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T YPE SPECI — M E N BOOK NARRATIVE 2 ARTICLES BY ILLENE STRIZVER

SPECIMEN 17 TYPE SPECIMEN


C 01

17

ARRANGING LOWER CASE LETTERS BY ILENE STRIZVER

Aa

CASLON DESIGNER: WILLIAM CASLON DESIGN DATE: 1905 CLASSIFICATION: OLD STYLE

E

O 89

21

6 TYPOGRAPHY TERMS THAT GET CONFUSED A LOT BY ILENE STRIZVER

Aa

GARAMOND DESIGNER: CLAUDE GARAMON, DESIGN DATE: 1592 CLASSIFICATION: OLD STYLE

25

Aa

HOEFLER TEXT DESIGNER: JONATHAN HOEFLER DESIGN DATE: 1991 CLASSIFICATION: OLD STYLE

N


N 29

41

Aa

BASKERVILLE DESIGNER: JOHN BASKERVILLE DESIGN DATE: 1757 CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

Aa

BODONI DESIGNERS: GIAMBATTISTA BODONI, MORRIS FULLER BENTON DESIGN DATE: 1908-1915 CLASSIFICATION: MODERN

T

33

45

Aa

PERPETUA DESIGNER: ERIC GILL DESIGN DATE: 1929 CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

Aa

DIDOT

DESIGNER: FIRMIN DIDOT DESIGN DATE: 1783 CLASSIFICATION: MODERN

37

49

Aa

T

JANSON DESIGNER: MIKLÓS TÓTFALUSI KIS DATE: 1985 CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

Aa

MONOTYPE MODERN DESIGNERS: MONOTYPE STAFF DESIGN DATE: 1896 CLASSIFICATION: MODERN

S


C

E

53

61

Aa

CLARENDON DESIGNER: HERMANN EIDENBEN DESIGN DATE: 1845 CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SERIF

Aa

MEMPHIS DESIGNER: RUDOLF WOLF DESIGN DATE: 1929 CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SERIF

O 57

65

Aa

GLYPHA

DESIGNER: ADRIAN FRUTIGER DESIGN DATE: 1977 CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SERIF

Aa

LUBALIN GRAPH DESIGNER: HERB LUBALIN DESIGN DATE: 1974 CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SERIF

N


N 71

75

T

Aa AVENIR

DESIGNER: ADRIAN FRUTIGER DESIGN DATE: 1988 CLASSIFICATION: SANS SERIF

Aa

CENTURY GOTHIC DESIGNERS: MONOTYPE STAFF DESIGN DATE: 1990 CLASSIFICATION: SANS SERIF

T

79

85

Aa

FUTURA DESIGNER: PAUL RENNER DESIGN DATE: 1932 CLASSIFICATION: SANS SERIF

Aa

NEWS GOTHIC DESIGNER: MORRIS FULLER BENTON DESIGN DATE: 1908 CLASSIFICATION: SANS SERIF

S


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A R R A N G I N G LOW E R C A S E L E T T E R S

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R


by Ilene Strizver

OLD ST YLE

02


mimi mimi unworthy unworthy Somewhat too tight

Rythmically correct

Too close. The w makes holes

Correct. Rythmically perfect

It is generally assumed that it is simple to put lower case letters together. This overlooks the fact that lower case also have some open characters (k, r, t, v, w, x, y, z) and that they too contain the o which so often makes a hole in the line. Furthermore, we are too conditioned by the low level of lettering that surrounds us to be aware of the faults of most lower case word images, even the printed ones. If one takes the trouble to investigate why today’s lettering does not look as well as the most perfect of past lettering specimens, he will find that the past used a different rhythm. The lower case letters were not as crowded together as they are today. The old lettering master followed the rule that all the basic strokes of a word should be spaced at approximately equal distance. This rule is disregarded today; lower case letters are pushed together. This is why much lettering and even the better typefaces look deficient. The old rule, however, is still valid. Only if it is observed will the letters k, r, t, v, w, x, y, and z cease to create gaps in the word image, and the letters b, d, o, p and q cease to make holes.

03

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R

T L M F R A S W B A E — D


THE OLD LETTERING MASTER FOLLOWED THE RU LE THAT ALL THE BASIC STROKES OF A WORD SHOULD BE SPACED AT APPROXIMATELY EQUAL DISTANCE. —THIS RULE IS DISREGARDED OLD ST YLE

04


forma virgultu forma virgultum 05

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R


um brachium m brachium The upper line shows some words of the specimen of Claude Garamond’s types published in 1592. The lower line shows a modern Garamond. Note the perfect rhythm of the genuine Garamond. The later letters are too close together causing gaps after r and b, and generally lack the evenness of the older form. The rhythm and form of the original make it incomparably superior to the modern one.

06


THE CHARACTERISTIC FORM OF THE LOWER CASE WORDS MAKES THEM FAR EASIER TO PERCEIVE THAN WORDS LETTERED IN CAPITALS

We learned that, if the architecture calls for it, capital letters may be letter spaced more widely than the rule demands. This is not true of lower case letters. There should be no letter spacing of lower case letters. They should be arranged only in their normal fitting. This prohibition is based on the fact that lower case letters have a mote irregular outline than capital letters. In addition to characters of the normal height of n, there are also letters with ascenders (b, d, f, h, k, 1) and descenders (g, j, p, q, y), and the t which has a short point on top. This gives the word image of lower case letters a characteristic form which the words of capitals lack. Capitals always form a square, only rarely enlivened by the tail of a Q or an accent. The characteristic form of the lower case words makes them far easier to perceive than words lettered in capitals. Nevertheless, lower case words are rarely suitable on buildings. What matters here is not the speed of comprehension but the harmony of the facade. This, by its very nature, calls for architectural letters rather than those which derive from calligraphy as the lower case letters do.

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R


unworthy u nwor t hy Satisfactory

Unsatisfactory

The top word shows the correct rhythm of lower case letters. The word at bottom is letter spaced hence difficult to read. In single lines letter spacing of lower case letters is questionable; if more than one line is involved, letter spacing of lower case letters is wrong.

08


nhmur nhmur

quer auer gala quer auer gala quer auer gala 09

A R R A N G I N G LOW E R C A S E L E T T E R S

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R


rpq rpq

apagos apagos apagos

Lower case letters were originally a calligraphic form, written with a pen. Since this form has long been fixed and is unchangeable, attempts to change the calligraphic character in favor of a constructed one will never succeed. Take a look at the n starts, as written with a broad pen, a little under the upper line of the letter. That is why the forms of the n, h, m, u, r, p and q are never quite satisfactory in sans serif letters. In roman alphabets the beginning and endings of these letters are thin because the upward stroke of the broad pen made them so. In sans serifs they must be thick. This leads to thickenings which only masters can make relatively inconspicuous. Lower case letters are suitable only for independent signs and longer texts. There they are welcome so that the content can be quickly grasped. Lower case words impress the mind with their total silhouette while capitals are mentally spelled out letter by letter. But it is not only the silhouette we read. It can easily be proven that the eye grasps the upper half of the word image. It is far more important than the lower half. The following example shows that we cannot easily decipher the lower half of a word if we cover the upper half. But we can read the upper half relatively well if the lower half is cut away. This furnishes a good test for the relative legibility of roman and sans serif letters. What we read are the characteristic features of a letter, not what all the characters of the alphabet have in common. That is why a good letter must clearly show its distinguishing features.

10


LONG TEXTS OF SANS SERIFS ARE HARD TO READ, AT ANY RATE, AND THE LACK OF DISTINCTION OF THE SEEMINGLY “MODERN” A AND G INCREASES THIS DIFFICULTY. 11

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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A beautifully letter must naturally have unity

The upper half of a and g are identical and,

of form. It must, for instance, have the same

furthermore, the same as that of q. We thus

thickness of the basic strokes, of serifs, of

have three letters with the same upper half.

related curves, and so forth. But if the number

No two characters of the roman alphabet

of these form elements is excessively reduced,

have an upper half of the same shape, which is

as happens when the characteristic features

what makes them legible. If there are suddenly

are suppressed, legibility is threatened. The a

three different, important characters with the

and g of some sans serifs and Egyptians, which,

same upper half, the word images are bound to

in the manner of the italics of type styles that

become more blurred than normal word images

have serifs (a and g), are designed as a and g,

whose upper halves are distinct and different.

reduce the legibility of the word image. They

The use of a and g in sans serif, roman or

are falsely considered up-to-date. Viewed by

Egyptian letters is, therefore, a poor innovation.

themselves they may seem "simpler." than the

This can be demonstrated with several words.

forms a and g, but that is not the point. The

Long texts of sans serifs are hard to read, at any

primary purpose of a letter is not simplicity

rate, and the lack of distinction of the seemingly

but legibility. And a and g are less intelligible.

“modern� a and g increases this difficulty.

12


quer auer gala quer auer gala quer auer gala quer auer gala 13

A R R A N G I N G LOW E R C A S E L E T T E R S

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R


apagos apagos apagos apagos

Sans Serif and Egyptian letters with the a and g seem more decorative than the same letters with a correct a and g, because they contain more circular openings. The frequent repetition of the circular element makes a line of these letters decorative than that of other faces. But the decorative value is achieved at the expense of readability, just as the Textur with its distinct fracture of all details, results in a band of lettering that is highly decorative but hard to read. I therefore prefer the sans serif a and g designed by Eric Gill which derives from the classic form of the oldstyle. Gill’s emulation of oldstyle forms is also evident in his improved articulation of the characters b, j, s, t, u and J, Q, S, and G. The capitals are borrowed from the Roman inscriptions and the endings of C, G, J and S are uniform as in the Roman letters.

14


Old and New Old and New Unsatisfactory

Satisfactory

WORD SPACING IN LOWER CASE LINES Word spacing in lower case lines is more often too large rather than too small. Since the lower case letters do not feature openings as large as those in capitals, the word spacing should also be relatively smaller. In lines of lower case character of average width, the measurable distance between two words should be about twice as wide as a third of the height of the n. An o at the beginning of a word demands a somewhat smaller word space than n. In all of this, it is the optical space value that matters. In condensed letters, the word spacing may even be smaller. In very extended letters it should be a little larger. 15

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I L E N E ST R I Z V E R


allegory allegory Descenders of correct length.

Stunted descenders.

Industrial Department Main Entrance

Industrial Department Main Entrance

Correct word and line spacing.

The word spacing is too large. The arrangement falls apart.

LINE SPACING OF LOWER CASE LETTERS Lower case letters have four guidelines.

The smallest line spacing is that in which

The space between two inner ones is called

the descenders of the upper line touch the

the n height. The line of which the n rests is

ascenders of the line below. The danger of

called the base line. The uppermost guide-

this actually accusing is small. However,

line determines the limit of the ascenders

such close line spacing is rarely in order.

(although not necessarily the upper limit of the capital); the lowest line determines the lowest pint of the descenders. Well-formed descenders contribute as much to legibility as the ascenders. In some recent letters these descenders are inappropriately shortened. They seem weak, timid and unclear.

If the previously stated rule regarding word spacing is followed, word spacing will be considerably smaller than line spacing. This is necessary, for a letter arrangement in which the word spaces are as large or even larger than the line spaces is hard to read and seems disorderly.

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17

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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OLD ST YLE

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Regular Semi-Bold Bold + Italic

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Aa Bb


a b

Aa

Caslon Regular 10pt/16pt

Aa

Caslon Semi-Bold 14pt/20pt

The Englishman William Caslon (1672–1766) first cut his typeface Caslon in 1725. His major influences were the Dutch designers Christoffel van Dijcks and Dirck Voskens.

The Caslon font was long known as the script of kings, although on the other side of the political spectrum, the Americans used it as well for their Declaration of Independence.

The Englishman William Caslon (1672–1766) first cut his typeface Caslon in 1725. His major influences were the Dutch designers Christoffel van Dijcks and Dirck Voskens. The Caslon font was long known as the script of kings, although on the other side of the political spectrum, the Americans used it as well for their Declaration of Independence.

Aa

The Englishman William Caslon (1672–1766) first cut his typeface Caslon in 1725. His major influences were the Dutch designers Christoffel van Dijcks and Dirck Voskens...

Aa

The Englishman William Caslon (1672–1766) first cut his typeface Caslon in 1725. His major influences were the Dutch designers Christoffel van Dijcks and Dirck Voskens...

Caslon Bold 22pt/26pt

Caslon Italic 28pt/32pt

OLD ST YLE

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21

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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garamond

OLD ST YLE

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23

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GARAMOND

Garamond is Michelangelo's David to t type world. It is a timeless masterpiece cr ated by a classical craftsman and to this day is a cherished piece of history. Even i today's digital forms, Garamond evokes the hand. It puckers and bloats in delica ways like ink swelling within paper fiber

Garamond Italic 42pt/48pt

Aa


Aa

Garamond Regular 14pt/18pt

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV W XYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUV W XYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz A BCDEFGHIJK LM NOPQRSTUV WXYZ 1234567890 !&%#$?+()*;/

Garamond Regular 24pt/32pt

Garamond Regular 32pt/32pt

OLD ST YLE

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25

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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hoefler text OLD ST YLE

26


hijk lmn opqrstu vwxyz

abcdefg 27

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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n u

g

Aa

Hoefler Text Regular 9pt/14pt

Aa

Hoefler Text Italic 12pt/16pt

Aa

Hoefler Text Bold 20pt/24pt

Aa

Hoefler Text Black 28pt/32pt

Hoefler Text’s steadfast agenda sparked the interest of developers at Apple, where a fledgling techn

“TrueType GX” was being created with the goal of making fine typography not only available to eve

effortless to use. Apple commissioned us to further expand the fonts, and licensed Hoefler Text for

in System 7, the Macintosh operating system. While GX never emerged as a viable font format for d

Hoefler Text’s steadfast agenda sparked the interest of developers at Apple, where a f technology called “TrueType GX” was being created with the goal of making fine typ available to everyone, but effortless to use. Apple commissioned us to further expand licensed Hoefler Text for inclusion in System 7, the Macintosh operating system. Whi emerged as a viable font format for designers, it did fulfill its original promise of tur

Hoefler Text’s steadfast agenda sparked th interest of developers at Apple, where a fle technology called “TrueType GX” was bein created with the goal of making fine typog not only available to everyone, but effortle

Hoefler Text’s steadfast agen sparked the interest of devel Apple, where a fledgling tech called “TrueType GX” was b created with the goal of mak typography not only availabl

OLD ST YLE

28


baske 29

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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erville OLD ST YLE

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31

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BASKERVILLE

Baskerville Regular

Baskerville Italic

Baskerville Semi Bold

Baskerville Bold

bbbb


Aa

Baskerville Regular 9pt/13pt

Aa

Baskerville Italic 14pt/20pt

In 1757 designed by John Baskerville as his reaction to improving the Caslon typeface Baskerville remains metaphoric of the transitional period [between the Old Style and Modern]. He practiced designing typefaces with higher contrast strokes and geometric letterforms which were less influenced by its more humanist cousin Caslon.

In 1757 designed by John Baskerville as his reaction to improving the Caslon typeface Baskerville remains metaphoric of the transitional period [between the Old Style and Modern]. He practiced designing typefaces with higher contrast strokes and geometric letterforms which were less influenced by its more humanist cousin Caslon.

Aa

In 1757 designed by John Baskerville as his reaction to improving the Caslon typeface Baskerville remains metaphoric of the transitional period [between the Old Style and Modern]...

Aa

In 1757 designed by John Baskerville as his reaction to improving the Caslon typeface Baskerville remains...

Baskerville SemiBold 20pt/24pt

Baskerville Bold 32pt/34pt

TRANSITIONAL

32


33

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perpetua OLD ST YLE

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35

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a Bb Cc Dd E f Gg Hh Ii J k Ll Mm Nn Oo P q Rr Ss Tt U


v Ww Xx Yy Zz

Aa

Perpetua Regular 9pt/12pt

Type designer Eric Gill’s most popular Roman typeface is Perpetua, which was released by the Monotype Corporation between 1925 and 1932. It first appeared in a limited edition of the book The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity, for which the typeface was named. The italic form was originally called Felicity. Perpetua’s clean chiseled look recalls Gill’s stonecutting work and makes it an excellent text typeface, giving sparkle to long passages of text; the Perpetua capitals have beautiful, classical lines that make this one of the finest display alphabets available.

Aa

Type designer Eric Gill’s most popular Roman typeface is Perpetua, which was released by the Monotype Corporation between 1925 and 1932. It first appeared in a limited edition of the book The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity, for which the typeface was named. The italic form was originally called Felicity. Perpetua’s clean chiseled look recalls Gill’s stonecutting work and makes it an excellent text typeface, giving sparkle...

Aa

Type designer Eric Gill’s most popular Roman typeface is Perpetua, which was released by the Monotype Corporation between 1925 and 1932. It first appeared in a limited edition of the book The Passion of...

Perpetua Italic 16pt/20pt

Perpetua Bold 26pt/28pt

TRANSITIONAL

36


janson 37

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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n abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

OLD ST YLE

38


man c d d Italic Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVW XYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+( )*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Janson 55 Roman 12pt/16pt

Janson 56 Italic 12pt/16pt

Janson 75 Bold 12pt/16pt

Janson 76 Bold Italic 12pt/16pt

39

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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JA N S O N


55 Rom 56 Italic 75 Bold 76 Bold TRANSITIONAL

40


bodoni

41

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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OLD ST YLE

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43

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BODONI

Bodoni Book

Bodoni Roman

Bodoni Italic

Bodoni Bold

a a aa


Aa

Bodoni Book 24pt/28pt

Aa

Bodoni Roman 34pt/38pt

Aa

Bodoni Italic 48pt/52pt

Aa

Bodoni Bold 62pt/68pt

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopq ABCDEFGHIJKLM 1234567890!&%#$

abcdefghijklm ABCDEFGHIJ 1234567890! MODERN

44


didot 45

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OLD ST YLE

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Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV WXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Didot Regular 14pt/18pt

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 !&%#$?+()*;/

Didot Italic 24pt/28pt

Didot Bold 32pt/36pt

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T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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D I D OT


The strong clear forms of this alphabet display objective, rational characteristics and are representative of the time and philosophy of the Enlightenment. Adrian Frutiger’s Didot is a sensitive interpretation of the French Modern Face Didot. Another model for this design is the Henriade, an historical printing of the original Didot from 1818. The font Didot gives text a classic and elegant feel.

Regular Bold + Italic

OLD ST YLE

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49

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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monotype modern

OLD ST YLE

50


A BC DE F GH I J K L M NO P Q R STUVWXYZ abcdefghi

jklmnopqr s t u v w x y z 51

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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Aa

Monotype Modern Condensed 13pt/18pt

Aa

Monotype Modern Extended 16pt/22pt

Aa

Monotype Modern Bold 21pt/26pt

Aa

Monotype Modern Wide 28pt/34pt

Monotype Modern, the first typeface produced by Lanston Monotype, was rele 1896, the same year the company introduced its hot metal typeseting machine Victorian variation on the vertically stressed, high-contrast Bodoni model.

Monotype Modern, the first typeface produced by Lanst Monotype, was released in 1896, the same year the comp introduced its hot metal typeseting machine. It is a Vict variation on the vertically stressed, high-contrast Bodo

Monotype Modern, the first typeface produc by Lanston Monotype, was released in 1896 same year the company introduced its hot m typeseting machine. It is a Victorian variati the vertically stressed, high-contrast Bodon

Monotype Modern, the first typeface produced by Lanst Monotype, was released in 1 same year the company intr its hot metal typeseting mac It is a Victorian variation on

MODERN

52


claren

53

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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ndon

OLD ST YLE

54


Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Clarendon Light 12pt/16pt

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 !&%#$?+()*;/

Clarendon Roman 20pt/26pt

Clarendon Bold 28pt/32pt

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T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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CLARENDON

I a P T r M i r E i


It was named after the Clarendon Press in Oxford. The typeface was reworked by the Monotype foundry in 1935. It was revised by Hermann Eidenbenz in 1953. OLD ST YLE

56


glyph 57

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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ha OLD ST YLE

58


Aa Glypha 35 Thin 12pt/16pt

an

Aa Glypha 45 Light 12pt/16pt

Aa Glypha 55 Roman 12pt/16pt

Aa

ck 59

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

Glypha 65 Bold 12pt/16pt

Aa Glypha 75 Black 12pt/16pt

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G LY P H A

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/


35 Thin 45 Light 55 Roma 65 Bold 75 Blac SLAB SERI F

60


memph 61

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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his OLD ST YLE

62


12

abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWX YZ


56

Aa Memphis Light 7pt/12pt

Aa

Memphis Medium 12pt/16pt

Aa Memphis Bold 18pt/24pt

Aa

Memphis Extra Bold 28pt/32pt

Because of the geometric basis of its forms, Memphis is often though a font for technical fields, making a rational, purposeful impression. emphasis on objectivity is well-suited to technical texts, but Memphis appropriate for any text which should exhibit a clear, neutral charac

Because of the geometric basis of its forms, Memp is often thought of as a font for technical fields, ma a rational, purposeful impression. This emphasis on objectivity is well-suited to technical texts, but Memphis is appropriate for any text which should exhibit a clear, neutral character. Some weights ar

Because of the geometric basis of its for Memphis is often thought of as a font for fields, making a rational, purposeful im This emphasis on objectivity is well-suit technical texts, but Memphis is appropr

Because of the geometr of its forms, Memphis is thought of as a font for fields, making a rationa purposeful impression. emphasis on objectivity SLAB SERI F

64


65

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lubalin graph

OLD ST YLE

66


ABCDE K MNO TUVWX 67

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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EF HIJ OPQRS XYZ OLD ST YLE

68


Aa

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke widths and heavy serifs make it unsuitable for continuous text. These same characteristics, however, make it an

Lubalin Graph Book Condensed 9pt/14pt

excellent choice for advertising applications such as logos and other distinctive or identity marking, headlines, and short blocks of text.

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke widths and heavy serifs make it unsuitable for continuous text. These same characteristics, however, make it an excellent choice for advertising applications such as logos and other distinctive or identity marking, headlines, and short blocks of text.

Aa

Lubalin Graph Medium Condensed 14pt/18pt

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke widths and heavy serifs make it...

Aa

Lubalin Graph Demi Condensed 22pt/26pt

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke...

Aa

Lubalin Graph Bold Condensed 28pt/30pt

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LU B A L I N G R A P H


Aa

Lubalin Graph Extra Light 8pt/14pt

Aa

Lubalin Graph Book 12pt/16pt

Aa

Lubalin Graph Demi 20pt/24pt

Aa

Lubalin Graph Bold 32pt/34pt

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke widths and heavy serifs make it unsuitable for continuous text. These same characteristics, however, make it an excellent choice for advertising applications such as logos and other distinctive or identity marking, headlines, and short blocks of text.

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke widths and heavy serifs make it unsuitable for continuous text. These same characteristics, however, make it an excellent choice for advertising applications such as logos and other distinctive or identity...

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but strictly geometric letter shapes, unvarying stroke widths and heavy serifs make it unsuitable for continuous text...

Lubalin Graph’s outsize x-heights and open counters contribute to its readability, but... SLAB SERI F

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avenir 71

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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OLD ST YLE

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Aa

Avenir 35 Light 12pt/16pt

Aa

Avenir 45 Book 12pt/16pt

Aa

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Aa

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Avenir 65 Medium 12pt/16pt

Avenir 85 Heavy 12pt/16pt

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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AV E N I R

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

Avenir 55 Roman 12pt/16pt

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abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/


35 Light 45 Book 55 Roma 65 Medi 85 Heav SANS S E R I F

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T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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century gothic OLD ST YLE

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Regular Bold + Italic

Because of its clear clean design, the Century Gothic design can often be found in at use in schools and when teaching languages.

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T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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Aa

Century Gothic Regular 14pt/18pt

Aa

Century Gothic Regular 24pt/32pt

Aa Century Gothic Bold 32pt/32pt

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!&%#$?+()*;/

abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 !&%#$?+()*;/ SANS S E R I F

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79

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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futura OLD ST YLE

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81

T YPE SPECIMEN BOOK

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FUTURA

Futura had the honor o being the first typefac on the moon, chosen f a commemorative plaq left by the astronauts Apollo 11 in 1969.

Futura Extra Bold Condensed Oblique 62pt/65pt

Aa


Aa

Futura Light Condensed 9pt/13pt

Aa

Futura Medium Condensed 12pt/16pt

Aa

Futura Bold Condensed 18pt/22pt

Aa

Futura Extra Bold Condensed 24pt/28pt

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although Renner was not a member of the Bauhaus, he shared many of its views, believing that a modern typeface should express modern models rather than be a rivial of a previous design. Futura was commercially released in 1927, commissioned by the Bauer type foundry.

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although Renner was not a member of the Bauhaus, he shared many of its views, believing that a modern typeface should express modern models rather than be a rivial of a previous design. Futura...

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although Renner was not a member of the Bauhaus, he shared many of its views, believing that a modern typeface should express modern models rather than be a rivial of a previous design. Futura..

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although...

SANS S E R I F

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83

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FUTURA

APOLLO 11 FIRST TYPEFA ON THE M

Futura Light Oblique 120pt/114pt

Aa


Aa

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although Renner was not a member of the Bauhaus, he shared many of its views, believing that a modern typeface should express modern models rather than be a rivial of a previous design. Futura was commercially released in 1927, commissioned by the Bauer type foundry.

Aa

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although Renner was not a member of the Bauhaus, he shared many of its views, believing that a modern typeface...

Futura Light 9pt/13pt

Futura Medium 12pt/16pt

Aa Futura Bold 18pt/22pt

Aa Futura Extra Bold 24pt/26pt

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although Renner was not a member of the Bauhaus, he shared many of its views, believing that a modern...

Following the Bauhaus design philosophy, German type designer Paul Renner first created Futura between 1924 and 1926. Although...

SANS S E R I F

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news got 85

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thic OLD ST YLE

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Aa

The News Gothic typeface was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1908 for the American Type Founders as a humanist sans serif. Being a humanist sans serif, the typeface is a hybrid of a old style or humanist and a modern sans serif typeface. The typeface would be used in the design of newspaper and

News Gothic Regular 10pt/16pt

magazines throughout the 20th century.

The News Gothic typeface was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1908 for the American Type Founders as a humanist sans serif. Being a humanist sans serif, the typeface is a hybrid of a old style or humanist and a modern sans serif typeface. The typeface would be used in the design of newspaper and magazines throughout the 20th century.

Aa

News Gothic Oblique 14pt/20pt

The News Gothic typeface was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1908 for the American Type Founders as a humanist sans serif. Being a humanist sans serif, the typeface is a hybrid of a old style or humanist and a modern sans serif typeface.

Aa

News Gothic Bold 22pt/26pt

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N E W S G OT H I C


ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQR STUVWXYZ abcdefghi jklmnopqr s t u v w x y z 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 OLD ST YLE

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by Ilene Str

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rizver

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Typeface refers to the style, or design, of a set of characters (such as the Helvetica, Bodoni, or Times Roman typefaces). Font on the other hand, refers to the technology, or method used to reproduce or set the typeface.

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FONT VS. TYPEFACE Many people who use fonts everyday have begun to say “font” when they really mean “typeface.” Today’s digital fonts are created with font production tools; these fonts are considered to be software. In phototype typography, which preceded digital technology, a font refers to the film onto which the typeface is imprinted. In metal, a font refers to every character included in a single size of a particular typeface. Each point size of a given typeface – such as 8 point, 10 point, 12 point – is considered a different font. To summarize, designers select typefaces for their work, but then use fonts to create the actual document or design.

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aaaa b bbb

This is a collection of glyphs representing the character a.

Left) The lowercase b character is represented by four glyphs

in Jenson italic: the standard b, an alternate, a small cap, and the superscript. (right) The capital B is a different character.

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6 T Y P O G R A P H Y T E R M S T H AT G E T C O N F U S E D A LOT

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a B

CHARACTER VS. GLYPH A character is the symbol representing a letter. A glyph is the specific shape, design, or representation of a character. The character a can be represented by many glyphs set in different typefaces. In addition, more than one glyph can represent one character in the same font. For example, a lowercase n character may be represented by glyphs of a standard lowercase n, a small cap n, and a swash n. However, a cap N and an italic n are different characters.

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Akzide LEGIBILITY VS. READABILITY These two terms both relate to ease of reading from a typographic perspective. However, they are not synonymous. Legibility refers to the design of the typeface. Readability refers to how the typeface is arranged. The legibility of a typeface is determined by the characteristics of the design, including x-height, character shapes, width, stroke contrast, the size of the counters, and weight – all of which contribute to the ease of distinguishing one letter from another. Readability, on the other hand, relates to how the type is set or arranged. Factors affecting readability include point size, line spacing (or leading), letter spacing, word spacing, line length, and alignment.

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Readability you set and type. Chara types reada point size, li spacing, wo lenght and


enz Grotesk is very legible.

is related to how d arrange they acteristic affecting ability include ine spacing, letter ord spacing, line alignment.

Examples of differing degrees of legibility.

Readability is related to how you set and arrange they type. Characteristic affecting types readability include point size, line spacing, letter spacing, word spacing, line lenght and alignment. A very legible typeface such as ITC Flora (left) is made less readable (right) by how it is typeset.

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C

O

DESIGNER

ART DIRECTION

SPECIMEN

LUIS HERNANDEZ LUISHDZ991@GMAIL.COM

BETH WEEKS TYPOGRAPHY II SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY SPRING 2017

17 TYPEFACES: CASLON, GARAMOND, HOEFLER TEXT, BASKERVILLE, PERPETUA , JANSON, BODONI, DIDOT, MONOTYPE MODERN, CLARENDON, GLYPHA , MEMPHIS, LUBALIN GRAPH, AVENIR, CENTURY GOTHIC , FUTURA AND NEWS GOTHIC .

NARRATIVE

TYPEFACES

ARRANGING LOWER CASE LETTERS BY ILENE STRIZVER

GOTHAM HOEFLER TEXT (USED THROUGH THE BOOK)

P

6 TYPOGRAPHY TERMS THAT GET CONFUSED A LOT BY ILENE STRIZVER

H


L

O

PAPER

COPYRIGHT

ACCENT OPAQUE DIGITAL TEXT SMOOTH 70 LB

© ALL RIGHTS RESERVED TO LUIS HERNANDEZ 2017

SOFTWARE ADOBE INDESIGN CC ADOBE ACROBAT CC

O

N


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