Page 1


Semester 1, 2013 by

Sling Lee

David Lister & Michael Wu



Architecture as a Discourse Computational Architecture Parametric Modelling Algorithmic Explorations Conclusion Learning Outcomes

PART B // DESIGN APPROACH B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8

Design Focus Case Study 1.0 Case Study 2.0 Development Prototypes Technique Proposal Algorithmic Sketches Learning Outcomes

4 5

7 - 11 12 - 14 15 - 18 19 20 21

23 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 41 42 - 44 45 - 54 55 - 56 57 - 58 59


Design Concept Tectonic Elements Final Model Algorithmic Sketches Learning Objectives and Outcomes




I’m Siow Ling Lee, usually known as Sling to most, as people usually have difficulties pronouncing my name. I’m currently starting my 3rd year in the University of Melbourne, pursuing the Bachelor of Environments degree and majoring in Architecture. I was born and raised in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. I first came to Melbourne about 4 years ago, where I did my foundation studies at Trinity College.



Prior to studying at the University of Melbourne, I had no experience to using digital tools to design, or design for that matter. I was always convinced that I was gonna pursue the other more “academic� path - Commerce. My first encounter towards using a digital design tool was in my first semester of university in Virtual Environments. I had to say, it was probably the worst, yet most satisfying subject I had ever had to do. Learning to use Rhino was probably the toughest thing to do, especially in my very first semester. It was a daunting experience but the outcome of it was magical. By the end of the course I was so amazed by what I had done, from designing it through rough sketches to modelling it digitally and lastly, fabricating it. As much as I would like to think that I am done watching online tutorials, I am far from being able to use digital tools independently and am merely just a beginner.




“Nearly everything that encloses space on a scale sufficient for a human being to move in is a building; the term ‘architecure’ applies only to buildings designed with a view to aesthetic appeal” Nikolaus Pevsner, 1943


A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE? In order to to fully be able to engage in architecture as a discourse, we must first understand what is architecture. It is not possible to pinpoint exactly when architecture started, as it has probably evolved alongside human beings. There has been the longest debate as to what is the exact meaning of architecture. Mies van der Rohe once declared that “Architecture starts when you put two bricks together”. I could not disagree with him more, I think architecture is more than that, as what he is defining is just a thing. Nikolaus Pevsner’s thoughts are that “nearly everything that encloses space on a scale sufficient for a human being to move in is a building; the term ‘architecture’ applies only to buildings designed with a view to aesthetic appeal”. I agree to this to a certain extend as I still believe architecture is more influential than that. This is when I think that architecture has a spiritual element to it, that it is able to alter the mood of a person once s/he steps into the building similar to Adolf Loos’ view, “architecure arouses sentiments in man. The architect’s task, therefore is to make those sentiments more precise.” Building from that, I do think that as time changes, so does architecture. Given the time and day we are at, with technology that enables us to do so much more, it is hard to come up with a single definition of the term ‘architecture’ as I believe that architecture, in some ways should be considered as a form of art that engages with one more effectively. That is, architecture should be appreciated and valued more so than art as it can also be utilised.

03 Mies van der Rohe

04 Nikolaus Pevsner

DISCOURSE With that in mind, I would like to focus on architecture that responds to aesthetics (being a piece of art), yet fully functional and is able to alter moods to suit the usage of the building thus enhances one’s experience of that building. I also believe that architecture must respond to its surrounding, that being Nature and be drawn towards sustaining Nature more so than harming it. This means sustainable technologies and construction that creates benefits that outweighs the damage caused towards the environment.

05 Adolf Loos



8 HOUSE Bjarke Ingels Group, 2010 Copenhagen, Denmark





This design by BIG really appeals to me as it addresses the problems that I have spoken about before - sustainability, responsive towards the site and its aesthetically pleasing. It is composed of two hexagonal spaces, intertwining in the middle, forming a literal figure 8. Many have critized the form of this building, having said that it is too simple and seemingly without thought. However, Bjarke Ingels himself has asserted that “the Figure 8 building in Copenhagen looks like a distorted 8 because it allows the townhouses and the apartments to gravitate toward the sun and the view�. Maximising the buildings exposure to sunlight will allow it to have natural heating as well help sustain the greenery that is present throughout the building, even on the roof. This building also addresses the social problems in society, as it is a mix use building having divided horizontally with commercial trades at the bottom and capped with apartments at the top. Having the two aspects- commercial and residential - mixed, the users are encouraged to interact with others. The slopes present in this building also functions as a bike path that enables cyclists to cycle high up to the 10th floor of the building! I think this really inspires other architects (amongst others) to think a step further in achieving sustainable architecture. It may not necessarily be technological, just simple planning.



Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals in Switzerland is another one if my favourite architectural project. He focused on designing a space that responds to the site and also being able to alter the mood of the users to suit the function of the space (a thermal bath). This quarry like theme is suitable as it sits underneath the hilly greens of Switzerland. This inspiration behind this building can be seen so clearly through the way he has selected and honestly displayed. Nature is a big, big part of this design as it is meant for relaxation and rejuvination, the views are constantly controlled (whether it is exposed or denied) while the clever play with light and shade creates a sense of spirituality. Through the careful spatial planning of this bath house, users are given a choice to explore the building on their own. This creates a deeper and more personal connection for the users as it puts them in control, as Peter announced that he is interested in creating a piece of architecture that conveys “a conciousness of time passing and an awareness of human lives that have been acted out”. This ability to maximise material usage not only in terms of aesthetics and structure but also to enhance a feeling and having spatial planning that creates an atmosphere that seems a world apart from what we’re used to is something that we should all try to do.





The Therme Vals Peter Zumthor, 1996 Graubunden Canton, Switzerland



12 WHAT IS COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE? In the day and age that we live in, the common approach to designing anything almost is almost always aided with digital tools. This means, incorporating the use of any (there are numerous) computational programs into the designing phase and controlling it through these programs rather than the traditional pen and paper. HOW HAS IT HELPED IN SOCIETY? There are numerous benefits from using digital tools. For one thing, the design can be visualised and this enables the designer to have a clearer view of the product and be able to make changes from there. It also enables the designer to reproduce the same pattern with just simple commands like “copy” and “paste”. This will ensure that the outcome is filled with precision and accuracy. Through digital architecture, curved surfaces can be easily formed continuously rather than using individual curves through the use of Non Uniform Rational B-Spline geometry, which is essentially similar to a rubber sheet. The result of this is a much smoother, stream line product that is designed in lesser time while also allowing for more control and accuracy. DISADVANTAGE It is important for designers to bear in mind that computational architecture is merely a tool that is used to help designers to reach their goals at a faster time frame and have more control over the design. It is NOT a problem-solving tool as the creative human mind is still needed to do so and through the usage of these programs the solutions can be generated in perhaps more ways than one.




MYZEIL SHOPPING MALL Studio Fuksas, 2009 Frankfurt, Germany

MyZeil Shopping Mall by Studio Fuksas has been shaped using digital tools such as Rhino and Catia. The architects have first established the shape of the building and overlaying it with a grid via these digital tools. Having this done digitally, the architects are able to experiment with different morphologies. The ability of the triangulated panels of glass enables such rigid materials to still form that curved structure is an example of what computational architecture could do. It aids us in solving problems by dividing the panel into triangles but the architect must first have a design and understand the material performance. Having said that, this also enables engineers and architects to work together more smoothly as designers are able to think about the structural system as well as produce as aesthetic composition.




The Watercube in Beijing is probably one of the most relavent building that I can relate to in terms of digital architecture. Looking at this building, I can now understand how it is created. It is similar to the Voronoi Cells in Grasshopper (look at A.4 Algorithmic Explorations). It is easier to generate these cells through digital architecture as these cells would have fitted into the cube more accurately than doing so on pen and paper. It would be possible, but it would have taken a much longer time to plan out the composition. The Watercube also addresses the sustainability issue, a steel structure that is cladded with Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) which is a type of plastic instead of traditional glass as this enables more peneration of light and heat. This then provide natural lighting and heat for the occupants and thus reduce the use of artificial energy.





It has created some architectural discourse within the design environment in the past few decades. As the name suggests, Parametric Modelling responds to a design being created within a designated parameter. The influential Patrik Schumacher denotes that to design via Parametric Modelling or Parametricism is a style. However, I personally see Parametric Modelling as a revolutionary tool to 3D computational modelling. It is not a “style� that someone applies but rather an approach that one takes. Parametric Modelling opposes the conventional way of designing as it is often considered as the bottom-up approach as the important aspects are set to create a form(parameter) followed by fitting in the smaller details while traditionally the form is created then having the essential parameters worked into it.


This powerful tool enables designers with great flexibility as changes can be made to the individual part without having to alter the whole system. As parametric modelling bases functions as relationships within the elements, it makes it possible to alter these connections. Given that, it is very tedious to make changes to each of this connections as there may be thousands of them. However, Parametric Modelling enables the designers with more possible solutions through generating more iterations with variations to them easily in a short period of time. This is highly benefitial to designers who are often, if not always, under stressful time constraints.


Given its great benefitial properties, like many other technology, Parametric Modelling too has its limitations. As the technological economy is always progressing, so will this approach. The thought process of the designer may be argued to be limited by this approach and the role of the designer may be questioned; Who is doing the designing? The computer or the man?




MERCEDES BENZ MUSEUM UN Studio, 2006 Stuttgart, Germany When I think of Parametric Architecture, the Mercedes Benz Museum is the first to spring to mind. It is considered to be one of the most revolutionary building. Its obvious parametric form that evolved through layering trefoil knots vertically makes it almost impossible to be described and understand through traditional 2D drawings. The use of parametric modelling here is examplary as it enables the architects to create a unique spatial experiece for the users. By applying parametric constraints to the elements of this building, it enabled them to focus on the design and found easy solutions in construction. For example, having applied a parameter on the repeated concrete formwork, the structure is formed and the architects are able to accomodate other constraints to it. The architects are also able to control the amount of light that enters into this building, diverting the focus of the users where need be. I personally do not think that parametric modelling is neccessary for this, but I think that it would have saved the designers a lot of time and enabled them to make adjustments to it much more easily. Having used this modelling tool, the architects are also able to keep the budget under control as the elements are made to fit into the structure.




REFUGIA HOTEL Mobil Arquitectos, 2011 Dalcahue, Chile This design may look simple and the use of parametric modelling may not seem present but there is more to it than meets the eye. This building is located in the Southern Hemisphere and the views are mostly faces southwards. This means that it is hard to capture the heat coming from the North. Here is where the design challenge comes in, to utilise passive design approach to maximise the absorption of heat through the use of materiality and the parametric modelling tool. I concluded that the use of parametric modelling is not to find the form of this building, as it is mostly geometrical. However, it is used extensively in the roof whereby the shape of each individual shingle is calculated and positioned. This amazes me as I’m really interested in sustainable designs and the fact that parametric modelling can aid in this way has opened my mind and encouraged me to use it.




AAMI PARK Cox Architects, 2010 Melbourne, Australia

This is an example that is closer to home. The form of the roof is generated through many iterations made through parametric modelling. This is neccessary as the many iterations explored the structural efficiency of the roof. The form here is designed to maximise the structural capacity and not done the other way around where the form is created then altered to maximise its performance like the conventional way of designing works. Through designing with parametric modelling, it is clear that it is highly benefitial as it is able to come up with iterations rather quickly, generate a structure that is buildable and maximising the use of materials while keeping the budget under control.



These are some of my most interesting explorations in Grasshopper. Grasshopper has enabled me to create grid shells, such as those seen in YAS Hotel (Abu Dhabi) and Gardens by the Bay (Singapore).


19 Gridshell

The voronoi command in Grasshopper allowed me to create a subtractive form by dividing the object into smaller fractions within a parameter then deleting it. 20 Voronoi Patterning in Grasshopper is also more efficient as it generated to fit the given parameter simultaneously rather than piecing it together individually. The shape, size and frequency of the pattern can also be controlled. 21 Patterning



Architecture is a broad term and to define architecture, I must first define what I am interested in and what I would like to achieve as I believe these aspects will help shape my understanding of Architecture. In order to create architecture that is successful, it is necessary to design in respond to its social, political, structural and aesthetical context. Having explored the different precedents and works of different architects of different styles, I now have an idea as to where I stand:

Architecture is making a space functional, sustainable and aesthetically pleasing yet able to alter the mood of the users to suit the function of the structure.

I would like to focus especially on spatial progression as I think that is one of the direct links towards creating an atmosphere. It is essential to design this way as a piece of architecture can only be appreaciated and enjoyed if when one feels a connection towards it. Having established that connection, it will only enhance the functionality of the building on a higher and deeper level. Architecture is ever-evolving as time goes by as technology advances and more can be achieved through a simple click of a button. The roles of designers have often been questioned with the rise of technology but I personally believe that technology will aid the designers, especially by speeding up time needed to generate numerous iterations as there are so many constraints that need to be dealt with under limited time. The parametric design tools will only enhance the creativity when used correctly.



Having closely analyzed what is parametric modelling, understanding its limitations and advantages through various readings and having been exposed to the wonders it could create, I was curious to see what I could come up with. It is no doubt that learning to use Grasshopper is time consuming and at times, frustrating. However after spending days and hours on learning (and I am still learning) and plenty of mucking around I still believe that it is necessary as it will aid in the long run. Prior to this I have been avoiding (besides Virtual Environments, I wasn’t given a choice) using any digital modelling tool as the thought of it is extremely daunting. Now that I have started.. I am finding it so much easier to change a mistake and understand my design as it enables me to see in perspective. It gives me so much more flexibility and saves me a lot more time in realising those changes.





B.1 DESIGN FOCUS STRIPS AND FOLDING The theme in which I have decided to lean towards is Strips and Folding. This is a method in which a design is achieved, that is, using thin and elongated forms and bending them in certain ways to achieve a smooth and malleable effect. I think this approach should be pursued in the Wyndham City Gateway Design as this method is able to produce interesting lighting affects, which I think is the most influential aspect as it is able to cause a change in emotion almost instantly. Having said that, this concept is can also be applied or drive interesting forms that could blend into the environment and thus sits in the site more naturally. I think this really suits Wyndham and its vision to achieve a more environmentally-friendly image.


SEROUSSI PAVILLION A project that demonstrated a successful application of Strips and Folding is the Seroussi Pavillion by Biothing. This project used opposing forms (curved and angular strips) to create a very interesting and organic structure. I think having the strips ajoined creates a very intriguing form and this draws attention, which is what we would want the gateway design to do, as it serves as a physical representation of Wyndham. The images on the side illustrate how this pavillion is similar to what we are interested in and what we are trying to achieve.




DESIGN INTENT As a group, we have the same objective, that is to utilise the concept of strips and folding to achieve a structure that is able to represent Wyndham, being able to converse to the public visually as to what the city is and what it is trying to promote through: i) material performance looking closely into how materials interact with one another and utilising its properties to strengthen our design concept ii)spatial experience via structure creating a structure that is able to influence the mood of people that encounters the project iii)spatial experience by responding to the environment taking into consideration of the environmental elements such as wind and light and how it affects the design and exploiting those changes iv)personal engagement through recollection reviewing the designt through its ability to capture attention and allow reflection of thoughts regarding the site relating to its aspirations




SEROUSSI PAVILLION Biothing, 2007 Paris, France




















Having to analyse with the different inputs and outputs of the Siroussi Pavillion in Grasshopper enabled me to understand the possibilites of parametric modelling. Being able to experiment with the basic geometry allowed me to produce different ‘species’ and by adjusting the slider more ‘mutations’ are achieved. The same method (using varied geometries, divide curve, field line and multiplication commands) can be used to produce many different iterations to achieve a design (adjusting the slider to create a form of different density and volume) that is most suitable to the Wyndham City Gateway project, that is able to reflect its inspirations. Although many species were produced, none of which really differ in ways that I am interested in, which is a more uniformed design. However, this drives me to move forward with a design for Wyndham that is more flexible with regards to environmental changes.


Looking at the varied iterations produced, it is clear that by manipulating the sliders can alter the design rather distinctively. Having the project change in density, the experience that is created by the project changes drastically. The malleability as well as the opacity of the pavillion changes easily and this is able to produce a form that is close to what the designer has in mind, and achieving the precise spatial experience that is preffered by the designer. So the elements of light, shadows, wind and noise can be addressed more clearly and effectively. Looking at the images on p.30, it is clear that each of the iterations will be able to convey a very different spatial experience to the user, this can be implemented to our gateway design to create a form that is able to alter the mood of the users through recurring light and shadow forms.




contemPLAY McGill SoA, Paris, France




The ContemPLAY Pavillion designed by the McGill School of Architects is originally produced to address the complexity in form through parametric modelling. The design intent of this project is to manipulate and alter one’s attitude towards a the learning environment by creating a new spatial experience for its users. This structure comprises of plywood strips and metal nodes to create a curvelinear form that’s highly complex, as it seems to be continuous and the materials in which it is chosen is manipulated and successfully incorporated with the mobius stri to create a smooth surface. Elevating the complexity of this pavillion is the structural system, that s of timber and steel that is triangulated to perform structurally yet produce a pleasing effect to the eye, which is the moire effect. The moire effect is essentially having two grids layed upon each other at different planes to create an intersecting pattern at different heights to create depth.




I personally think that this project is highly successful and is extremely applicable to what my group and I are interested in producing. It addresses our design intent, which is to create a structure that is of strips and folding. Looking at how this project utilised the mobius strip and create such a continuous and smooth surface whilst employing strong rigid materials such as steel and timber and manipulating them to achieve this desired affect. The spatial experience in this pavillion is exceptional. It is able to isolate the users enough to be able to reflect on their own thoughts yet not enough to totally disconnect them from its surrounding, which is precisely what my team and I are trying to achieve. This play on light and shadow also aid with creating such an experience. I think this project achieved its goal as it able to move past the “formal superficiality of the digital model into confronting the physical limitations and complications of construction� and produce a design that is elegant yet complex.




through This is a simple diagram to sum up how the ContemPLAY Pavillion was produced through parametric modelling tools. Through computerisation, the design can be structurally tested for areas Computerisation of compression(red) and tension(purple) to ensure that it can be reproduced physically. Having combine the mobius strip, a continuous surface is created and doubling the planes creates the moire effect.



Moire Effec

Areas of Compression and Tension



Mobius Strip





Simplified steps in renegerating ContemPLAY: i) creating the form by using curves ii) encorporating the mobius strip into the form in Lunchbox iii) dividing the mobius surface to create strips across the whole structure equally iv) doubling the existing group of strips to create a second grid v) positioning them in a way so that the moire effect is achieved




ANALYSIS The main difference between what have been reverse engineered and the actual project is maily the support system that lies within the structure. We have reverse engineered the basic form of the project, which is the continous mobius strip what produces a moire effect it has been interlayed with two identical panels. I believe we have achieved a very similar form and thus is successful in understanding how this project has reached its aesthetical appearence. However in terms of strutural composition, we may not have such a clear understanding. However we are going to address this problem through using materials that would work structurally such as timber and steel and merging these materials into the design as structural and aesthetical compononents. Having performed these iterations also allowed us to start thinking about the materials in which we would like to explore. If I were unconstrained by the original form I would like to experiment with various thickness and density of the strips. I am interested in seeing how the material performance can influence the light that passes through this project and how that would substantially change the overall outlook of the project. Instead of having a continuous surface, it would also be really exciting to see how this effect can be reproduced in angular forms and explore the contrasts between the two.




MOIRE EFFECT Preceding from the Case Study 2.0, we have decided to pursue the illusion in which is created through the Moire effect and incorporating that into our design. We believe that the effect created by interlaying two grids together will create an eye-catching pattern that is able to grasp the attention of passersby, which is important as this signifies the starting point of Wyndham, and it is the first and last impression that people will encounter within the Wyndham district. 32

HELICOID Whilst the Moire effect is eye-catching, it is lacking a progressional form. Thus the helicoid is employed into our design as a helicoid is often used in spiralling staircases to achieve that progressional transition between one space to another. It creates a natural sense of movement that is able to give a sense of direction towards its users, whichever end it is being encountered. This continuous visualisation across the entire structure is what we are hoping to achieve in our design.




The image below shows the progression of the mobius strip when a wind component is introduced upon the structure. This leads us to consider the materials in which we would use to be able to withstand the element yet perform movement enough to create a visual effect. This will be explored to a further extend in the later days.

The iterations produced on p.40 lead us to think about the materials in which we would want to implement onto our design. We have shortlisted the materials to timber, stone, steel and PVC. However, given we would want something that is able to represent Wyndham, we decided on timber and steel.




We started off by experimenting with different basic shapes and styles that we could use as a starting point - the spiral, the stem and the circle, all of which are curvelinear forms, which we believe will aid in achieving a smooth spatial progression. This also superceded from the case study, which is highly regarded. Then we experimented with strips, which is our design intent. We came out with a few different ideas and experimented with it. The most promising idea we had was one that was similar to a bird’s wings where a strip was divided into 4 smaller rectangles and these lines we “folded” to create a wing-like shape. Then we decided to raise some of the panels upwards to enable cars to pass through it instead of by it. Having the two internal panels cut out, we were hoping to isolate the users from its surrounding and upwards into the sky. This idea was later discarded as we found that it has no connection to what Wyndham represents and having a strip and folding it was too literal.



Once we have decided a form, the helicoid, and the affect that we would like to achieve (moire), we then moved on the decide which material will help enhance the spatial experience that is created by this structure. We settled on two contrasting materials: TIMBER Timber is rigid yet lightweight. Its natural properties represent nature and is sustainable to the environment. Its natural grainy properties is able to convey a sense of comfort and warmth which I think is appropriate to represent Wyndham, thus the helicoid point that is closer towards this will be mainly dominated by the use of timber. STEEL Steel is strong and malleable. This is able to contribute to the design structurally , while its aesthetical properties are cold and formal and it is a big contrast to timber. This is able to represent the CBD, with its contrasting density in highrise buildings and busy lifestyle, in which we are comparing Wyndham to.








Several prototypes were produced. This enabled us to test the material properties of the represented material (cards of different thicknesses) and investigate the way in which the design would work physically. This required us to further analyse our design and come up with solutions to our difficulties which includes: i) ensure that the panels can support itself from the ground ii) that the equal arrangement of the strips were realised iii) that each panel is placed at the angle specified to ensure that the moire effect is achieved Having addressed these problems, we came up with solutions that enabled us to create a successful prototype. i) we chose a suitable card thickness so that the panels are able to sustain itself ii) introducing a flat panel at the bottom to represent the ground so that the strips can be slided into it iii) duplicating the flat panel (2 panels in total) and placing them 5mm apart to establish specified slits for the panels in order for the strips to fall at the desired angles













Wyndham has been often seen as the waste capital of Melbourne due to its toxic mounds and this has caused many implications on the attitudes and perceptions towards this region.


Wyndham is in fact a highly community focused place, with its current focus to transpire the city into a more sustainable environment. Taking these perceptions into consideration, we want to tie that with our original design intent so that this gateway project is able to convey a sense of community and contrasting that with the city along with the concept of “sustainable environment� in mind through the use of materials physically and conceptually.


To achieve the helicoid from is adopted while the moire effect is incorporated into this form to create an elongated design that stretches across the length of the site. This is able to create a spatial experience that is long enough to alter the users not only through physical changes but also emotionally. We have also decided to taper the end nearer to Wyndham as a representation of how it is a closer-knit community as opposed to the CBD. Material wise, we have chosen 2 very different materials, steel and timber. Steel to represent the CBD as it embodies cold and fast-paced lifestyles while the locally sourced timber gives a warmer and more natural feel similar to that of Wyndham. These materials are then produced into strips placed accordingly on site. We are also looking into sustainable construction methods that could be implemented when constructing this period to add to the sustainable factor, and consider how the structure would be lighted during the night.












Through exploring our design digitally, many sketches were created. These sketches were produced through repeatition and manipulation individual components to achieve the various effects and changes that occurs to the design. This enabled us to identify what adjustments were needed to be made according to the site and come up with one that is balanced and suitable (number of panels, turns and distance between each component) to the site.




The feedback that were received during the mid semester presentation has been very beneficial. More questions regarding the design and its material performance have been raised and this has driven us to work harder to justify what we want to achieve and create a stronger argument towards our design intent. These feedback has driven us to reconsider what we want to bring forward and what we may want to abandon. Overall we agreed that we have more to work on, especially in configurating the achievement of the moire effect. The feedback has also pointed to us the direction in which we need to take, such as deciding on how it should be lighted during the night.


More diagrams have been incorporated into our journals to clearly demonstrate the use of materials. We have learned the importance of diagrams and how they can quickly convey ideas successfully rather than explaining them verbally. Parametric modelling is still a struggle for me at times, but I think this has made me understand the way in which it configures better. Looking at the design matrix that was produced earlier, I can see how the many iterations can help in deciding which is the most suitable and through prototyping the constraints can be identified physically and that also enabled us to learn the material properties better.


Having looked at precedents such as the Brisbane Girls Grammar, Galleria Centercity and the helicoid staircase in Sagrada Familia have been very inspiring and helpful as it aided in our understanding in creating the moire effect and to use the form successfully.



REFERENCES (IMAGES) 01. my own 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. museums/unstudio/stuttgart/mercedes_benz_museum-picture_details-242.html 17. 18. Park_Gary_Annett-1.jpg 19. my own 20. my own 21. my own

REFERENCES (IMAGES) 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Talia Feliccia, 2013. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.


Hal Box, Think like an architect (Texas Press). 2007, p. 30 < au/books?id=peUYhSxCv70C&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=Nearly+everything+that+encloses+space+on+a+scale&source=bl&ots=iyj0xcVaZx&sig=B51UdzezzcB8wfclvNrlukvSnCY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aY9dUarWDtHhrAe8tYDoDg&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=Nearly%20everything%20that%20encloses%20space%20on%20a%20 scale&f=false> Accessed on 22 March 2013.


AIA California Council, PArametric Design: A brief History , 2013. < http://aiacc. org/2012/06/25/parametric-design-a-brief-history/> Accessed on 23 March 2013. Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of modern design, 2005. <> Accessed on 23 March 2013. Masachusetts Institue of Technology, Adolf Loos and theories of architecture and the practical arts in nineteenth century Austria and Germany, 1991. < edu/handle/1721.1/13470> Accessed 23 March 2013.


Architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Newspaper, Q&A, Bjarke Ingels, too big to fail, 2010. < http://archpaper.

com/news/articles.asp?id=5605> Accessed 27 March 2013.

Yusof Hajar, Green spaces in urban cities, 2011. <

green-spaces-in-megacities/> Accessed 27 March 2013.

PAGE 10 Arch Daily, The Therme Vals//Peter Zumthor, 2009. < http://www.archdaily. com/13358/the-therme-vals/> Accessed 27 March 2013. The Independent, Peter Zumthorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experiments in space, 2011. < http://www.> Accessed 27 March 2013. Phaidon Club, Peter Zumthor reveals the secrets of Therme Vals, n.d. < http://> Accessed 1 April 2013.


Greg Lynn, Blobwall, n.d. <> Accessed on 1 April 2013. MOH Architects, Evolutionary computation, 2007. <> Accessed 1 April 2013. Peter von Beulow, Advantages Of Evolutionary Computation Used For Exploration In The Creative Design Process, 2007. < http://www-personal.umich. edu/~pvbuelow/publication/pdf/vonBuelow07_SDPS.pdf> Accessed 1 April 2013.


Florian Schible & Milos Dimcic, Parametric Engineering Everything is Possible, n.d < pdf> Accessed 1 April 2013. Patrik Schumacher, Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’, 2010 <> Accessed 27 March 2013. PAGE 37 Arch Daily, The ContemPLAY Pavillion, 2012. < the-contemplay-pavilion-drs-farmm/> Accessed 5 May 2013. PAGE 56W Wyndham Weekly, Toxic Mound In Wyndham rises to 45 metres, 9 April 2013. < http://>

mid semester submission  

mid semester submission

mid semester submission  

mid semester submission