modes can be considered. Revert back to step 2 if there are unresolved conflicts.

Assets fit for purpose

Greater use of planting, adaptable design principles, reduce street clutter

Integrated and sustainable network management

Activating streets, low speed zones in streets with strong place functions, introduce pedestrian countdown timers

Intelligent systems and management

Optimise traffic signals to reflect daily demands around activity centres, use variable message signing, more transit lanes

Changing behaviour, managing demand and parking

Move to out-of-hours deliveries, real time information, co-ordinated land use planning and transport planning measures

Constrain, substitute, relocate and add capacity

Early involvement in planning/development process, revitalise existing segregated paths and bridges, reclaiming underused spaces and parts of the network

The AT website has a list of typical tools to address challenges which can be used as a starting point for discussions www.AT.govt.nz/RASFchallenges

7

 Design, Implement and Monitor

Develop measures based on the short term (0-3 years), medium term (3-10 years) and long term (10+ years) depending on funding availability and other developments which may act as a catalyst for change. After identifying the tools, a project mandate should be written which captures the outputs of steps 1–6 and confirms the strategic concept and modal priorities. It outlines the key requirements for each mode e.g. bus lanes in each direction, protected cycle lanes, urban realm improvements etc.

This is an essential reference for the subsequent design process and provides the strategic direction and justification for the preferred option. The key elements of the project mandate are: typology description, modal priority and network significance, key challenges across the six functions, tools to address the challenges, concept illustration of road or street layout. Once the project mandate has been created, the Transport Design Manual should be used to provide detailed guidance on how the design concepts translate into infrastructure and services.

15


CASE STUDY Karangahape Road

Karangahape Road – Main Street Arterial Context

Po ns on by Rd

Sy m on ds St

Que en S t

Karanga hape R d

Mercury Ln

Rd ape gah n a Kar

Pitt St

n St etou Hop

to be reprioritised to support the public transport network, cycling and walking. The new CRL station will be a significant catalyst for change along K-Rd as well as a catalyst for development in the back streets. The key information about K-Rd as a place is contained in Council and Local Board plans

Upp er Q uee n St

Karangahape Road (K-Rd) is an important character/entertainment street located on the city centre fringe with a range of retail, restaurants and bars providing evening entertainment. Its appeal and Main Street functions conflict with its function as an arterial road. The movement priorities need

Rd on wt Ne

2014 – 2044 MASTERPLAN

There are six key parts to the K-Rd plan: 1. Showcase K-Rd as the creative, edgy fringe of the city centre 2. Protect, enhance and celebrate the historic and cultural heritage, biodiversity and vibrancy 3. Provide safe and convenient connections in and through the area 4. Improve and develop an integrated network of civic and public open spaces 5. Create a safe and enjoyable environment to live, work and play 6. Promote CRL station at K-Rd as the catalyst for new investment and growth in the area

16

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


1

  Determine the typology

CURRENT: MIXED USE ARTERIAL

Heritage / character buildings, multiple small lots on ridgeline. Arterial movement, width and vehicle volume conflicts with place activities and constrains K-Rd further developing as a cultural and creative entertainment destination and future residential / mixed use developing in side streets.

FUTURE: MAIN STREET ARTERIAL

Potential for significant change with the opening of the CRL station and improvements to walking and cycling. Potential future apartment living / mixed used developing in side streets. The movement function is still important providing connection with the City Centre. Main Street function has the potential to extend across the full length of K-Rd as redevelopment occurs.

2

3

4

  Network Status, Demand and Mode and Service Priority High priority route for pedestrians due to proximity of CRL station particularly during peak hours. Infrastructure to support significant increase in pedestrian activity and encouraging active moves. Important route for cyclists due to connection with city centre. Frequent bus service with reliable journeys in peak times. • Pedestrians have high priority to reflect K-Rd as a destination • Bus and cycle priority to support the importance of the K-Rd route for these modes. • General traffic and freight/service delivery is not a priority at peak times with heavy freight actively discouraged from using K-Rd. • Low speed environment encouraged to support active modes and public transport access.

17


5

1

2

LIVING

Address conflicts between arterial road function and place functions of wider K-Rd catchment. Better quality urban realm will encourage investment in retail, commercial and residential activities.

UNLOCKING

Retaining and enhancing the significant social and economic exchange, supporting the development capacity of the area. Utilise underused side streets to support permeability.

MOVING

Enhance attractiveness and safety of active modes. Improve journey time reliability for public transport and cycling.

3

FUNCTIONING

4

5

PROTECTING

6

SUSTAINING

Manage servicing and parking requirements to support retail and future development. Make priority clear using road space and enforcement. Reduce the number of collisions between vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists. Better lighting and public realm enhancements to reduce crime. Address noise and air quality issues to make K-Rd a more attractive place. Enhance accessibility to key trip attractors to unlock retail and apartment living, especially following the completion of CRL.

6

18

 Identify Conflicts and Opportunities

 Identify Tools to Mitigate Impacts

Assets fit for purpose

Flexible and resilient assets to support a range of temporary activities such as market days. Street decluttering, street furniture zone with cycle parking in useful locations. Side street pocket parks. Trial layouts.

Integrated and sustainable network management

Low speed environment to improve safety and enhance mid block crossing opportunities. Informal use of road space such as traffic free days. Prioritise K-Rd as a low emission route.

Intelligent systems and management

Optimise signals to achieve modal priority–pedestrian countdown, timed servicing and deliveries, real time information on traffic conditions. Progress e-mobility solutions such as e-bikes and car sharing.

Changing behaviour, managing demand and parking

Local businesses and apartment to utilise travel plan tools and TDM information to change travel patterns and utilise active modes to access transport hubs. Active management of wider network to address traffic dispersal impacts.

Constrain, substitute, relocate and add capacity

Partial road closures to support K-Rd as a destination and visitor hub. Restrict general traffic during peak periods. Possible detune or close Symonds St on-ramp (south) as public transport and active mode accessibility increase.

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CASE STUDY Karangahape Road

7

  Design, Implement and Monitor SHORT TERM

MEDIUM TERM

LONG TERM

0-3

3-10

10+

YEARS

YEARS

YEARS

• Low speed zone • Reallocate parking • 24hr bus lane west of Pitt Street, peak hr bus lane east of Pitt St • Trial layouts for segregated cycle facilities • Footpath decluttering and widening, street furniture zone • Servicing and delivery retimed to off peak, potential inset loading zones • Retain one traffic lane in each direction, reduce/ remove parking

• Widen footways to accommodate CRL opening

• Introduce initiative on on road pricing to manage demand

• Expand segregated cycle network and connections to wider networks

• New technology to improve corridor efficiency and safety.

• Investigate point closures and closure of Symonds Street SH1onramp to support city centre place making and active mode access • Prioritise as a low emission bus route as part of the North Western Busway proposal.

• Support road closures for events/markets and consider an Auckland Open Streets event, public realm streetscape improvements.

Next step Refer to the Transport Design Manual for how the concepts in the project mandate translate into infrastructure and services

19


CASE STUDY Whenuapai Structure Plan

Whenuapai Structure Plan area – Land Use Development Context The Whenuapai Structure Plan area is 15,000ha in size and is bounded by the SH16, SH18 and the Upper Waitemata Harbour. It is surrounded by development at Hobsonville and West Harbour and is well connected to the CBD, Albany and Kumeu-Huapai. No rapid transit options currently exist in the northwest of the region.

20

PRESENT DAY

2046 SCENARIO

• 850 dwellings, largely single house zones • Main centre of activity is at the Brigham Creek/Totara intersection with local shops, primary school and a timber mill • Air Force base is a 310ha site in the centraleastern part of the area and is surrounded by a local road network • Brigham Creek Road is the only arterial road through the area carrying on average 10,000 vehicles/day. It links the SH16 and SH18. • Single bus route through the area connecting to Hobsonville Point and Westgate • Ferry services from Hobsonville Point and West harbour although a lack of bus integration with services • Popular cycle routes run along Brigham Creek Road and SH18.

• 9,400 households, 23,000 population

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

• 8,600 employees with 600 in the centre • 11,750m2 GFA retail • 3,200 primary and 1,500 secondary school students • Upgraded motorway interchanges and additional connections • New busways with four stations serving the area. Westgate as the main bus station • Protected cycle facilities on Brigham Creek Road, Totara-Mamari, Northside and southern part of Trig Road. Shared paths on parallel state highways • Local roads to encourage a low speed cycling environment.


1

  Determine the typology

CURRENT: NEIGHBOURHOOD CONNECTOR

Encircle the Air Base providing connections to Brigham Creek Road but with low place and movement functions

FUTURE: MAIN STREET ARTERIAL, MIXED USE ARTERIAL AND OUT OF CENTRE ARTERIAL

the north, single zone industrial for the south. When Totara and Mamiri roads are connected they will provide the main north-south movement with frequent bus services and protected cycle lanes. NB this may not happen until 2030.

Main St around the proposed centre, mixed use to medium density residential areas to

Transition from Main Street Arterial around the centre at Brigham Creek Road, Mixed Use Arterial within the medium density residential areas and Out of Centre Arterial in the industrial area to the south.

2

3

4

  Network Status, Demand and Mode and Service Priority

High priority route for public transport connecting in with Westgate bus station. Strategic cycle route as well as important connector for walking. Public transport, cycling and walking are the highest priority. Public transport, cycling and walking are the top three desired priorities. Medium priority for general traffic although car access will remain important. (The accessibility between the surrounding residential areas to the town centre, open space, schools and other community facilities is relatively poor based on current information. Hence greater reliance on car travel is expected). Freight is assigned a medium priority due to the link between Northside Drive, Trig Road and interchanges on SH16 and SH18. 21


5

1

2

LIVING

UNLOCKING

3

MOVING

FUNCTIONING

4

5

PROTECTING

6

SUSTAINING

Address conflicts between arterial road function and adjacent development i.e. need to provide additional pedestrian crossings and rear lanes to reduce driveways crossing footpaths. Provide for the travel patterns of future residents and workers. Ensure this area contributes as much as possible to alleviating Auckland's growth pressures and reduce reliance on car travel for local trips. Provide for the travel patterns of future residents and workers with a focus on public transport. However, large areas of the development may have low density and poor accessibility for walking and cycling to key facilities and services, so the reliance on car travel will be difficult to reduce. Provide for deliveries and parking in centre at Brigham Creek Road. Improve the safety record of collisions. Ensure that walking and cycling become more attractive modes to increase the active mode share. Reduce traffic noise and emissions to enable residential intensification.

6

22

 Identify Conflicts and Opportunities

 Identify Tools to Mitigate Impacts

Assets fit for purpose

Improve the match between materials and place context.

Integrated and sustainable network management

Introduce traffic calming and create a low speed environment to improve cycle and pedestrian safety.

Intelligent systems and management

Innovative delivery and servicing management in centres.

Changing behaviour, managing demand and parking

Bus and cycle lanes to create direct and reliable connections to trip attractors. Create travel plans for local schools and businesses to encourage active modes.

Constrain, substitute, relocate and add capacity

Change in number of general traffic lanes required to react to change in demand. For other modes and reduce severance impacts of major arterials in vicinity.

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


CASE STUDY Whenuapai Structure Plan

7

  Design, Implement and Monitor SHORT TERM

MEDIUM TERM

LONG TERM

0-3

3-10

10+

YEARS

YEARS

YEARS

• Traffic calming to create a slow speed environment to enhance pedestrian and cycle safety in absence of a dedicated facility • Basic street improvements – match materials to place context as urbanisation occurs.

• Urbanisation in western areas to lead development and aid intensification

• Link Totara and Mamiri roads to provide complete north-south link

• Improved walking and cycling facilities i.e. segregated cycleways

• Potential to reduce number of lanes if road pricing is implemented as demand will change

• Bus lanes to provide direct and reliable connection to Westgate • Stronger amenity focus in centre at Brigham Creek Road with additional crossings, street trees etc.

• Create a stronger amenity focus particularly around centre.

Next step Refer to the Transport Design Manual for how the concepts in the project mandate translate into infrastructure and services.

23


Using the Transport Design Manual The TDM provides the principles and standards to implement the strategy of the RASF. There are three sections to the TDM: SECTION 1 Design Guides SECTION 2 Code of Practice Standards and Drawings SECTION 3 Infrastructure Works Specifications

The three documents are hierarchical, with the RASF providing the strategy above the Design Guides (see Figure 7). The documents provide increasing detail for the planning and design of streets as you travel through the hierarchy. The RASF has the least detail, but provides the strategic direction and principles for implementing the various Design Guides, which in turn provides the strategy for the implementation of the Code of Practice and so on. Where conflicts or design challenges arise, the document immediately above in the hierarchy should be consulted to understand the principles and outcomes for the street. This should then provide direction in how to reconcile the conflicts.

Urban Street and Road Design Guide The USRDG (along with the Auckland Design Manual) outlines the best practice for urban street and road design in Auckland. As a result, it supersedes existing design guidelines and practice outlined in NZTA guidelines and Austroads.

The document is designed to assist in updating the existing urban street network through retrofits, renewals and major projects. The end goal is that all streets in Auckland are fit-for-purpose, as defined by their street typology within the RASF.

Roads and Streets Framework

As an overview of contemporary best practice, the guide challenges what may have previously been considered business as usual or standard practice. The most vulnerable road users (people walking and cycling) should feel comfortable and safe on our streets. A ‘Safe Systems Approach’ is promoted through the TDM design guidelines and will help address the growing conflicts between increasing traffic volumes and vulnerable road users.

D E SIG N F R A M E WO R K

T R A N S P O R T D E S I G N M A N UA L

I N FR

A S TR U C TU RE WORK S P EC I FICATION S

24

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

CO D E O F P R AC T IC E S TA N DA R D S A N D D R AW IN G S

T TR E E U R BA N S D A A N D RO U IDE G N G I S DE

Templates

Quality assurance

Departures

Safety in design

Figure  7 Hierachy of TDM


The design process will typically encounter conflicts and constraints when developing options. The USRDG will assist with identifying trade-offs and compromises to achieve the desired outcomes. One of the key features of the USRDG is a focus on neighbourhoods and how designing at a neighbourhood scale influences the wider network (see Figure 8). This approach focuses on creating a network that provides greater choice in how people travel, reducing the number of journeys that need to be made by car. Walking network Public transport network Cycling network Private vehicle network

Streets should work for everyone; however, different user types have different characteristics and needs. Guidance is provided on space requirements for different users, the principles to follow when developing networks for each user type and the appropriate design responses depending on the network role and context. This is covered for both intersections and mid-blocks.

1.7 - 2 m

4.5 - 5.4 m

IT SI CRITICAL TO SELECT THE SMALLEST POSSIBLE MOTORISED DESIGN VECHILE

9 -11.5 m

3.5 m

The Design Guides provide principles and strategies on how features such as block size, permeability and catchments can be used to achieve positive outcomes for neighbourhoods. The revised set of design controls such as speed reduction tools and using appropriate movement and place functions will assist in providing better outcomes (see Figure 9).

1.5 m

Figure  8 Multi-modal transport network

2.5 m

5.3 - 7.5 m

Figure  9 Default design vehicles outlined in the Urban Streets and Road Design Guide

25


Code of Practice Standards and Drawings The Code of Practice (CoP) provides the details and standards to implement the strategy and principles outlined by the RASF and appropriate Design Guide. A much higher level of detail on when to use different design interventions is provided compared with the USRDG. This allows designers to identify those elements that are suitable for the street type and environment they are working in. The CoP includes the dimensions of design elements and standard detail drawings to provide certainty on what is expected and acceptable by AT (see Figure 10). The standards outlined within the CoP are the expected requirements. Designers should look for opportunities to provide a higher standard.

Infrastructure Work Specifications The Infrastructure Work Specifications provide the final level of detail for street design. This document will primarily be used by designers and contractors and sets out AT’s specifications for the construction of roads and streets.

26

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK


What does success look like? Success is about the delivery of a range of suitable tools on roads and streets and monitoring how effective they are in achieving the intended outcomes. Key Performance Indicators should be identified in order to monitor how well the design solutions have contributed towards the six strategic functions in making Auckland a world class city. Below is an initial set of indicators which will be improved over time.

1

2

• Pedestrian counts/active edge • Services & facilities available within 10 minute walking trip • Crime rates/trends from NZ Police statistics

LIVING

• Jobs accessible within 30– 45 minute trip • Portion of household income spent on transport • Walk score (international ranking of how well connected each place is) applied to selected locations

UNLOCKING

3

• Screenline survey of people movement per mode in peak/off-peak in selected locations • Journey time reliability on key routes • People throughput of different modes

MOVING

• Parking occupancy for town centres (compared to 85% occupancy threshold) • Heavy vehicle volumes/portion of traffic on selected routes

FUNCTIONING

4

5

6

PROTECTING

• Death and serious injury on local roads • Collective / personal risk = social cost per km of road • Crime statistics for selected catchments on local roads

SUSTAINING

• Per capita greenhouse emissions and air pollution (NOx, PMx) • Portion of residents who regularly use active modes and public transport per week

International Case Studies PICCADILLY CIRCUS – LONDON

SWANSTON STREET–MELBOURNE

BEFORE

AFTER

The existing street design was focused on the efficient movement of vehicles which didn’t reflect the National place status

A one-way system was reverted to twoway to reduce the segregation imposed by the road network. Wider footpaths, improved crossings and removal of street clutter led to a better balance of the place and movement priorities

BEFORE

The initial street design was focused on vehicle movement with additional lanes for parking and light rail was not a priority. The function of street as a busy shopping area was not represented in the pedestrian environment

AFTER

Light rail was prioritised and private vehicles removed. Footways were widened with additional pedestrian crossing implemented to better reflect the function as a busy shopping street 27


Roads and Streets Framework Transport Design Manual The Auckland Plan Auckland Unitary Plan Auckland Transport Alignment Project

28

ROADS AND STREETS FRAMEWORK

Profile for Maria Petkova

Practitioners Guide for Roads and Streets Framework  

Auckland Transport

Practitioners Guide for Roads and Streets Framework  

Auckland Transport

Profile for m.petkova
Advertisement