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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

The Afterlife of Coffee By-products:

A technical study into the use of coffee waste as an alternative source of energy within an architecture for a coffeehouse, coffee waste collection centre, debating chamber as well as a continuity of public green space linking both sides of the Golden Horn, Istanbul, Turkey.

Student Name: Wei Zeng Ler Unit : 5 Design Tutors: Julia Backhaus and Pedro Font Alba Technical Tutor: Rachel B Cruise

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Abstract

This technical study started with a cup of coffee. Many of us drink coffee in the morning to wake up. However, have you ever thought of coffee as more than just a daily dose of caffeine? The moment we inhale the aroma of a cup of freshly ground coffee, several genes in our brain will be activated. Recent research has also revealed that coffee waste could be an alternative energy source. Therefore, my technical study aims to investigate the channelling of coffee aroma to keep the building inhabitants awake as well as the use of coffee waste to generate electricity. My proposed building is sited at the Golden Horn, Istanbul. Golden Horn has a historical background of being a popular site for industrial production. Due to pollution, many of the factories have been closed and the Golden Horn lost its character as an industrial waterfront. In order to bring back the history as well as preserving the environment, my proposed building will be a platform to generate green energy. Furthermore, my proposed site is located within the district of Ey端p which is a residential neighbourhood for the Muslim community in Istanbul. The serving and consumption of coffee has had a profound effect on betrothal and gender customs, political and social interaction, prayer, and hospitality customs throughout the centuries. Therefore, I believe that a coffeehouse is a great gathering place for the community. Since my proposed building is sited on an island, a bridge will run across the island and part of it will become the building, thus shaping and forming the landscape of the site. It functions as a bridging element connecting the Muslim community from both sides of the Golden Horn. The by-product of coffee is the focal point for this technical study; including both coffee aroma and coffee waste. The study on human perception of smell and the distribution of chemical particles in air (chapter 3) leads to the design of a plenum within my proposed building. The experiments on coffee waste (chapter 4) conclusively proves that the theoretical idea of sustaining a building with coffee waste can be realised.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Methodology

The programme of coffeehouse means that there will be a small scale of roasting, grinding and brewing within the building. The by-product of these three processes are coffee aroma and coffee waste. Each chapter starts with an architectural intention: to create a space of scent (Chapter 3) and to design a system which collects coffee waste, generates electricity and channels used coffee waste to the garden (Chapter 4). These architectural intentions lead to the research on existing models and precedents. The existing models were related to the strategic decisions made (Chapter 2) while the precedents explain the early approach of the design. The distribution of chemical particles in air is assumed to be related to the ventilation. The movement of air is demonstrated with a series of diagrams and drawings since some of the conditions cannot be physically created due to time constraints (Chapter 3). With the understanding of electrochemistry, physical tests could be carried out on coffee waste. The results of the experiment later inform the design of the coffee battery system (Chapter 4). This technical study is a combination of existing research, physical experiments and working drawings that informed the conclusions.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Table of Content 1. Introduction 1.1 Proposal Overview 1.2 Site Context, Coffee Consumption 1.3 Site Photos 1.4 Local Context and Scheme – Surrounding Residents 1.5 Local Context and Scheme – Public Green Space 1.6 Istanbul Regional Data and Site Specific Conditions 2. Strategic Decision 2.1 Average Energy Consumption in Turkey 2.2 Programme 2.3 Energy Consumption for My Proposed Building 3. The Channelling of Coffee Aroma 3.1 Awakening Effect 3.2 Human Perception of Smell 3.4 Air Conditioning System 3.5 Stack Effect 3.6 Cyclonic Separation 3.7 Design of the Debating Platform 4. Coffee Battery 4.1 Mischer Traxler’s Nespresso Battery 4.2 Conceptual Model 4.3 First Iteration 4.4 Second Iteration 4.5 Final Iteration 5. Conclusions

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Chapter 1 Introduction Coffeehouse, Coffee Waste Collection Centre and Debating Chamber, Ey端p, Istanbul.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

coffeehouse

debating chamber

coffee waste collection centre

public park

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Proposal

The scheme proposes a coffeehouse, coffee waste collection centre, debating chamber as well as a continuity of public green space linking both sides of the Golden Horn, Istanbul. The building site is located on an island within the district of Eyup. Apart from being just a coffeehouse, my proposal building is recycling platform which collects coffee waste from the surrounding cafĂŠs. The process of debate can be broken down into three stages: initiation of motion, discussion and debate. Therefore, the programme of a debating chamber means that there are rooms for a library, seminar rooms and debating platforms.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

AVERAGE COFFEE CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA

3.5 kg

per year

TOTAL COFFEE CONSUMPTION OF TURKEY = 26, 900 METRIC TONS

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Site Context, Coffee Consumption

According to World Resources Institute, the total coffee consumption of Turkey is approximately 26,900 metric tons every year. This huge amount of coffee waste could potentially be a great substitute of electrolyte in an augmented battery within my architecture to sustain my proposed building.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

COFFEE GROUNDS

SUGAR

CEZVE

A Brief History Of Turkish Coffee

Turkish coffee is a coffee variant which is prepared through boiling the finely powdered and roasted coffee beans using a pot called cezve. It is optionally prepared with sugar and the name is derived from the preparation process of the brew and not the raw materials used. Turkish Coffee Advent in Yemen The coffee plant is actually discovered during the 11th century in Ethiopia and people who first saw this magical fruit with its outstanding aroma first thought of it as a medicinal item. After its popularity in the Ethiopian regions, it instantly spread especially throughout the Arabian Peninsula. During the turn of the 14th century, cultivation of coffee is already blossoming in Yemen. In the next 300 years, it officially became a great and highly preferred beverage in the area, following the processes and recipes first introduced in Ethiopia. Popularity of Coffee in Istanbul Coffee branched out to Istanbul in 1543 especially during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The Ottoman Governor of Yemen is instrumental to the introduction and popularity of coffee in the region. While in Istanbul and the palace of the Ottoman, there is a new type of method which is used for coffee preparation. The coffee beans are roasted over fire, grounded and boiled. This method of preparation brought about a new aroma and taste and it has made coffee an even more renowned brew.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

LOCATION OF MY SITE IN RELATION TO THE URBAN CONTEXT

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION

GALATA BRIDGE

HAGIA SOPHIA

PRPOSED SITE

LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Proposed Site

Eyüp is a municipality and district of the city of Istanbul, Turkey. The district extends from the Golden Horn all the way to the shore of the Black Sea. Eyüp is also the name of a prominent neighborhood and former village in the district, located at the confluence of the Kağıthane and Alibey streams at the head of the Golden Horn. The Eyüp neighborhood is a historically important area, especially for Turkey’s Muslims.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Surrounding residents

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

LOWER SOCIAL-ECONOMIC LEVEL

Local Context and Scheme – Surrounding Residents

The proposal site is located in the district of Eyüp. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Istanbul grew as the fringes of the Ottoman Empire became unsettled and Turkish communities from the Balkans and the Caucasus came to the city. During this period the Eyüp area became incorporated into the city, losing some of its spiritual air as factories were built along the Golden Horn. At the same time the industry and the growing population, as well as the continuing numbers of visitors to the holy places, encouraged the growth of the shopping district around and behind the mosque; the streets behind had fish and dairy markets, shops, cafés and bars for the residents of the area, while the courtyard of the mosque itself held people selling scriptures and prayer beads for the visitors and pilgrims. From the mid-20th century onwards, the area took on a more ‘working class’ feel as wealthier residents of Istanbul preferred to buy housing on the Asian side of the city or further along the Bosphorus, since the Golden Horn was becoming increasingly polluted and unpleasant due to the industrial development. The industrial zone expanded as major roads were put through the Eyüp area and the market gardens and flower fields of Alibeyköy disappeared. In recent years many of the factories have been closed or cleaned up, the Golden Horn no longer smells and it is possible to sit by the waterside. Thus the character of Eyüp is changing again. The area is now losing some, but not all, of its cosmopolitan Istanbul feel as more and more families with a conservative Islamic view of life move into the area. The Eyüp neighbourhood has become the main residential area for the Turkish Muslims. The proposal building functions as a social platform and gathering space for the Eyüp community. Furthermore, the debating chamber targets to expose them to the idea of democracy.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

The mapping of public green space

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

GREEN AREA RATIO PER PERSON

EUROPEAN UNION

10 SQUARE METRES

TURKEY

6 SQUARE METRES

Local Context and Scheme – Public Green Space

According to the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the amount of green area per person in Istanbul was described as negative even after including the green areas at roadsides and crossroads. The amount of green areas per person for the rest of the world was seven square metres and ten square metres for the European union. Their goal is to increase the ratio for Istanbul at least in line with the rest of Europe. The shores on the both sides of the Golden Horn near my proposal site are public parks. As the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality is desperate for increasing the amount of green area per person, the proposal building will be a continuity of public green space bridging the Eyüp neighbourhood on the both sides of the Golden Horn.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Macroclimate

Istanbul, Turkey latitude & longitude; 40°58’N 29°5’E. Altitude: 40 m (131 ft). The average temperature: 14.1 °C (57 °F). Summer temperature: 28 °C (82 °F) in July & August. Winter temperature: 2 °C (36 °F) in February. Annual precipitation: 439 mm (17.3 in) Mean relative humidity: 75.4% 1 According to Köppen-Geiger classification system, the climate of Istanbul is characterized as warmsummer Mediterranean. Istanbul has moderately warm and dry summer. June and July are the two months in a year with the lowest rain precipitation. On the contrary, winters are usually cold, wet and snowy, with the temperature of January and February averaging 2 °C (36 °F). Rainfall is maximum during the month of December.2

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Chapter 2 Strategic Decisions How sustainability can be addressed by programmatic decisions

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Electricity Consumption in Turkey

Consumption of electric energy is measured by W路h (Watt x Hour) 1 W路h = 3600 joule = 859.8 calorie According to World Resources Institute, The Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) in Turkey was reported at 1472.6 kWh. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in Turkey. According to recent study, the average coffee consumption per capita in a year is approximately 3.5 kg. In other words, a person will create 3.5 kg of coffee waste every year. My proposal is to collect all these coffee waste and use them to generate electricity. The diagram on the right shows how much coffee waste is needed in order to supply electricity to an average Turk for a year. The calculation is based on the data published by Mischer Traxler for his Nespresso Battery.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION

COFFEEHOUSE

COFFEE WASTE COLLECTION CENTRE

LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

ROAST

COLLECTION FROM THE SURROUNDING CAFES GRIND

COFFEE WASTE

BREW

COFFEE AROMA

SERVE

DEBATE COFFEE BATTERY

DISCUSS

DEBATING CHAMBER

MOTION

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Building On Site

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Ground Floor Plan

1 2 3 4 5 6

7

8

GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1:500

1. CLUSTERS 2. LIBRARY FOYER 3. READING AREA 4. LIBRARY STAFF ROOM 5. ARCHIVE 6. SEMINAR ROOMS 7. ROASTERY 8. OUTDOOR COFFEE BOOTH 9. COFFEE SERVING AREA 10. COFFEE BATTERY 11. INDOOR COFFEE BOOTH 12. GOLDEN HORN 13. STORAGE

9 10 11 12 13

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

First Floor Plan

1

2

3

4

FIRST FLOOR PLAN 1:500 +3220mm

+3820mm

+4280mm

1. COURTYARD 2. ARCHIVE 3. DEBATING CHAMBER 4. CAFE

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Roof Plan

1

2 3 4

+4000mm

+3220mm

+4700mm

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+4280mm

ROOF PLAN 1:500

1. COFFEE BATTERY 2. GREEN ROOF 3. ATRIUM / LIBRARY 4. BRIDGE


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Daily Electric Energy Consumption for a Coffeehouse Electric energy = Power x Time (Watt x Hour)

POWER (W)

COFFEE BEAN CAPACITY (KG)

Electric Energy WORKING Consumption PERIOD (HOUR) (kWh)

4500W

4KG

4

18kWh

600W

14KG

1

0.6kWh

2700W

0.28KG

8

21.6kWh

ROASTER

GRINDER

BREWER

40.2kWh

Opening Hours: 9am - 5pm (8 Hours) Average Daily Coffee Sale : 320 Cups (2.24 KG) TOTAL DAILY ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Annual Electric Energy Consumption for Heating and Lighitng

The electric energy consumption for both lighting and heating can be approximated by the total floor area of a building. According to ‘Architecture and Sustainable Development’, the annual electrical consumption of lighting fixtures of a public building is 115 kWh/ m² while the heating demand is approximately 89 kWh/ m². With the above approximation, the annual electric energy required to provide lighting and heating to my proposed building can be calculated.

Total Floor Area (m²) of my Proposed Building = 1922 m² Annual Energy Consumption (kWh) for Lighting = 115 kWh/ m² x 1922 m² = 221, 030 kWh Annual Energy Consumption (kWh) for Heating = 89 kWh/ m² x 1922 m² = 171, 058 kWh Total Energy Consumption = 392, 088 kWh

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Energy Strategy

The hours of sunshine in Istanbul is 2.6 hours per day in January and 11.6 hours per day in July. In total, there are 2421 sunshine hours annually and approximately 6.6 sunlight hours for each day. In order to fully utilise this environmental advantage, I proposed to have an atrium in the middle of the building to let in roof-light. Moreover, the installation of solar panels can reduce the reliance on the coffee battery to generate electricity for heating. The coffee battery will generate electricity for the coffee making process. The following diagram explains the how much coffee waste is needed to sustain a coffeehouse. According to Mischer Traxler’s Nespresso Battery, 3.5 kg of coffee waste is able to generate 35.3 kWh of electricity. Therefore, 1 kg of Coffee Waste = 10.1 kWh of electricity Everyday, 40.2kWh of energy is needed to sustain a coffeehouse.

In conclusion, Only 3.9 kg of coffee waste is required to power up my proposed building.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Chapter 3 The Channelling of Coffee Aroma How my proposed building keeps people ‘awake’

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Smelling coffee keeps people AWAKE

Aroma of coffee reduces the level of mRNA

Revives tired people Reduces anxiety Alleviate stress caused by sleeplessness

Who needs to stay AWAKE?

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Awakening Effect

This chapter focuses on the use of coffee aroma as an “awakening element” in the debating chambers. This idea was inspired by the ongoing research done by the neuroscientist Han-Seok Seo from Seoul National University. In experiments with laboratory rats, Seo has found that coffee aroma orchestrates the expression of more than a dozen of genes and some changes in protein expressions, in ways that help to reduce the stress of sleep deprivation. Seo and colleagues allowed lab rats to inhale coffee aroma, including some rats stressed by sleep deprivation. The study then compared gene and protein expressions in the rats’ brains. Rats that sniffed coffee showed different levels of activity in 17 genes. Thirteen of the genes showed differential mRNA expression between the stress group and the stress with coffee group, including proteins with healthful antioxidant activity known to protect nerve cells from stress-related damage. The experiment has proven that the coffee aroma is able to increase the brain activity of sleep-deprived rats. Since many of the rats’ genes have human equivalents, therefore it is a valid assumption that coffee aroma has the same awakening effect on our brains. On the other hand, it is very common to witness members of cabinet falling asleep during Parliament meetings on live telecast. Without intending to confer blame or shame, it is crucial to note that this group of cabinet members are trying to make important decisions for the country. Thus, the proposal programme of a debating chamber filled with coffee aroma will be a suggestion upon that observation.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

5.

4. 3. 2. 1.

1. Odorants bind to receptors 2. Olfactory receptor cells are activated and send electric signals. 3. The signals are relayed in glomerulus. 4. The signals are transmitted to higher regions to the brain. 5. Protein with antioxidant function reaches a higher expression level.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

The Perception of Coffee Aroma

Many vertebrates, including most mammals and reptiles, have two distinct olfactory systems—the main, and the accessory olfactory system (used mainly to detect pheromones). For air-breathing animals, the main olfactory system detects volatile chemicals, and the accessory olfactory system detects fluid-phase chemicals. Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus lining the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. This may occur by diffusion or by the binding of the odorant to odorant binding proteins. The mucus overlying the epithelium contains mucopolysaccharides, salts, enzymes, and antibodies (these are highly important, as the olfactory neurons provide a direct passage for infection to pass to the brain). The perception of coffee aroma is dependent upon both the concentration of the compound and its odour threshold. Therefore, the distribution of coffee aroma is based the distribution of its chemical compounds and this can be done with the understanding on ventilation.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Air conditioning System

A split-system air conditioner splits the hot side from the cold side of the system, as in the diagram. The cold side, consisting of the expansion valve and the cold coil, is generally placed into a furnace or some other air handler. The air handler blows air through the coil and routes the air throughout the building using a series of ducts. The hot side, known as the condensing unit, lives outside the building. The unit consists of a long, spiral coil shaped like a cylinder. Inside the coil is a fan, to blow air through the coil, along with a weather-resistant compressor and some control logic. Therefore, with a constant supply of coffee odorants on top of the blower, the aroma of coffee could be channelled into the specific spaces within the building by altering the routes of air duct.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Reference: Scents of Space

Scents of Space is an interactive smell system that allows for three-dimensional placement of fragrances without dispersion, enabling the creation of dynamic olfactory zones and boundaries. The installation is a simple translucent enclosure, 9 metres in length, that glows inwardly during the day and outwardly at night. Airflow within the space is generated by an array of fans. Moving air is then controlled by a series of diffusion screens to provide smooth and continuous laminar airflow. Computer-controlled fragrance dispensers and careful air control enable parts of the space to be selectively scented without dispersing through the entire space.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

DEBATING CHAMBER

DEBATING CHAMBER

ROASTERY

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DEBATING CHAMBER


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Stack Effect

In a thermodynamically closed system that is being maintained at a set temperature, which is a standard mode of operation for modern air conditioners, any energy expenditure within the system has to be removed by using even more energy. In other words, for each unit of energy input into the system (say to power a light bulb in the closed system), the air conditioner has to use more than just that amount of energy to removes said energy. In order to do so, the air conditioner must increase its power consumption by the inverse of its “efficiency” (coefficient of performance) times the amount of power dissipated into the system. However, the high energy consumption of a split-system air conditioner makes it inefficient for a self-sufficient building. Therefore, the use of stack effect to encourage air circulation would be a better option. Stack effect is a buoyancy driven air movement. Buoyancy occurs when there is a difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density. Both temperature and moisture differences can cause either a positive or negative buoyancy force. There is a pressure difference between the outside air and the air inside the building caused by the difference in temperature between the outside air and the inside air. That pressure difference ( ΔP ) is the driving force for the stack effect and it can be calculated with the equations presented below. ΔP = C a h (1/To – 1/Ti) SI units: where: ΔP = C = a = h = To = Ti =

available pressure difference, in Pa discharge coefficient (0.0342) atmospheric pressure, in Pa height or distance, in m absolute outside temperature, in K absolute inside temperature, in K

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1:500

1. CLUSTERS 2. LIBRARY FOYER 3. READING AREA 4. LIBRARY STAFF ROOM 5. ARCHIVE 6. SEMINAR ROOMS 7. ROASTERY 8. OUTDOOR COFFEE BOOTH 9. COFFEE SERVING AREA 10. COFFEE BATTERY 11. INDOOR COFFEE BOOTH 12. GOLDEN HORN 13. STORAGE

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

FIRST FLOOR PLAN 1:500

1. COURTYARD 2. ARCHIVE 3. DEBATING CHAMBER 4. CAFE

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A

LONG SECTION 1:200 1. ATRIUM / LIBRARY 2. CLUSTERS 3. SEMINAR ROOM 4. DEBATING CHAMBER 5. ROASTERY 6. LIBRARY FOYER 7. BRIDGE 8. COFFEEHOUSE 9. COFFEE BATTERY 10. STORAGE

1

B 2 3 4

A

B

+4000mm

+3220mm

+4700mm

+4280mm

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

As my architectural aim is to channel the coffee aroma from the the roastery to the debating chambers, the above equation can be modified in order to calculate the pressure difference between the roastery and the debating chambers: ΔP = C a h (1/To – 1/Ti) C = 0.0342 a = 101, 325 Pa h = 6 m (height of the chimney) To, absolute debating chamber temperature = 296.15 K Ti, absolute roastery temperature = 307.1 5K ΔP = 0.0342 x 101, 325 Pa x 6 m x (1/296.15 K – 1/307.15 K) = 2.5 Pa The above calculation has proven that there is a pressure difference between the roastery and the debating chambers, therefore the use of stack effect to channel coffee aroma is possible.

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Cyclonic Separation

Particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOC), organic acids, and combustion products are the principal emissions from coffee processing. As a result, the removal of pollutants before emitting the coffee aroma into the debating chambers is crucial for health and safety purposes. Particulate matter emissions from the roasting and cooling operations are typically ducted to cyclones before being emitted to the atmosphere. My proposal is to use the cyclonic separation instead of the conventional filtration method because the high speed rotating flow will help to disperse the smell of coffee. Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation. Rotational effects and gravity are used to separate mixtures of solids and fluids. The method can also be used to separate fine droplets of liquid from a gaseous stream. A high speed rotating (air)flow is established within a cylindrical or conical container called a cyclone. Air flows in a helical pattern, beginning at the top (wide end) of the cyclone and ending at the bottom (narrow) end before exiting the cyclone in a straight stream through the centre of the cyclone and out the top. Larger (denser) particles in the rotating stream have too much inertia to follow the tight curve of the stream, and strike the outside wall, then falling to the bottom of the cyclone where they can be removed

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

PRIMARY FRAME STRUCTURE

PERFORATED PANELS

CYCLONE SEPARATOR

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Hot air leaves the building

4.

5. In Summer, the rainscreen cladding is shut. Hot coffee flavoured air condenses on the rainscreen cladding to avoid overheating.

3. 2.

In Winter, the rainscreen cladding is open. Hot air is directly pumped into the debating chamber to provide heating.

Coffee Aroma is dispersed into the Debating Chamber

Clean Air leaves the Cyclone Separator

Dirty Air from the roaster enters the Cyclone Separator

1. DEBATING CHAMBER ELEMENTS

1. CYCLONE SEPARATOR 2. FRAME STRUCTURE 3. PERFORATED PANELS 4. STEEL HINGED 5. RAINSCREEN CLADDING

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Chapter 4 Coffee Battery Coffee Waste is no longer a waste

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

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ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Mischer Traxler’s Nespresso Battery

Viennese designer Mischer Traxler recently revealed that coffee waste can be a great substitute of electrolyte in a self-made battery. He made batteries from 700 used coffee capsules to power clocks installed in the window of Nespresso Austria during the Vienna Design Week. Mischer Traxler’s Nespresso Battery is based on the understanding of electrochemistry. Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution. My architecture proposal is to design the working systems of the coffee battery and how those systems create an inhabitable architecture. As the design of the coffee battery progresses simultaneously with the research and physical experiments, the coffee battery systems went through four stages of iteration. Each drawing or model is the conclusion of the previous tests as well as the hypothesis of the next experiment. In order to communicate efficiently about the different parts of a coffee battery system, I spilt the building users into four categories: 1. Maintenance Team – keeps the coffee batteries running, replaces the copper (cathode) and aluminium (anode), channels the used coffee waste to the garden. 2. Café Staffs – prepares and serves coffee; collects coffee waste. 3. Coffee Waste Collection Team – collects coffee waste from the surrounding cafés. 4. General Public

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Conceptual Model

The conceptual model is based on the fundamental working knowledge of the coffee battery. As two different type of metals (copper and aluminium) are put into an acidic solution (coffee waste), a voltage is observed. In the first proposal mode, the coffee battery system is split into two categories: collection and power plant.

The coffee waste collection roof is like the tannery in morocco

The coffee waste is then channelled into a series of ‘pockets’

Coffee waste is collected from the surrounding cafes and brought to the site by a lorry ‘Pockets’ of coffee waste are collected manually by hand before putting them in to the coffee battery

The above model proposes the roof of the building functions as the coffee waste collection platform. A series of ‘pockets’ which located at the bottom of the roof are designed to accumulate the coffee waste in smaller amount so that they can be collected and brought to the power plant by labour force.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Sa

lt w ate

r in

let

r) pe cop m) ( e u od ini An lum (a de tho

Ca

The aesthetic of the coffee battery mimics the centre pompidou

Coffee waste inlet

Sa

lt w ate

ro

utl

et

The power plant is simply an enlarged version of a coffee battery. The cylindrical power plant also has a structural function as a column supporting the collection roof. I envisioned a series of power plants scattered throughout the building plan.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Issues:

1. The inefficiency of manually transporting the coffee waste ‘pockets’ from underneath the roof to the power plant. 2. Is the membrane separating the coffee waste and salt water necessary? 3. The replacement of copper, aluminium and coffee waste in order to sustain the electricity supply. 4. Waste management : how to remove the coffee waste from the power plant when it stops generating electricity?

Experiment One: Membrane as Separator

Objective: This experiment investigates the need of membrane to separate the salt water and coffee waste in order to generate electricity.

Set A: Coffee battery WITH membrane

Set B: Coffee battery WITHOUT membrane

Observation: A voltage is observed for both sets of experiment. Conclusion: The separation of coffee waste from salt water is unnecessary.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

1

2 3 4

B

A

1. COFFEE BATTERY 2. GREEN ROOF 3. ATRIUM / LIBRARY 4. BRIDGE

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

First Iteration

The first iteration attempts to address the issues raised in the previous design. Instead of transporting the coffee waste from the collection platform to the power plant manually, the power plant is integrated into the design of the roof, making the roof an inhabitable space, allowing the building users to replace the membrane, copper, aluminium and coffee waste within that space. An addition to this model is the function of rainwater collection. The collected rainwater is responsible for removing the coffee waste from the power plant when it stops generating electricity.

The roofing system actually consists of a series of octagonal platform. Each octagonal platform eight hinged flaps, allowing the roof to transforms from a flat surface to a funnel-like structure. It intends to channel the collected coffee waste into the centre of the octagonal platform, where the power plant is located. There are a series of inhabitable pockets underneath the roof. Those inhabitable pockets are actually the power plants. Since they are in building scale, the building users can enter the power plants to manually replace the membrane, aluminium (anode) and copper (cathode).

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

The following diagram explains the cleaning process of a coffee battery:

A

B

The following diagram explains the cleaning process of a coffee battery: 1. The membrane is removed. 2. Some of the salt water will be absorbed by the coffee waste. 3. The excessive salt water will be drained out of the power plant. A

B

4. The maintenance team will enter the power plant and sweep the remaining coffee waste back to the rooftop. 5. The collected rainwater will be channelled to the pocket and then cleans the power plant.

A

B

6. The maintenance team will again come into the power plant to replace the membrane, copper and aluminium.

Issues:

1. Can the coffee waste be reused as the electrolyte more than once? 2. How long can the coffee battery generate electricity for and what is the factor that affects the battery lifetime? 3. In a coffee battery, is the amount of coffee waste (kg) directly correlated with the voltage observed?

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Experiment Two: The Amount of Coffee Waste as Variable

Objective: Given that the amount of anode (aluminium) and cathode (copper) are constant, this experiment explores the relationship between the amount of electrolyte (coffee waste) versus the potential difference (voltage) between the cathode and anode.

Set A: Coffee battery with 10g of coffee waste

Set B: Coffee battery with 200g of coffee waste

Observation: Both sets of experiment gave the same reading of one volt. Conclusion: The amount of electrolyte (coffee waste) has no direct correlation with the voltage generated. In order to generate huge amount of electricity, it is logical to increase the coffee battery in numbers rather than sizing up the power plant.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

A

GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1. CLUSTERS 2. LIBRARY FOYER 3. READING AREA 4. LIBRARY STAFF ROOM 5. ARCHIVE 6. SEMINAR ROOMS 7. ROASTERY 8. OUTDOOR COFFEE BOOTH 9. COFFEE SERVING AREA 10. COFFEE BATTERY 11. INDOOR COFFEE BOOTH 12. GOLDEN HORN 13. STORAGE

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS

B


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

1

2

3

4

cafe preparation area

coffee waste collection ‘wall’ public entry route

channelling of coffee waste

second stage of coffee waste collection

A

B

Second Iteration

From the diagram, Before electricity generation: 1. The café staffs dump the coffee waste into the coffee wall. 2. A ramp connecting the coffee wall and the power plant helps to channel the coffee waste out of the building. 3. The outer ring of the power plant is perforated, that allows salt water from the Golden Horn to enter the power plant. After electricity generation: 4. The maintenance team enters the room underneath the power plant with a trolley to collect the used coffee waste. Issues: 1. The changes in copper and aluminium cannot be observed, there is no indication for replacement. 2. Its location in the water makes it vulnerable to flooding.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

The previous experiments suggest that the amount of electrolyte has no effect on the generation of electricity. In Jerry Goodisman’s ‘Observations on Lemon Cells’, he revealed that the voltage generated by a lemon cell depends on two factors: 1. The reduction potential of the electrodes 2. The pH of the electrolyte The Reduction Potential of the Electrodes Electricity is generated due to electric potential difference between two electrodes. This potential difference is created as a result of the difference between individual potentials of the two metal electrodes with respect to the electrolyte. The standard electrode potential between copper and aluminium can be calculated as below: E°cell = E°copper − E°aluminium = +0.15 - (-1.66) = 1.81

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

The pH of the electrolyte

The lemon cells experimented by Goodisman consisted of Cu and Zn dipping into dilute hydrochloric acid solution; voltage was measured by connecting a voltmeter across the metal leads while the solution was stirred. He then repeated the experiment by replacing the electrolyte with different pH level. pH level

Emf / V

3.20

0.90

4.10

0.81

6.23

0.64

10.45

0.42

Goodisman’s experiment has proven that the more acidic the electrolyte, the more electricity is generated. As for my proposal of using coffee waste as electrolyte, the period for the coffee waste to change from acidic to alkaline is going to decide the lifetime of the coffee battery.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Fresh Coffee Grounds

6 months old coffee grounds (exposed)

6 months old coffee ground (buried)

Worms fed coffee grounds

pH Level of Coffee Grounds

On a gardening website ‘Coffee Grounds to Ground’, four samples of coffee grounds were tested for pH levels: Samples

pH level

Fresh Coffee Grounds – collected from the café

4.5

6 Month Old Coffee Grounds – exposed to sunlight and rainfall

6.0

6 Month Old Coffee Grounds – buried 4 inches below the surface

6.5

Extract of Worm Castings with Worms Fed Coffee Grounds

9.0

The above table has shown that coffee grounds remain acidic for the first 6 months after they are being used to make coffee. Therefore, the coffee waste in the power plant only needed to be replaced every 6 months.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

1

2 3 4

+4000mm

+3220mm

+4700mm

+4280mm

1. COFFEE BATTERY 2. GREEN ROOF 3. ATRIUM / LIBRARY 4. BRIDGE

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Acceess route for the maintainence team

Coffee waste collection

Rainwater collection

The channelling of used coffee waste to the garden

Disposal ramp

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Final Iteration

The final design of the coffee battery retains most of the ideas from the previous model, including:

3

1

2

1. The coffee waste collection team accesses the coffee battery from the rooftop. 2. The containers for coffee waste collection remain as silo-like structure, but they change from a building scale to an object scale. 3. Those coffee waste containers are a series of hanging objects. This model tried to achieve a balance between reliance on man power and sustainability. From the diagram, 1. The coffee waste collection team accesses the coffee battery from the rooftop. Then they dump the coffee waste into the silo-like containers which line up along the edge the of the roof. Each of them contains a sheet of thin copper plate. 2. There are a series of rainwater collection devices right next to the coffee waste containers. Recycled aluminium will be put into the rainwater collection devices. 3. The maintenance team can access both the coffee waste containers and rainwater collection devices through this route. 4. After 6 months, the used coffee waste will be disposed on to the disposal ramp and they will be channelled to the garden together with the flow of rainwater.

4

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Rainwater collection Coffe waste collection Salt bridge Floating plug

Coffee silo Hydrogen tube Hydrogen pocket

Access route

Disposal Ramp

A

B

A

Stage 0

B

1. Both coffee silo and rainwater collection device are empty. 2. The floating plug in the rainwater collection device is at its lowest level.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Rainwater collection Floating plug Coffe waste collection Salt bridge Copper Aluminium Coffee silo Hydrogen tube Hydrogen pocket

Access route

Disposal Ramp

A

B

A

B

Stage 1

1. The coffee waste collection team dumps the coffee waste into the coffee silo. 2. Rainwater is collected. 3.The floating plug reaches its highest point and stops the intake of rainwater. 4. Both sides are connected by a tube filled with salt water, also known as salt bridging. 5. Electrolysis happens and electricity is generated.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Rainwater collection Floating plug Coffe waste collection Salt bridge

Coffee silo Hydrogen tube Hydrogen pocket

Access route

Disposal Ramp

A

B

A

Stage 2

B

1. After six months, the coffee waste loses its acidity and therefore the coffee battery stops generating electricity. 2. Oxidation occurs on the aluminium side and gas Hydrogen is released. Hydrogen is then channelled into a Hydrogen pocket located in the coffee silo. 3. The expansion of the Hydrogen pocket elevates one side of the hinged platform, creating a slope for disposing the used coffee waste out of the coffee silo. 4. The used coffee waste is then disposed on to the disposal ramp and they will be channelled to the garden together with the flow of rainwater.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Rainwater collection Coffe waste collection Salt bridge Floating plug

Coffee silo Hydrogen tube Hydrogen pocket

Access route

Disposal Ramp

A

B

A

B

Stage 0

1. The Hydrogen is pumped into a collection tank and that can be used to generate Hydrogen fuel. 2. The deflation of the hydrogen pocket causes the hinged platform to return to its original state. 3. The rainwater is drained out of the collection tank. 4. The floating plug returns to its original state. 5. The cycle repeats.

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

Conclusion:

This technical study sets out to investigate the channelling of coffee aroma and the use coffee waste as an alternative source of energy. The above two ideas started as challenges. However, the understanding on ventilation and electrochemistry made me realise that my proposal is actually possible and it can be done without relying much on advanced technology. As demonstrated in chapter 4, the design of my proposed building iterates along with the evolution of the coffee battery system. Each proposed model went through a series of diagrammatic studies, speculative drawings and physical experiments. Each iteration helps to improve my knowledge about the system and modifies the design further. In the end, the coffee battery system reached a balance between reliance on man power and sustainability. (6272 words)

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS


ENVS 3006 TECHNICAL DISSERTATION LUCAS WEIZENG LER UNIT 5

References

Istanbul http://coffeefacts.org/turkish-coffee/history-of-turkish-coffee/ http://www.adiyamanli.org/istanbul-subways/eyup.html http://www.turks.us/article.php?story=20090623071150451 http://www.istanbul.climatetemp.info/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather Energy sustainability Architecture & Sustainable Development, Magali Bodart, Arnaud Evrard, 2011 Coffee Aroma http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080616092116.htm cited in Han-Seok Seo et al. Effects of Coffee Bean Aroma on the Rat Brain Stressed by Sleep Deprivation: A Selected Transcript- and 2D Gel-Based Proteome Analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, June 25, 2008 Hussain A, Saraiva LR, Korsching SI (2009). “Positive Darwinian selection and the birth of an olfactory receptor clade in teleosts” Ventilation http://home.howstuffworks.com/ac3.htm Scents of Space: an interactive smell system, Usman Haque, Haque Design and Research Jan F. Kreider. Handbook of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. CRC press. http://www.arch.hku.hk/teaching/lectures/airvent/sect02.htm http://www.wbdg.org/resources/naturalventilation.php Cyclone Separation http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch09/final/c9s13-2.pdf Jeven Oy. “How cyclone grease separators work” Electrochemistry / Coffee Battery Www.dezeen.com http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/battery.html

THE AFTERLIFE OF COFFEE BY-PRODUCTS

The Afterlife of Coffee By-products  

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