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European Agency for Reconstruction Contract nr 05KOS01/04/005 Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission – Kosovo UNMIK CONSORTIUM OF PÖYRY, CESI, TERNA AND DECON TASK 4 – SITE SELECTION VOLUME 2 – STUDY REPORTS


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Task 4 - Site selection

Disclaimer

While the consortium of Pรถyry, CESI, TERNA and DECON considers that the information and opinions given in this work are sound, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgment when making use of it. The consortium members do not make any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this report and assumes no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of such information. The consortium members will not assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage arising out of the provision of this report. The report contains projections that are based on assumptions that are subject to uncertainties and contingencies. Because of the subjective judgments and inherent uncertainties of projections, and because events frequently do not occur as expected, there can be no assurance that the projections contained herein will be realized and actual results may be different from projected results. Hence the results and projections supplied are not to be regarded as firm predictions of the future, but rather as illustrations of what might happen. Parties are advised to base their actions on an awareness of the range of such projections, and to note that the range necessarily broadens in the latter years of the projections.

European Agency for Reconstruction Pรถyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Task 4 - Site selection

European Agency for Reconstruction Contract nr 05KOS01/04/005 Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission – Kosovo UNMIK CONSORTIUM OF PÖYRY, CESI, TERNA AND DECON TASK 4 - SITE SELECTION VOLUME 2 – STUDY REPORTS 1) GfA Consult GmbH: Dispersion Calculation of Exhaust Gases from Existing Power Plants Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash Tips and for the future Emission Situation After Construction of a New Power Plant, Reconstruction of Kosovo B and Restoration of the Ash Tips. Report 40207-01.B01 Prepared by GfA Consult GmbH, Mendelstraße 11, 48149 Münster, Germany. 7.5.2007. 2) AGROVET, Fushë Kosovë, Kosovë: Soil survey report. 3) Roth, Karl: Fauna, Flora, Habitats, Survey report. - 30.04.2007 4) Millaku, Fadil: Plant community & biotope survey. – 2.5.2007. 5) Museum of Kosova: Working Report. Detailed archaeological field survey in the “zone of interest” (Obiliq-TCA, Plemetin_TCB and Bivolak). – May 2007. 6) Maxhuni, Agron et al.: Legislation report. – 22.5.2007.

European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


Dispersion Calculation of Exhaust Gases from Existing Power Plants Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash Tips and for the future Emission Situation After Construction of a New Power Plant, Reconstruction of Kosovo B and Restoration of the Ash Tips

Report 40207-01.B01

Prepared by

GfA Consult GmbH Mendelstraße 11 48149 Münster Germany

7. Mai 2007

37 pages


“KOSOVO” Dispersion Calculations

Table of Contents

Date: 07.05.2007

I

Page

1

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 1

2

LOCATION OF THE FACILITIES ................................................................................................ 1

3

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FACILITIES............................................................................... 2

3.1 THE CURRENT SITUATION ................................................................................................................ 2 3.2 THE FUTURE SITUATION .................................................................................................................. 3 4

EMISSION-RELEVANT DATA..................................................................................................... 4

4.1 ADDRESSED SOURCES (SMOKE STACKS) ......................................................................................... 4 4.2 DIFFUSE SOURCES (ASH TIPS)......................................................................................................... 7 5

CALCULATION OF THE ADDITIONAL POLLUTIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS ON AIR QUALITY .................................................................... 10

5.1 ASSESSMENT AREA ....................................................................................................................... 11 5.2 INPUT DATA FOR THE CALCULATIONS ............................................................................................. 11 6

RESULTS ................................................................................................................................... 14

6.1 THE CURRENT SITUATION .............................................................................................................. 16 6.2 THE SITUATION IN THE FUTURE (FROM 2015 ONWARDS).................................................................. 17 7

SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................. 19

8

LITERATURE ............................................................................................................................. 21

Appendix Fig. A 1: Additional annual PM10 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]...... 23 Fig. A 2: Additional annual dust Deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]..... 24 Fig. A 3: Additional annual nickel pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips] ...... 25 Fig. A 4: Additional annual nickel deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips] ... 26 Fig. A 5: Additional annual chromium pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips] 27 Fig. A 6: Additional annual chromium deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips] ..................................................................................................................................... 28 Fig. A 7: Additional annual NO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]........ 29 Fig. A 8: Additional annual SO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips] ........ 30 Fig. A 9: Additional annual PM10 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips] 31 Fig. A 10: Additional annual dust deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips] ..................................................................................................................................... 32 Fig. A 11: Additional annual Nickel concentration (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]............................................................................................................................... 33 Fig. A 12: Additional annual Nickel deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips] ..................................................................................................................................... 34 Fig. A 13: Additional annual chromium concentration (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]........................................................................................................................ 35 Fig. A 14: Additional annual chromium deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]............................................................................................................................... 36 Fig. A 15: Additional annual PM10 pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C] . 37 Fig. A 16: Additional annual dust deposition (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]. 38 Fig. A 17: Additional annual nickel pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C] . 39

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Date: 07.05.2007

II

Fig. A 18: Additional annual nickel deposition (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C] ..................................................................................................................................... 40 Fig. A 19: Additional annual chromium pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C] ..................................................................................................................................... 41 Fig. A 20: Additional annual chromium deposition (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C].................................................................................................................................. 42 Fig. A 21: Additional annual NO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C] ... 43 Fig. A 22: Additional annual SO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C] ... 44 Fig. A 23: Wind direction distribution and wind speeds in Obilic......................................... 45

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Page 1

1 Introduction Two lignite power stations are currently in operation in the Obilic region in Kosovo, Kosovo A and Kosovo B. The accruing combustion bed ash and flue ash is transported to ash tips, some of it dampened and some dry. In accordance with current plans the ash tips are be redeveloped and the Kosovo A power station decommissioned and replaced by a new power station, Kosovo C, to be constructed using state-of-the-art technology. In order to assess the effects of the redevelopment measures and the new power station on the air pollution in the region the task was to calculate the additional pollution resulting from operation of the existing power stations and the pollution to be expected following redevelopment and construction of the new power station for the relevant air pollutants (in this case dust (PM10), dust deposition, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide).

2 Location of the Facilities The Kosovo A lignite power station is located approx. 10 km west of Pristina, south of the town of Obilic. The Kosovo B power station is located north of Obilic. In orographical terms both locations lie within an approx. 10 - 15 km wide valley which runs from north to south. In the vicinity of the two power stations are three ash tips for flue ash and combustion bed ash from the power stations.

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3 Brief Description of the Facilities 3.1

The Current Situation

The Kosovo A power station consists of four generator blocks, each with its own flue. The height of the flues ranges from 120 to 150 m. The concentrations of pollutants in the flue gas from the generator blocks lie significantly above the emission concentration levels achieved by state-of-the-art technology. The Kosovo B power station consists of two blocks. The combustion gases from the boilers are fed into the atmosphere via a 183 m high smoke stack. The emission concentrations from these blocks, in particular the dust and nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the flue gas, are lower than for Kosovo A. In the course of planned redevelopment measures Kosovo B will be equipped with new dust filters which will reduce the dust emissions to 30 mg/m³. The relevant flue gas and source data are listed in detail in Section 4. The accrued ash from the Kosovo B power station is mixed with water and pumped via a pipeline into a local opencast pit. The transport and storage of this ash currently does not represent a source of dust. An old ash tip with a surface area of approx. 50 hectares which is no longer used is situated north of the power station. The spectrum of the tip surfaces ranges from open, extremely fine-grained areas (dry heaped areas) via coarse-grained, set flushing tip surfaces through to hard, solidified layers. At least a third of the surface is subject to wind erosion due to the loose surface material. In the Kosovo A ash tip a differentiation must be made between the flushing tip in the northern section, a centre area and the southern area which is currently in use. The slopes of the flushing tip are for the most part overgrown and protected against wind erosion. The flat surface is free of vegetation and weather-beaten. This area thus also tends to generate dust during dry periods. The centre area of ash tip A has not been changed for decades. It has areas with and without vegetation, some hardened and some generating dust. The southern area is the area which is currently in use (covering of the initial tip layer of approx. 20 to 25 m from south to north with an additional 20 to 25 m). The "Eastern Tip" to the east of the conveyor belt system was profiled some years ago and subsequently vegetated on an experimental basis. Currently between a third and a half of the Eastern Tip is completely free of vegetation. This area consists primarily of fine-grained and extremely fine-grained loose surfaces (as a result of among other things the landscaping the hard-

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Date: 07.05.2007

Page 3

ened surfaces were broken up and loose ash was brought to the surface). The area which was subsequently vegetated is now losing its vegetation again in some areas, partly due to a lack of water and partly due to erosion since no drainage trenches were provided. Currently approx. 300,000 metric tons of dry flue ash per year are transported via conveyor belt to the southern area of ash tip A. In addition to the fine-grained tip surfaces which are vulnerable to wind erosion, the dropping of the ash from the belt, in particular from a great height, represents a further relevant source of diffuse dust. For further dispersion calculations in respect of tip wind erosion it is assumed that in each case 1/3 of the surfaces of the tips is subject to dust erosion by the effects of the wind.

3.2

The Future Situation

In the future the Kosovo A blocks will no longer be operated. The ash tips shall be redeveloped to the extent that they no longer generate dust emissions. The conveyor belt transport and dumping of dry ash which is also of relevance to the emission levels will also be discontinued. As a replacement for Kosovo A a new “Kosovo C” lignite power station with 4 blocks shall be constructed using state-of-the-art technology. The flue gases from the new power station shall, as is normal nowadays, be discharged via cooling towers. The related emission and source data are listed in Section 4. Three potential locations are currently under discussion. Two of the possible locations are in the vicinity of the existing Kosovo A and Kosovo B sites; the third is near the town of Bivoljak. The redevelopment of the ash tips is planned to take until roughly 2012. The shutdown of Kosovo A will take place at the earliest in 2014 following construction and commissioning of Kosovo C. Kosovo C will probably be built and commissioned in several stages. For the dispersion calculations for the future situation it is assumed that all ash tips have been redeveloped, that Kosovo B is still in operation and that Kosovo C has been fully commissioned with four blocks.

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4 Emission-Relevant Data For the dispersion calculations a differentiation must be made in terms of emissions between the listed sources of the power station blocks with defined flue gas volumes and emission concentrations (boiler flue gases) and the diffuse emission sources of the ash tips (wind erosion) and the dropping of material from the conveyor belt. The data provided below for the addressed sources (smoke stacks) relate to operation of the individual power station blocks in a typical load situation. The data was provided to us by the customer. The emissions from the diffuse sources are addressed and listed in Section 4.2. Nickel and chromium mass flows were calculated by the nickel and Chromium concentrations in the ashes (190 mg/kg Ni, 160 mg/kg Cr).

4.1 Addressed Sources (Smoke Stacks) 4.1.1 Kosovo A Power Station Unit

A1

A3

A4

A5

Stack height

m

120

120

120

150

Stack diameter at top

m

4.0

7.0

7.0

7.0

Flue area

12.6

38.5

38.5

38.5

Flue gas temperature

°C

200

190

200

200

nm³/s

53

237

296

306

m/s

8.2

11.7

14.9

15.4

O concentration %

%

10

11

11

11

Dust concentration

mg/m³

1000

700

700

700

SO2 concentration

mg/m³

300

300

300

300

NOx concentration

mg/m³

700

700

700

700

g/s

52.98

165.91

207.38

214.30

Nickel mass flow

mg/s

10.06

31.52

39.40

40.72

Chromium mass flow

mg/s

8.48

26.54

32.70

34.29

SO2 mass flow

g/s

15.89

71.10

88.88

91.84

NOx mass flow

g/s

37.09

165.91

207.38

214.30

Current capacity

MW

24

120

150

155

Operation time

hrs/a

4700

5500

6600

6600

Site coordinates

East

7.507.150

7.507.080

7.507.050

7.507.020

North

4.726.230

4.726.270

4.726.350

4.726.360

Flue gas flow Exit speed

Dust mass flow

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Date: 07.05.2007

Page 5

4.1.2 Kosovo B Power Station Kosovo B following redevelopment

Kosovo B currently Unit

B1

B2

B1

B2

Stack height

m

183

183

183

183

Stack diameter at top

m

6.8

6.8

6.8

6.8

36.3

36.3

36.3

36.3

°C

160

160

160

160

nm³/s

472

472

472

472

m/s

23.1

23.1

23.1

23.1

O concentration %

%

6

6

6

6

Dust concentration

mg/m³

150

150

30

30

SO2 concentration

mg/m³

400

400

400

400

NOx concentration

mg/m³

500

500

200

200

g/s

70.75

70.75

14.15

14.15

Nickel mass flow

mg/s

13.44

13.44

2.69

2.69

Chromium mass flow

mg/s

11.32

11.32

2.26

2.26

SO2 mass flow

g/s

188.68

188.68

188.68

188.68

NOx mass flow

g/s

235.85

235.85

94.34

94.34

Current capacity

MW

290

290

290

290

Operation time

hrs/a

6500

6500

6500

6500

Site coordinates

East

7.504.600

North

4.728.170

Flue area Flue gas temperature Flue gas flow Exit speed

Dust mass flow

4.1.3 The New Kosovo C Power Station Currently three potential locations are under discussion: near Kosovo A, near Kosovo B and near the town of Bivolac. In terms of pollutions the most unfavourable location would appear to be in the vicinity of Kosovo B since this power station will continue to be operated in the future and so the flue gases of both power stations would contribute to the pollutions in the neighbourhood. Locating Kosovo C near the Kosovo A site or near Bivolac would in any case result in lower maximum pollution values since in these cases there would be less or no overlapping of the flue gases from Kosovo B and Kosovo C.

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In terms of a pessimistic calculation of the pollution concentrations to be expected, the Kosovo B location has been used for calculation purposes as the site for the new power station. In addition the worst-case assumption is made that all 4 blocks of Kosovo C are already in operation. The flue gases of the generator blocks of Kosovo C are discharged via the respective cooling towers. Kosovo C Unit

C1

C2

C3

C4

Cooling tower height

m

120

120

120

120

C. tower diameter at top

m

70

70

70

70

nm³/s

639

639

639

639

Exit speed

m/s

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

Cooling air temp. out

°C

15

15

15

15

Cooling air temp. out

°C

15

15

15

15

g/kg

3

3

3

3

Relative humidity *)

%

100

100

100

100

Dust concentration

mg/m³

30

30

30

30

SO2 concentration

mg/m³

200

200

200

200

NOx concentration

mg/m³

200

200

200

200

g/s

19.17

19.17

19.17

19.17

Nickel mass flow

mg/s

3.642

3.642

3.642

3.642

Chromium mass flow

mg/s

3.067

3.067

3.067

3.067

SO2 mass flow

g/s

127.80

127.80

127.80

127.80

NOx mass flow

g/s

127.80

127.80

127.80

127.80

Current capacity

MW

500

500

500

500

Operation time

hrs/a

7800

7800

7800

7800

Site coordinates

East

7.503.720

7.503.980

7.504.240

7.504.500

for the site near Kosovo B

North

4.728.225

4.728.300

4.728.375

4.728.450

Flue gas flow

C. air fluid water content *)

Dust mass flow

*) Calculated values in accordance with VDI RL 3784, Sheet 2

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4.2

Date: 07.05.2007

Page 7

Diffuse Sources (Ash Tips)

Diffuse dust emissions in principle arise during the following processes involved in the transport and storage of ash: •

Transfer of the ash from one belt section to another

Dropping of the ash from the belt onto the tip

Wind erosion of the tip.

These diffuse dust emissions are quantified below. The calculations are based on VDI Guideline 3790, Sheet 3 – “Emissions of gases, odours and dusts from diffuse sources: Storage, handling and transport of bulk material“. In addition data from the US EPA are also used.

Emissions resulting from the bulk material handling and dropping from the belt The emission factors for the taking up and delivery of bulk material are calculated in accordance with VDI 3790 Sheet 3 as follows: Emission factor for the delivery:

qDel = qnorm,corr * ρ * kU

with the normed and corrected emission factors qnorm and qnorm,corr, the bulk density ρ and the environmental factor kU . qnorm,corr = qnorm *kH * 0.5 * KEquipment where kH = 17.8 for free-fall dropping from a height of 20 m and KEquipment =1 for the dropping from the belt and qnorm for continuous dropping in accordance with formula 7a of VDI 3790 Sheet 3 for highly dust-producing material and a belt capacity of 60 t/h = (10+5)-2 * 83.3 * 60-0.5 = 3398. In order to determine the normed and corrected emission factors for the taking up and delivery of bulk materials during the transfer process these must first be classified in accordance with their dust emission potential. This classification is performed in accordance with Appendix B of VDI 3790 Sheet 3 taking into consideration the grain size distribution of the combustion bed ash with an average moisture content.

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The flue ash is 100 % fine with grain sizes less than 150 µm. Due to the low moisture content the flue dust can be assigned to the “highly dust-producing material” category. The normed emission factor for the dropping from the belt is calculated to be qnorm = 3398. The emission factor qnorm,corr corrected for the dropping height was calculated in accordance with formula 7 of VDI 3790 Sheet 3 (see above) with a result of qnorm,corr = 30.242 g/t. The environmental factors for the locations of the emissions were taken from Table 8 of VDI 3970 Sheet 3 and for tips are kU = 0.9. A bulk density of 0.82 t/m³ was used in the calculations. The calculated emission factors for the dropping (onto the tip or conveyor belt) are shown in the table below; the table also includes the emission factor for a drop height of 10 m. Drop height

Emission factor in g/t of flue ash

Mean emission mass flow per belt transfer point (kg/h)

20 m

22.319

763

10 m

9.368

320

The dropping height from the belt onto the tip is approx. 9 m. Since the material is dropped onto the slope and slides further down the slope, for a realistic estimate of the emissions we assume a drop height of 20 m. Drop heights of 10 m are used for the belt transfer points in order to also cover emissions from open belts. With an annual total tipping of roughly 300,000 metric tons of dry flue ash the mean quantity for the dropping from the belt is around 34.2 t/h. The emission mass flow for the dropping from the belt onto the tip thus amounts to a total of 763 kg of dust per hour. For the non-encapsulated belt transfer point with a low drop height the average emission mass flow is 320 kg/h. Since the ashes contain of 190 mg/kg Nickel and 160 mg/kg Chromium the total Nickel Emissions result in 205.8 g/h Nickel and 173.3 g/h chromium from ash transportation and dropping. The determined emission factors relate to the total dust. The percentage of fine particles < 10 µm (PM10) in the total amount of dust can be estimated based on available information in respect of the flue ash as roughly 30 % of the total amount of dust (50 % is smaller than 20 µm).

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These emissions are independent of the prevailing wind speeds and fundamentally occur during transport and dropping of the ash. Wind erosion of bulk material tips Further dust emissions are caused by the effects of wind on the open parts of the ash tips. The tip erosion is dependent on the speed of the wind. Wind speeds of 4 m/s at the surface of the tips is sufficient to erode material. In accordance with the VDI 3790 Sheet 3 formula, at wind speeds of 4 m/s and higher dust erosion of 3.5 g/(m²*h) and more can be expected. Investigations by the US EPA (in 2006) on coal tips suggest emission rates of 8 g/(m²*h). We have used the following assumptions and conditions in the calculations: •

For 20 % of the hours per year the wind speeds are sufficiently high (≥ 4 m/s) to erode material.

Due to the extremely fine-grained nature of the material the emission rate is 8 g/(m²*h).

A third of the tip surfaces is susceptible to wind erosion due to the surface structure (not compacted, hardened or vegetated).

In addition, the Nickel and Chromium emissions were calculated, too. For the emission calculation the concentrations of 190 mg/kg Nickel and 160 mg/kg Chromium in the ashes were used.

The following emission levels thus result for the three flue ash tips: Total area

Dust mass

Hourly dust

Hourly Nickel

Hourly Chro-

of the tip

flow during

mass flow as

mass flow as

mium mass

(m²)

wind erosion

an annual av-

an annual

flow as an

(kg/h)

erage (kg/h)

average (g/h)

annual average (g/h)

Ash tip A

343,000

920

184

34.96

29.44

Lagoon

360,000

960

192

36.48

30.72

Ash tip B

495,000

1320

264

50.16

42.24

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5 Calculation of the Additional Pollutions In Accordance With the Technical Instructions on Air Quality The dispersion calculations for gases and dusts were performed using the Lagrange particle model of VDI Guideline 3945 Sheet 1 (LASAT: AUSTAL 2000 Version 2.3.6 WI-x) in accordance with Appendix 3 of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality. For the data input and presentation of the results the “WinAUSTAL2000” program (Version 1.8.4) from engineering consultants Lohmeyer GmbH & Co. KG in Karlsruhe was used. The dispersion model LASAT (Lagrange-Simulation of Aerosol-Transport) calculates the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere on a local and a regional scale. Emitted particles (gases) are followed on their way through the atmosphere. The particles are following the mean wind flow, turbulence and an additional flow. With the additional flow the sedimentation and deposition can be computed. The model used, contains a boundary layer model for flat areas and a diagnostic wind-field-model, which simulates the impact of uneven areas on the wind-fields. Emission sources can be defined as point-, line, area-, or volume-sources. The plume rise is includes in the model and comprises the aerodynamic plume rise and the plume rise due to buoyancy. Therefore also the discharge of exhaust gases via cooling towers can be simulated. The model can be adjusted to site specific conditions by adjusting surface parameters (surface roughness) and terrain characteristics. The impact of buildings like cooling towers on the air flow pattern und dispersion is simulated with a meteorological pre-processor which includes a diagnostic wind-field-model. The chemical transformation for NO oxidation to NO2 is taken into account in the model to evaluate the actual NO2-concentrations in the ambient air. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by burning fossil fuels consist largely of nitric oxide (90-95 % NO) and a smaller part of nitrogen dioxide (5 – 10 % NO2). After exhaust from flue the percentage of NO2 increases through oxidation of NO mainly by atmospheric ozone, oxygen and radiation. In this study the initial fraction of NO in the emission is assumed to be 90 % of the volumic rate of the NOx-emission. NO conversion is approximated via empirical relation from NO-lifetime measurements conducted at several power plants according to the VDI guideline 3782/1. For the determination of pollutant concentrations the assessment area is covered with a three-dimensional enumeration grid, where the particles are moving. Residence time and amount of particles give the concentration within the grid volume.

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Date: 07.05.2007

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Assessment Area

In accordance with Section 4.6.2.5 of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality the assessment area is an area lying entirely within a circle drawn around the prime source of the emissions whose radius corresponds to 50 times the actual height of the smoke stack and in which the additional pollutions amount to more than 3.0 percent of the long-term concentration. In the case of multiple sources the assessment area is formed from the overlapping assessment areas of the individual sources. For the various addressed variants of the current and future emission situations the assessment areas were in each case formed from the overlapping assessment areas of the individual power stations. These are in any case sufficiently large to allow assessment of the pollutions from the various emission sources. Outside the assessment areas there are no pollution concentrations which are higher than those within the assessment areas. For all calculation nested grids with different mesh sizes were used. The most meaningful grids are presented in the annex. The pollution point height used for the pollution concentrations to be determined was the minimum of 1.5 m above the ground (a grid cell height of 3 m) as specified in Section 4.6.2.3 of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality.

5.2

Input Data for the Calculations

The surface roughness of the terrain is described by the mean roughness factor Z0. Due to the nature of the assessment area a mean roughness factor of Z0 = 0.5 was used. The deposition and sedimentation speed of the dusts and particle-bound components was taken into account in accordance with Section 4 of Appendix 3 of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality. For the grain size distributions for the dust-bound materials emitted via the smoke stack the distribution estimates listed below based on reference documents (UBA 2000; Schlachta et al. 2002) were applied. Based on these figures, for the new Kosovo C power station and for Kosovo B following modernisation of the dust filters the PM10 elements can be regarded as constituting 90 % of the total dust. For the old power stations Kosovo A and B this figure is set to 80 % due to the reduced effectiveness of the filters.

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Sources

Page 12

Proportion in % PM2.5

PM10

>PM10

Stacks A + B (old)

40

40

20

Stacks B + C (new)

45

45

10

Diffuse sources

0

30

50

>PM50

20

For the diffuse sources the percentage of fine particles < 10 µm (PM10) in the total dusts was set to 30 % in accordance with the available information on the grain size distribution of the flue ash. The remaining system and flue gas data used in the calculations is listed in Section 4. In the case of the nitrogen oxides it was taken into account that up to approx. 10 % is emitted as NO2. For the calculation of the conversion of NO to NO2, in accordance with Section 4 of Appendix 3 to the Technical Instructions on Air Quality the conversion times specified in VDI Guideline 3782 Sheet 1 were used. All dispersion calculations were conducted with impact of flue gas velocity and thermal capacity which effect the plume raise. The individual power station blocks are not operated continually throughout the year (see the operation times in the tables in Section 4.1). Consequently, since the precise operating times are not known, continuous operation of all blocks is assumed and the annual total mass flow of emissions distributed over the total number of hours in the year. The emissions from the diffuse source “tip wind erosion” do not occur continuously but only at and above minimum wind speeds. For these discontinuous sources even distribution of the emissions over the year was also used (see Section 4.2).

5.2.1 Meteorological Data To describe the meteorological situation a meteorological series (AK-Term) from 1998 from the Finnish Meteorological Institute was used. A description of the data and their determination on the basis of synoptic weather data from available measurement stations in the region can be found in the FMI report from 2005. The data available from the weather stations is basically very meagre and the element with wind speeds of 1 m/s of approx. 60 % is extremely high. Better meteorological data, however, is not available despite extensive research.

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5.2.2 Terrain Influences The terrain in the (assessment) area of the power stations has only minor orographical fluctuations. In accordance with the Technical Instructions on Air Quality terrain unevenness must only be taken into account if elevation differences compared with the stack location of more than 0.7 multiplied by the height of the smoke stack and gradients of more than 1 : 20 are present within the assessment area. Dispersion calculations with topographically modified wind fields are therefore not necessary.

5.2.3 The Influences of Buildings In accordance with the appendix to the Technical Instructions on Air Quality the influence of buildings on the dispersion must be taken into account if the stack heights are less than 1.7 times the height of the buildings situated less than 6 times their height from the source of the emissions. In the case of emission sources which are lower than 1.7 times the height of relevant buildings but higher than 1.2 times that height the influence of the buildings on the dispersion of pollutants can be determined using the diagnostic wind model TALdia which is implemented in the AUSTAL2000 calculation package. In the case of the existing power stations the smoke stacks are sufficiently high in relation to the buildings that the buildings have no influence on the flue gas dispersion or such influences do not need to be considered. In the case of flue gas discharge via the cooling towers the height of the emission source and the height of the building (the outlet to the cooling tower) are basically identical. As a result of the restrictions referred to above for the application of the wind field model the prerequisites for the use of the diagnostic wind field model for cooling towers are not fulfilled. Time-consuming and costly wind tunnel tests would basically be necessary in order to be able to appropriately address the influence of cooling tower structures on the dispersion of air impurities. More recent validation calculations with a combination of the TALdia and AUSTAL2000 programs in comparison with wind tunnel tests have shown that the model calculations correlate well with the measurements in the wind tunnel. For the flow modelling of the effects of the buildings on the flue gas discharge via the cooling towers the diagnostic wind field model TALdia shall therefore be used. In the case of the sources near ground level (the ash pits) the prerequisite for the application of the diagnostic wind field model is also not fulfilled (emission heights identical to the

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tip heights). No procedure is defined for these situations in the Technical Instructions on Air Quality. In such cases, in accordance with the proposal from the Environmental Agency of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, the sources can be defined as a vertical planar source or volume source over a height range from 0 m to Hq (where Hq = the height of the source) for the calculations. Sources whose heights lie between 1.2 and 1.7 times the heights of the buildings are to be treated as vertical sources from ½ Hq m to Hq. The tips with their emissions from wind erosion and ash handling are accordingly defined as volume sources. The influence of the use of the land in the vicinity of the sources is covered by the roughness factor (in this case Z0 = 0.5).

6

Results

The spatial distributions of the additional pollution (annual averages) for the current emission situation with the power stations Kosovo A, Kosovo B and the ash tips are shown in the appendix for the relevant considered components: Emission situation: Kosovo A, Kosovo B, Ash tips Fig. A1:

Dust (PM10)

Fig. A2:

Dust Deposition

Fig. A3:

Nickel Concentration

Fig. A4:

Nickel Deposition

Fig. A5:

Chromium Concentration

Fig. A6:

Chromium Deposition

Fig. A7:

Nitrogen dioxide

Fig. A8:

Sulphur dioxide

In order to differentiate between the contributions of the ash tips and the power stations Kosovo A and B to the PM10 and dust deposition pollution additional calculations were performed for just the Kosovo A and B power stations without the ash tips. The corresponding figures for Kosovo A and Kosovo B without the impact of the ash tips are shown as follows: Emission situation: Kosovo A and Kosovo B without ash tips Fig. A9:

Dust (PM10)

Fig. A10:

Dust Deposition

Fig. A11:

Nickel Concentration

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Fig. A12:

Nickel Deposition

Fig. A13:

Chromium Concentration

Fig. A14:

Chromium Deposition

Page 15

The future situation with a maximum of 4 new Units of Kosovo C at the site of Kosovo B are shown as follows: Emission situation: Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C Fig. A15:

Dust (PM10)

Fig. A16:

Dust Deposition

Fig. A17:

Nickel Concentration

Fig. A18:

Nickel Deposition

Fig. A19:

Chromium Concentration

Fig. A20:

Chromium Deposition

Fig. A21:

Nitrogen dioxide

Fig. A22:

Sulphur dioxide.

The maximum values for the additional pollution (annual averages) for the considered emission situations are presented in Table 1. Tabelle 1: Maximum of annual mean pollution concentrations APCmax and their relation to the annual pollution limit levels APL. For Kosovo A and B and the ash tips situation

Pollutant Sulphur dioxide

A+B+Tips

A+B old

B+C

APCmax

APCmax

APCmax

APL

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

2,5

Nitrogen dioxide PM10 Nickel Chromium

50

9,6

40

a)

8,8

3,1

3,1

3,53

2,64 0,67 10-3 0,56 10-3

0,43 0,082 10-3 0,069 10-3

40 a) 20 10-3 d) 17 10-3 e)

1,1 0,4 0,4

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

%

32,3 2

µg/(m · d) Nickel Depos. Chromium Depos.

4,79

%

b)

2669 0,47 0,40 g/(m2 · d)

Dust deposition

2,5

B+C APCmax APL

5700 4800

0,0041 2

µg/(m · d) 1,1 0,92

<0,000.95*) 2

µg/(m · d) 0,086 0,072

0,35

c)

2

µg/(m · d) 15 -

f)

<0,3 % 0,6 -

*) outer edge of assessment area; high statistical uncertainty a) b) c) d)

EU-guideline 1999/30EG Pollution concentration for protection of human health i.a.w. Section 4.2 Technical Instruction of air Quality Pollution concentration for protection against significant disadvantages resulting from dust deposition i.a.w. Section 4.3 Technical Instruction of air Quality EU-Guideline 2004/107EG

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LAI 2004 Target Value for cancerogenic air pollutants Deposition level for pollutant deposition i.a.w. Section 4.5.1 Technical Instruction of air Quality

The Current Situation

At the current emission situation the maximum annual concentrations of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide which are solely discharged via smoke stacks occur at a distance of about 8 km southwest of the power station Kosovo A. PM10 and dust deposition are mainly emitted from the ash tips near ground level. Therefore the maximum values for the additional pollution (annual averages) for PM10 and dust deposition occur in the direct vicinity of the ash tips. And even further away from the tips the dusts released from the tips near ground level are the cause of the local dust emissions. Significant factors in the assessment of the additional pollution are the locations in which people are to be found not just temporarily. For these locations the annual pollution (limit) values specified in the EU Directive/Guidelines and/or in the Technical Instructions on Air Quality and listed in Table 1, apply. For four sites (Obilic/Kastriot, Dardhisht/Krusevac, Kosovo B, Inkos) exemplarily PM10 and dust deposition annual pollution values as well as the particle bounded elements nickel and chromium are presented in Table 2. The sites Kosovo B and INKOS are measuring sites for SO2 and “unburned particles”, the site Obilic is located in the centre of this small town, and the site near of Dardhist will be the habitated area with the highest immissions of dust, PM10 and heavy metals.

Table 2:

Annual mean pollution concentrations APC for PM10 and dust deposition at three sites. (Emission situation: Kosovo A and B and the ash tips)

Location

Obilic

East of Dardhisht

Kosovo B

Inkos

APC

APC

APC

APC

APL

APC APL

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

%

22 4,3 10-3 3,6 10-3

170 33 10-3 28 10-3

28 5,3 10-3 4,5 10-3

93 18 10-3 15 10-3

40 20 10-3 17 10-3

425 165 165

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

%

PM10 Nickel Chromium

Dust deposition

Dardhisht

0,038

1,2

0,15

0,33

0,35

343

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

%

7,1 6,0

230 190

28 24

63 53

15 -

1533

Ni-Deposition Cr-Deposition

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In order to differentiate between the contributions of the ash tips and the power stations Kosovo A and B to the PM10 and dust deposition pollution additional calculations were performed for just the Kosovo A and B power stations without the ash tips. The maximum concentrations are listed in Table 1. For the exemplarily considered sites the annual pollution concentrations due to both power plants Kosovo A and Kosovo B contributes less than 2 % of the pollution limit values (Table 3). Table 3:

Annual mean pollution concentrations APC for PM10 and dust deposition at three sites. and their relation to the pollution limit values APL. Emission situation: Kosovo A and Kosovo B without the ash tips

Location

PM10 Nickel Chromium

Obilic

East of Dardhisht

Kosovo B

Inkos

APC

APC

APC

APC

APL

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

%

0,21 0,066 10-3 0,056 10-3

0,41 0,12 10-3 0,10 10-3

0,45 0,13 10-3 0,11 10-3

0,17 0,047 10-3 0,039 10-3

40 20 10-3 17 10-3

1,0 0,6 0,6

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

%

Dust deposition

0,0005

0,00082

0,00088

0,00037

0,35

0,2

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

µg/(m2 · d)

%

0,15 0,13

0,27 0,20

0,26 0,22

0,10 0,086

15 -

1,8

Ni-Deposition Cr-Deposition

6.2

East of Dardhisht APC APL

The Situation in the Future (from 2015 onwards)

As explained in Section 3.2 the Kosovo A power station is to be shut down and replaced by a new “Kosovo C” power station to be constructed using state-of-the-art technology with a maximum of 4 blocks. The ash tips will be redeveloped to the extent that they will no longer contribute to dust emissions and the emission-relevant conveyor belt transport and dumping of dry flue ash will be discontinued. For the dispersion calculations for the situation in the future it is assumed that all of the ash tips have been redeveloped, that Kosovo B is still in operation and that Kosovo C has been fully developed with four blocks. As part of the redevelopment measures the Kosovo B

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power station will be fitted with new filters and a system for reducing NOx emissions such that the maximum emission levels specified by the EU will in future be complied with. Currently three potential locations are under discussion: near Kosovo A, near Kosovo B and near the town of Bivolac. In terms of pollution concentrations the most unfavourable location would appear to be in the vicinity of Kosovo B since this power station will continue to be operated in the future and so the flue gases of both power stations would contribute to the pollution in the neighbourhood. Locating Kosovo C near the Kosovo A site or near Bivolac would in any case result in lower maximum pollution values since in these cases there would be less or no overlapping of the flue gases from Kosovo B and Kosovo C. In terms of a pessimistic calculation of the pollution concentrations to be expected, the Kosovo B location has been used for calculation purposes as the site for the new power station. In addition the worst-case assumption is made that all 4 blocks of Kosovo C are already in operation. Maximum of annual pollution concentrations for this future situation are given in Table 1 above. The results of the dispersion calculations for four considered locations are listed in Table 4. Table 4:

Annual mean pollution concentrations APC and their relation to the pollution limits APL at four locations. Emission situation: Kosovo B and Kosovo C

Location

Obilic

East of Dardhisht

Kosovo B

Inkos

APC

APC

APC

APC

APL

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

µg/m3

%

Sulphur dioxide

0,67

0,76

0,43

1,3

50

1.5

Nitrogen dioxide

0,58

0,52

0,3

1,1

40

1.3

PM10

0,050

0,073

0,038

Pollutant

Nickel Chromium

Dust deposition

0,0095 10

-3

0,014 10-3

0,0080 10

-3

-3

0,012 10

0,093

0,0072 10

-3

0,0061 10

-3

East of Dardhisht APC APL

40 -3

0,018 10

-3

0,015 10

0.2

20 10

-3

0,1

17 10

-3

0,1

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

g/(m2 · d)

%

0,000.06

0,000.11

0,000.056

0,000.11

0,35

<0,1

2

2

2

2

2

µg/(m · d)

µg/(m · d)

µg/(m · d)

µg/(m · d)

µg/(m · d)

%

Ni-Deposition

0,011

0,022

0,011

0,020

15

0,2

Cr-Deposition

0,009

0,018

0,009

0,017

-

-

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In accordance with Section 4.2.2 of the Technical Instructions in Air Quality a shortfall of 3 % with regard to the annual pollution concentrations for protection of human health as a result of the pollution from an installation can be classified as irrelevant. All pollutants due to the emissions from the power stations B and C will not exceed the irrelevance thresholds at the four locations.

7 Summary Two lignite power stations are currently in operation in the Obilic region in Kosovo, Kosovo A and Kosovo B. The accruing combustion bed ash and flue ash is transported to ash tips, some of it dampened and some dry. In accordance with current plans the ash tips are be redeveloped and the Kosovo A power station decommissioned and replaced by a new power station, Kosovo C, to be constructed using state-of-the-art technology. In order to assess the effects of the redevelopment measures and the new power station on the air pollution in the region the task was to calculate the additional pollution resulting from operation of the existing power stations and the pollution to be expected following redevelopment and construction of the new power station for the relevant air pollutants (in this case dust (PM10), dust deposition, particle bounded nickel and chromium (air concentration and deposition) sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide). In the current situation with Kosovo A and Kosovo B in operation as well as in the future with Kosovo B after reconstruction and Kosovo C the air pollution concentrations from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are clearly far below air pollution limits. This is, despite the high emissions of the pollutants, due to the height of the emission sources (stacks) and the intense plume raise because of the high thermal capacity of the emitted flue gas. The actual air pollution situation concerning dust (PM10), dust deposition as well as particle bounded metals (nickel, chromium) is clearly dominated by the impact of the ash tips. The contribution of the open ash tips to dust pollution is multifold higher than the contribution of the old or new power plants because of source heights near ground level. The dust pollution concentrations as well as the dust deposition in the area around the ash tips exceeds the pollution limit levels by far, depending on distance and direction to the tips. After restoration of the ash tips the pollution situation due to the emissions of Kosovo B and Kosovo C will be on a level which can be considered to be irrelevant with exception of SO2 and NOx, where the maximum of immissions will be below 10% of the limit values.

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48149 Münster, 07. Mai 2007 ___________________

Dr. U. Esser

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8 Literature EPA – Environmental Protection Agency – 1999: Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, AP42, Fifth Edition, Vol. I, Stationary Point and Area Sources LAI 2004: Evaluation of pollutants for which no emission levels are defined. Orientation values for the checking of special cases and for installation monitoring and target levels for long-term air pollution prevention planning with particular consideration of the evaluation of carcinogenic air pollutants. Report by the Federal States Committee for Pollution Control, September 2004 Schlachta, R. et al. 2002: Determination of the fine particle concentration in the waste gas of various emission sources. Hazardous substances, air pollution prevention, No. 62, pp. 119, 2001 Technical Instructions on Air Quality, first general administrative regulation in the context of the German Federal Pollution Control Act dated 30.07.2002 UBA 2001: Grain size distribution of dust emissions from relevant stationary sources. Research report 298 44 280. Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin VDI 3790 Sheet 3: Emissions of gases, odours and dusts from diffuse sources: Storage, handling and transport of bulk materials, May 1999

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- Appendix -

- Diagrams -

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Fig. A 1: Additional annual PM10 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 2: Additional annual dust Deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 3: Additional annual nickel pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 4: Additional annual nickel deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 5: Additional annual chromium pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 6: Additional annual chromium deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 7: Additional annual NO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 8: Additional annual SO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B and Ash tips]

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Fig. A 9: Additional annual PM10 pollution (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]

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Fig. A 10: Additional annual dust deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]

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Fig. A 11: Additional annual Nickel concentration (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]

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Fig. A 12: Additional annual Nickel deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]

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Fig. A 13: Additional annual chromium concentration (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]

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Fig. A 14: Additional annual chromium deposition (APC) [Kosovo A, Kosovo B without Ash tips]

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Fig. A 15: Additional annual PM10 pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 16: Additional annual dust deposition (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 17: Additional annual nickel pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 18: Additional annual nickel deposition (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 19: Additional annual chromium pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 20: Additional annual chromium deposition (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 21: Additional annual NO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Fig. A 22: Additional annual SO2 pollution (APC) [Kosovo B restorated and Kosovo C]

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Wind speed classes

Wind direction distribution, Obilic (in %)

Percentage of the annual hours 70.0

6.0

60.0

4.0 50.0

2.0

40.0 30.0

0.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Class in accordance with the Technical Instructions on Air Quality

Fig. A 23: Wind direction distribution and wind speeds in Obilic

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Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

Based on the contract signed between DECON, Bad Homburg, Germany and AGROVET, Fushë Kosovë, Kosovë, with the aim of realizing the Project “New generation capacities and related transmission” in Kosovo, after completed investigations we present

REPORT

By Contract, these activities are determined:

a) The presentation and interpretation of available maps and data concerning the physical-chemical properties of the soil and deeper layers up to the groundwater, as well as their contamination with heavy metals and other hazardous substances. Also available data on plant contaminations with heavy metals shall be included. b) The presentation and interpretation of available data on water flow and water pollution of Sitnica and Drenica River. c) On two selected sites the sampling and analyses of soil samples for a more detailed interpretation.

__________________________________________________________________ S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë

1


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

1. Interpretation of soil data

1.1. Soil suitability for agricultural production

According to the law no. 02/L-26, paragraph 10 it is seen the classification of agricultural soil in 8 suitability classes, whereas the change of soil destination is regulated with Administrative Guideline no nr. 41/2006. The classification in suitability classes according to this law is based on cadastral estimation of production, while the classification that is presented in this report is done meeting the criterion of FAO, estimating/emphasizing the factors that determine suitability, relieve, soil (pedogenetic development stages) and the climate. Soil characteristics according to the classes are described below, while the suitability soil classes of the region (where the Project is laid) will be presented on the thematic map (map no.1) which as a base has the Pedologic Map of Kosova (1974). Class I- very good soil. Production limitits do not exist or they are very minute. In this soil , a large number of agricultural cultures can be cultivated (depending on climate adaptivity). The labour of this soil requires random facilities( masa). Class II- good soil, with encountered limits. The number of cultures is little reduced. There is a need to take considerbale provisions for its conservation. Class III-avergaley good soil, with limits quite expressed. The selection of the cultures is also quite encountered. There is a need of more intensive conservation masa . Class IV-not very good soil, limits are encountered a lot. The selection of cultures is also with higher reductions (2 to 3 cultures less than class III).

__________________________________________________________________ S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë

2


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

Fig. 1. Soil map

__________________________________________________________________ S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë

3


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

1.2. Capability of the soil Soil apsorption capacity respectively the capacity of cation exchange (thus of heavy metals also) is in corelacion with physic-mechanic properties (texture), with chemical properties (reaction value, iones presence, etc.), as well as with the biologic properites (organic matter). Therefore, in the table 1 beside the values of soil absorption capacity involved in the research, there are presented also literature data for their mentioned properties. On the other side, the data on genesis, morphology and other properties, are given in annex of this Report.

__________________________________________________________________ S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë

4


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

Table 1. Average value of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and other properties of region soils.

Dystric cambisol (92) Pseudogley (134)

0.15 4.89 0.15

max min

2.49 1.27

≈35

6.22 5.78

4.47 0.52

25 38

36.8 5.7

65 23

max min max min max min max min max

5.21 1.17 4.37 0.32 6.91 0.75 1.7

≈30

6.05 5.55 7.56 5 5.27 4 5.5 4 5.35

4.35 0.12 4.32 0.48 3.17 3 5 0.6 1.8

60 40 61 19 38 35 61 33 53

22.4 8.5 17.2 33.0 42.5 13.5 26.3 12.4 20.1

40 35 51 20 42 24 44 15 49

≈0.25

≈30 ≈35 10 20 ≈25

silt 14.9 38.6 17.5

Clay 35 67 38

Permeability

5.85 6.35 5.52

Class clay

2

5

II

clay

2

4

II

sandy clay loam

3

4

I

sandy clay

3

4

I

clay loam

3

4

I

sandy loam

3

4

II

silt loam

2

4

IV

Texture (%)

Rating for permeability I 2.0-6.2 II 0.8-2.0 III 0.4-0.8 IV <0.4

1 2 3 4 5

Absorption capacity

28 44

organic matter (%)

0.63 2.79 0.29

pH

min max min

Sand 6 30 8

Suitabiliy for agriculture

Semigley (29)

Absorption capacity ***

Soil type (no. in map) Eutric vertisol (70) Dystric vertisol (71,72,74) Calcaric fluvisol (17,18) Dystric fluvisol (22)

Permeability cm/h **

Evaluation

Rating very low low medium high very high

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Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

1.3. Permeability of the soil Investigations results of many authors have proved that the coeficient (value) of soil permeability for water is in close corelacion with its properties, firstly with its texture (mechanic content). In the table ... there are presented the literature data for the values of soil permeability coeficient for water, and also the texture classes for the soil types that are included in this study. 2. Soil analyses and interpretation for the TPP sites Bivolak and Kosova B According to the agreement, in two localities, in three more represented types of this territory (vertisol, fluvisol and cambisol) 5 pedologic profiles have been opened, from where 25 special soil samples are taken (5 samples from each profile). The samples are analyzed in the laboratory (the principles, on which the applied methods are based, are given in the annex of Report). On the other hand, on the thematic maps for each sites, there are presented points (coordinates) for the places where the profiles are opened, while in the tables the data for research/analysis results. The attained results are presented in two table forms. In the text area, the tables contain average values and variations for each parameter together with appropriate classification, whereas in annex, there are presented results for each sample and parameter. 2.1. Site Bivolak In Bivolak there are determined 3 More represented soil types. In this terriotory there have been opened 3 profiles. The coordinates of places/locations are presented on the map, while the analysis resluts are presented in the table. Table 2. Average and limit values of investigated parameters

III/1

III/1

IV/2

Limit values

25.17 33.19 29.23 25.00 35.11 30.10 24.80 54.91 35.85 normal toxic

content on heavy metals (mg/kg) Cr 148 171 159 149 169 155 131 144 137 100 380

Cd 2.7 4.5 3.5 2.3 4.9 3.7 3.2 5.7 4.1 0.8 12

Pb 32 88 56 23 80 52 41 344 113 85 530

Ni 54 131 94 110 168 127 126 185 116

As 4 44 13 3 9 7 5 69 30

35 280

29 55

_____________________________________________________________________ S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë

Absorption capacity

Evaluation Suitabiliy for agriculture

Absorption capacity ***

Site Bivolak min Profile 1 dystric max cambisol medium min Profile 2 max fluvisol medium min Profile 3 max vertisol medium

Suitabiliy for agriculture *

Measured Data

3

5

3

5

2

5

6


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2.2. Site Kosova B In Kosova B also, it is determined the most representative soil type (Fluvisol). In this territory, there have been opened 2 profiles. The coordinates of places are presented on the map, while the analysis results are presented in the table. Table 3. Average and limit values of investigated parameters

III/2

III/2

content on heavy metals (mg/kg) Cr 118 454 292 168 269 208

25.30 105.44 63.81 20.91 44.61 27.34

Cd 2.3 5.1 3.4 3.4 6.3 5.1

Pb 15 73 33 7 69 38

Ni 109 199 156 125 175 156

As 4 88 62 5 62 27

3. Plant contamination In the literature we have had in possession, there is little data about the scale of plant contamination in the territory included in investigations. The data about the level of heavy metals in plant tissues are published in the Report of WHO (Regional Office For Europe) that are presented in the table 4 and which are sampled in localities between municipalities of Obiliq and Mitrovica. Table no.4. Heavy metal content and limit values for plants

Cd

Average 0.05-0.2

Cu

5-30

Zn

27-150

Pb

5-10

toxic 3-30 20100 200400 30300

spinach 10

potatoes 1.25

wheat

26 520 145

65 16

22

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7

Absorption capacity

Evaluation Suitabiliy for agriculture

Site Kosovo B min Profile 4 max fluvisol medium min Profile 5 max fluvisol medium

Absorption capacity ***

Suitabiliy for agriculture *

Measured Data

3

5

3

5


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4.1. Report on the Water Quality of Sitnica River Sitnica river comes from Ferizaj, Lipjan and

Fushe Kosova region, passing

through urban area and many industrial area and serves

as a

collector of

polluted industrial and urban water and delivers in KEK (Kosova Power Plant) area.

Results of the research for quality of river Sitnica including year 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. This results are shown in the tables below from 5 to 8 in three sample places M1, M2, and M3 (map 1).

Sample places :

1. River Sitnica before discharging mining water and technological process of power plant Kosova A 2. River Sitnica after discharging mining water and technological process of power plant Kosova A 3. River Sitnica after discharging mining water and technological process of power plant Kosova B

Results are presented in tables (sample tables) 5,6,7 and 8 as average and maximal values.

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Map 2. Scheme sheet of sample places Vushtrria

River Sitnica

River Llap

Kosova B ash dumps

M3 KOSOVA B POWER PLANT Mines

M2 Bardh

Mirash

Kosova A ash dumps

Kastrioti

KOSOVA A POWER PLANTS

M1 River Drenica F. Kosove River Prishtevka

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Table 5. Chemical-physical parameters of Sitnica river from sample places M1M3 for 2003

Parameters

units

El. conductivity

µS/c m

pH value Nitrate Nitrite Sulfate Chloride Oxygen BOD5 COD KMnO4 cons. m-alkalies p-alkalies Phosphors total Ammoniac Dry residue without filtration Suspended solids

mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

M1 aver max age imu m 510 690

M2 aver maxi age mum 530

665

8.4 8.8 8.3 8.8 2.61 7.04 5.84 10.85 0.07 0.14 0.15 0.31 6,79 9.67 27.4 88.90 16 40 36 68 7.48 9.67 7.14 9.79 1.06 3.73 3.86 4,80 2,06 4,35 5,40 9,80 10.5 28.2 15.0 35.3 0.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.3 5.7 5.9 8.9 0,14 0,27 0,12 0,29 2,73 3,84 2,07 4,74 490 800 600 795 90

95

100

140

M3 avera maxi ge mum 730

850

8.1 5.04 0,31 28, 3 30 7,22 3,10 3,00 13.2 0.00 5.5 0,11 2,73 715

8.6 9.90 0.44 90.2 50 10.2 8.12 10,12 43.2 0.00 6.2 0,39 5,25 586

85

185

In sample tables from 5 to 8 are presented the results of physical - chemical analyses in three sample places M1, M2 and M3 for years 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. If we analyze carefully the results and compare with the values presented in the sample bellow 5, for determination of quality of water based in UNECE forms we realize that before coming through river Sitnica in KEK Power Plant we cant determine big pollution except urban pollution that drags down river Sitnica after discharging of urban polluted water from witch passes river Sitnica ( sample places M1). With coming of water river in KEK area we can see growing of water pollution (sample palaces M2, M3) and the value passes limit for BOD5, dissolved oxygen suspended solids, KMnO4 consumption, nitrates are high KEK area. In general we can notice a higher pollution (tables 5,6, 7, and 8)

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Table 6.Quality classification of river water based from UNECE (mg/l)

Kategoria

Ptotal

NO3-

O2 i

SHBO5

SHKO

NH4+

tretur Cilësia I

<10

<5

>7

<3

<3

<0.1

Cilësia II

10-25

5-25

7-6

3-5

3-10

0.1-0.5

Cilësia III

25-50

25-50

6-4

5-9

10-20

0.5-2

Cilësia IV

50-125

50-80

4-3

9-15

20-30

2-8

Cilësia V

>125

>80

<3

>15

>30

>8

Table 7. Chemical-physical parameters of Sitnica river from sample places M1M3 for 2004 Parameters

El. conductivity pH value Nitrate Nitrite Sulfate Chloride Oxygen BOD5 COD KMnO4 cons. m-alkalies p-alkalies Phosphor total Ammoniac Dry residue without filtration Suspended solids

units µS/cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

M1 aver maxi age mum 560 765 8.1 8.6 2.42 5.42 0.09 0.35 16.4 42.5 33 38 7.31 8.23 1.56 4.73 1,96 5,40 16.0 22.2 0.00 0.00 5.1 5.9 0,17 0,47 2,13 3,24 525 670 70

95

M2 aver maxi age mum 660 860 7.9 8.8 4.52 9.33 0.25 0.63 106 127.4 38 58 5.96 6.40 3.56 5,75 5,10 5,90 28,1 53.16 0.00 0.00 4.7 6.8 0,15 0,32 1,05 4,70 625 685 75

110

avera ge 760 8.3 5,24 0.31 34 34 7,31 1,72 3,95 16.0 0.00 5.1 0,12 1,73 525 175

M3 maxim um 850 8.9 9.04 0.87 96.4 63 12.3 6.12 8,12 42.23 0.00 5.8 0,29 4,25 750 475

So after coming in KEK area the river charges, with polluted materials from the discharge of technological water that in the most cases discharges in river water without taking care of it before. It’s a positive reaction that in Sitnica river deliver Drenica and Llapi river witch low the pollution and they indicate to low the negative reaction from KEK power plant pollution.

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Table 8.Chemical-physical parameters of Sitnica river from sample places M1M3 for 2005 Parameters

El. conductivity pH value Nitrate Nitrite Sulfate Chloride Oxygen BOD5 COD KMnO4 cons. m-alkalies p-alkalies Phosphor total Ammonia Dry residue without filtration Suspended solids

units

µS/cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

M1 aver max age imu m 535 600 7.95 8.6 4.06 8.74 0.15 0.62 63.1 88.6 13.1 43 6.41 8,81 2.65 3.67 3,06 4,35 9.73 53.3 0.5 0.00 5.0 5.3 0,18 0,56 1,93 3,83 515 560

670 755 8.1 8.85 3.42 9.60 0.18 0.85 127 193.4 22 37 7.26 9.64 3.85 7.64 3,40 5,80 19.4 38.21 0.00 0.00 5.0 5.80 0,23 0,97 1,23 4,74 675 720

M3 aver max age imu m 535 600 7.6 7.9 4.06 9.04 0.23 0.95 63.1 88.6 31 43 6.91 8.90 2.65 5.67 3,00 8,12 20.4 40.7 0.1 0.5 4.8 5.90 0,24 0,89 2,12 4,14 515 560

110

140

110

240

aver age

M2 maxi mum

205

240

Water pollution of Sitnica river do: surface mines of coal in Mirash and Bardh ash dump of Power plant Kosova A and Kowsova B and the complexion of power plant Kosova A and B.

Surface Mines in Mirash and Bardh (sample place M2). In exploring surfaces of coal are collected surface water, water from precipitation and water that comes from mines and with the aid of pumps without any previous treatment the water delivers in Sitnica river.

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Table 9. Chemical-physical parameters of Sitnica River from sample places M1M3 for 2006

Parameters

units

El. conductivity pH value Nitrate Nitrite Sulfate Chloride Oxygen BOD5 COD KMnO4 cons. m-alkalies p-alkalies Phosphor total Ammonia Dry residue without filtration Suspended solids

µS/cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

M1 aver max age imu m 560 665 8.3 8.8 4.52 9,75 0.08 0.60 69.3 87.3 13.1 43 7,85 9.67 3.01 5.56 5,06 7,35 14.9 22.8 0.5 0.00 5.0 5.3 0,22 0,59 1,03 4,38 705 830 55

105

M2 aver maxi age mum

M3 aver maxi age mum

610 860 7.9 8.75 5.52 10.33 0.14 0.75 87,5 120.6 22 37 7.99 9.75 3.05 6.71 4,40 7,80 16.1 28.53 0.00 0.00 5.0 5.50 0,25 0,87 1,29 4,47 825 925

600 960 8.4 8.90 6,42 19,04 0.32 1.95 57.0 99.3 31 43 7.20 10.8 4.01 6.56 3,00 8,12 18.0 31.9 0.1 0.5 4.8 5.20 0,21 0, 98 2,21 4,79 620 705

110

104

145

125

Its important to say that the level of mine is under the level of Sitnica river that makes possible getting the water from river to the mine, this water washes out contaminated areas and than goes back to the river. After this process we can very much notice mine pollution in some parameters maybe ten times higher.

Ash dump Power plant Kosova A ( sample place M2). If we see from the surface area (around 150 ha) and also quantitative way of ash dump, this dump gets a very important place also in polluted aspect. Especially pollution is evident in period with bad weather e.g. big rains, in this case water connects polluted masteries in the dump and from draining they pass the pollution in Sitnica river. Often we have basic average, high concentration of phenols and other parameters that passes the limit of values that are permitted. Water delivered from ash dump have a pollution of third or fourth level of surface water pollution that effects the contamination of river Sitnica

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Power plant complexion Kosova A ( Sample place M2). As a potential pollution here is the preparation of chemical water for Power Plant Kosova A. Chemical reactions in the process of demineralization and decarbonation are companied with the effects in environment. Even thou there functions a pool of neutralization for water after the process again the effect of this polluted water in quality of water of river Sitnica in this region is evident

Complection Power Plant Kosova B ( Sample places M3) .Evaluation for condition of effluent water and the recommended values are almost identical with those of Power plant Kosova A mentioned before. Positive difference is that the neutralization of pool after the chemical preparation of water functions in regular way. The effect of water from ash dump Power Plant Kosova B is very evident in surface and underground water.

In this evaluation is considered also the effect of heavy metals ( Pb, Cu,Cd, Zn, Ni, and Hg) witch is present in the ash. Even there aren’t made regular measures from the results we can see that the concentration of this heavy metals are not high in Sitnica river. So we can say that the water river is not so much polluted with heavy metals. But as it conceders sediment we have to say that researches in this area are even individual or they miss at all and this presents another problem.

As a conclusion for the pollution of river Sitnica we can say than in chemical way it shows a pollution before entering water in KEK area ( this is water categorized in second level) but here it gets more polluted with contamination that arrives from KEK area and in this way the river water gets in the third and fourth level of contamination. From the physical aspect we can notice that river bad is very damaged, filled with industrial waste that delivers from Sitnica river and from this often happens the river to get out its bed .

In passing flow after KEK area we have lowness of pollution and the river comes with a bit low pollution comparing with hot area of KEK but anyway it stays as a pollution that collects and delivers this pollution to river Iber in Mitrovica.

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The prognoses for the soon future of river Sitinca e.g. till in year 2015 if the prognoses realize Kosova A will not operate, in Kosova A the ash will be removed from there and in Kosova B they should take action according to the EU standards and than the quality of polluted water will be improved. All thou a personal problem will present water sedimentation of river witch hasn’t been researched yet and for long time will discharge colleted contamination in the rive water . How high will be this pollution we cant foresee until we research sediments of the river bed Sitnica in KEK region.

Sources:

1. Instituti Hidrometeorologjik i Kosovës Prishtinë, Rezultatet e analizave fizikokimike të ujit të lumit Sitnicw, për periudhën 2002 -2006. 2. Instituti “INKOS” Rezultatet e analizave fiziko-kimike të ujit të lumit Sitnicë në zonën e KEK-ut,

4.2. The evaluation of water quality of Drenica River Many practical problems in water medium to be solved it’s necessary to do the physical and chemical analyses. These analyses determine the quality of water and determine their use. In this view it is introduced the research of water quality in Drenica River. The categorization of water quality is based on the parameters which determine the water quality. The most common indicators for evaluation of water quality are: organic ingredients, nutrients, inorganic nitrogen and micro pollutants. The results of research for the determination of Drenica’s river quality include years 1981, 1996, 2006 and March of 2007. The results of each year are shown in tables below. The samples are collected in three places: before Fe-Ni (A1), after Fe-Ni (A2) and before of interflow with Sitnica River in Vragoli (A3). The samples collected on March 27 of year 2007 are taken on places A2, A3 and on Graboc village (A4) (see the map).

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Map of water sampling: A 1 before Fe-Ni, A 2 after Fe-Ni, A 3 Vragoli, A 4 Graboc. Table 10.. The results of Drenica’s River water quality for year 1981 for different periods of the year (April; July and October 1981). [1] Parameters

Unit

Sample places A1

Flow

Q m3/s

pH

A2

April

July

October April

July

October

1,00

0,90

1,03

1,03

1,24

1,52

7,80

7,50

7,70

7,90

7,60

7,80

Conductivity

µS/cm

420

300

420

740

460

550

TDS

mg/l

250

185

385

630

368

415

Dissolved O2 mg/l O2

11,0

6,90

8,40

6,10

7,5

8,0

BOD5

mg/l O2

2,6

2,40

1,7

2,80

4,20

2,4

COD

mg/l O2

2,9

6,40

3,2

6,40

4,10

6,20

Total alkaline

mg CaCO3/l

222

176

221

390

283

197

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Total hardness

o

dH

12,8

10,0

13,6

20,0 8

16,50

11,67

Chlorides

mg/l

27,3

27,0

27,0

51,1

25,5

23,65

Sulfates

mg/l

24,0

23,0

27,0

30,0

30,0

27,0

Nitrates

mg/l

2,30

2,40

1,30

1,50

5,90

2,50

Phosphate. P total

mg/l

Nitrites

mg/l

Ammonium

mg/l

Zinc

µg/l

15

24

28

34

82

73

Copper

µg/l

16

0

33

18

17

14

Lead

µg/l

23

0

10,8

34

53

10

Cadmium

µg/l

2

0

0

0

0

0

Table 11. The results of Drenica’s River water quality for year 1996 for different periods of the year (April, July and October 1996) for sample places A1 and A2 [2]. Parameters

Unit

Sample places A1

Flow

Q m3/s

pH

A2

April

July

October

April

July

Octob er

0,783

0,088

-

0,722

0,057

0,633

8,0

7,80

8,0

7,90

8,0

8,0

Conductivity

µS/cm

650

550

660

550

610

650

TDS

mg/l

336

215

206

314

220

286

Dissolved O2

mg/l O2

11,0

8,6

11,0

12,10

9,10

11,10

BOD5

mg/l O2

2,4

3,6

2,2

1,80

4,8

2,8

COD

mg/l O2

2,8

4,0

2,6

1,90

5,10

2,7

Total alkaline

mg CaCO3/l

181,0

233,0

271

239,0

345,5

265,0

Total

o

12,28

20,50

19,32

14,44

19,50

18,90

dH

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hardness Chlorides

mg/l

36,2

31,0

21,2

34,8

28,1

17,6

Sulfates

mg/l

55,0

45

40

50,0

35,0

35

Nitrates

mg/l

1,80

2,20

1,50

2,00

2,00

Phosphatestotal P

mg/l

0,100

1,00

5,00

0,120

3,200

3,60

Nitrites

mg/l

0,006

0,009

0,024

0,006

0,015

0,018

Ammonium

mg/l

0,00

2,20

0,00

0,00

0,001

0,00

Zinc

µg/l

10

0

0

15

0

0

Copper

µg/l

0

0

0

8,00

0

0

Lead

µg/l

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cadmium

µg/l

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 12. The results of Drenica’s River water quality for year 2006 for different periods of the year (April; July, September and October 2006), for sample places A1, A2 and A3. [3]. Parameters

Units

Sample Places A2 April

Flow

A3

September April

July

October

Q m3/s

pH

8.15

8.01

8.21

8.02

7.72

349

535

563

1176

509

11.5

5.55

11.3

31

12.9

175

263

282

593

256

Conductivity

µS/cm

Turbidity

NTU

TDS

mg/l

Dissolved O2

mg/l O2

16.53

14.55

13.65

7.5

7.53

BOD5

mg/l O2

6.92

5.92

3.19

4.88

2.2

p-alkaline

pA

0.1

0

m-alkaline

mA

3.7

4.75

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Bicarbonates

mg/l

Total hardness

o

Chloride

mg/l

Sulfates

mg/l

Nitrates

mg/l

Phosphatestotal P

mg/l

Nitrites

mg/l

Ammonia

mg/l

225.7

289.75

12.6

15.2

16.05

6.137

dH

80.16

243.3

5.1

7.8

4

0.04

0.036

0.073

0.035

0.18

1.63

2.874

3.18

2.274

1.961

100.9

1.07

Table 13. The results of Drenica’s River water quality for collected samples on March 27 2007 Parameters

Unit

Sample Places A2

Flow

A4

A3

March

March

March

7,95

8,05

8,19

Q m3/s

pH Conductivity

µS/cm

468

550

660

TDS

mg/l

205

215

340

Dissolved O2

mg/l O2

12,81

11,51

11,15

BOD5

mg/l O2

2,1

2,4

2,85

COD

mg/l O2

2,7

3,2

3,6

Total alkaline

mg CaCO3/l

178,0

203,0

278

Total hardness

o

dH

11,28

18,50

17,32

Chlorides

mg/l

21,2

25,0

30,2

Sulfates

mg/l

42,0

44,50

56,65

Nitrates

mg/l

1,80

1,89

2,20

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Phosphatestotal P

mg/l

0,100

0,285

0,343

Nitrates

mg/l

0,008

0,016

0,024

Ammonia

mg/l

0,850

1,20

1,245

Zinc

µg/l

2.3235

Cuprum

µg/l

1.0371

Lead

µg/l

0.442

Cadmium

µg/l

2.1407

The quality of water of Drenica’s River In European countries, the results of river’s water quality are shown based on a qualification system. According to this system the quality of water is considered as a satisfied level with the quality from first to third category. Based to the classification, the number of parameters which are measured and compared, and the way of calculation are based on the physical chemical and biological properties, and they vary in different countries. In table 5 is shown the classification determined by Union Nations Economic Commission European, UNECE. Table 14. The classification of river quality based on UNECE (content, mg/l) Category

Ptotal

NO3-

Dissolved

BOD5

COD

NH4+

O2 Quality I

<10

<5

>7

<3

<3

<0.1

Quality II

10-25

5-25

7-6

3-5

3-10

0.1-0.5

Quality III

25-50

25-50

6-4

5-9

10-20

0.5-2

Quality IV

50-125

50-80

4-3

9-15

20-30

2-8

Quality V

>125

>80

<3

>15

>30

>8

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From collected data based on the monitoring of water quality of Drenica’s River for the years 1981, 1996, 2006 and for March 2007, we can conclude that the major part of the flowing of Drenica’s River is a good quality. This is understandable because industrial objects that may cause pollution are limited. But, also the sample places are chosen in that way that the analyzed samples are taken far from polluted sources to determine the real average of water quality and the environmental capacity for dilution. The most common indicators for valuation of water quality are: organic ingredients, nutrients, inorganic nitrogen and micro pollutants. The organic matter in rivers The content of organic matter in rivers is measured by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5). In Tables 10-13 are shown the data of the parameters COD and BOD5 for different sample places of Drenica’s River. The data show us that the quality of rivers based on the content of organic matter is satisfied. The COD varies from 1, 90-6, 40 mg O2/l and of BOD is 1, 80-5, 92 mg O2/l. The main sources of pollution are sewage water and urban solid wastes which are thrown on the river beds. So the ammonium is formed and the oxygen is reduced and this damages the living being in water. The converting of ammonium ion in ammonium has major toxicity for the fish. The content of nutrients Phosphorus and nitrogen in rivers may cause the eutrophycation, which means the enormous growing of algae, phytoplankton, etc. which reduce the oxygen in surface water. Like ammonium the nitrogen compounds may be toxic for the fish, too. The natural content of the phosphorus in rivers is usually less than 2,5 mg/l. When the concentrations are higher than 5,0 mg/l , it is a cause of human activities. In Tables 10-13 is shown the phosphorous concentration in waters of Drenica’s River. From the tables we can see that the content of the phosphorus is low based on standards of EU. From the tables we can also see that based on _____________________________________________________________________ 21 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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the analyzed samples for the content of phosphorus, river Drenica is in category of good water quality. The content of nitrates, ammonium and dissolved oxygen. The concentrations of these macro pollutants are shown in Tables 10-13. From the analyzing of collected data we can conclude that water quality of river Drenica belongs to good category. According to some analyses made in 1981, 19997, 2006 and on march 2007, only some samples had the content of dissolved oxygen under the limited value (lower than 7,0 mg/l), and the number of samples which exceed the allowed levels of ammonium are increased during 2006. However in 2007 there is an improvement in this regard. The content of micro pollutants The monitoring of the elements and substances which are classified as micro pollutants (heavy metals, sustainable organic pollutants and hydrocarbons) is not developed systematically in all sample places of river Drenica. However, there are monitored the concentration of heavy metals in particular areas and sustainable organic pollutants (pesticides) are not found. Regardless of low quantity, the pollution potential is higher in cases when we have to deal with hazardous substances. On account of decreasing of chemical industrial production we have the low level of hazard substances discharged in river. On the other side, urban household waste water is discharged in river without any prior treatment. Considering all these facts, the water quality of river Drenica has not shown big changes. From the collected data in monitoring stations and collected samples far from pollutant sources, we can conclude that the water quality of Drenica’s river fulfills the criteria of second category. It means that the water quality of river Drenica in generally is good.

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5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMANDATIONS River Drenica, which flows throw the area with high populations and industrial areas is a collector of discharged household waste water as well as industrial water. This river in Vragoli interflow with Sitnica river. At the beginning the river is less polluted (sample place A1) and this point is considered as the area of clean water of this river. In opposite of that, near Drenas area (A2) next to Komoran-Drenas street the river is more polluted. This exposure of pollution is caused from discharge household waste water of Drenas city in the river. The other sample places are also polluted by different pollutants, but according to chemical analyses the results are within allowed limits based on standards.

RECOMANDATIONS •

The long-term protection and conservation of water resources as a national treasure and their use based on sustainable development principles.

The continual monitoring of water quality and quantity.

The compiling of National Plan for building the water treatment plant for household and industrial waste water. Also the development of good models for treatment of waste water in urban and rural areas.

We also recommend the repairing of Drenica’s river bed, mechanical cleaning, including prevention of discharge of inert materials, discharge of untreated industrial and household waste water.

Increasing awareness and the education of population for rational use of water resources and their protection from pollution. Also the river bed should be protected from discharge of different inert materials such as plastics, building material, hazard materials, etc.

Respect of legislations and norms about water quality.

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Anex Profile description and data analysis

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Interpretation of physical-chemical properties of the soil In locations that are included in investigations, according to the pedological Map of Kosova, the types Versitol, Fluvisol and Cambisol are dominant, represented by several subtypes. Below we will present research data by various authors according to the types. Vertisol In the genesis of this land, an important role has the parent material, which according to literature data and to the litologic descriptions is composed by sediments of lake remains of the Tercier period, among which the most present ones are: clay (the type of montmorilonit), but there are also encountered andesitic detritus, as well as various formations of grit and sand. Vertisols belong to the class with profile A-AC-C. The pedologic profile of this land is relatively deep (around 100 cm). In certain conditions, in the horizon of humus accumulation, the layer of molik type humus accumulation can be secluded, thus the horizon Amo gets separated, while the most specific feature of this type is the capability for pedoturbation (in most of the cases, the material mixture between horizons happens). Meanwhile, the layer of this land’s litosphere (the parent material), as we noted above, is mainly clay material (grey and yellow clay) what makes this land very specific and it gives it defined physic and chemical characteristics. The investigations of many authors attest the statement that vertisol is characterized with good productive properties, respectively it belongs to classes that have high productive capabilities. Otherwise, this land, according to physical properties is estimated as hard land for labour, while its chemical composition makes it sufficiently fertile for plant yield.

Morphological properties As a result of contents, hydromorfic origin, but also of the clay mineral of the montmorilonit type that is around 52,6%, with variations (39,8-64,8%), Vertisol on the surface horizons is characterized with black color, that according to Atlas of Munsell, has the rank 10YR 2/1. In the deeper horizons of these profiles, the color gradually becomes brighter, takes the substrate color. _____________________________________________________________________ 25 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Hydro-physical properties Mechanical composition-The high constitution of clay fractions puts this land among the hardest concerning the texture. The containment of silt and clay fractions on average arrives to 70-80 and up to 90%, while only the fractions < 0.002 mm sometimes exceed 60%. Bulk density, particle density and porosity- The average values of Vertisol particle density comes from 2.68 to 2.74, while those of bulk density from 1,23 up 135 g/cm3, whereas the general porosity is 51%, even though the differential porosity is not favorable (there dominate micro to macro pores). The retention and field capacity for water- As a result of mechanical content and porosity, Vertisols have sufficiently high water retention capacity (4546%) and field capacity (40.25). Water infiltration - The above mentioned features make this land to have a very low coeficient of infiltration (10-5 cm/sec).

Chemical properties Organic matter content- in this land type comes with variations 3-5%. Reaction (pH) - of these lands is expressed also with variations from the low acidic one up to the neutral and sometimes to the low alkalik one (5.9-7.9). Available phosphorus (P2O5) - Natural Vertisols are relatively poor (2-3 mg/100 g soil), except for the surfaces where considerable amount of fertilizers (especially mineral fertilizers) are applied. This problem does not exist in relation to the content of useful potassium (K2O). The amounts of this element are mean up to the high scale of supply. Absorptive capability- as a result of the high content of organic matter and clay. Vertisol has a high cations exchange capacity (CEC). The average values on surface horizons comes around 34.37 mek/100g, and which is very positive, we should note that in the complex of this soil dominate ions of Ca. The containment of heavy metals- The majority of researches in the region of Power plant is based on the determination of the pollution level in these metals: Cr, Cd, Pb, As, as well as any other like. Zn, Cu, etc. The authors of these researches have stated that the content of these metals in this region have the origin from natural features of the land, but a considerable amount of them is _____________________________________________________________________ 26 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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accumulated as a consequence of pollution from mineral exploitation. The amounts of metals have been with high variations, while the average values come: Cr up to 500, Cd 8, Pb over 300, As around 80, Zn up to 80 and Cu 50 mg/kg.

Fluvisol This type of soil is created as a result of material carried from water flows. This process is always active, thereby we say that Fluvisols are new soils (in formation) and that is why they are called recent soils. The material deposit differs resulting from the terrain relieve, thereby the profile of these soils is very heterogenic and it gets differentiated in certain layers, which are written with romac numbers when described In the layers of this soil, time after time, depending on the development of pedogenetic processes, various materials are deposited such as those of clay, carbonates, organic matter, etc, and in this way they get enriched with these materials and manifest certain properties. Thus, substrate of these soils usually are materials that are characterized with high water infiltration coefficient and this makes that not rarely in these soils water is present in depth of less than 100 cm. Fluvisols are soils of mainly flat terrains. They are characterized with good productive properties.

Morphological properties As a consequence of the disordered way of materials tuck, Fluvisols are soils with a very heterogenic content while the layers in profile are characterized with many distinctions between them.

Hydro-physical properties Mechanical composition and other hydro-physical properties are with many variations and depend on the fractions layering. According to the texture, Fluvisols are divided in sandy, silt and clay. All other physical properties and the capacity of water content and infiltration, depend on the fractions content. Also, the bulk density, particle density and the porosity are in correlation with the texture and they show values with high variations. _____________________________________________________________________ 27 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Chemical properties Organic matter content- to the Fluvisol usually is not high around 2.5%. Reactions (pH) - is with high variations (5.5-7.9), thus from low acidic to neutral, but also to low basic. As for the provision with nutrient elements available phosphorus and potassium, Fluvisols are with many distinctions (6-20 mg/100g soil), but in general we can say that they are relatively indigent. Exemptions are the surfaces where considerable amounts of fertilizers are applied. Adsorptive capability - of this soil is very variable (20-100 mek/100g) and depends on the presence of clay colloidal fractions and organic matter. Heavy metal content- in the Fluvisols of this region, it has been with high variations depending on the impact of pollutants, while the average values come: Cr to 250, Cd 5, Pb over 40 and As to 60. Metal content in Fluvisols is a little lower compared to Vertisols, but it is within permitted limits.

Dystric Cambisol Even though the genesis of these soils in Kosova is not explained as it should be, it is considered that they are created on deep sediments (of rivers and lakes) mainly non-carbonatics. These soils present a modification of Gajnjace with the tendency of transition in laterit respectively in podzols. Dystric Cambisol belongs to the class with profile A1-A3-Bt-C. It has a relatively deep profile, whereas the horsizons are quite uniform and with a not very apparent passage from one to the other. The humus horizon in these soils is not very present and very deep (around10 cm). This horizon sometimes continue to A3, facing some morphological properties. In this horizon, practically the eluvial processes start and the creation of a quite deep, clay and compressed horizon B. The published data of authors attest the statement that Cambisols are characterized with good properties with the tendency of productive properties deterioration, particularly in zones where there is not applied any adequate technology of labour. _____________________________________________________________________ 28 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Morphological properties Cambisols are characterized with red color, that according to authors is a consequence of sustainable oxide containts of Fe and Al, even though the statements relating to color and modification forms that appear in these soils are not very clear and contradictory.

Hydro-physical properties Mechanic content- not rarely in these soils, clay fractions are dominant (up to 70%), even though the texture of these soils is with many variations between horizons. The bulk density, particle density and porosity- respond to the average values for mineral soils. Retention and field capacity for water- As a result of mechanic content and the porosity, respectively the presence of the skeleton, these soils have low capacity of retention, respectively a high capacity of infiltration (30-40% vol.).

Chemical properties Organic matter content- in this soil type it is relatively low and it is expressed with variations 1-3%. Reaction (pH)- of these soils is also presented with variations from the acidic to the poor acidic (3.5-4.5 or 5). With available phosphorus (P2O5)- natural cambisols are very poor (less than 2 mg/100g), except for the surfaces where there is applied a considerable amount of fertilizers (especially minerals). Whereas, as for the content of available potassium (K2O), these soils are poor to average supplied. Adsorptive capability- of Cambisols is with many variations as a result of factors that influence it. From the data of literature, the values of cation exchange capacity (CEC) come from 2.96 to 24.66 mek/100g. Heavy

metals

content-

is

approximately

the

same

with

their

concentration in the soil types discussed earlier. Plant contaminations with heavy metals

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Concerning the metals content in plant tissues that are cultivated or grown in this territory, according to the authors, their quantity is in significant positive correlacion with their content in soil. According to the measurements done during the period 1987-1989 (WHOUNDP), at the time where all capacities of Power plant and “Trepca” were working, in the territory between Prishtina and Mitrovica, the quantities of metals in plant tissues have been much higher compared to the limited/permitted values. For example, metal quantities in spinach were around” 26 mg/kg Cu, 10 mg/kg Cd, 520 mg/kg Zn, 145 mg/kg Pb. Then in potatoes 1.25 mg/kg Cd, 16 mg/kg Pb, whereas in wheat 65 mg/kg Zn dhe 22 mg/kg Pb.

Soil analysis and iterpretation On two selected sites the sampling and analyses of soil samples for a more detailed interpretation For the realization of this activity, in two localities: Bivolak, and TC B (Plemetin), in three soil types (Cambisol, Vertisol and Fluvisol) that are more represented in this teritory, there are determined the coordinates of places with GPS, where pedologic profiles are opened. There have been opened 5 profiles, 1 in Cambisol, 1 in Vertisol and 3 in Fluvisol, and from them are taken 25 particular samples in a separately situation. In this Report, it will be presented a brief description of the principle of analytical methods that have been used for parameter analysis, whereas after each presentation of acquired values for investigated parameters, it will be done their comparison with limited values determined by methods, and at the same time it will be done the commenting of what are the limits that gained values by analysis come around. However, in the form of annex, there will be presented photographies and the description of pedologic profiles. Another part of the annex will be the territory Map and the tables with research results.

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Methodolgy description for determination of investigated parameters

Charasteristcis of soil reaction ( pH value) The soil reaction ( pH value), the active one (pH in H2O) as well as the substituiv one or the physiological active acidity (pH in 1M KCl), are defined with the electrometric method (potenciometric) parallel with glass electrode and sentron. Based on values of pH in KCl, it can be determined the scale of reaction according to Scheffer-Schachatschabel, respectively there can be determined the soil classes, as below: -highly acidic -low acidic

<4.9 5.0-6.9

-neutrale

7.0

-low alcalice 7.1-9.0 -highly alcalice

>9.1

Organic matter content (% of humus) The determination of the organic matter amount in soil, respectively of humus, is completed with the Kotzmann method. This method is based on the oxidation of organic matter with the dissolution 0.1 M KMnO4, from where, using the corresponding coefficient (of the oxidated amount of CO2 and of the transformation of C in humus) it is calculated the total amount of organic matter, respectively of humus. Based on the values of humus content, according to the method, soils are classified in these classes: low enriched (<2%), on average enriched (2-4%) and enriched (>4%). Carbonat content (% CaCO3) The amounts of carbonats (CaCO3) are determined with the volumetric method in calcimeter. This method is based on the treatment of the sample with HCl and the volumetric measurement of released CO2 in Calcimeter according to Scheibler. As to this method, soils are classified in these classes: -very low carbonatic

0.1-1.0 %

-low carbonatic

1.0-5.0 %

-on average carbonatic

5.0-10.0 %

-sufficiently carbonatic

10.0-20.0 %

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-very carbonatic

20.0-50.0 %

-highly carbonatic

>50.0 %

Available phosphorus and potassium (mgP2O5 or mgK2O/100 g soil) The amounts of available phosphorus (P2O5) and of potassium (K2O) are determined with the method AL (Egner-Riehm). This method is based on extracting samples in the dissolution AL (amonium-lactat). From the acquired extract, phosphorus is determined with the Spectrophotometry UV method, developing color with amonium molibdat complex, while the potassium with the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). This method gives also classes of soil supply with these elements: -poor provided

<10 mg/100 g soil

-on average provided

10-20 mg/100 g soil

-sufficiently provided

>20 mg/100 g soil

Values of Cation exchange capacity (CEC) (me/100 g) The content of alcalic cations in the exchange complex expresses their sum determined with the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). This method is based on samples extraction with amonium acetat dissolution and on the reading of absorption on apparatus. The total amount of heavy metals Sample extraction is done with the mixture of HCl and HNO3, while the reading of their content in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The interpretation and the commenting of their quantity is done basing on the values that European Union has approved in the so- called “Dutch list” for the investigated elements: normal

toxic

Cr

100

380

Cd

0.8

12

Pb

85

530

As

29

55

Soil texture Sample preparation is done separating it with Na pyrophosphat, while the determination of fractions with hydrometric method. Texture classification is done based on Ehwald triangle.

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Presentation of analysis results according to soil types in profiles and their commenting

Dystric cambisol

Profile 1 Investigations results of chemical properties of this profile are presented in table 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, while the physical properties in table 1.4. The profile descrtiption is presented in annex of the Report. Whereas we will proceed with commenting the values of analysis results. Reaction values They have shown certain variations through profile horizons. The average values of the active reaction are 6.26, with variations 6.1-6.4, while the average values of the physiological reaction are, 5.24, respectively 5-5.6. Based on acquired values, we can state that the analyzed soil has low acidic reaction. The quantity of organic matter Through profile horizons it has shown quite enough variations. The average amount of humus has been 2.05, while variations have come from 0.96 to 3.82%. According to the acquired values with analysis, we can state that the soils are enriched with humus on average, respectively some horizons are poor, while some others are enriched with organic matter. Carbonat content In the analyzed samples, carbonat content has been low and it did not show noted variations in depths (0.26-0.6%), the average value is 0.47%. Thus, the pedosphere layer is slightly carbonatic. Phosphorus quantities In all analyzed samples, these quantities have been very low. Variations of phosphorus content throughout samples have not been high (4.53-6.77) while the average value has been 5.59 mg/100g. Based on the results we can conclude that the soils that this profile represents is poorly provided with phosphorus. Potassium quantities These have shown almost a similar dynamic with those of phosphorus. Variations have not been noted (4.6-7.1), while the average value is 5.82 _____________________________________________________________________ 33 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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mg/100g. Thereby, the investigated soil in the zone that this profile covers, belongs to the class with poor provision of this biogen element. CEC Values They express the sum of the acquired values for basic cations. The total of cation exchange capacity for this profile is expressed with variations into depths (25.17-33.19), while the average values are 29.23 mek/100g. In investigated basic cations in the complex of this soil, Ca is dominant. The quantity of heavy metals In the analyzed samples according to the depths, these values are shown: Cr (147.91-171.05), Cd (2.67-4.53), Pb (32.31-87.91) dhe As (4.02-43.91). If we compare the values of analyses results with determined limits, we can state that the investigated materials contain normal quantities of these elements. Soil texture It presents the acquired values with mechanic analysis of investigated soil samples. Based on the analysis results, the investigated soil has high content of silt fractions (40-62%), on average 53.6%, thus it is classified in certain texture classes as it is presented in the table.

Vertisol

Profile 3 The results of investigations for this profile are presented in the tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, whereas the view (photo 3) associated with its description are presented in annex. Reaction Values They are not expressed with wide variations throughout profile horizons. The average values of the active reaction are 6.64, with variations 6.1-6.4, while those of the physiological ones are 5.5, respectively 5.4-5.8. We can state that the analyzed soil has poor acidic reaction, and this reaction to Vertisol have to be improved. Organic matter quantity In general it has been low, except for the surface horizon. The average values for humus are 2.71, whereas the variations come from 1.34 to 4.35%. _____________________________________________________________________ 34 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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According to the acquired values, we can state that the soils are from low to high enriched with humus. It is recommended that the containt of organic matter in Vertisol to be unified (enriched), considering the role it has in adsorptive complex. Carbonate content It is very low and it did not show noted variations into depths (0-0.08%), the average value 0.04%. Phosphorus quantities In the analyzed samples, it has been relatively low. Variations have not been high (3.35 to 8.2), while the average value for the entire samples of this profile is 6.36 mg/100g. Thereby, the soil that represents this profile is poorly supplied with phosphorus.

Potassium quantities These have also not shown wide variations between samples (7.6-10.9), they are low up to the average in the whole profile depth. The average values are 9.34 mg/100g, which indicates the poor provision of the soil with this element. CEC Values In the analyzed samples of this profile, they are expressed with relatively wide variations (24.8-54.91), whereas the average value of cation exchange capacity for this profile is 35.85 mek/100g. Metal content In the samples analyzed according to the depths, it has shown these values: Cr (147.91-171.05), Cd (2.67-4.53), Pb (32.31-87.91) and As (4.0243.91). If the values of analyses results are compared with determined limits, we can state that the investigated materials contain normal quantities of these elements. Soil texture Granulometric content of Vertisol samples are dominated by silt fractions (48-60%), on average 54.8%. these values show that in this locality, the process of clay-genesis is slower, while the soil according to the texture throughout horizons is sandy- silty.

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Fluvisol

Profile 2 The investigation results are presented in the tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4, whereas the descritption together with the view of the profile (photo 2) are added to annex. Reaction values In the profile horizons there are shown these values: active reaction (6.62), variations (6.3-7), while the physiological one, 5.62, respectively 5.4-5.8. The investigated soil has poor acidic reaction. Organic matter In profile horizons it is expressed with relatively wide variations (1.523.96%), while the average value is 2.84%. Carbonate content It has been low and it has not shown noted variations into depths (0.140.56%), the average value 0.38%. Phosphorus quantities In the analyzed samples through horizons, they come from 7.42 to 25.14 mg/100g, average 16.16. Based on the results we can conclude that the soil represented by this profile is from on average to supplied with phosphorus. Potassium quantities These have been low. Variations come from 5 to 7.8 mg/100g, the average for all samples is 6.34. Thereby, the investigated soil in the zone covered by this profile belongs to the class with low supply of this biogen element. CEC Values Expressed as total of cation exchange capacity for this profile, the values have shown these variations (25-35.11), whereas the average value is 30.1 mek/100 g. From investigated basic cations in the complex of this soil, Ca is dominant. Metal content Through depths, it showd these values: Cr (149.15-168.57), Cd (2.314.93), Pb (23.3-79.66) and As (3.27-9.19).

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Soil texture Based on analysis results, silt fractions are dominant. The classification is done according to the horisonts, as it is presented in the table.

Profile 4 The results are presented in the tables 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4, while the description in annex. Reaction values Through profile horizons, these values come:the active reaction 7.6-8, the average 7.78, while the physiological one 6.7-7.3, respectively 7. The investigated soil has neutral to poor basic reaction. Organic matter Except for the surface horizon it has been very low. Variations through horizons (0.52-4.88%), the average value is 1.82%. Carbonate content Compared to other profiles it is a little higher. This can be explained with the participation of carbonatic materials fractions that are laid in this type of soil. Variations through depths are (0.24-6.48%), the average 2.7%. Phosphorus quantities Through horizons they are a little higher, and come from 7.82 to 22.97 mg/100g, the average 14.83. Based on the results, we can conclude that the soil represented by this profile is poor to sufficiently supplied with phosphorus. Potassium quantities They are expressed with variations (8.4-10.2), the average 9.3 mg/100g. The investigated soil has poor to average supply with this element. CEC values For this profile they have shown very wide variations (25.3-105.44), the average 63.81 mek/100g. Metal content As for some other parameters, it has been higher in this profile, certainly because it has been opened near the ash deposit. According to depths, these values are acquired: Cr (117.96-453.79), Cd (2.26-5.13), Pb (15.02-72.99) and As (3.76-88.39).

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Soil texture This has also changed in this profile in favor of clay fraction increase. The classification is done for every horizont, as it is presented in the table.

Profile 5 The results are presented in tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4, whereas the description of the profile is given in annex. Reaction values These values are: active reaction 6.5-8.2, the average value 7.18, physiological reaction, 5.5-7.2, respectively 6.16. Organic matter It is expressed with quite wide variations (0.84-5.67%), the average value is 2.22%. Carbonate Content It has been low and it has not shown noted variations through depths (01.7%), the average value 0.42%. Phosphorus quantities Through horizons, these values come come from 6.57 to 21.2 mg/100g, the average value 10.39. The soil represented by this profile is poor to sufficiently supplied with phosphorus. Potassium quantities These have been expressed with variations from 5.3 to 12.1 mg/100g, the average value 7.1. CEC values They have shown these variations (20.91-44.61), the average value 27.34 mek/100g. Metal content According to depths, these values have been shown: Cr (167.65-268.5), Cd (3.4-6.32), Pb (6.53-68.91) and As (5.41-62.07). Soil texture In this profile, granulometric content of samples are dominated by silt fractions. The classes of the texture are presented in the table.

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Recommendations for improvement-education

Based on the offered information in this Report, particularly with physicalchemical properties of the soil, but also from the statement of the current situation, through the completed analysis for this Project, we are presenting below some recommendations that have to do with the preservation, respectively with improvement provisions of soil properties. -According to the physical and chemical properties, the soils of territory near the existing Power plant have not faced any notable change. Analyses values for the mentioned properties are in optimal limits. This situation can be described or/and is a result of the application of agro-technical provisions, since these soils are in productivity. -The situation is not the same with plants, which means that, however, the pollution is present in this region. -In order to improve the existing situation, but also to prevent the effects caused by coal exploitation in this territory, we propose to launch these provisions: - as soon as possible to implement the permanent monitoring system of the situation of all resources, thus for plants and for soil. -based on monitoring and prognosis to propose adequate provisions such as: - the application of agro-technical and hydro-technical provisions as more adequate as possible. The optimal values of soil properties are guarantee for the decrease of pollution effects. - the application of biological provisions, respectively the cultivation of cultures that are more tolerable to higher concentrations of metals.

These provisions can be achieved by insisting in the legislation and other norms respect, as well as with the growth of self conscience, but also with the professional education of farmers and other actors, which deal with soil exploit problems.

_____________________________________________________________________ 39 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Profile 1-Cambisol 0-30 cm. Tillage Horizon, grey color. Quite loamy and average wet. Good permeability in root system. Quartz stone concretes are noted to 2 mm. 30-100 cm. A quite loamy horizon, little stronger than the previous horizon, average wet. A higher presence of quartz stones (2-3 mm).

Profile 2-Fluvisol 0-40 cm. Tillage layer. Grey color. Quite loamy, average wet. Good permeability in root system. 40-80 cm. Light grey color. Average wet and very strong. Little permeability in root system.

A higher amount of

quartz stones is noted. 80-100 cm. A quite loamy layer, the underground water is presented.

Profile 3-Vertisol 0-20 cm. A labour horizon, quite loamy, average dry. Good permeability in root system. It contains concretes of quartz stones. 20-40 cm. Horizon of humus accumulation. Dark grey color. Quite loamy and uniform.Good permeability of root system. 40-100 cm. Horizon something stronger. Root system is noted.

_____________________________________________________________________ 40 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Profile 4-Fluvisol 0-15 cm. Humus layer, quite loamy and quite permeable of root system. A high presence of sceleton is noted with various size up to 3 cm. 15-30 cm. Loamy layer, quite permeable from root system. It also contains high amount of skeleton. 30-90 cm. Grey color clay, quite wet 90-100 cm. Grey clay with yellow nuances.

Profile 5-Fluvisol 0-20 cm. Tillage layer, quite loamy and average wet. Quite permeable from root system. 20-50 cm. A stronger and compact layer. Yellow color. Good permeability of root system. 50-100 cm. Dark color, more loamy and it is noted the root system.

_____________________________________________________________________ 41 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Table 1.1. Chemical properties in soil samples

1 Cambisol

Organic matter (%) 3.82 2.20 2.05 1.22 0.96 3.82 0.96 2.05

pH

Profile Sample 1 2 3 4 5

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

H2O 6.10 6.20 6.20 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.10 6.26

KCl 5.00 5.30 5.20 5.10 5.60 5.60 5.00 5.24

CaCO3 (%) 0.39 0.26 0.53 0.60 0.58 0.60 0.26 0.47

Available (mg/100g soil) P2O5 6.77 5.45 4.53 5.70 5.52 6.77 4.53 5.59

K2O 4.60 4.90 5.90 7.10 6.60 7.10 4.60 5.82

Table 1.2. Adsorptive capacity in soil samples CEC (me/100 g soil)

Profile

1 Cambisol

Sample 1 2 3 4 5

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Ca 30.00 28.00 22.00 22.00 24.00 30.00 22.00 25.20

Mg 2.00 3.00 2.33 3.33 4.67 4.67 2.00 3.07

K 0.27 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.48 0.48 0.27 0.37

Na 0.92 0.32 0.46 0.58 0.64 0.92 0.32 0.59

Total 33.19 31.64 25.17 26.34 29.79 33.19 25.17 29.23

Table 1.3. Heavy metals content in soil samples mg/kg

Profile

1 Cambisol

Sample 1 2 3 4 5

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Cr 171.05 147.91 163.32 161.13 151.39 171.05 147.91 158.96

Cd 3.45 3.02 4.53 2.67 3.63 4.53 2.67 3.46

Pb 87.71 68.74 41.44 32.31 51.34 87.71 32.31 56.31

As 5.02 7.71 6.27 43.91 4.02 43.91 4.02 13.39

Table 1.4. Physical properties in soil samples Soil texture (%)

Profile

1 Cambisol

Sample 1 2 3 4 5

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Sand 37.60 31.60 24.00 23.60 19.60 37.60 19.60 27.28

Silt 40.00 56.00 56.00 54.00 62.00 62.00 40.00 53.60

Clay 22.40 12.40 20.00 22.40 18.40 22.40 12.40 19.12

Soil textural classification Loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam

_____________________________________________________________________ 42 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Table 2.1. Chemical properties in soil samples pH

Profile

2 Fluvisol

Sample 6 7 8 9 10

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

H2O 7.00 6.40 6.30 6.70 6.70 7.00 6.30 6.62

KCl 5.80 5.50 5.40 5.60 5.80 5.80 5.40 5.62

Organic matter (%) 3.82 3.96 2.49 1.52 2.43 3.96 1.52 2.84

CaCO3 (%) 0.48 0.56 0.51 0.14 0.19 0.56 0.14 0.38

Available (mg/100g soil) P2O5 16.84 7.42 25.14 17.96 13.44 25.14 7.42 16.16

K2O 7.20 5.30 6.40 5.00 7.80 7.80 5.00 6.34

Table 2.2. Adsorptive capacity in soil samples CEC (me/100 g soil)

Profile

2 Fluvisol

Sample 6 7 8 9 10

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Ca 28.00 24.00 22.00 32.00 28.00 32.00 22.00 26.80

Mg 2.67 1.33 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 1.33 2.20

K 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.68 0.73 0.73 0.53 0.63

Na 0.35 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.89 0.89 0.32 0.47

Total 31.54 26.23 25.00 35.11 32.62 35.11 25.00 30.10

Table 2.3. Heavy metals content in soil samples mg/kg

Profile

2 Fluvisol

Sample 6 7 8 9 10

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Cr 149.15 157.00 150.59 168.57 149.18 168.57 149.15 154.90

Cd 3.50 4.02 4.93 3.70 2.31 4.93 2.31 3.69

Pb 79.66 59.56 54.76 40.26 23.30 79.66 23.30 51.51

As 8.65 3.27 8.15 9.19 7.09 9.19 3.27 7.27

Table 2.4. Physical properties in soil samples Soil texture (%)

Profile

2 Fluvisol

Sample 6 7 8 9 10

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Sand 23.60 27.60 31.60 33.60 29.60 33.60 23.60 29.20

Silt 60.00 62.00 58.00 52.00 58.00 62.00 52.00 58.00

Clay 16.40 10.40 10.40 14.40 12.40 16.40 10.40 12.80

Soil textural classification Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam

_____________________________________________________________________ 43 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Table 3.1. Chemical properties in soil samples pH

Profile

3 Vertisol

Sample 11 12 13 14 15

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

H2O 6.70 6.80 6.70 6.40 6.60 6.80 6.40 6.64

KCl 5.50 5.40 5.40 5.40 5.80 5.80 5.40 5.50

Organic matter (%) 4.35 2.99 2.11 2.76 1.34 4.35 1.34 2.71

CaCO3 (%) 0.08 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.08 0.00 0.04

Available (mg/100g soil) P2O5 5.00 3.35 7.28 7.98 8.20 8.20 3.35 6.36

K2O 10.90 7.60 9.80 8.40 10.00 10.90 7.60 9.34

Table 3.2. Adsorptive capacity in soil samples CEC (me/100 g soil)

Profile

3 Vertisol

Sample 11 12 13 14 15

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Ca 22.00 32.00 26.00 44.00 24.00 44.00 22.00 29.60

Mg 1.67 4.33 4.33 9.00 4.00 9.00 1.67 4.67

K 0.78 0.84 0.89 0.94 0.99 0.99 0.78 0.89

Na 0.35 0.48 0.77 0.97 0.90 0.97 0.35 0.69

Total 24.80 37.65 31.99 54.91 29.89 54.91 24.80 35.85

Table 3.3. Heavy metals content in soil samples mg/kg

Profile

3 Vertisol

Sample 11 12 13 14 15

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Cr 130.76 137.26 137.26 143.59 137.64 143.59 130.76 137.30

Cd 4.31 3.86 3.24 3.31 5.68 5.68 3.24 4.08

Pb 344.14 85.19 52.93 42.22 40.59 344.14 40.59 113.02

As 36.73 5.22 25.67 68.54 15.26 68.54 5.22 30.29

Table 3.4. Physical properties in soil samples Soil texture (%)

Profile Sample

3 Vertisol

11 12 13 14 15

Depth

0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Sand

Silt

Clay

13.60

48.00

38.40

23.60 19.60 17.60 21.60 23.60 13.60 19.20

54.00 54.00 58.00 60.00 60.00 48.00 54.80

22.40 26.40 24.40 18.40 38.40 18.40 26.00

Soil textural classification Silty clay loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam

_____________________________________________________________________ 44 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Environmental and Social Impact Assessment - Site Selection

Table 4.1. Chemical properties in soil samples pH

Profile

4 Fluvisol

Sample 16 17 18 19 20

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

H2O 7.60 7.80 7.70 8.00 7.80 8.00 7.60 7.78

KCl 6.70 6.80 6.90 7.30 7.30 7.30 6.70 7.00

Organic matter (%) 4.88 2.52 0.52 0.57 0.60 4.88 0.52 1.82

CaCO3 (%) 1.26 0.24 1.38 4.14 6.48 6.48 0.24 2.70

Available (mg/100g soil) P2O5 16.39 7.82 12.94 14.02 22.97 22.97 7.82 14.83

K2O 10.20 8.80 9.30 8.40 9.80 10.20 8.40 9.30

Table 4.2. Adsorptive capacity in soil samples CEC (me/100 g soil)

Profile

4 Fluvisol

Sample 16 17 18 19 20

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Ca 44.00 20.00 42.00 72.00 88.00 88.00 20.00 53.20

Mg 4.33 3.33 7.67 12.67 15.33 15.33 3.33 8.67

K 1.04 1.09 1.14 1.19 1.25 1.25 1.04 1.14

Na 0.75 0.87 0.56 0.95 0.86 0.95 0.56 0.80

Total 50.12 25.30 51.37 86.81 105.44 105.44 25.30 63.81

Table 4.3. Heavy metals content in soil samples mg/kg

Profile

4 Fluvisol

Sample 16 17 18 19 20

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Cr 366.98 314.36 453.79 206.58 117.96 453.79 117.96 291.93

Cd 5.13 2.82 3.33 3.27 2.26 5.13 2.26 3.36

Pb 72.99 41.05 19.81 16.44 15.02 72.99 15.02 33.06

As 3.76 75.26 83.09 59.73 88.39 88.39 3.76 62.05

Table 4.4. Physical properties in soil samples Soil texture (%)

Profile

4 Fluvisol

Sample 16 17 18 19 20

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Sand 33.60 31.60 11.60 15.60 28.00 33.60 11.60 24.08

Silt 32.00 42.00 10.00 14.00 48.00 48.00 10.00 29.20

Clay 34.40 26.40 78.40 70.40 24.00 78.40 24.00 46.72

Soil textural classification Clay loam Loam Clay Clay Loam

_____________________________________________________________________ 45 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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Table 5.1. Chemical properties in soil samples pH

Profile

5 Fluvisol

Sample 21 22 23 24 25

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

H2O 8.20 6.70 7.20 7.30 6.50 8.20 6.50 7.18

KCl 7.20 5.70 6.10 6.30 5.50 7.20 5.50 6.16

Organic matter (%) 5.67 1.40 1.11 0.84 2.08 5.67 0.84 2.22

CaCO3 (%) 1.70 0.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.70 0.00 0.42

Available (mg/100g soil) P2O5 21.20 6.57 8.49 7.19 8.51 21.20 6.57 10.39

K2O 12.10 5.70 5.90 5.30 6.50 12.10 5.30 7.10

Table 5.2. Adsorptive capacity in soil samples CEC (me/100 g soil)

Profile

5 Fluvisol

Sample 21 22 23 24 25

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Ca 38.00 16.00 14.00 14.00 22.00 38.00 14.00 20.80

Mg 4.67 3.67 4.67 4.67 5.00 5.00 3.67 4.53

K 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 0.42 1.45 0.42 1.18

Na 0.64 0.85 0.84 0.85 0.90 0.90 0.64 0.82

Total 44.61 21.87 20.91 20.97 28.32 44.61 20.91 27.34

Table 5.3. Heavy metals content in soil samples mg/kg

Profile

5 Fluvisol

Sample 21 22 23 24 25

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Cr 268.50 210.53 186.83 167.65 207.51 268.50 167.65 208.21

Cd 4.69 6.32 3.40 4.82 6.27 6.32 3.40 5.10

Pb 68.91 28.39 6.53 33.98 50.23 68.91 6.53 37.61

As 35.01 5.41 62.07 11.27 21.00 62.07 5.41 26.95

Table 5.4. Physical properties in soil samples Soil texture (%)

Profile

5 Fluvisol

Sample 21 22 23 24 25

Depth 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 Max Min Average

Sand 36.00 20.00 32.00 30.00 34.00 36.00 20.00 30.40

Silt 34.00 70.00 56.00 58.00 52.00 70.00 34.00 54.00

Clay 30.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 14.00 30.00 10.00 15.60

Soil textural classification Clay loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam Silt loam

_____________________________________________________________________ 46 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


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_____________________________________________________________________ 47 S.C. “AGROVET”- Fushë Kosovë


Report for PĂ&#x2013;YRI / DECON CONSORTIUM

Studies for the New Lignite Fired Power Plant Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Site Selection

FAUNA, FLORA, HABITATS

by Karl Roth, Biologist

30.04.2007


Contents

1.

Terms of Reference

2.

Method

3.

Site Description with Evaluation

4.

Summary

5.

Recommendations and Perspectives

6.

Sources

Annex

List of observed vertebrates (table 2) List of observed plants (Prof. Fadil Millaku)

-2-


1. Terms of reference

Within an EAR feasibility study for a new lignite power plant, the fauna, flora and habitats for the three sites proposed should be described and delineated in a map, showing the prevalence of typical habitats and their vicinities regarding the ecological value (bio-diversity, endangered species and habitats as indicators on a national and european level).

2. Methods

In the middle of April (11-15) several excursions to the three sites were undertaken at different times of day (early morning, late morning and dusk) to see, hear and observe as many vertebrates as possible. Prof. Fadil Millaku helped and supported the botanical studies. In order to be able to compare and assess the value of the three sites on a national level, excursions were undertaken to the following areas: 窶「

The upper part of the Sitnica Valley, 3 km east of Pristina Airport

窶「

The Drini Valley, south of Klina

3. Evaluation of TPP sites

The three sites concerned lie in the Sitnica Valley (ca. 520 m above sea-level) which belongs to the water catchment area of the Danube (Sitnica窶的ber-Morava- Danube). To the west of this lies the Cicavica mountain range (circa 1000 metres high and covered with deciduous forest), and in between the proposed mining area, a small-scale agricultural region with a high number of diverse habitats (e.g. woodland, hedges, shrubs, meadows and small valleys).

Kosovo A This area is a poor urban industrial habitat. The fauna and flora here are reduced to secondary man-made habitats, which are to be found in the nearer vicinity in the canalised area of the Sitnica River, and also in the remaining small water deposits. There is little bio-diversity and the potential for ecological development is minimal.

-3-


Kosovo B As in Kosova A there is mostly urban industrial habitat with poor fauna and flora but also the more natural remains of a eutrophic oxbow (heavely contaminated). In addition, to the west of the ash-tips near the Sitnica, lies an area of higher bio-diversity (ponds, wet meadows) with high ecological development potential. This area marks the beginning of the ecologically valuable Sitnica valley.

Bivolac The Bivolac region is characterized by the flood-plain of the Sitnica, which is over 1 km wide, with oxbows (remains of the earlier Sitnica) great wetland-areas, and gently rising drier fields and meadows towards the villages of Bivolac and Beris. In this small parcelled landscape different very closely linked habitats are present, such as the oxbows and little ponds with their special aquatic plant associations , the willow- trees along the waterside, reedbeds, hedge-rows and single bushes. This habitat diversity is reflected in a high biodiversity of fauna and flora, indicated by protected and endangered species at a national level (fide Dr. Schneider-Jacoby, Euronature), such as the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Garganey, (Anas querquedula), Redshank, (Tringa totanus) and the likelihood of the especially endangered Corncrake (Crex crex) and Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus). Moreover the White Stork, Little Bittern and Corncrake are listed in Annex I of the EU-Wild Birds Directive as endangered species.

-4-


Table 1:

Habitat value and ecological impact

Kosovo A Industrial area

Kosovo B industrial area

Kosovo B remains of oxbow (contaminated)

Bivolac

of the three sites

Biodiversity Importance of ecological system at national level

1 1

1 1

3 1

7 6

Ecological potential

1

1

5*

7

Recreational Value

1 1

1 1

3* 3

5 6

Damage to Natural Habitats Fragmentation of Sitnica Valley

1 1

1 1

2 1

5 6**

Negative Impact on natural surroundings

1

1

3

6

Negative impact on water retaining and revivifying Impact on habitat value

1 1

1 1

2 2

5 6

Present habitat value

Habitat value Ecological Impact

* on condition that ash tip is removed and river wetland revivified **because of proposed infrastructure requirements e.g roads, bridges, and power lines Ranking of value / impact 1 very low 2 low 3 moderate 4 medium 5 good 6 high 7 very high

-5-


4. Summary •

The bio-diversity as well as the ecological value increase to the north- west of the Sitnica valley and to a surprisingly high extent in the Hamidi-Bivolac- area.

There is a high ecologically valuable flood-plain landscape of national interest, from Hamidi downriver and beyond Bivolac. (as has been confirmed by Prof. Fadil Millaku).

The valley of the Sitnica-river is a flood area with important functions in water ecology such as water retention and self-purification. This latter point is especially important in view of the pollution caused by the power plants and mining operations.

The use of Bivolac-side would have a severe impact on the flood plain eco-system and would not be in accordance with the Danube Convention.(see Table 1)

Kosovo A presents no area of conflicting interest. Kosovo B presents minor area of conflicting interest. The Bivolac-site presents a high potential for conflicting interest.

5. Recommendations and Perspectives

As the Sitnica Valley belongs to the water catchment area of the River Danube, the above mentioned criteria meet the objectives of the Danube Convention (ICPDR). Our recommendations are that the Bivolac area should become the heart of a larger nature reserve in the Sitnica Valley to preserve and develop a habitat of high value of national importance. This would also lead to the required improvement of the quality of the water ecosystem. The Bivolac area could serve as a model project in ecological education (the importance of the flood-plain ecosystem for water-management, bio-diversity) and as a valuable recreation area for Pristina. As this study shows, the choice of the sites A or B would have only minor impact on the Sitnica valley eco-system. If one of the two sites was chosen for the new power plant, nature protection and energy production could co-exist.

-6-


6. Sources •

BirdLife International

Danube Convention

EU Wild Birds Directive

Euronatur, Radolfzell, Germany (Dr. Martin Schneider-Jacoby)

Prof. Dr. Fadil Millaku, Botanist, Univ. of. Pristina

Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Germany (Dr. H.-G. Bauer)

-7-


Annex Table 2:

BirdLife Int. SPEC

Bivolac

remains of eutrophic stream (contaminated)

Kosovo B

Industrial area

nearer vicinity, canalised Sitnica

Industrial area

Kosovo A

EU- Wild Birds Directive Annex I (endangered species)

List of observed vertebrates

BIRDS Podicipediformes

+

Little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) Anseriformes Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

+

+ + +

Teal (Anas crecca) Garganey (Anas querquedula)

(v)

3

Ciconiiformes Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea)

(v)

(v) (v) (v)

White Stork (Ciconia ciconia)

(+) + + +

* * *

Falconiformes Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

v (v) (v)

(v) (v) (v)

+ + v +

*

Gruiformes Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus) Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) Coot (Fulica atra)

(v) (v)

Corncrake (Crex crex)

+

+ + + (+)

*

Charadriiformes Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus)

(v)

Redshank (Tringa totanus) Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) Snipe (Gallinago gallinago)

-8-

+ + v v

2 2 *


Passeriformes Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava feldeggi) Nightingale (Luscinia megarhinchos) Corn Bunting (Miliaria calandra)

+

Skylark (Alauda arvensis) Stonechat (Saxicola torquata) Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

+ + +

+ (v) (v) (v)

Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) Raven (Corvus corax) Carrion Crow (Corvus corone cornix) Rook (Corvus frugilegus) Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) Magpie (Pica pica)

(v) (v) (v) + +

(v) (v) (v)

(v) (v) (v) (v)

+ + + + + + + + v + + + +

Jay (Garrulus garrulus) REPTILES Ring Snake (Natrix natrix)

(+)

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ + +

AMPHIBIANS Edible Frog (Rana esculenta) Marsh Frog (Rana ridibunda) Common Tree Frog (Hyla arborea)

Symbols and abbrev.: + observed, likelihood of breeding (+) not observed; but habitat very suitable for breeding (migrating species return in may) v observed visitor, foraging guest (v) not observed; but probable visitor, suitable habitat * endangered species SPEC (species of european concern, BirdLife Int.) 2: global population concentrated in Europe, which has unfavourable conservation status 3: population not concentrated in Europe, which has unfavourable conservation status

-9-

BirdLife Int. SPEC

EU- Wild Birds Directive Annex I (endangered species)

Bivolac

remains of eutrophic stream (contaminated)

Kosovo B

Industrial area

nearer vicinity, canalised Sitnica

Industrial area

Kosovo A


List of observed plants (Prof. Fadil Millaku) Aquatic habitats

Ranunculus aquatilis Oenanthe aquatica Typha sp. Mentha aquatica Myriaphyllum verticillatum Nuphar lutem.

Natural wet meadows Klass: Molinio â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Arrhenatheretea Tx. Ordo:Trifolio-Hordetalia H-ic. Aliance: Trifolion Resupinati Mic.

Charact. Species of aliance: Trifolion-Resupinati Mic. and the ordo: Trifolio-Hordetalia H-ic.: Poa sylvicola Guss.

V

Trifolium fragiferum L.

IV

Inula britanica L.

III

Hordeum secalinum Schreb.

III

Oenanthe silaifolia Mb.

III

Lotus corniculatus L.

III

Hordeum marinum Huds.

III

Agrostis stolonifera L.

III

Carex vulpina K. R.

III

Alopecurus utriculatus (L.) Sol.

II

Ranunculus sardous Cr.

II

Galium constrictum Cha.

II

Crepis jetosa Hall.

II

Achillea milefolium L.

I

Ranunculus marginatus Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Urv.

I

Trifolium subterraneum L.

I

Carex distans L.

I - 10 -


Cynosurus cristatus L.

I

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.

I

Char. Species of the class: Molinio â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Arrhenatheretea Tx.: Tragopogon orientalis L.

V

Bromus racemosus L.

IV

Trifolium pratense L.

IV

Alopecurus pratensis L.

III

Lysimachia nummularia L.

II

Ranunculus acris L.

II

Leucojum aestivum L.

II

Potentilla reptans L.

II

Festuca pratensis Huds.

II

Scutellaria hastifolia L.

II

Trifolium repens L.

II

Poa pratensis L.

I

Equisetum palestre L.

I

Taraxacum palestre (Ehrh) Dahlst.

I

Caltha palustris L.

I

Gratiola officinalis L.

I

Holcus lanatus L.

I

Juncus articulatus L.

I

Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) PB.

I

Orchis palustris Jacq.

I

Trifolium hybridum L.

I

Moenchia mantica (L.) Bartl.

I

Prunela vulgaris L.

I

Companion species: Taraxacum officinalis Web.

IV

Plantago lanceolata L.

III

Rumex crispus L.

III

Mentha aquatica L.

III

Cirsium canum (L.) All.

III

Ranunculus repens L.

II

Agropyrum repens L.

II - 11 -


Lolium terrene L.

II

Carex sp.

II

Cichorium intybis

II

Rhinanthus minor L.

II

Oenanthe fistulosa L.

I

Ranunculus nemorosus DC.

I

Galium verum L.

I

Galium palestre L.

I

Lathyrus tuboerosus L.

I

Convolvulus arvensis L.

I

Plantago media

I

Althaea sp.

I

The name of assotiation and komplete plant list we can do on the Juny, because now the species are not prezent in adulte phase.

Agricultural used meadows Taraxacum officinale, Cichorium intybus, Artemisia vulgaris, Rumex crispus, Medicago sativa, Dipsacus laciniatus, Vicia sativa, Vicia cracca, Rosa canina, Prunus cerasius, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Geranium aparine, Galium cruciata, Tanacetum vulgare, Rubus sp., Ranunaculus milefoliatus, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Humulus lupulus, Quercus cerris, Lathyrus aphaca, Lathyrus tuberosus, Euphorbia ciparissias, Ranunculus repens, Tusilago farfara, Carex sp., Poa pratensis, Festuca sp., Rumex acetosella, Viburnum lantana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus minor, Erophyla verna, Equisetum arvense, Thllaspi arvense, Lepidium draba, Arctium lapa.

Riverside vegetation (trees and bushes) Ass.: Salicetum albae fragilis Soo (1930, 1934) 1958 Trees: Salix alba (dominante), Populus nigra, Ulmus effusa, Salix fragilis. Bushes: Salix purpurea, Frangula alnus, Cornus sanguinea.

Bushes and Hedges on the slopes Ass.: Cratego â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Prunetum spinosae Beus 1971 Bushes: Prunus spinosa, Crataegus monogyna, Ligustrum vulgare, Prunus mahaleb, Evonymus europaea,

- 12 -


Herbal: Galium mollugo, Campanula trachelium, Viburnum lantana, Euphorbia ciparissias, Bellis perrenis, Achillea millefoliatum, Carex sp., Agrimonia eupatoria, Fragaria vesca.

Industrial area vegetation Populus canadensis, Salix alba, Salix babilonica, Thuja sp. Syringa vulgaris, Pinus nigra, Juglans regia, Platanus orientalis, Fraxinus angustifolia.

Ruderal flora and vegetation Class: Chenopodietea Ordo: Chenopodietalia albi Aliance: Arction lappae Ass. Tanaceto-artemisietum This ass. Is prezent near Bivolak and Plemetin. Characteristic species of association: Artemisia vulgaris

V

Tanacetum vulgare,

IV

Characteristic species of aleance and ordo: Carduus acanthoides,

IV

Melilotus officinale,

IV

Arctium lappa.

II

Sambucus ebulus

II

Ballota nigra

II

Rumex obtusifolium

I

Silene alba

I

Linaria vulgaris

I

Galium aparine

I

Characteristic species of class: Hordeum murinum L.

III

Bromus sterilis L.

III

Lactuca seriola Torner.

II

Verbena Officinalis L.

II

Chenopodium album L.

I

Malva sylvestris L.

I

Companions: - 13 -


Cichorium intybus L

V

Daucus karota L.

IV

Achillea millefolium

IV

Bromus arvensis L.

IV

Plantago lanceolata L.

IV

Poa pratensis L.

IV

Arrhenatherum elatius L.

IV

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop

III

Agropyrum repens (L.) P. B.

III

Bromus mollis L.

III

Dactylis glomerata L.

III

Artemisia absinthium L.

II

Galium mollogo L.

II

Rumex crispus L.

II

Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br.

II

Galium verum L.

II

Cirsium eriophorum (L.)Scop

II

Anthenis arvensis L.

II

Urtica dioica L.

II

Silene vulgaris Moench.

II

Plantago major L.

I

Stachys germanica L.

I

Taraxacum officinale Web.

I

Medicago sativa L.

I

Lotus corniculatus L.

I

Datura stramonium L.

I

Dipsacus laciniatus L.

I

Rubus celsius L.

I

Cycorium intybus

I

Senecio vulgaris L.

+

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

+

Cuscuta europaea L.

+

Class: Chenopodietea Br. Bl. - 14 -


Ordo: Chenopodietalia albi Tx. Aliance: Chenopodion muralis Br. Bl. Urtico â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sambucetum ebuli Br. Bl. (1936) 1952. This ass. Is prezent near Sitnica river and on the ruderal parts of region.

Characteristic species of association: Sambucus ebulus L.

V

Urtica dioica L

IV

Conium maculatum L.

II

Characteristic species of aleance, ordo and class: Carduus acabthoides L.

IV

Bromus sterilis L.

III

Ballota nigra L.

II

Rumex pulcher L.

II

Onopordum acanthium L.

II

Capsella bursa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; pastoris (L.) Med. I Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

I

Companions: Tanacetum vulgare L.

IV

Cichorium intybus L.

IV

Convolvulus arvense L.

IV

Cirsium eriophorum (L.) Scop.

III

Achillea millefolium L.

III

Galium aparine L.

III

Verbascum sp.

III

Rumex crispus L.

III

Trifolium pratense L.

III

Mentha longifolia L.

III

Lolium perenne L

III

Dactylis glomerata L.

II

Plantago major L.

II

Linaria vulgaris Mill.

II

Bromus arvensis L.

II

Galium sp.

II - 15 -


Medicago lupulina L.

II

Taraxacum officinale Web.

II

Anchusa officinalis L.

I

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

I

Echium vulgare L.

I

Tifolium repens L.

I

Festua sp.

I

Silene vulgaris L.

I

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.

I

Althea sp.

I

Rumex obtusifolius L.

I

Rubus sp.

+

Euphorbia sp.

+

Cynoglossum officinale L.

+

Poa sp.

+

Park near Berisha village Pinus nigra (cultivated 窶電ominant species) Trees and Bushes (Shrubs): Pinus nigra, Quercus cerris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer tatarica, Populus tremula, Malus sylvestris, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus spicosa, Rosa canina, Rubus caesius, Cytissus hirsutus,Cornus sanguinea, Ligustrum vulgare. Herbal: Sanguisorba minor, Euphorbia ciparissiac, Muscari racemosum, Orchis sp., Hieracium pilosella, Carduus. sp., Vicia sp., Teucrium chamaedrys, Luzula forsteri, Orlaya grandiflora, Carduus acanthoides, Tanacetum vulgare, Ranunculus milefoliatus, Plantago media, Miosotis sp., Agrimonia eupatoria, Taraxacum officinale, Galium cruciata, Galium sp., Orobanche sp., Potentilla argentea, Bellis perrenis, Helleborus odorus. Final raport will be competed for two days! Prishtina

Prof. dr. Fadil Millaku

28.04.07

______________________

- 16 -


REPORT PÖYRY Dr. – Ing. Herbert Hanke INTRODUCTION In the Obiliç are build “Kosova A and B” term centrals. These two term centrals especially Kosova A make free a big quantity fluids and dust. In base of the floristic analistes and Vegetation which are present in and around these term centrals I’ve got tested unfortunately trees species are very rare and in the most part are not present. Trees which build stabile plant community would have the main role to absorbate toxic fluids at the same time they wouldn’t aloud fluids and dust to arrive into the villages area. On the west of Plemetin village and the testimony (Kosova B) are present a few natural meadows which kept enough natural physiognomy. Especially we should protect wet natural meadows which are present in east of the Bivolak- in the left side of Sitnica river. Those natural meadows have a very rich flora and fauna which is very rare in the other parts of Kosova’s flush. This kind of biodiversity is thanks to geographic position. Winds around Obiliç area goes in north-south or south-north or in north-west direction . Very rare the wind goes from east to west direction. This makes that the pollution in those parts to be less and to help protection this biodiversity.

GOAL OF INVESTIGATION •

Evidence of flora and Vegetation around Plemetin and Bivolak.

Value of air pollution in these two locations in base of plants as pollution indicator.

To give an idea for vegetation importance especially for the trees which have effects in slowing down of level of fluids which make free from term centre and in protection the zones from pollution.

1


OBJECT – MATERIAL AND WORK METOD There are investigate two locations that are closeness of “Kosova B” term center . • The south-west side of Plemetin and • Environs of Bivolak and Berisha villages. There are registered the most species of plants (trees, bushes and herbs). Also are investigate the natural plant community and the plant community which are as result of anthropogenic factor (Ruderal (nitrify) plant community and agriculture associations ) Plant community are definite in base of Principe’s and methods of the ZurichMontpellier (Braun-Blanquette). For every plant community are made measurements – surveys, and in base of these measurements are noticed plant communities which are analyzed and elaborated using the corresponding references. Comment: The natural wet meadows around the Sitnica’s river are analyzed till the Alliance level because the plants haven’t been grown enough.

RESULTS Has been finished investigation about the flora and vegetation (Association-Plant community) in the different biotopes around the Plemetin ,Bivolak and Sitnica’s river. In base of floristic analyses and vegetations has been find that the most part of investigated location is under the anthropogenic factor influence. As these results the most part of natural meadows and forest vegetation are fabled in the agriculture associations. In the closeness of villages is present the ruderal (Nitrify) vegetation which comes to the Sitnica’s river. The natural biotopes are kept around Sitnica’s river, especially the wet meadows between Bivolak and Prilluzha, willow forests around Sitnica’s river and wet places. In the west side of Bivolak is kept the natural plant community Quercetum montanum.

2


RUDERAL (Nitrify ) VEGETATION Class: Chenopodietea Br. Bl. 1952 Ordo: Onopordetalia Br. Bl. et Tx. 1943 Aliance: Arction Tx. (1936) 1947 Ass. Tanaceto-Artemisietum (Br. Bl. 1931) Tx. 1942 Biotop: Ruderal (nitrifications) area

Foto 1. Ass. Tanaceto-Artemisietum (Br. Bl. 1931) Tx. 1942

This plant community is present in the nitrify places- near roads and railways from Obiliรง till to Plemetin village, and near the Bivolak village. Characteristic species of association: Artemisia vulgaris

V

Tanacetum vulgare,

IV

Characteristic species of alliance and ordo: Carduus acanthoides,

IV

Melilotus officinale,

IV

Arctium lappa.

II

Sambucus ebulus

II

Ballota nigra

II

Rumex obtusifolium

I

3


Silene alba

I

Linaria vulgaris

I

Galium aparine

I

Characteristic species of class: Hordeum murinum L.

III

Bromus sterilis L.

III

Lactuca seriola Torner.

II

Verbena Officinalis L.

II

Chenopodium album L.

I

Malva sylvestris L.

I

Companions: Cichorium yntibus L

V

Daucus karota L.

IV

Achillea millefolium

IV

Bromus arvensis L.

IV

Plantago lanceolata L.

IV

Poa pratensis L.

IV

Arrhenatherum elatius L.

IV

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop

III

Agropyrum repens (L.) P. B.

III

Bromus mollis L.

III

Dactylis glomerata L.

III

Artemisia absinthium L.

II

Galium mollogo L.

II

Rumex crispus L.

II

Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br.

II

Galium verum L.

II

Cirsium eriophorum (L.)Scop

II

Anthenis arvensis L.

II

Urtica dioica L.

II

Silene vulgaris Moench.

II

4


Plantago major L.

I

Stachys germanica L.

I

Taraxacum officinale Web.

I

Medicago sativa L.

I

Lotus corniculatus L.

I

Datura stramonium L.

I

Dipsacus laciniatus L.

I

Rubus celsius L.

I

Cycorium intybus

I

Senecio vulgaris L.

+

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

+

Cuscuta europaea L.

+

Class: Chenopodietea Br. Bl. 1952 Ordo: Onopordetalia Br. Bl. et Tx. 1943 Alliance: Chenopodion muralis Br. Bl. 1936 Ass: Urtico â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sambucetum ebuli Br. Bl. (1936) 1952. Biotop: Ruderal area

Foto 2. Ass: Urtico â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sambucetum ebuli Br. Bl. (1936) 1952.

5


This association is present around the Sitnicaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s river, on nitrify places where is degraded the natural vegetation. The species Sambucus ebulus dominate and gives it the plant community physiognomy. Characteristic species of association: Sambucus ebulus L.

V

Urtica dioica L

IV

Conium maculatum L.

II

Characteristic species of Alliance, Ordo and Class: Carduus acabthoides L.

IV

Bromus sterilis L.

III

Ballota nigra L.

II

Rumex pulcher L.

II

Onopordum acanthium L.

II

Capsella bursa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; pastoris (L.) Med.

I

Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

I

Companions: Tanacetum vulgare L.

IV

Cichorium intybus L.

IV

Convolvulus arvense L.

IV

Cirsium eriophorum (L.) Scop.

III

Achillea millefolium L.

III

Galium aparine L.

III

Verbascum sp.

III

Rumex crispus L.

III

Trifolium pratense L.

III

Mentha longifolia L.

III

Lolium perenne L

III

Dactylis glomerata L.

II

Plantago major L.

II

Linaria vulgaris Mill.

II

Bromus arvensis L.

II

6


Galium sp.

II

Medicago lupulina L.

II

Taraxacum officinale Web.

II

Anchusa officinalis L.

I

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

I

Echium vulgare L.

I

Tifolium repens L.

I

Festua sp.

I

Silene vulgaris L.

I

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.

I

Althea sp.

I

Rumex obtusifolius L.

I

Rubus sp.

+

Euphorbia sp.

+

Cynoglossum officinale L.

+

Poa sp.

+

NATURAL VEGETATION Around the Bivolak village are present these natural plant community : Ass.: Quercetum montanum (Jov. 1948) Cernj. et Jov. 1953, Ass.: Salicetum albae fragilis Soo (1930, 1934) 1958 Ass.: Cratego â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Prunetum spinosae Beus 1971 Aleanca Trifolion Resupinati Mic. â&#x20AC;˘

Ass.: Quercetum montanum (Jov. 1948) Cernj. et Jov. 1953

Biotop: Forest

7


Foto. 3. Ass.: Quercetum montanum (Jov. 1948) Cernj. et Jov. 1953

This plant community is present in west side of Bivolak village and continues on direction of the Ă&#x2021;içavica Mountain. In floristic aspect, the dominant and edificatory plant is Quercus petraea. Other participations trees are :Acer pseudoplatanus, Quercus cerris, Carpinus betulus etc. From the herbs most presents are : Melica uniflora, Lathyrus venetus, Fragaria vesca, Dactylus glomerata, Veronica chamaedrys, Lathyrus niger, Polygonatum odoratum, Melittis melissophyllum, Helleborus odorus, Stellaria holostea, Symphytum tuberosum, Euphorbia amygdaloides etc. Less present are these species : Physospermum cornubensis, Primula acaulis, Iris graminea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Tanacetum corymbosum, Stachys scardica, Trifolium alpestre, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Convalaria majalis, Luzula forsteri etc. Characteristic species of association: Quercus petraea

V

Acer pseudoplatanus

III

Carpinus betulus

II

Melica uniflora

III

Fragaria vesca

IV

Vicia cracca

III

Primula vulgaris

III

Characteristic species of aliance: Quercus cerris

III

8


Acer tataricum

II

Prunus spicosa

I

Dactylis glomerata

III

Symphytum tuberosum

II

Lembotropis nigricans

II

Origanum vulgare

I

Potentilla micrantha

I

Characteristic species of ordo: Cornus mas

II

Lathyrus venetus

III

Polygonatum odoratum

III

Lithospermum purpuro â&#x20AC;&#x201C; coeruleum

III

Trifolium alpestre

II

Clinopodium vulgare

I

Campanula persicifolia

I

Geranium sanguineum

+

Characteristic species of class: Sorbus torminalis

II

Crataegus monogyna

I

Rosa canina

+

Lonicera caprifolium

II

Corylus avellana

+

Acer campestre

II

Hedera helix

III

Helleborus odorus

IV

Brachypodium sylvaticum

III

Geum urbanum

II

Poa nemoralis

II

Companions: Acer obtusatum

II

Quercus farnetto

II

9


Colutea arborescens

+

Lembotropis nigricans

II

Euphorbia amygdaloides

II

Stellaria holostea

IV

Veronica chamaedrys

III

Luzula forsteri

III

Aremonia agrimonoides

III

Chamaespartium saggitale

III

Lathyrus niger

II

Stachys scardica

II

Cyclamen hederifolia

II

Cardamine bulbifera

II

Lychnis coronaria

II

Erythronium dens-canis

II

Melitis melissophyllum

I

Poa bulbosa

I

Viola silvestris

I

Pulmonaria officinalis

I

Convalaria majalis

I

Galium odoratum

Ass.: Salicetum albae fragilis Soo (1930, 1934) 1958 Biotopes: Forest under degradation This plant community is present around the Sitnicaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s river and at the wet places near Plemetin and Bivolak villages. This plant community has fragmentary character as a result of anthropogenic act. Characteristic species of association: Trees floor: Salix alba (dominate)

IV

Salix fragilis

II

Ulmus effusa

I

10


Populus nigra

+

Bushes floor: Salix purpurea

II

Cornus sanguinea

I

Herb floor: Galium palustre

V

Mentha aquatica

IV

Equisetum palustre

III

Alisma plantago- aquatica

II

Veronica anagalis

II

Ass.: Cratego â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Prunetum spinosae Beus. 1971 Biotop: Bushes

Foto. 4. Ass.: Cratego â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Prunetum spinosae Beus. 1971

11


This association is under degradation by anthropogenic influence with goal to make agriculture area and pasture. This plant community is present on periphery of Bivolak and Berisha village. Characteristic species of association: Prunus spinosa

V

Crataegus monogyna

I

Ligustrum vulgare

+

Evonymus europaea

+

Acer campestre

+

Viburnum lantana

+

Prunus cerasius

+

Fragaria vesca

IV

Galium mollugo

III

Achillea millefoliatum

III

Carex sp.,

III

Euphorbia ciparissias

II

Bellis perrenis

II

Agrimonia eupatoria

II

Campanula trachelium

I

12


Class: Molinio – Arrhenatheretea Tx. Ordo:Trifolio-Hordetalia H-ic. Alliance: Trifolion Resupinati Mic. Biotopes: Wet natural meadows

Foto. 5. Alliance: Trifolion Resupinati Mic.

On the left stream of the Setnica’s river between

the Bivolak and Prilluzha villages is

present a typical wet natural biotopes which include a considerate area. This biotopes is very reach in biodiversity aspect. We couldn’t to identification true plant community because the Vegetation is in the beginning, but in the base of the present plants we find that is on the question the alliance: Trifolion Resupinati Mic. under which have many plant communities. True plant community is possible to find in June. Characteristic alliance and ordo: Poa sylvicola Guss. Trifolium sp.

V .

IV

Inula britanica L.

III

Hordeum secalinum Schreb.

III

Oenanthe silaifolia Mb.

III

Lotus corniculatus L.

III

Hordeum marinum Huds.

III

Agrostis stolonifera L.

III 13


Carex vulpina K. R.

III

Alopecurus utriculatus (L.) Sol.

II

Ranunculus sardous Cr.

II

Galium constrictum Cha.

II

Crepis jetosa Hall.

II

Achillea milefolium L.

I

Ranunculus marginatus Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Urv.

I

Trifolium subterraneum L.

I

Carex distans L.

I

Cynosurus cristatus L.

I

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.

I

Characteristic species of class: Tragopogon orientalis L.

V

Bromus racemosus L.

IV

Trifolium pratense L.

IV

Alopecurus pratensis L.

III

Lysimachia nummularia L.

II

Ranunculus acris L.

II

Leucojum aestivum L.

II

Potentilla reptans L.

II

Festuca pratensis Huds.

II

Scutellaria hastifolia L.

II

Trifolium repens L.

II

Poa pratensis L.

I

Equisetum palestre L.

I

Taraxacum palestre (Ehrh) Dahlst.

I

Caltha palustris L.

I

Gratiola officinalis L.

I

Holcus lanatus L.

I

Juncus articulatus L.

I

Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) PB.

I

14


Orchis palustris Jacq. Trifolium hybridum L.

I I

Moenchia mantica (L.) Bartl.

I

Prunela vulgaris L.

I

Companions: Taraxacum officinalis Web.

IV

Plantago lanceolata L.

III

Rumex crispus L.

III

Mentha aquatica L.

III

Cirsium canum (L.) All.

III

Ranunculus repens L.

II

Agropyrum repens L.

II

Lolium terrene L.

II

Carex sp.

II

Cichorium intybis

II

Rhinanthus minor L.

II

Oenanthe fistulosa L.

I

Ranunculus nemorosus DC.

I

Galium verum L.

I

Galium palestre L.

I

Lathyrus tuboerosus L.

I

Convolvulus arvensis L.

I

Plantago media

I

Althaea sp.

I

15


On the bogs place Biotopes: Bog

Foto. 6.Bogs place (Tipha & Salix) Near Plemetin, Berisha and Bivolak villages are present these bog species: Salix alba

IV

Typha latifolia

V

Mentha longifolia

IV

Juncus sp.,

IV

Carex sp.,

IV

Ranunculus acris

II

Equisetum palustre

II

Luzula sp.,

II

Ranunculus repens

I

Cyrsium sp.

I

Dipsacus laciniatus

+

16


Hydro fit plants which are present in Sitnica River: Biotopes: River

Foto.7. & Aquatic species: Ranunculus aquatilis

Nuphar lutem

V

Ranunculus aquatilis

V

Myriaphyllum verticillatum

IV

Oenanthe aquatica

IV

Typha latifolia

II

Mentha aquatica

II

17


Biotopes: Cultivated forest Between Berisha and Bivolak villages is present the cultivated park. In this park are present many species but Pinus nigra is dominant species. Present species: Trees and Bushes: Pinu nigra

V

Robinia pseudoacacia

II

Acer tatarica

II

Populus tremula

I

Malus sylvestris

I

Quercus cerris

+

Crataegus monogyna

I

Rosa canina

II

Rubus sp.

II

Prunus spinosa

I

Cornus sanguinea

+

Ligustrum vulgare

+

Cytissus hirsutus

III

Herbs: Helleborus odorus

III

Teucrium chamaedrys

III

Hieracium pilosella

III

Orlaya grandiflora

III

Galium sp.

III

Vicia sp.

III

Euphorbia ciparissias

II

Agrimonia eupatoria

II

Galium cruciata

II

Muscari racemosum

II

Luzula forsteri

II

Ranunculus milefoliatus

II

18


Bellis perrenis

II

Carduus acanthoides

I

Tanacetum vulgare

I

Plantago media

I

Miosotis sp.

I

Taraxacum officinale

I

Potentilla argentea

I

Sanguisorba minor

+

Orobanche sp.

+

Orchis sp.

+

Carduus. sp.

+

Plant of industrial area Biotop: Park There are cultivated plants near localities Plemetin, Bivolak and near â&#x20AC;&#x153;Kosova Bâ&#x20AC;?. These species are as folows: Populus canadensis,

Platanus orientalis,

Pinus nigra,

Fraxinus angustifolia,

Salix alba,

Betula pendula,

Salix babilonica,

Rosa sp.

Syringa vulgaris,

Thuja sp.

Juglans regia,

19


Agriculture plant community Biotopes: Agricultural - artificial meadows

Foto. 8. Agricultural - artificial meadows

Enough parts of land, people from Plemetin Berisha and Bivolak used as artificial meadows. Except cultivated species are present and these species: Taraxacum officinale,

Tanacetum vulgare,

Cichorium intybus,

Rubus sp.,

Artemisia vulgaris,

Ranunaculus milefoliatus,

Rumex crispus,

Trifolium pratense,

Medicago sativa,

Trifolium repens,

Dipsacus laciniatus,

Humulus lupulus,

Vicia sativa,

Quercus cerris,

Vicia cracca,

Lathyrus aphaca,

Rosa canina,

Lathyrus tuberosus,

Prunus cerasius,

Euphorbia ciparissias,

Capsella bursa-pastoris,

Ranunculus repens,

Geranium aparine,

Tusilago farfara,

Galium cruciata,

Carex sp., 20


Poa pratensis, Festuca sp., Rumex acetosella, Viburnum lantana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus minor, Erophyla verna, Equisetum arvense, Thllaspi arvense, Lepidium draba, Arctium lapa.

21


DEGRADATION

Foto. 9. Degredation biotop On the base of this investigations is noticed that flora and vegetation is degradation notably around Obiliç and Plemetin. Bivolak Village is on the west of term central “Kosovo A and B”. Flora and vegetation around this village is with nitrifying character but there are present and agriculture plant community.

EDUCATIVE GOAL Is more important for the people which lives in the villages around Industrial places (Obiliç) to know for the role that have the plants privately the trees in protect their health, because the plants are in the situate to absorb ate pollution fluids which go out from “Kosovo A and B” RECOMANDATIONS In the base of analysis Flora and Vegetation around Plemetin, Berishaj, Bivolak, Sibovc, Bellaqevc, Hadij villages and Obiliç I gave those recommendations. •

It’s very important to protect natural biotopes which are present around Sitnica River

22


To be under protect Wet Meadows and natural Meadows which are among Bivolak and Prilluzha villages.

To be under protect the biodiversity around Bivolak village and Sitnica River.

Around “Kosova A and B” and all villages which are around, to cultivated Trees (to make artificial forests or parks) which are resistant in dust and pollutions fluids.

Prishtinë

Prof. dr. Fadil Millaku, prof. Ass.

02.05. 2007

_________________________

Summary Biodiversity around the TPP Kosova A and B is a good indication for the pollution and degraded of natural vegetation. The north-east, east and south part of TPP Kosova A and B are in bad condition that affect the biodiversity aspect and ecological conditions for plants. Mainly dominate the secondary plant community. In the south part of TPP B, near the Leskovic village, a part of small natural forest is saved that is of a relevant importance for this area. This plant community which is a Quecion Farneto cerris, must be also under protection. The altitude of this plant community is 609 m, GPS – X- 0503405, Y-4725261. Bivolak, Hamidi and Berisha villages has a very rich biodiversity. On the left flow of the Sitnica’s river dominate wet meadows, which are rich in the biodiversity aspect. This part should be under protection and claimed as protected areas. Ecological value have the fragmentary osier-bed (Salicetum albae) along the Sitnica’s valley, as well. Between the Bivolak and Berisha’s villages, cultivated forest (park) with ecological value is present. The altitude of this plant community is 575 m, GPS – X- 0501732, Y-4727326. Protection of these natural biotopes and biodiversity enable the sustainability and the functioning of the ecosystem. The natural relation of the Bivolak biotopes with the Çiçavica mountain across the fragmentary osier-bed (Salicetum albae), bushes (Crataego prunetum spinosae) and the plant community - Quercetum montanum enable the sustainability of the natural ecosystems and water-supply of this zone from Çiçavica mountain. The altitude of this plant community is 560 m, GPS – X- 0500794, Y-4729491.

On the biodiversity aspect:

23


• • • • • •

Bivolak has high value with natural habitats. Plementin suffers bad conditions and the west part only, which stretches in the near vicinity around the Sitnica’s river, has values in the biodiversity aspect. The vegetation on the left side of the Sitnica’s river flow and the wet meadows have important values and should be under protection. Sibovc in the biodiversity aspect is very poor, where dominate the secondary vegetation, except on the north-west part. Bellaçevc is under high pollution and without natural habitats. The Grabovc village has a very rich biodiversity and natural habitats.

24


25


26


Compiled by the Museum of Kosova With a grant from DECON

Working Report DETAILED ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD SURVAY IN THE “ZONE OF INTEREST” (OBILIQ-TCA, PLEMETIN-TCB, AND BIVOLAK)

Pristina, May 2007


Working report

BACKGROUND TO THE REPORT Archaeologists intentionally search for sites, in order to rescue them in face of imminent

destruction.

Building

works

such

as

building

foundations,

road

improvements and pipe or cable trenches can disturb and destroy possible archaeological layers underneath the present ground surface. A systematic site survey and research within a given area before the excavation processes start, is a vital component which adequately deals with the protection and the enhancement of the archaeological heritage. Therefore, archaeologist Kemajl Luci, Cultural Manager and Kustos of the Museum of Kosova, agreed to run a project ”Detailed Archaeological field survey in Obiliq-TCA, Plemetin-TCB, and Bivolak’’ (hereinafter called as ‘’zone of interest’’). From 16 – 28 April 2007, a team of field archaeologists carried out a survey in and around the ‘Zone of interest’ with a grant from DECON Deutsche Energie - Consult that at the current runs a project ‘‘Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission’ in Kosovo’’. The Archaeological survey team: 1. Kemajl Luci / Museum of Kosovo, 2. Fatmir Peja / Museum of Kosovo, 3. Tomor Kastrati / Museum of Kosovo, 4. Milot Berisha / Archaeological Institute of Kosovo, 5. Izri Gashi / Museum of Kosovo, (Driver) and 6. Tomor Çela / GIS expert, Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning

We should highlight that the maps that were delivered from representatives of your office, were not coordinated in GIS, therefore those maps were not appropriate for our needs. Moreover, there was no way that we transfer the data from our hand GPS in those maps. For this reason, we were obligated to engage 1 (one) expert from the field of GIS that managed to transfer the GPS coordinates from Kosova-REF in UTM WGS 84 Projection. The topographic maps and ortho-photos, are professionally prepared by Mr. Tomor Çela, GIS expert and chief of GIS & IT at the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Acknowledgements The team wishes to acknowledge the DECON, German Consulting Company, for financial support that made possible this archaeological campaign to proceed. We are very grateful to them. A large part of the survey would have been impossible without the co-operation of the local inhabitants within and in neighbourhood of the ‘’zone of interest’’. Goals and Objectives of Archaeological Survey: The goal of an archaeological survey is to identify and record physical evidence of past human activities in defined study area. To meet this goal, archaeologist must fulfil the following tasks: •

Precursory assemble all potential sources of information whether they were written documents and/or oral history from the local inhabitants that might be from an archaeological interest.

Consulting of the publications, reports and different monographs that have to do with cultural-historical heritage of the ‘’zone of interest’’.

Prior study of cadastral and geodesic maps and study of ortho-photos of the ‘’zone of interest’’.

Recording of all archaeological materials/data whether movable or nonmovable that could be considered as a part of archaeological heritage, in, around and nearby the ‘’zone of interest’’.

Collection of surface (archaeological) materials (pieces of pottery, small finds, human remains, etc, during the survey and finds assessment.

Main goal of this project was surface examination of a defined area, in order to search for archaeological evidence, which could contribute for the Industrial spatial planning of the ‘’zone of interest’’.


Working report

INTRODUCTION Obiliq town is located northwest approximately 6 (six) kilometres far from Pristina on the main road to Mitrovica. The municipality of Obiliq was created in 1989, prior to which it formed part of Pristina municipality. It now comprises a total of 20 villages including the (Obiliq) town itself. Although the majority of the population is Albanian, villages such as Babimoc, Milloshevë, Plemetin and Crkvena Vodica are mostly inhabited by Serbs and other non-Albanian ethnic minorities. The municipality of Obiliq comprises a total surface of 10.542 hectares or 105 square kilometres. There are 18 cadastral zones and it bounders with following Municipalities: Pristina, Fushë Kosova, Drenas, Vuçitërn (Vushtri), and Podujevë (Besianë). Llap and Sitnica are two rivers that flow through Obiliq Municipality. In this municipality, two termocentrals are erected; TEC Kosova A and TEC Kosova B. The area of this municipality is quite rich in coal and Lignite. There are rough estimations that below the humus layer, at least 55m (deepness) thick layer of coal and lignite are deposited. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal and it is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation.

TCB TCA

Fig. 1 View on TEC Kosova B and in the background TEC Kosova A, from the NW

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

THE FIELD SURVEY The first stage of the field survey involved consolidation and verification of the knowledge we have gained from background study. Moreover, any kind of relevant information that might indicate a certain type of information was part of our presurvey study. The historical documents that we’ve consulted are vague and mostly deal with Ottoman Domination and Serbian Occupation of the region that we were interested for. Maps study and close analyse of the aerial photos −orthophotos were part of our thorough investigation. The team talked to local inhabitants, country people and carefully listened for the local legends and recorded the place names (toponymy) that potentially sometimes reveal important data from the past. The archaeological team began the fieldwork with inspections of various parts of the study area in and around the ‘’zone of interest’’, which of course required us to drive and walk through the area in general. We were seeking a general characterization of the area's key attributes. The survey drew upon specialists trained to recognize the particular phenomena likely to be present. Primarily, the team consulted with individuals, the local farmers and natives asking them if they noticed any particular features when they plough their land. Field survey in “the zone of interest” was conducted by 5 team members that walked in parallel lines spaced 5-10 m apart from each other and while they were monitoring the surface, search for the finds or archaeological evidences was the main goal. Recording of geographical coordinates and ground elevation were made by hand GPS device, Magellan, eXplorist 100, Thales Navigation, Ver. 1.1.15. KosovaRef. Very important factor is that there are numerous archaeological sites that are already identified or excavated in surrounding villages, as listed below: 1. Prehistoric fortification of the Bellaçevc castle (excavated) 2. Early Medieval necropolis (cemetery) in Lower Graboc (excavated) 3. Early Christian Church in Upper Graboc (identified) 4. Prehistoric and Late Antique fortification in Upper Graboc (identified) 5. Fragments of a Medieval pottery in Hade 6. Traces of Medieval settlement in Bakshia 7. Traces of ancient building material remains in Sibofc 8. Traces of ancient building material remains in Bivolak

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

PLEMETIN Is located in between two rivers, Llap and Sitnica, and the village is positioned only 3 km north from Obiliq town. The main area of detailed archaeological survey was the site ‘’Markovac’’ as it belongs to the ‘’zone of interest’’ fig 2. View on Markovac, North from TEC B

Site name: ‘’Markovac’’ Site Location: approx. 2 km north from TEC Kosova B GPS Reading: X=4729710 Y=7504408 Z=537 m Site property: Private property that belongs to the Serbian farmers from the Plemetin Village:

fig. 3 View from the property of N. Spasic

Novica Spasič, Novica Živič, Plavšič family,etc.

Site name: New Serbian cemetery in ‘’Markovac’’ Site Location: approx. 2 km north from TEC Kosova B GPS Reading: X=4729578 Y=7504622 Z=540 m

fig 4. T he new Serbian cemetery in Markovac

Site property: Public property, it belongs to the Serbian orthodox community After a watchful surface investigation, based on the terrain configuration and in the other hand referring to the local inhabitants that deal with crop growing and plough their fields in this area, there were no indications of any kind of archaeological material or data. The fig.5 Surface control in Markovac

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

Site name: Gradecâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Bregali Site Location: approx. 4 km northâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;east from TEC Kosova B Site property: Private property that belongs to the Albanian and Serbian families. Info: Daim Mehmeti farmer and native of this Village, explained that there were no traces of pottery or building material when he or his Fig.6.Gradec-view from East

relatives plough their fields.

Archaeological team also visited other sites in the area of Plemetin, that bear characteristic place namesâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;toponyms, such as; 1. Zakop 2. Kuke 3. Selishte

Based on the landscape configuration and on the other hand, Fig. 7. Gradec-View from West

agricultural estate- cultivated area together with dense vegetation, made it relatively hard for us to discover potential traces of archaeological remains. However, interviews with native farmers were an important factor to create an idea of the environmental topography.

Surface observation did not produce any kind of material for our interest. Fig.8. Gradec-View from North. In background, TCB (see the arrow sign)

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

OBILIQ-TCB

Site name: ‘’Lugu i Kishës’’ Site Location: within the industrial area of the TEC Kosova B Site property: Public property

Obiliq-TCB, is roughly 9 (nine) km far from Pristina. Referring to the local residents, based on local legend, transmit throughout generations, an “Early Christian Illyrian church” was to be found somewhere in this area.

However, TEC Kosova B was build at this site during the 80s, and there are no such material

remains or indications or whatever that could bring to light any kind of archaeological fact. At the present time, this area is for the most part industrial zone and to some extent Inhabited.

Fig. 9-12, Different perspectives of the TCB

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


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OBILIQ-TCA

The area of TCA, from the geographical positioning aspect is limited with the Sitnica River in the west, Old Obiliq town on the north, New Obiliq town on the east and village of Krushevac in the south. We should emphasise that approximately 3km northeast from here, Gazimestan is to be found. Furthermore, Gazimestan is the most famous historic site where the famous Battle of Kosovo took place in

Fig.13. View from village of Krushevac

1389.

After careful terrain surveillance, field walking in and around this area, no archaeological remains or indications were found.

Fig.14. area of TCA, picture taken from the West

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


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BIVOLAK

Site name: ‘’Lugu i Rekës së Strovcit’’ Site Location: In southern part of Bivolak Site property: Private property of Mr. Megjit Klinaku

Referring to the owner of this meadow, there were traces of the wall remains and something that appears to be a built structure. Furthermore, fragments of pottery and tiles were discovered that are indicative for a medieval small settlement. In addition, we have to point up that this area does not belong to the “zone of interest”.

Site name: ”Bashqet e Bivolakut’’ Site Location: In centre of the village of Bivolak Site property: Private property of the Alferon Company

Info: Nexhmedin Saraçi GPS Reading: X=4730424 Y=7500598 Fig.15. Water Pump Station in Bivolak

Z=561 m

Based on the testimony of Mr. N. Saraçi, during the 80s, for the needs of Ibër-Lepenc hydro-system, water-pumping station was erected at this site and remains of wall construction, mortar and tuff-stone were revealed. However, there is no confirmation for this information. For the time being, the private company-Alferon privatised this station. This site does not belong to the “zone of interest”; however it is not far from it.

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

Site name:”Serbian cemetery of Bivolak’’ Site Location: East part of Bivolak

TCB

Site property: Private Property of: Remzi Klinaku, Zejnullah Klinaku, Lah Klinaku.

Info: Nexhmedin Saraçi

Fig.16. View from the Serbian cemetery in Bivolak

GPS Reading: X = 4730417 Y = 7501028 TCB

Z = 581m

Fig.17. From the upper plateau of the Serbian Cemetery. S-SE from TCB

The village of Bivolak administratively belongs to the Municipality of Vuçitrn (Vushtri), and is situated only few kilometres south-southeast from TCB. The old Serbian cemetery is placed on a raised ground, and in close proximity a field is cultivated with wheat. After a cautious surface inspection, we could not hit upon any hint or any kind of archaeological proof. This site belongs to the “zone of interest”

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


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The Survey team throughout the fieldwork

Fig. 18-23. Sequences of the Archaeological Survey

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Working report

Conclusion Skilled team of Kosovar archaeologists, carried out for twelve days (April 2007), expedition all over the “zone of interest”. The focal aim of this expedition was exploration of all probable existing archaeological sites within the prior selected area. This mission had investigative character and cabinet researches, consultations of various relative publications, unpublished materials, and excavation reports from the nearby sites. Moreover, cadastral maps and aerial pictures (orthophotos) were part of the analyse processes. Survey

methods,

which

involved

pedestrian

walkover-surface

reconnaissance

and

observation of the landscape, were essential for this project. The areas- “zone of interest” that were part of our survey are mainly agriculture-crop growing land and to some extent industrial built-up areas. However, archaeological team with the permission of the landlords, conducted a thoroughgoing examination, particularly on ploughed parcels, while as the soil is turned up from the agriculture machinery, artefacts normally move or rise to the top.

We should take into account that, conducting field survey during the spring is not the most favourable period, while intense vegetation and agriculture cultivated area make it quite difficult to accurately observe the ground soil.

The archaeological surface survey did not reveal any kind of archaeological proof within the “zone of interest”, however, we strongly emphasise the importance of attendance of archaeologists when the building foundations and unearthing processes start by developers. In addition, even though the archaeological survey did not produce any significant information, it does not inevitably mean that the “zone of interest” is archaeologically free. Sometimes, erection of buildings or similar undertaking can by chance uncover and reveal from underneath the ground, fragments and bits of past civilisations. Project coordinator Kemajl Luci

Prepared by the: Museum of Kosova


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of alternative places in Kosovo CTPP INTRODUCTION Kosovo is an entity under interim administration of United Nations. Kosovo and its people have unique, historical, legal and language attributes etc. Kosovo is governed in a democratic manner by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government in Kosovo (executive, judicial and legislative), in conformity with the Constitutional Framework and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999). The applicable legislation in Kosovo: i.

ii. iii. iv.

The regulations promulgated and endorsed by SRSG (Special Representative of Secretary General)-Administrative Instructions for implementation of Regulations; Laws promulgated by the Assembly of Kosovo and announced by the SRSG â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Administrative Instructions for implementation of Regulations; Laws promulgated before 1989; and Laws promulgated after 1989 which are not discriminative.

Ps. because of its undefined status, Kosovo is not signatory of any international convents, tractates or directions (except The Tractate for Creation of Energy Community). How ever in the occasion of drafting of legal and sub-legal acts the same will be incorporated in the drafted acts. Below is a listing and short description of Laws and Administrative Instructions related to, social and environmental issues, that are directly related to the construction and operation of thermal power plant (TPP) Kosovo C. 1. Spatial Planning Law on Spatial Planning No. 2003/14 promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/30 regulates spatial planning over the entire territory of Kosovo (section 1). According to Section 9 there are two levels of spatial planning: planning for the territory of Kosovo and planning for the territory of Municipalities. The section 12 of this Law determines the spatial plans for special areas including: national parks and other areas of natural, economic value etc. Section 17 of this Law regulates the construction of buildings planned only in construction zones that are determined with municipal development plans and construction of building outside of construction zones for the needs of: public and civil defense, protection from fire and technology explosions, water resource management, buildings for research and use of raw mineral materials etc. The Government of Kosovo has issued the Administrative Instruction No. 04/2004 on the Establishment of Spatial Planning Council that provides conditions and sustainable and balanced spatial development of Kosovo, professional and scientific support for spatial planning and other documents. The Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning has issued the Administrative Instruction no. 40 and protocol no. 01/2005 for the conditions


of location, issuance of urban agreement and permission. This instruction determines the conditions of location for construction objects and procedure for issuance of urban permission and agreement. The section 4 of this Administrative Instruction determines the conditions that must be fulfilled for issuance of act on the conditions of location. Based on the section 19 of the Law on Spatial Planning, spatial and development plans shall be subject to public review. Based on Section 19 of this Law, MLSW has issued the Administrative Instruction no. 54/2005 no. of protocol 15/05 “for the procedure of public review of spatial and urban plans”, which regulates the manner and procedure of organization of public review and consultations for spatial and urban project plans and the ways for the participation in the procedures 2. Expropriation and Illegal occupation of property The expropriation in Kosovo is regulated by the Law on Expropriation. The Law foresees procedures, including herein legal remedies for protection of individuals of unequal interferences, regarding the property rights, as required by the Section 1, Protocol 1 of the European Convention for Human Rights (ECHR), which was incorporated in the legislation of Kosovo-Constitutional Framework, UNMIK Regulation 2001/09. The Law on Expropriation requires that the four (4) following levels should be respected by the governmental authorities, in particular municipalities: i. –Preparatory work – prior to the presentation of proposal for determination of public interest or expropriation, government –municipality shall conduct preparatory work, in order to determine, whether the land is appropriate for development. The permission for such work is ensured through the presentation of proposal to the municipal organ, competent for property legal issues. If the land is assesses appropriate, the municipal competent organ shall issue permission, including the deadline for completion. Moreover payment for compensation is required; ii. –Determination of public interest – following the fulfillment of preparatory work, and prior to the proposal for expropriation, a decision or “determination of public interest” should be issued, to determine whether plans for properties are of public interest, or no. The immovable property can be expropriated, if necessary, for construction of economic buildings, health municipal buildings, and others buildings of public interest. The public interest is usually determined by the urban plan. In absence of plan, the Municipal Assembly brings the decision on this; iii. –Decision on expropriation– the proposal for expropriation shall be submitted to the competent organ –Municipal Assembly if considered to be of public interest, and if the preparatory works shows that the land is convenient for development. This proposal should be submitted for approval within two (2) years following the determination of public interest, for issuance and approval of decision for expropriation. The competent organ for legal and property issues, should consult party that is the property right holder, before the issuance of decision; iv. –Decision for compensation – Law on Expropriation determines the amount of compensation that should be paid for expropriation of immovable land. The proposal for


expropriation should demonstrate the availability of means for compensation. Upon agreement of parties, the compensation can be set by giving property rights on the immovable property. In case of non agreement for compensation, the decision shall be taken by the Municipal Court, competent for this issue. Law on Expropriation and other applicable legislation can offer mechanisms to regulate the situations when the decision interferes illegally, in the property right of individuals, until the endorsement of Law on Expropriation. The issuance of new Law on Expropriations and public interest is stipulated as an obligation also in EPAP, priority 35, action 1, item (e). v. Illegal occupation of property a. Based on the Section 2 of the UNMIK Regulation No. 2006/10 On the Resolution of Claims Relating to Private Immovable Property, including Agricultural and Commercial Property, the Kosovo Property Agency is responsible for solution of property request related to immovable private property when the owner is not able to exercise its property rights. According to this Regulation the procedure applied before the Kosovo Property Agency does not impinge the supreme power of courts in charge to decide for judicial procedures related to the respect of the right of private property. b. Based on the UNMIK Regulation No. 2002/12 on the Establishment of the Kosovo Trust Agency, KTA administers and manages the social property in Kosovo, while for abrogation of the decisions of this institution according to Regulation 2002/13 on the establishment of special chamber of the Kosovo Supreme Court related to KTA; courts are in charge to decide. c. Based on the UNMIK Regulation No. 2000/45 on the Self-government of Municipalities in Kosovo Section 2, municipalities of Kosovo manages over municipal public property and have the right to exercise legal remedies in judicial organs if occupied in a legal manner. Priority 23, action 8, 9.14 of EPAP demands the implementation of above-mentioned acts and the deadline for fulfillment. 3. Environmental protection, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental permits and transmission line a. Law on Environmental Protection adopted by the Assembly of Kosovo and promulgated by the SRSG no. 2003/09 was drafted for the purpose of establishing a basic legal framework that will provide for an increasingly healthy environment through the gradual introduction of the environment standards of the European Union, ensure that the creation of such an environmental is accomplished in a manner that is affordable and consistent with sustainable economic development. This law identifies the public authorities (Assembly, Government, Ministry and Municipalities), in charge for implementation, administration and provision of protection of environment, through issuance of other documents. Based on Law on Environmental Protection No. 2003/09, article 6, the Government shall develop a Kosovo Environmental Protection Strategy, published in July 2004. Kosovo Environmental Protection Strategy determines the main priorities for the next ten years, including: a. Completion of legislation for environmental protection, in harmony with existing conditions of Kosovo, gradual fulfillment of EU standards and efficient


implementation of existing ones b. Construction of competent capable institutions, with sufficient human capacities and instruments for implementation of environmental policies, including decision-making, monitoring, inspection and inspective institutions; c. Provision of sufficient finance means and economic efficient instruments (establishment of Ecofund), for protection of the environment, in harmony with economic development; d. Creation and functioning of monitoring network, at the country level, by giving priority to the biggest subjects of industrial pollution and ‘hot spots’ in Kosovo; e. Use and rational utilization of natural resources: land, water, minerals, forests etc by being careful in use of dangerous ones, and orientation towards regenerated resources f. Application of concept of energetic efficiency in all sections of energy use, etc. The Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006-1010 was drafted based on the Law on Environmental Protection, article 7 and Kosovo environmental strategy. This plan is based on the principles of partnership and division of responsibilities, deriving from laws and international agreements. The full implementation of this plan shall help Kosovo in the EU integration process. The Government of Kosovo has issued the Administrative Instruction No. 02/2004 ”On Establishment of Inspectorate of Environmental Protection” for the purpose of implementation of legal provisions for environmental protection. The Inspectorate for environmental protection in exercise of its duties is obligated to respect the principles of neutrality, objectivity, independence, professional rationality. Organization of inspectorate, responsibilities, punishment measures, economic violations and offenses are determined in AI 02/2004. According to the Administrative Instruction 2004/09 of MESP “on the Cadastre of the Emission for Environmental Polluters” (Section 2), the sources of emissions to the on environment are special and collective. The special sources of emissions to the environment are energetically equipments and industrial stability energy production facilities and industrial facilities. The collective resources of the emissions to the environment are a group of emissions which as separated, cause relatively small emission to the environment. With this Administrative Instruction will be determined the obligatory contents, methodology and the leading manner of the cadastre of emissions to the environment, the manner and the terms of data collection and delivery, given of the authorization to the legal entities for carrying out the works for the leading of the cadastre of emissions to the environment and the punishment provisions for implementation Forms and instruction on their completion is part of section 15. b. Law on Air Protection promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation no. 2004/48 was drafted in conformity with directives appointed by EU. The Law characterizes the main sources of pollution, settles indicators and basic obligations for air protection. The Chapter IV of this Law determines the general obligations for air protection. The section 10.1 says that all natural, legal, local and international individuals shall keep the air clean and hence are obliged to monitor emissions, minimize polluting emissions and unpleasant smells, not to exceed limited values for emission. The section 11, point 1 of this law determines the main obligations of operators using static pollution sources. According to Chapter V, the limited areas with high air pollution level, shall be proclaimed by the Government as areas that require special air protection.


According to the section 16, all operators that discharge pollutants are obliged to publish their data regarding air pollution and to submit periodically full information to the MESP. Chapter XI section 28 of the Law on Air Protection determines the sanctions against air polluters. This law lacks Administrative Instructions which enables its implementation, by considering the obligations deriving from a number of directives for air, including directive 98/70EC, decision of EU 2000/159/EC and directive 96/62EC on the air quality. The draft Administrative Instruction on the rules and standards of emissions into the air from stationary sources of pollution upon the decision of Kosovo Government No. 07/248 dated 02.05.2007 was returned for supplementation and amendment. This Instruction aims that subjects dealing with activities causing pollution and those dealing with the protection of environment, respectively air and pollution in the territory of Kosovo, should enter to the procedure for proper realization of legal obligations. The scope of this project instruction is determination of norms/emission limits for emissions into the air from the immovable sources and obligations of operators. The Tractate for Creation of Energy Community The European Community and some southeastern European states, including Kosovo have signed the Treaty establishing the Energy Community. For Kosovo because of the international administration this tractate was signed by the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG). The parties of this tractate shall create an energy community. Chapter III- Acquit for environment, section 12 determines that each contracting party shall implement acquit communitarian on environment in conformity with deadlines for implementation of these measures that are foreseen in Annex II, point 3. Each contracting party shall implement the Directive 2001/32/EC on large combustion plants by 31 December 2017-22 c. Kosovo Water Law No.2004/21 promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2004/41, The Water Law regulates issues relating to the management, planning, protection and institutional responsibilities in regard to water and Water Resources. The management of Water Resources is the responsibility (in accordance with the section 10 and 18 of this law) of: Government; the Water Council of Kosovo, MESP, water basin regional authorities and municipalities. According to article 56 of this Law and article 7 of the Administrative Instruction no. 63, protocol no. 24/05 â&#x20AC;&#x153;On Content, Form, Conditions and the Method of Issuance and Retaining of Water Permitâ&#x20AC;? issued by the MESP, the competent bodies for issuance of water permit are: MESP, river basin regional authority and municipality. According to estimations of Kosovo Environmental Plan 2006-2010, the superficial and underground waters are not protected from pollution, as well as the determined sanitary zones are not respected. As regards to the quality of urban polluted waters, there is no monitoring of waters emitted from the system of municipal canalization. Amongst the main polluters of superficial and underground waters is industry. Environmental Impact Assessment Based on the Law on Environmental Protection promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/09 section 20, the enterprises or public authorities who plan to construct one


industrial object, of processing, great work or project, which has potential to cause environmental damage, before construction of these objects should make an Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The government of Kosovo in conformity with section 20 paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 has issued the Administrative Instruction 9/2004 for Evaluation of Environmental Impact and Administrative Instruction no. 3/2004 for licensing of persons and enterprises for drafting of report for EIA. The AI 9/2004 determines the procedures for identification, evaluation, reporting and management of environmental impacts of one proposed project, from the projects listed in annexes I and II attached to this AI. The annex I of this AI determines the activities that are subject to the full process of EIA: produce and processing of metals; industry of minerals; extracting industry, energy production, chemical industry; infrastructure of transport, transmission lines etc. Environmental Permit Based on the Law on Environmental Protection promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/09 section 22.1, 22.2, 22.3 during the decision for issuance of environmental agreement or environmental permit, MESP should ensure and consider in complete manner all relevant environmental information. The issuance of environmental permits for constructions is made by the Kosovo Agency for Protection of Environmental Protection, established according to section 39, point 1 of the Law on Environmental Protection promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/9. The exercise of responsibilities is determined with this Law and the Administrative Instruction no. 25 and protocol no. 22/03, issued by MESP. Issuance of permits for activities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ecological permits is done in conformity with section 22, point 1, 2 and 3 of the Law on Environmental Protection, promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/09, and in conformity with Administrative Instruction for issuance of ecological permits no. 565 and protocol no. 26/05, signed by the Minister of MESP. The ecological permit is issued by the MESP, based on the Section 3 of AI for issuance of ecological permits, issued by MESP, following the implementation of measures for protection of environment, according to project for EEI and conditions deriving from the decision of issuance of environmental agreement. Based on the section 6 of AI, the investor should submit request that contains: name and address of investor; place and location of project and type of activity. Apart from the request for ecological permit, the investor shall present also other data required in section 7 and 8 of AI for issuance of ecological permits. The transmission line of electricity The Law on Electricity promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2004/22, chapter 4 determines the transmission of electricity done by the operator who based on the Law on the Energy Regulator promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation No. 2004/20, Section 15.2, and Item (d) has received the permission. Based on the Section 32.1 of the Law on the Energy Regulator, only one license will be issued in the entire Kosovo for the network operator for energy transmission. A section 32.3 operator who receives the license for electricity transmission cannot receive license for produce, distribution, supplying of electricity or produce of electricity.


Priority 64, Action 2 of EPAP demands the implementation of Administrative Instruction on the Evaluation of the Impact to Environment, priority 65, action 1 obliges the approval of action environmental plan in conformity with UE acquit, priority 65, and action 4 demands the setting up the monitoring of water. 4. Health Protection at work, safety at work, health and work environment are ensured with the Law on Occupational Safety, Health and the Working Environment No. 2003/19, promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/33. The objective of the Law on Occupational Safety, Health and the Working Environment is to prevent occupational injuries and diseases at the workplace and to protect the working environment. Based on the Law on Health no. 2004/4 promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2004/31 health care shall be implemented in the primary, secondary and tertiary level based on the basic principles of health care determined in section 12. The Law for Sanitary Inspectorate announced with Regulation 2003/39 section 3 obliges the sanitary inspection of Kosovo for implementation of law and provisions whereby the protection of population health is protected. The Kosovo health strategy 2005-2015, aim 16, aims the development of healthier physic environment, organizations of researches for health environment. Priority 16 of EPAP obliges the Ministry of Health to undertake actions leading to the full implementation of above-mentioned legal acts and obligations to issue the supplementing acts. 5. Transports The transport impacts on the general quality of environment in Kosovo, especially in urban environments by polluting the air, waters and land. According to section 4.1 and 5.1, 5.2 of the Law on Roads announced with Regulation 2003/24, the main and regional roads fall under the management of municipalities. This law based on the section 21, whoever makes use of a Public Road, must take all reasonable measures in order to avoid injury of any person using the Public Road, damage of any personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s property while using the Public Road and damage of any road. The Transport of Dangerous Goods in Kosovo is done in conformity with Law on Transport of Dangerous Goods, promulgated with the Regulation no. 2004/17 and other acts. Based on the section 14 the license shall be issued by MTTC to operator of transport of dangerous goods, in conformity with law. The Section 15 determines criteria for insurance of permission. Moreover, the Administrative Instruction No. 2005/07 of MTTC determines criteria and procedures for issuance, suspension and revocation of licenses for operators which exercise the activity of road transport of dangerous goods. Priority 68 of EPAP has 12 actions that are obliging the Ministry of Transport and Post Telecommunication to undertake actions leading towards the full implementation of above-mentioned legal acts and obligations to issue supplementing acts. 6. Cultural heritage â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The protection of cultural and archeological heritage is ensured with the Law on Cultural Heritage no. 02/L-88 promulgated with the Regulation no. 2006/22, according to section


1 of this law, the object of this law are values of cultural heritage created during centuries. Law creates also the responsibility of private persons and public institutions in relation to preservation, protection, public access etc. Based on the section 4.4 the Council of Kosovo prepares the list of cultural heritage signed by Minister. This list is open to public and institutions. The section 4.22 determines the possibilities of expropriation of cultural heritage, in accordance with applicable legislation for expropriation. Archeological heritage- belongs to the type of cultural heritage and is consisted of immovable and movable objects. Based on the section 7.6 of Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage promulgated with UNMIK Regulation No. 2006/52 for construction of one object, during constructing works, in case of any archeological discovery the investor immediately shall inform the competent institution, who has right to stop the work and undertake assessing study and archeological save. The constructing works can restart following the issuance of written permission from the competent institution determined with the Administrative Instruction that is not yet issued according to this law. Based on the section 12 of the Law on Spatial Planning promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/30, the cultural and archeological heritage is part of special zones. Based on the Action Plan for European Partnership, the action 32, point 2 obliges the Ministry of Culture in the first trimester to issue sub-legal acts for implementation of law on cultural heritage, while in the second trimester according to this plan, the Ministry of Culture is obliged to enforce the administrative structures to ensure the implementation of cultural heritage. 7. Natural values The Law on Nature Conservation promulgated with UNMIK Regulation No.2006/22, stipulates the system for the conservation of nature throughout the territory of Kosovo. The nature values stipulated in accordance with this law are in the interest of Kosovo and enjoy special protection. Section 11 of this law foresees that the environmental consent will be issued if the proposed project does not negatively impact upon the natural characteristics of the landscape or its important species or habitat types. The negative impact according to paragraph 2 occurs if a proposed project may cause: Negative impact to one or more of important species or to important habitat types, or If it is expected to cause a major irregularity in the functioning of the ecosystem in relations or reciprocal actions between vegetable and animal types and their natural factors, biotic or a biotic (geologic, climatic, land, superficial and underground waters etc). Law foresees also cases when the proposed project, even if has negative impacts can be allowed if considered necessary by having into consideration the public interest including the reasons of economic and social nature, such as in the following cases: a) the competent authority shall take appropriate steps to avoid, in such areas, the deterioration of natural habitats and the habitats of species as well as disturbance of the species for which the areas have been designated, in so far as such disturbances could be in relation of the objectives of this law;


b) any proposed project likely to have a significant effect on the management of the site, either individually or in combination with other projects shall be subject to appropriate assessment of its impacts and the competent authority all agree to the c) if, in spite of a negative assessment of the implications for the site, a proposed project must nevertheless be carried out for imperative reasons of overriding public interest, including those of a social or economic nature, the competent authority shall require that all compensatory measures necessary are taken to ensure the overall coherence of the ecosystem concerned. Based on the section 33 of Law on Protection of Nature, the Government of Kosovo has issued the Administrative Instruction 04/2006 for form and way of keeping of central registry of zones protected from nature. The management and keeping of registries based on the section 2 is done from the Kosovo institute for protection of nature which acts on behalf of Kosovo Agency for environmental protection. Based on the section 34.3, MESP has issued the Administrative Instruction for the way of marking of zones of protected nature. 8. Other European Partnership Action Plan 2006 for Kosovo determines in a structures and integrated way how should be priorities of European partnership treated and fields on which institution of Kosovo should undertake specific actions to fulfill the priorities of European Partnership. Attachment Note: attached to this description for these covered fields find also normative acts, including laws and other acts used on the occasion of preparation of this document. 1. Spatial Planning i. Law on Spatial Planning No. 2003/14 promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/30; ii. Administrative Instruction No. 04/2004 on the Establishment of Spatial Planning Council in acted Government in Kosovo; iii. Administrative Instruction no. 40 and protocol no. 01/2005 for the conditions of location, issuance of urban agreement and permission of MESP; iv. Administrative Instruction no. 54/2005 no. of protocol 15/05 of MESP 2. Expropriation and Ilegal occupation of property i. Law on Expropriation is incanted 1978; ii. European Convention for Human Rights (ECHR); iii. UNMIK Regulation 2001/19; iv. UNMIK Regulation No. 2006/10 On the Resolution of Claims Relating to Private Immovable Property; v. UNMIK Regulation No. 2002/12 on the Establishment of the Kosovo Trust Agency; vi. UNMIK Regulation No. 2000/45 on the Self-government of Municipalities in Kosovo;


vii.

Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006

3. Environmental protection, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental permits and transmission line i. Law on Environmental Protection adopted by the Assembly of Kosovo and promulgated by the SRSG no. 2003/09; ii. Law on Air Protection promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation no. 2004/48 was issued; iii. The Tractate for Creation of Energy Community; iv. Kosovo Water Law No.2004/21 promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2004/41; v. Kosovo Environmental Protection Strategy; vi. The Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006-1010; vii. Administrative Instruction No. 02/2004 â&#x20AC;?On Establishment of Inspectorate of Environmental Protection; viii. Administrative Instruction 2004/09 of MESP; ix. Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006; x. Administrative Instruction no. 3/2004 for licensing of persons and enterprises for drafting of report for EEI is in acted Government in Kosovo; xi. Administrative Instruction no. 25 and protocol no. 22/03, issued by MESP; xii. Administrative Instruction for issuance of ecological permits no. 565 and protocol no. 26/05, signed by the Minister of MESP; xiii. Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006; xiv. Law on Environmental Protection promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/09; xv. Law on the Energy Regulator promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation No. 2004/20. 5. Health i. Law on Occupational Safety, Health and the Working Environment No. 2003/19, promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/33; ii. Law on Health no. 2004/4 promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2004/31; iii. Law for Sanitary Inspectorate announced with Regulation 2003/39; iv. The Kosovo health strategy 2005-2015; v. Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006 6. Transport i. Law on Roads announced with Regulation 2003/24; ii. Law on Transport of Dangerous Goods, promulgated with the Regulation no. 2004/17; iii. Administrative Instruction No. 2005/07 of MTTC; iv. Action Plan for European Partnership â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kosovo 2006; 7. Cultural heritage i. Law on Cultural Heritage no. 02/L-88 promulgated with the Regulation no. 2006/22;


ii. iii.

Law on Spatial Planning promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/30; Action Plan for European Partnership

8. Natural values i. Law on Nature Conservation promulgated with UNMIK Regulation No.2006/22; ii. Government of Kosovo has issued the Administrative Instruction 04/2006; iii. MESP has issued the Administrative Instruction for the way of marking of zones protected from nature no. protocol 01/07 no.78;


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7509000

7510000

7511000

4731000

4731000

4732000

4733000

4734000

7500000

4732000

Additional annual mean Nickel Deposition Future

7499000

4733000

Kosovo Lignite Power Plant Studies

4734000

7498000

4730000 4729000 4728000

4729000

7498000

4721000

4722000

4723000

4724000

4725000

4726000

4727000

4728000

¢

4727000

4 000

4726000

2 000 Meters

4725000

1 000

4724000

0

4723000

1:50 000

4722000

KOSOVAREF01 ETRS89/GRS80 Gauss-Kruger 0.9999 21 degrees 7 500 000 m

4721000

System name: Datum / ellipsoid: Projection: Scale factor: Central meridian: False easting:

4730000

Source of orthoimages: Kosova Cadastral Agency


7501000

7502000

7503000

7504000

7505000

7506000

7507000

7508000

7509000

7510000

7511000

7499000

7500000

7501000

7502000

7503000

7504000

7505000

7506000

7507000

7508000

7509000

7510000

7511000

4731000

4731000

4732000

4733000

4734000

7500000

4732000

Additional annual mean SO2 Concentration Future

7499000

4733000

Kosovo Lignite Power Plant Studies

4734000

7498000

4730000 4729000 4728000

4729000

7498000

4721000

4722000

4723000

4724000

4725000

4726000

4727000

4728000

¢

4727000

4 000

4726000

2 000 Meters

4725000

1 000

4724000

0

4723000

1:50 000

4722000

KOSOVAREF01 ETRS89/GRS80 Gauss-Kruger 0.9999 21 degrees 7 500 000 m

4721000

System name: Datum / ellipsoid: Projection: Scale factor: Central meridian: False easting:

4730000

Source of orthoimages: Kosova Cadastral Agency


November, 2007

European Agency for Reconstruction Contract nr 05KOS01/04/005 Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission – Kosovo UNMIK CONSORTIUM OF PÖYRY, CESI, TERNA AND DECON TASK 4 - SITE SELECTION VOLUME 1 - MAIN REPORT


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Disclaimer While the consortium of PĂśyry, CESI, TERNA and DECON considers that the information and opinions given in this work are sound, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgment when making use of it. The consortium members do not make any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this report and assumes no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of such information. The consortium members will not assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage arising out of the provision of this report. The report contains projections that are based on assumptions that are subject to uncertainties and contingencies. Because of the subjective judgments and inherent uncertainties of projections, and because events frequently do not occur as expected, there can be no assurance that the projections contained herein will be realized and actual results may be different from projected results. Hence the results and projections supplied are not to be regarded as firm predictions of the future, but rather as illustrations of what might happen. Parties are advised to base their actions on an awareness of the range of such projections, and to note that the range necessarily broadens in the latter years of the projections.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The main objective of Task 4 of Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission has been to provide sufficient information for the selection of the preferred location for a new lignite fired thermal power plant (TPP), Kosovo C, with a maximum output of 2 000 MW. This task included a preliminary analysis of the environmental and social impacts for three alternative sites for the TPP Kosovo C. The methodology of Task 4 - Site selection has included data acquisition from different internet and written sources, interviews and discussions, field visits and surveys, map and orthophoto analyses, modelling and expert assessment. For the needs of the assessment the current environmental, population, health and land use situation in the project area and especially at the assessed sites has been mapped as far as feasible. As information in many cases is not very extensive and as it is very scattered the resulting overall picture of the situation includes some uncertainties. The acquired results have been analysed and presented with the objective of comparison of the assessed TPP sites. The Kosovo C TPP concept assessed has been 4 x 500 MW PF (pulverized firing). This concept has been chosen as it causes the maximum potential environmental and social impacts. Certain assumptions about the future situation to be assessed have been made. The following are among these: • • • • •

Kosovo C all four blocks in operation Kosovo C emissions into air compliant with EU regulations, discharged through cooling tower Kosovo B rehabilitated, emissions into air compliant with EU regulations (to be achieved by end of 2017 as required by the Energy Community Treaty) Kosovo A not in operation Ash dumps relocated or covered, ash disposed of in Mirash OPM

During the work it was proposed that the area of the former gasification plant near Kosovo A TPP should be included as one potential site for Kosovo C. At a meeting on the 28.3.2007 EAR and the World Bank decided to include the Kosovo A site in the site selection process in addition to the Kosovo B site, and to let the Consultant decide whether to include Bivolak or Grabovc as the third alternative site. The Consultant decided to include Bivolak as the third potential site in the project, as based on initial studies the Grabovc site was least suited for the planned TPP. The alternative Kosovo C sites assessed in this report are therefore: • • •

Site north of Kosovo B ("Kosovo B site") Site east of Bivolak village ("Bivolak site") Site west of Kosovo A ("Kosovo A site")

The results of the Environmental and Social Assessment of the three selected sites are summarized in Table 1 below, where the essential characteristics and impacts of each site have been described qualitatively in a form which may make the direct comparison easier. Details are presented in the chapters assigned.

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Table 2 is an attempt to quantify these findings. The sites have been given points for the different environmental and social impacts and for some aspects of more technical character potentially affecting site selection. The smaller the point given is, the better the site in question is in this respect. Thus the site with the overall smallest cumulative amount of points is the most suitable site as a whole based on this Site selection study. The findings of the assessment of the current situation regarding health of the population may be interpreted as indications of long term effects of environmental burdens which are specific for the two municipalities Kastriot and Fushe Kosove. Such environmental burdens may be the immission and depositions of PM10 and heavy metals as Ni, As, Cd originating from near ground fly ash sources and exceeding the limit values multifold. Some annotations have to be given for readers who will not study the details of this report. •

Air pollution will, despite the fact that this aspect has been identified as a crucial burden for the environment and people in the project area, not be a relevant aspect for site selection. The current situation is a legacy from the past caused by outdated facilities, mismanagement and disregard of people and the environment. In the future, when this legacy hopefully will have been cleaned up, the new TPP Kosovo C will be in operation and the old TPP Kosovo A will be decommissioned, all airborne pollutants will be far below the health-based limit values.

Sitnica River is the only receiving river of water from the TPP along a river stretch of about 10 km, so this item will be not relevant for site selection. With respect to water quality and surface water only conditions at the sites have been taken into account for site evaluation. The contamination of the river is extremely high with concentrations of heavy metals and suspended solids exceeding the EU and World Banks limit multifold, and a throughout modernisation of mining and energy production techniques according to EU standards is therefore required. As in dry periods the natural water flow of Sitnica River is quite poor, dominated by waste water discharges also from untreated domestic sources and upstream sources, the remaining pollution will still be severe and will require further improvements in order to comply with EU regulations.

Even if the ongoing soil contamination by deposition of fly ash will cease, the contamination accumulated up to today will be a fact for decades as far as no mitigation measures are performed. Mitigation would be feasible (whereas costly) only for areas, where unacceptable risks for other resources and people are caused. This is the case in the vicinity of Kosovo A site as well as Kosovo B site (due to the ash piles). At all other areas concerned, the land use has to be adapted to the (indicated but not yet verified) soil pollution level in compliance with EU standards.

As for the construction of a new TPP at all three sites, due to seismic risks, the soil has to be excavated up to a depth of 8 to 10 m for seating purposes. Therefore the presumed soil contamination at the former gasification plant site (site Kosovo A) could be eliminated with little additional effort.

Items with cultural, historical or archaeological heritage values have not been found at a first investigation stage performed. Generally, such findings will happen by chance during excavation works, so accompanying observations by archaeologists are recommended in the construction phase of the new TPP at the sites Kosovo B and Bivolak.

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The findings concerning health aspects are caused by effects assumed to be associated with heavy metals, above all originating from airborne fly ash. This is also a legacy from the past. Based on the findings these substances are mainly associated with the ash dumps and not as much with specific TPP sites. So, there is no significant influence on site selection. Even if the sources of pollution will be eliminated, elevated incidence rates of some diseases will be a fact for many years, due to the specific duration of latent periods between initiation and evidence.

After exhausting the Sibovc field from lignite, the Southern Field (south of the existing mines) is one of the options to be mined. Assuming that Kosovo C will still be operational at that point it will then probably be impossible or at least very difficult to transport the lignite to the Bivolak site, and again a new site may have to be found in a quite densely habitated and utilized area thus causing new environmental and social conflicts and also costs. Also the transport of the ash to Mirash mine might be problematic.

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Kosovo B

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Bivolak

by mismanagement only

Environmental assessment

Table 1. Site characteristics relevant for site selection.

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Air pollution Surface waters Soil

Ground water

Fauna & flora, habitats

none

Kosovo A

abandoned industrial site, soil contamination with hydrocarbons as well as by airborne deposition of heavy metals to be expected low hydraulic permeability of soil, valuable groundwater reserve probably polluted none

no population on the site, N 200 m to Obilic, S 200 m to Dardhisht

KEK property; abandoned industrial site (former gasification plant and fertilizer plant), TPP Kosovo A, ash dumps, extensive agriculture existing, relocation of active utilities+ clearing of inactive structures required, potential conflicts with infrastructure for Kosovo A before decommissioning level, acceptable impact on landscape

see chap.

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.3

5.4

6.1

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

7

7

7

6.6

6..6

none

no risk

good

no conflicts

6.5

Other issues

safety measures required

difficult

no risk

sufficient water supply available at or near to all sites

none

by mismanagement only

road, Sitnica bridge and transmission line to be constructed crossing the floodplain, transmission lines may need to be relocated slightly hilly, quite exposed, severe impact on landcsape

about 30 - 40 households to be resettled, W 100 m to Beris, 300 m to Bivolak, E 200 - 500 m to Hamidija, scattered farmhouses to be resettled Mainly private property; Sitnica floodplain and oxbows, rich and small-sized structured cultural landscape

Social assessment

oxbow of Sitnica river; water quality very bad, inundation some brooks and ditches with quite good water quality, risk floodplain of Sitnica, partly inundation risk partially abandoned industrial site, not suitable for medium suitability for agriculture, no contamination agriculture due to contamination by airborne deposition of heavy metals high hydraulic permeability of soil, valuable groundwater 15% high hydraulic permeability of soil + valuable reserve, groundwater quality / pollution unknown groundwater reserve, 85% poor permeability of soil + poor groundwater reserve NW oxbow of Sitnica with some biological value, high biodiversity at national level, protected / contaminated by fly ash endangered species, natural biotopes, conflict with EU guidelines + international conventions, protection recommended some temporary Roma people settlements on the site, relocation intended, N 200 m to Plementina, SE 400 m to Obiliq Mainly KEK property; abandoned industrial site and wastelands, extensive agriculture, Kosovo B TPP, switchyard, ash dumps existing, warehouses & office buildings to be relocated

Population on the site / nearby Properties, land cover & land use on the site & nearby Infrastructure & Utilities

fairly level, significant impact on landscape

medium risk, can be avoided by embankments

fair

conflicts easily avoidable

Topography + landscape Cultural, Historical and Archeological values Health effects Safety issues Noise and vibrations Fuel supply from South Field, ash disposal Water availability Flooding risk

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o

1 2 3 4 5

Kosovo A

Environmental restrictions Social restrictions Other restrictions sum

Bivolak

Environmental assessment Air pollution Surface waters on the site Ground water Soil Fauna & flora, habitats Social assessment Properties, resettlement, compensation Infrastructure & Utilities Topography and landscape Cultural, historical and archeological values Health effects Safety issues Noise and vibrations Others Fuel supply from South Field, ash deposition Water supply Flooding risk

Kosovo B

Table 2. Site evaluation.

o

o

o

2 4 2 2

4 3 4 5

1 2 1 1

2 1 3 1

5 5 5 1

1 2 2 1

o

o

o

1

2

1

o

o

o

2

5

1

o

o

o

2

1

1

10 8 4 22

16 18 6 40

5 7 2 14

Ranking not relevant for site selection no restrictions low restrictions medium restrictions high restrictions very high restrictions

Summarising all aspects investigated in this study, the ranking of the three alternative sites is: 1. Most favourable: Kosovo A site 2. Acceptable: Kosovo B site 3. Not acceptable: Bivolak site

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Table of contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................................................3 1

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................10 1.1 1.2

2

EXISTING AND PLANNED ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE .......................................................................12 2.1 2.2

3

GENERAL METHODOLOGY ..............................................................................................................................23 ASSESSED FUTURE SITUATION ........................................................................................................................23 CONTACTS, MEETINGS AND RESULTING CHANGES IN PROJECT ORIENTATION .................................................23 SITES ASSESSED ..............................................................................................................................................25 SITE EVALUATION CRITERIA ...........................................................................................................................28

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS .......................................................................................31 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

6

NATURAL RESOURCES AND INFRASTRUCTURE DEMANDS ...............................................................................17 ENCROACHMENT ON AND EMISSIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT .........................................................................19

GENERAL METHODOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES .........................................................................................23 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

5

EXISTING ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE .............................................................................................................12 PLANNED DEVELOPMENT................................................................................................................................15

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEW TPP "KOSOVO C".............................................................................17 3.1 3.2

4

OBJECTIVE......................................................................................................................................................10 TERMS OF REFERENCE ....................................................................................................................................10

AIR QUALITY ..................................................................................................................................................31 SURFACE WATERS...........................................................................................................................................36 SOIL AND GROUNDWATER ..............................................................................................................................44 FAUNA, FLORA AND BIOTOPES ........................................................................................................................49

ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL IMPACTS ............................................................................................................56 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

PROPERTIES, RESETTLEMENT AND COMPENSATION ........................................................................................56 INFRASTRUCTURE AND UTILITIES ...................................................................................................................59 LANDSCAPE ....................................................................................................................................................61 HISTORICAL, CULTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL VALUES ..............................................................................62 HEALTH IMPACTS ...........................................................................................................................................63 OTHER ASPECTS..............................................................................................................................................72

7

OTHER FACTORS POTENTIALLY INFLUENCING SITE SELECTION .................................................74

8

ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF SITE ALTERNATIVES......................................................................76

9

POLICY, LEGAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK .....................................................................82

10

ANNEXES..............................................................................................................................................................85 ANNEX 1 - DRAWINGS AND MAPS ............................................................................................................................... 86 ANNEX 3 - REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................88 ANNEX 4 - TASK 4 REPORT PREPARERS—INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS ............................................................90 ANNEX 5 - PHOTOLOG ................................................................................................................................................91

List of Figures: FIGURE 2-1. COUNTRY MAP WITH ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION NETWORK . .....................................................................13 FIGURE 2-2 LOCATION OF FACILITIES AND SITES IN QUESTION ..........................................................................................14 FIGURE 2-3. APPROXIMATE ALIGNMENT OF NEW CONVEYOR BELTS FROM ASH DUMPS TO MIRASH OPEN MINE ................16 FIGURE 3-1. SCHEMATIC MAP OF IBER LEPENC IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. ..............................................................................18 FIGURE 3-2. THE MAIN TIE-UPS OF A LIGNITE FIRED POWER PLANT. ..................................................................................20 FIGURE 4-1. KOSOVO B SITE PRELIMINARY LAYOUT. ........................................................................................................26 FIGURE 4-2. BIVOLAK SITE PRELIMINARY LAYOUT............................................................................................................27 FIGURE 4-3. KOSOVO A SITE PRELIMINARY LAYOUT. ........................................................................................................28 FIGURE 5-1. MONITORING SITES OF INKOS. .....................................................................................................................38 FIGURE 5-2. SOIL MAP. ......................................................................................................................................................45

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FIGURE 5-3 MAJOR NATURAL FEATURES, BIODIVERSITY AND PROTECTED AREAS OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA (UNEP). THE LOCATION OF THE PROJECT AREA IS MARKED WITH AN ARROW................................................................................50 FIGURE 5-4 VALUABLE NATURAL OBJECTS IN THE AREA. KOSOVO C SITES MARKED WITH BLACK....................................51 FIGURE 6-1. TEMPORARY SETTLEMENTS OF ROMA PEOPLE AT THE KOSOVO B SITE ACCORDING TO PRELIMINARY LAYOUT WITH BUFFER ZONE. .................................................................................................................................................57 FIGURE 6-2. HOUSEHOLDS TO BE RESETTLED (RED DOTS) AT THE BIVOLAK SITE ACCORDING TO PRELIMINARY LAYOUT WITH BUFFER ZONE. .................................................................................................................................................58 FIGURE 6-3. HOUSEHOLDS TO BE RESETTLED (RED DOTS) AT THE KOSOVO A SITE ACCORDING TO PRELIMINARY LAYOUT WITH BUFFER ZONE. NO HOUSEHOLDS NEED TO BE RESETTLED................................................................................59 FIGURE 6-4 ZONE OF INTEREST IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY. ..................................................................................63

List of Tables: TABLE 2-1. CHARACTERISTICS DATA OF GENERATION PLANTS IN KOSOVO.......................................................................12 TABLE 2-2. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION - YEARS 2000 –2006. ...........................................................................................12 TABLE 3-1 REQUIRED MAIN CHEMICALS AND THEIR AMOUNTS (ONE BLOCK - 500 MW)...................................................19 TABLE 5-1. POWER PRODUCTION AND RELATED EMISSIONS (CURRENT AND FUTURE). ......................................................33 TABLE 5-2. HEAVY METALS IN FLY ASH FROM KOSOVO B. ...............................................................................................34 TABLE 5-3. COMPARISON OF CALCULATED IMMISSION MAXIMA. ......................................................................................35 TABLE 5-4. LIMIT VALUES FOR WATER..............................................................................................................................39 TABLE 5-5. WASTEWATER FROM MINES. ...........................................................................................................................40 TABLE 5-6. WASTE WATER FROM KOSOVO A FACILITIES (2001).......................................................................................40 TABLE 5-7. LEACHING ABILITY OF HEAVY METALS AND SALTS. ........................................................................................41 TABLE 5-8. QUALITY OF DRAINAGE WATER / UNDERGROUND WATER NEAR KOSOVO B ASH TIP. ......................................41 TABLE 5-9. WATER POLLUTION OF SITNICA RIVER 2005...................................................................................................42 TABLE 5-10. WATER QUALITY OF SITNICA RIVER 05.03.2003...........................................................................................43 TABLE 5-11. RESULTS FROM SOIL ANALYSES WITH EVALUATION......................................................................................47 TABLE 5-12. REFERENCE VALUES FOR SOIL.......................................................................................................................48 TABLE 5-13. ANALYSES OF HEAVY METALS IN PARSLEY EXPOSED TO FLY ASH DEPOSITION .........................................48 TABLE 5-14 OBSERVED OR POTENTIAL VERTEBRATE FAUNA.............................................................................................52 TABLE 5-15. BIOTOPE VALUE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE THREE SITES. .................................................................54 TABLE 6-1. VISITS IN HOSPITALS / 1000 INHABITANTS PER YEAR. .....................................................................................67 TABLE 6-2. PERCENTAGE OF VISIT RATES IN HOSPITALS (AVERAGE OF ALL RURAL MUNCIPALITIES =100%)...................68 TABLE 6-3. VISIT RATES IN HOSPITALS IN KASTRIOT & FUSHE KOSOVE VS. ALL OTHER RURAL MUNICIPALITIES. ............69 TABLE 6-4. RANKING OF RURALE MUNICIPALITIES BY VISIT RATES IN HOSPITALS.............................................................71 TABLE 8-1. SITE CHARACTERISTICS RELEVANT FOR SITE SELECTION.................................................................................78 TABLE 8-2. SITE EVALUATION...........................................................................................................................................80

Abbreviations and acronyms: CFB CO2 DH EAR EU FGD GWh ha IBA KEK kV MEM MESP MW OPM PF PM10 TJ TOR TPP UCTE UNMIK WB WHO

circulating fluidized bed carbon dioxide district heating European Agency of Reconstruction European Union flue gas desulphurisation gigawatthours hectares internationally important bird areas Korporata Energjetike e Kosoves kilovolt Ministry of Energy and Mining Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning megawatts open pit mine pulverized firing An air pollutant consisting of small particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometer terajoule terms of reference thermal power plant Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission for Electricity United Nations Mission In Kosovo World Bank World Health Organisation

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INTRODUCTION

1.1

Objective

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The main objective of Task 4 of Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission has been to provide sufficient information for the selection of the preferred location for a new lignite fired thermal power plant (TPP), Kosovo C, with a maximum output of 2 000 MW. This task included a preliminary analysis of the environmental and social impacts for three alternative sites for the TPP Kosovo C. 1.2

Terms of reference Task 4: Site selection Sub-task 4.1 Environmental/ social impact assessment The Pre-Feasibility Study identified and made a preliminary analysis of four potential sites, Kosovo B (site 1), Bivolak (site 2), Grabovc (site 3), and Palaj (site 4). The Palaj site was rejected on the grounds of serious toxic contamination. For the other three sites examined the pre-feasibility study concluded that the most favourable site was Kosovo B, with one important proviso, relating to the fly ash dump. The ash dump at Kosovo B contains around 15 million tons of ash, of which at least half would have to be removed to accommodate the lignite yard with sufficient stocks for 15 days of operation. The viability of this site is dependent on the assumption by the Government of the liability for potential environmental pollution caused by the existing operations. The consultant should base the site review on these three sites, but initial discussions should be held with the authorities and key decision makers concerning the assumption of liability for the Kosovo B site, since if no such liability can or will be assumed by the Government for this site, then the site can be eliminated from further consideration. On this basis, and based upon the mine site assessment already undertaken (Sibovc mining development plan) and the potential power plant sites referred to above from the pre-feasibility study, the consultant should undertake the following: A. Conduct a preliminary analysis of the environmental and social impact for each of the three sites considered in the pre-feasibility study for the new power plant (Kosovo B, Bivolak, and Grabovc). Such a preliminary analysis will provide input to the project design in terms of acceptable emission levels in accordance with EU Directives (as required in the Energy Community Treaty) and shall include as minimum the following: 1. Survey of applicable law, guidelines and requirements (both Kosovo and EU); 2. The implications of the plant on air, noise, water, land as well as biological environment and habitat; 3. All relevant emissions of the plant (stack emission, vibration, noise, effluent, solid residues) and a comparison with Kosovo, EU and World Bank standards; 4. The annual CO2 emissions released by the plant; 5. Adequate space to install suitable carbon capture facility in future when such technology is proven to be technically and economically feasible 6. Required stack (or cooling tower) height.

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B. The preliminary social impact assessment analysis shall include: 1. Assessment of resettlement; 2. Projection of anticipated socio-economic and health impacts due to the project and related activities including traffic congestion and delineation of measures to minimise adverse impacts; and 3. Assessment of impact on historical, cultural and archaeological sites/places in the area. C. Analyse soil and geological conditions, site reconnaissance (check for hazardous substances/dumps). D. Analyse fuel supply quality, quantity and supply risks from existing lignite mines and the new Sibovc lignite mine and fuel storage (lignite yard, fuel oil and fuel handling facilities) corresponding to the fuel requirements with development, and fuel storage. E. Assess water supply for the new power plant (quantity and quality); ash utilisation possibilities/disposal area, flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) residues, utilisation possibilities/disposal area, access to 400 kV transmission system; traffic conditions including transport of large plant and equipment, and climatic conditions. F. Based on the findings above update information on the sites identified in the prefeasibility study for the power plant and complete the information needed for the Kosovo institutions to make decision on the site selection for developing the new power plant and its interconnection point to the transmission grid. The outputs of this sub-task should be a sub-task report setting out the findings of the sub-task relating to site selection and the environmental assessment. The consultant should be prepared to present and discuss the results of the sub-task to stakeholders at a workshop (which the consultants should organise) if required. Sub-task 4.2 Preparation of drawings/diagrams: The consultants should prepare the following drawings/diagrams: A. Topographical overview of the region around the site with infrastructure; b) the site itself showing the overall layout with existing infrastructure with emphasis on all common systems and interconnections; c) plot plan of the development stages d) layout of the new unit all buildings, structures, facilities, buried pipes and cable ducts, channels, roads, rail tracks and high voltage lines; B. site geology; C. general layout of the unit (two unit sizes) with 2 longitudinal and 2 sectional drawings; D. general arrangement of coal storage yard and ash handling system; E. Map showing the site and the closest 400 kV transmission line/substation;

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EXISTING AND PLANNED ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

2.1

Existing energy infrastructure

2.1.1

Power production and transmission

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Power plants The electric system of Kosovo is primarily supplied by two thermal power plants using lignite obtained from nearby mines: TPP Kosovo A with an installed capacity of 800 MW and TPP Kosovo B with 678 MW. Kosovo A units were commissioned 1962-1975, and Kosovo B units in 1983-1984. Besides these TPP's there are small hydraulic power plants with a total installed capacity of 37,2 MW. So the total installed capacity is 1 515 MW, as reported in Table 2-1. During the period 1990 – 1999, the power plants have been exploited without any maintenance and overhauls so the effective production capacity, reported in Table 2-2, is much lower. Electricity production is referring to the period 2000 - 2006, but at present the statistics and load data regarding year 2006 are not complete. Table 2-1. Characteristics data of generation plants in Kosovo.

Table 2-2. Electricity production - Years 2000 –2006.

During the period 2000-2006, the production of electric energy has increased from 1 914 GWh to almost 4 000 GWh in 2005, while the total energy available for consumption taking into account the Import/Export balance, was 4 259 GWh in 2005, with an increase of 1 390 GWh compared to 2000. Export and import energy values show a consistent increase from to the year 2005; the import of energy has reached 3 610 GWh in 2005 and export energy 3 351 GWh. In 2000 these amounts were respectively 1 723 GWh and 767 GWh. Transmission and distribution network The total length of transmission lines (400, 220 and 110 kV) is 1 162 km. During the conflict the transmission network, especially the 400 kV portion, was partially destroyed. Most of the transmission lines are now back in operation following recent repairs, while substations are still in bad technical condition. European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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The 400 kV and 220 kV transmission networks of Kosovo (UNMIK) is an integral part of the regional interconnected transmission system. The UNMIK is part of the 2nd UCTE (Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission for Electricity) synchronous zone. (Pöyry et. al. 2007a)

Figure 2-1. Country map with Electrical Transmission Network (source: Korporata Energjetike e Kosoves (KEK); http://www.seenergy.org/index.php?/countries&stat=8&type=3&col=2125).

2.1.2

District heating At present, district heating (DH) systems exist only in Prishtina, Gjakova and Mitrovica. Currently they provide only about 5 % of the heat demand in Kosovo. The district heat sources are mostly Mazut fired with some using light fuel oil.

2.1.3

Mining Lignite is of outstanding importance to electricity generation in Kosovo. It contributes to 97 % of the total electricity generation. Considering all the potential sources for power generation in Kosovo, coal safely maintains its leading position. (http://www.seenergy.org/index.php?/countries&stat=8&type=3&col=2117) Lignite is today mined in Mirash and Bardh open-cast lignite mines, established in the 1950's, and located close to another in Kastriot/Obiliq. The old underground lignite mines in the area were closed as the open-cast mines were operational. Today, the coal mine in Mirash covers an active working surface area of around 6,7 km2. Bardh open-cast coal mine covers a surface area of about 3,5 km2 (Vattenfall Europe Mining AG & Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH 2005b).

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Sitnica

Kosovo B TPP Ash Dump

Chemical Separation Facility

Kosovo B TPP

Kosovo A TPP

Obiliq Palaj

KOSOVO A TPP

Hade

Kosovo A TPP Ash Dump

Mirash OPM

West Overburden Dump

Lismir

Kuzmin South Overburden Dump

Figure 2-2 Location of facilities and sites in question (KEK 2006)

The mines Mirash and Bardh provide the coal supply for Power Plants A and B. Coal reserves are/were as follows (Source: KEK, in http://www.euinkosovo.org/upload/Fact%20Sheet%20on%20Energy%20March%202 007.pdf):

2.1.4

1990: 10 million tons of coal ready for exploitation in both mines and ca 150 million tons of reserves.

1999: under 400 000 tons of coal ready for exploitation in both Mines, ca 80 million tons coal reserves.

2006: ca 1,7 million tons of coal ready for exploitation in both Mines, while ca 30 million tons coal reserves.

Ash disposal The ash from the burning of lignite in Kosovo A and B thermal power plants has until recent years been disposed of in large ash dumps in the vicinity of the TPP's. The ash from Kosovo A is still disposed of in the ash dump SE of the TPP, ca 4 km from the centre of Kastriot/Obiliq (see Figure 2-2). Disposal of ash at the site has been taking place since the Kosovo A TPP opened in 1962. The resulting ash heaps are now substantial structures which dominate the local skyline, and which have been structured in a largely ad hoc manner, resulting in the creation of hills with peaked crests and overstep external slopes. They are currently largely devoid of vegetation and represent a considerable threat to the environment and public health. Occupying in total an area in excess of 140 ha, the collective dry ash disposal heaps of the Kosovo A ash dump are in parts in excess of 40 m thick, and are largely constructed on highly compressible soil formations. Currently little reliable information is available on the true extent and actual geotechnical parameters of the individual materials comprising the dump and its foundations (KEK 2006).

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The ash dump of Kosovo B TPP is situated immediately NW of the power plant, to the west bordered by the River Sitnica (see Figure 2-2). The originally intended maximum height of the Kosovo B ash dump was 15 meters, but today the height of the landfill is at least 30 - 40 meters. The landfill occupies an area of approximately 55 - 60 ha. The amount of deposited ash is estimated at some 16 million m3. KEK has in the years 2005-2006 implemented a project stopping Kosovo B ash disposal at the Kosovo B open ash dump and redirecting ash transport (as slurry) to a dedicated section in the eastern part of the Mirash mine prepared for this purpose. The system works with 1:1 ash to water ratio and the experience in the system is relatively good although some erosion problems have occurred in the steel parts at the sending end. The two 3,5 km long transport lines are made of PVC. 2.2

Planned development

2.2.1

Kosovo A and B TPP's Plans exist to rehabilitate units 3, 4 and 5 of Kosovo A TPP so that it can continue operation until 2014-2015, when the first units of Kosovo C are estimated to be commissioned.

2.2.2

Mining The production of the Mirash and Bardh mines will only ensure supply for KEK’s power plants until 2009. The projected rate of consumption, lignite production begins to drop by end 2009 – beginning 2010 and it should be compensated by Sibovc SW mine. Full capacity will be reached 2012 (STEAG 2006). Developing the Sibovc mine is a top priority. The field has a surface of 19,7 km2, geological reserves of lignite of 990 million tons out of which 830 million tons are exploitable. The new power plant is based on the exploitation of lignite reserves in the Sibovc field, which would ensure a lifetime supply with coal for the new power plant (40 years). (http://www.euinkosovo.org/upload/Fact%20Sheet%20on%20Energy%20March%202 007.pdf)

2.2.3

The Energy Sector Clean-up and Land Reclamation Project The Clean-up Project aims to support Kosovo Energy Corporation j.s.c. (KEK j.s.c.) and the Kosovar authorities to address environmental legacy issues related to open dumping of ashes on land, enable KEK j.s.c. to free land for community development purposes currently taken by overburden material and to enable KEK j.s.c. to remove Kosovo A ash dump (http://www.ks-gov.net/mem/pdf/PMU%20-%20directorfinal.pdf). The project consists of the following components: 1. Preparation of Mirash Open Pit Mine for Ash Management; 2. Relocation of Kosovo A Ash Dump into Mirash Open Pit Mine; 3. Adaptation of ash disposal system of Kosovo A TPP for direct discharge into Mirash OPM; 4. Reshaping and grading of South and West Overburden dumps (circa 9 km2)

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5. Removal of phenols and other hazardous materials stored at the chemical separation facility (circa 15 000 m3) (added on advice from the World Bank after the submission of the prefeasibility study). The expected key results of this project component can be summarized as follows: 1. removal of ash as ongoing pollution source of air, surface water, adjacent land and groundwater 2. mitigation of geotechnical instabilities of the associated overburden dump 3. additional information gained on co-deposited phenol and other contaminants 4. access to ground and groundwater contaminations below ash dump 5. availability of land for commercial / industrial purposes (this would be possible with some residual contamination levels) 6. freeing the D-Field for future Lignite mining development The preliminary implementation schedule suggests the project can be finished in 5 - 7 years time from commencement.

Explanation of numbers: 1 ASF A excavation site, 2: ash handover from Kosovo A TPP, 3: ASF B Excavation site, 4: Mirash OPM deposition area Figure 2-3. Approximate alignment of new conveyor belts from ash dumps to Mirash open mine (KEK 2006).

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3

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEW TPP "KOSOVO C"

3.1

Natural resources and infrastructure demands

3.1.1

Fuels

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One 500 MW unit requires about 550 t lignite per hour when the average LHV of 8,2 MJ/kg lignite is burnt. The total amount lignite required for the fully built out Kosovo C TPP will be about 2 100 - 2 300 t/h. The lignite fuel from the Sibovc mine is transported by a belt conveyor system. This system calls for a relatively short distance from the mine. The transport distance preferably should be less than five kilometres but in any case it should not exceed ten kilometres. It will need an unobstructed corridor from the mine to the power plant. A belt conveyor of 1,5 - 2 metres wide would be able to transport the fuel volume required by the plant. The belt conveyor can easily cross any public road or railroad occurring on its route. The heavy fuel oil to be used as starting and backup fuel will be transported by train or by tank trucks. The oil will be stored in storage tanks equipped with a sealed containment basin of sufficient size. The oil offloading locations will be equipped with containment structures preventing leaks and releases into the environment. 3.1.2

Water The power plant will need raw water 1 364 m3/h per 500 MW, i.e. the fully built 2 000 MW plant would consume about 5 500 m3/h (1,5 - 1,6 m3/s), which amounts to 42 900 000 m3/a. Most of the water, approximately 90 %, would go to the evaporative cooling tower. All the water received needs pre-treatment (softening and filtration) before it is used at the plant. The water is coming to the Pristine area trough separate systems: The city of Pristine receives its water from the Rivers Batllava and Lap. Those rivers also feed Kosovo A power plant 1 - 2 m3/s from the pumping station in Brukovc village 4 km to the northeast of the plant. There is also the possibility to complement the water supply by 3,3 m3/s from Iber-Lepenc multipurpose (irrigation and industrial use) system built in the 1970's. It originates from Lake Gazivode in the north-western corner of Kosovo. Partly the lake is beyond the border. The lake has a storage capacity of 350 million cubic metres. The water is coming trough a 50 km long channel system. Mostly it is made of open concrete lined channels and partly in conduits crossing valleys etc. The water supply system is operated by Ibër-Lepenc, a public enterprise created for the task. No major new water channel construction is required as the channel passes by the Bivolak site and ends at the Kosovo B site. For a supply of Kosovo C near Kosovo A, either this system has to be lengthened (there are already blank gates at the station feeding Kosovo B), or the actual supply source for Kosova A TPP can be used. During preparation of the pre-feasibility study for Kosovo C in 2005 the water department of MESP (Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning) assured that there is water available from the Gazivode lake and new power generation will have priority in allocating those water resources.

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Originally the water supply system for Kosovo B plant has been designed for 21 000 m3/h (5,8 m3/s). Currently the plant uses around 1 500 m3/h (0,4 m3/s). At the Kosovo A site the current water usage could be transferred to Kosovo C as the plan is to close down the old power plant. The used water volume is almost sufficient for the new much larger capacity plant due to its better overall efficiency.

Figure 3-1. Schematic map of Iber Lepenc irrigation systems.

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The raw water quality is said to be relatively stable due to large storage capacity. As the channels are open heavy rains may cause occasional disturbances in its quality. There has been some doubts in public whether Kosovo C is the correct user of the limited Kosovar water resources as it would use some 10 % of the annual water volume available from the Gazivode Lake. Therefore some additional investigation on application of a dry cooling system is being done. A dry cooling tower (air cooling), would reduce the total amount of water required down to 10 - 15 % of the above. 3.1.3

Limestone In case of applying pulverized firing concept in the new steam boilers they will most probably need a separate flue gas desulphurisation plant. That will consume some limestone. Tentatively its volume will be very low if compared with the fuel requirements. The daily consumption is around 300 tons and that will be transported to the site by trucks. The limestone is sourced from local mines in the south.

3.1.4

Chemicals The required chemicals, their purpose and amounts for one TPP block (500 MW) are listed in Table 3-1. The total amounts for fully built out Kosovo C will be four times the amounts in Table 3-1. Table 3-1. Required main chemicals and their amounts (one block - 500 MW). 665 80 60 6,1 20

kg/s

kg/s l/s

Chemicals for water treatment Flocculation and softening Aluminium sulphate HCL

g/m

Demineralization HCL NaOH Total consumption per 500 MW block Aluminium sulphate HCL NaOH

3.2

Encroachment on and emissions to the environment

3.2.1

Area requirement

3.2.1.1

Kosovo C TPP

3

kg/h

t/a

40 120

54,6 145,2

420,1 1118,0

127 75

3,2 1,9

24,4 14,4

420,1 1142,5 14,4

The TPP itself including CO2-capture facility will require an area of about 50 ha. This area can also accommodate the auxiliary functions like offices, water treatment, oil storage yard, (limestone shed) and maintenance shop for heavy items e.g. crushers and pulverizer wheels. The lignite supply will need an intermediate storage yard between the mine and the boilers although the normal operation is directly from the mine to the boiler bunkers. That storage can either be directly attached to the plant or located along the transportation route. The recommended storage capacity is for 14 days i.e. 750 000 tons. If the lignite yard will be placed by the TPP the total required area for the TPP and the lignite yard will be about 75 ha. European Agency for Reconstruction PĂśyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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3.2.1.2

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Required infrastructure Additionally the lignite conveyor belts, access roads, transmission lines, ash conveyors and ash disposal areas will require space. It is assumed the ash will be disposed of in the old open-cast mines. The main tie-ups of a lignite fired power plant are illustrated in Figure 3-2. The figures and amounts are for a single 500 MW block.

Electrical power 500 MW Power plant 3

400 kV

Water 1360 m /h 500 MW unit 3

(Limestone 3 t/h)

Waste water 330 m/h

Lignite fuel 550 t/h

Ash 85 t/h

Other minor flows:

Heavy/light fuel oil Caustic Hydrochloric acid (Ammonia)

Figure 3-2. The main tie-ups of a lignite fired power plant.

Transmission lines Kosovo C will be connected to the grid in different ways depending on the unit size solution and site to be chosen. Connections will be required to the main 400 kV switchyard of Kosovo close to the Kosovo B power plant, and to existing 220 kV and/or 400 kV transmission lines. Road access A power plant needs good road access as heavy transports arrive especially during its construction phase or during operation transports leaving/arriving for/from repairs. The heaviest pieces are typically generators, step-up transformers and steam drums. They can weigh up to 500 tons. Railroad can also be used for heavy transports if the track can easily be built up to the site (Electrowatt-Ekono Oy 2006a). 3.2.2

Emissions into the atmosphere

3.2.2.1

Emission requirements The new thermal power plant, TPP, will fully comply with the EU Large Combustion Plant Directive (EU Council Directive 2001/80/EC), rules. That will mean the following emission levels from the beginning of the operation: •

Sulphur dioxide, SO2 - 200 mg/nm3

Nitrogen oxides, NOx - 200 mg/nm3

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Particulates - 30 mg/nm3

Regarding to the combustion products and the required emission levels into the atmosphere it appears that the CFB-combustion can meet the SO2- and NOx-emission limits straight from the combustion chamber without any additional flue gas cleaning measures. In this particular case as the lignite contains a substantial amount of limestone, CaSO4 and the sulphur content of the fuel is low (Ca/S mole ratio >5) it can be expected that the sulphur dioxide emission will be extremely low i.e. a tenth of the allowable emission limit of 200 mg/nm3. PF is able to meet the nitrogen dioxide emission by low-NOx-burners as the moisture in lignite maintains the temperatures sufficiently low in the furnace. However, PF would need separate flue gas treatment for reducing sulphur dioxide emissions to the required level as discussed below. Both combustion systems will need particulate removal to meet the allowable dust concentration in the exhaust. (Pöyry et al. 2007b) 3.2.2.2

CO2 emissions Based on the lignite sample analyses the CO2 emission factor is 100 tons CO2/TJ fuel. If the plant efficiency is estimated at 42 % and the amount of fuel consumed is estimated at 129 000 TJ fuel/a for 15 TWh/a electricity, the CO2 emission is 12,9 million tons/a for a fully built out plant (2 000 MW).

3.2.2.3

Flue gas discharge –stack vs. cooling tower The last large coal/lignite fired new units have been using cooling tower to discharge the flue gases. Combined with the moist air (water vapour is less dense than dry air) the hot flue gases form a huge single warm air mass and goes upwards more than the hot flue gases would do from the stack. The polluting fractions are especially in case of an evaporative cooling tower the plume of the flue gases is mixed with moist air of the tower. The combined uplifting effect doubles the effective stack height and thus lowers significantly the pollutant levels at ground level around the plant. In the case of dry cooling towers the lifting effect is similarly sufficient. In case of pulverized firing there will be with a high probability wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plant discharging saturated flue gases at 60-70 °C. With this arrangement there is no need for reheating of those flue gases to eliminate visible plume from the stack and to keep the stack walls dry. The elimination of the cooling/reheating heat exchangers lowers the cost of the FGD plant and reduces the need of auxiliary power demand. The introduction of the flue gases into the cooling tower does not change the main dimensions of the tower as the flue gas flow is just a minor fraction of the cooling air flow. The tower upper internal surface may have a special coating against the flue gases. The concept lowers the total cost of the plant as the separate stack with its heavy foundations can be completely eliminated.

3.2.3

Waste waters Approximately 20 % of the plant water consumption has to be dumped as waste water. Most of it comes from the purge of the cooling towers or washing water of the sand

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filters at the initial purification of the water. That stream can be used to moisturize ash if required. The waste water amount to be used for ash moisturising or to be drained to the river Sitnica after treatment is about 328 m3/h per 500 MW block, i.e. 1312 m3/h for the fully built-out Kosovo C TPP (2 000 MW). In case of applying the similar ash disposal system as Kosovo B currently employs 80-100 m3/h of this effluent water per 500 MW block can be mixed with ash. It will considerably reduce the effluent to be purified. The waste water stream to be drained to Sitnica shall be neutralized / purified as required to comply with among others World Bank guidelines for effluents (World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998). Rain water to be drained from sealed surfaces has to be collected separately and treated in an oil separation facility. 3.2.4

Wastes

3.2.4.1

Ash and FGD residues One 500 MW unit produces about 85 t/h of ash and the fully completed 2 000 MW plant would produce about 340 t/h of ash. Mostly it is in the form of fine fly ash and the rest is slag/bottom ash depending on the firing concept (PF/CFB). That ash has to be dumped. Preferably the place should be in the mine. There will be approximately 100 millions tons of ash to be dumped during the life of the new plant. The ash produced would likely be classified as hazardous waste (due to the high content on heavy metals) in the EU and its disposal is strictly controlled. Especially old fashioned hydraulic transportation systems are prohibited. Water can be used only to an extent to get the ash solidify or reduce its dusting during its transportation. It is assumed that the ash has to be dumped to a special disposal area separately from the overburden. The disposal area bottom has to be sealed to prevent ash contaminated alkaline waters seep into the surrounding soils. Stabilisation of the ash may be required. The ash and residues shall be handled and disposed of in a sustainable way according to the Kosovarian legislation and EU regulations (especially EU Directive 99/31/EC on landfill of waste). A dry transport could be either a belt conveyor or truck transportation. In case of a hydraulic system only systems having ash/water ratio below 1 can be considered (Electrowatt-Ekono Oy 2006a).

3.2.4.2

Other wastes A large number of different non-hazardous and hazardous wastes are generated at a TPP. Waste storage facilities for hazardous and non-hazardous wastes will be constructed at the TPP. The wastes shall be handled and disposed of in a sustainable way according to the Kosova legislation and EU regulations (especially EU Directives 2006/12/EC on waste, and 99/31/EC on landfill of waste).

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GENERAL METHODOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES

4.1

General methodology

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The methodology of Task 4 - Site selection has included data acquisition from different internet and written sources, interviews and discussions, field visits and surveys, map and orthophoto analyses, modelling and expert assessment. For the needs of the assessment the current environmental, population, health and land use situation in the project area and especially at the assessed sites has been mapped as far as feasible. As information in many cases is not very extensive and as it is very scattered the resulting overall picture of the situation includes some uncertainties. The acquired results have been analysed and presented with the objective of comparison of the assessed TPP sites. The Kosovo C TPP concept assessed has been 4 x 500 MW PF (pulverized firing). This concept has been chosen as it causes the maximum potential environmental and social impacts. All items in the TOR for Task 4 (see chapter 1.2) have been covered. 4.2

Assessed future situation Based on existing studies and plans the assumptions made for the assessed future situation are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • •

4.3

Kosovo C all four blocks in operation Kosovo C emissions into air compliant with EU regulations, discharged through cooling tower Kosovo B rehabilitated, emissions into air compliant with EU regulations (to be achieved by end of 2017 as required by the Energy Community Treaty) Kosovo B ash dump relocated to Mirash mine or covered (in site alternative Kosovo B the ash dump has to be relocated) Kosovo A not in operation Kosovo A ash dump relocated to Mirash mine Kosovo B and C ash disposed of in the Mirash mine by conveyor belt or preferably pipeline Kosovo B and C waste water discharge compliant with WB guidelines Drainage water from new Sibovc mine treated before being discharged to river Old Mirash and Bardh mines drainage waters treated before being discharged to Drenica and Sitnica rivers until recultivation is completed Kosovo A site soil pollution remedied

Contacts, meetings and resulting changes in project orientation The following people and organisations have been contacted during the work:

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Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Task 4 - Site selection Volume 1 –Main report Institution Cadastral Agency Cadastral Agency EAR EAR EU ICMM ICMM ICMM INKOS INKOS INKOS INKOS INKOS INKOS INKOS INKOS Institute for Occupational Medicine KEK KEK KEK KEK KEK KEK KFOR KFOR MAFRD MCYS MEM MEM MEM MEM MESP MESP MESP MESP MESP, Inst. for Hydrometeorology MESP, Inst. for Hydrometeorology MESP, Inst. of Nature Protection MESP, Inst.of Nature Protection MESP, Institute for Planification MESP, Soil Institute Peja MESP, Soil Institute Peja MESP, Soil Institute Peja MESP, Water Department Munipality Obilic Munipality Obilic Munipality Obilic Munipality Obilic Munipality Obilic Munipality Obilic Muzeum of Kosova N.SH AGROVET N.SH AGROVET National Inst. of Public Health National Inst. of Public Health National Inst. of Public Health National Inst. of Public Health SST Aachen University University, Fac. of Biology University, Fac. of Biology Vattenfall Europe WHO World Bank

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November, 2007 Page 24 (104) Name Mentor Xhemajli Ramadan Sejdiu Agron Orana Ian Brown Miltiades Economides Azem Rexhai Nikolai Burcham Rrahim Kelmendi Avdi Konjuha Beçir Xhema Ferdeze Farizi Kemajl Pula Luljeta Kastrati Minivere Idrizi Nystret Abdullahu Raif Bytyqi Xhevat Pllana Baschkim Gjurgjeala Behxhet Shala Minivere Idrizi Nezir Sinani Shefqet Avdiu Trandelina Cakaj Dr. Schardt Lt. General Roland Kather Jemin Gjuraj Ms. Burbuqe Bakija-Deva Agron Dida Ethem Çeku Lorik Haxhiu Vehbi Duraku Ahmet Ahmeti Besim Dobruna Nezakete Hakaj Tomor Cela Afrim Syla Prof. Syle Tahirsylaj Sabit Restelica Ylber Sherifi Luan Nushi Bardh Begolli Dugagjn Zeka Fadil Musa Violeta Hoxha Ajshe Graiqevci-Berisha Hakimi Mjekiqi Hasie Dushi Kemajl Hashani Nazif Shala Shaip Mehmeti Kemajl Luzi Muhamet Zogaj Prof. Xhevdet Elezi Dr. Burbuqe Nushi-Latifi Ms. Prof. Selvete Krasniqi Nexhat Krasniqi Prof. Dr. Naser Ramadani Michael Feiss Prof. Sabri Limari Prof. Fadil Millaku Prof. Fetije Zhushi Peter Laux Ms. Gerry McWeeney Frank van Woerden

Position Head of Marketing Department Head of Finance & Administration Energy Senior Task Manager Head of Energy Sector EC Liason Officer Deputy Director Member of Governing Board Archive Officer Geologist Director Water Air Recultivation President of the Board INKOS Chemist Director Kosovo B Analysis Group Envir. Manager

Director TPP Kosovo B Executiv Director - Corporate Service Medical Officer Commander KFOR Agriculture Statistical Officer Head of Cultural Heritage Div. Dep. Minister MEM Minister Director Mining Dep. GIS Chief Industrial Pollution Senior Executive Assistent GIS Chief Unit Air&Soil Quality Director Director Chief of Section Director

Director Director Head of UrbanisticSector Director Cadastre & Geodesi Head of Planication & Development Dir. Planning, Devel. & Reconstr. Head of Env. Prot.Sector GIS Archaeologist Pedologist Director Deputy of Director Dep.Director, Departm. of Human Ecology Director Mining Expert Adviser MEM Minister

Project Manager, Mining Expert Health Environmental Progr. Manager Sen. Env. Spec., Env. Sector Unit


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During the work it was proposed that the area of the former gasification plant near Kosovo A TPP should be included as one potential site for Kosovo C. At a meeting on the 28.3.2007 EAR and the World Bank decided to include the Kosovo A site in the site selection process in addition to the Kosovo B site, and to let the Consultant decide whether to include Bivolak or Grabovc as the third alternative site. After considering the implications of the project on the areas involved, and the limitations set for the project by these areas, the Consultant decided to include Bivolak as the third potential site in the project, as the Grabovc was not very well suited for the planned TPP due to among others difficult topographic conditions, extensive resettlement requirements and high ecological value and sensitivity of the Drenica valley. 4.4

Sites assessed

4.4.1

Kosovo B site There is free space to the north of the existing power plant reserved for future blocks as plans to locate 2 100 MW generating capacity to the site have existed since the 1980's. The site topography is flat. The site is just outside of the lignite seam ((Vattenfall Europe Mining AG & Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH 2005a). The foundation conditions are reasonable. The existing plant structures (350 MW units) are sitting on a reinforced concrete slab of 3,5 metres thick immersed at 7 metres depth. The site is bordered by the Sitnica river in the west. There is a risk of flooding along the river banks. In February-March 2006 the heavy rainfall associated with melting snow in the mountains raised the level of the river by 2,9 meters in 24 hours. The lignite yard and lignite handling facilities were submerged and the plant operations had to be stopped. To the west of this free area there is a huge fly ash dump of approximately 15 million tons. The ash dump occupies an area of 50 - 60 hectares (600 x 1000 m). The ash dump is no longer utilized for ash disposal as the ash is now taken to the Mirash mine through a new double pipeline. The ash dump, or at least a part of it have to be relocated if Kosovo C including the lignite yard is going to fit there. The 400 kV switchyard receives all the cross border 400 kV lines and it is located less than a kilometre to NE from the site. There is a double conveyor belt system feeding the existing B1 and B2 units from the mines. The water supply channel to the plant has been designed for 21 000 m3/h and only 1 500 - 2 000 m3/h is currently used by the plant. The delivery limit between IbĂŤrLepenc and KEK is on the western side of the Sitnica river about 1 km from the plant. There is a screening and metering plant at the supply point and the water flows to the plant by gravity. The operation at this site makes it possible to have many joint auxiliary functions with Kosovo B units if considered advantageous and acceptable for both parties.

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Figure 4-1. Kosovo B site preliminary layout.

4.4.2

Bivolak site The area outside of the north-eastern corner of the Sibovc field is a slightly undulating hilly agricultural area. The area is fairly densely populated, and the village Bivolak is located close to the site. Some 15 % of the site is in the Sitnica floodplain, the rest on the top of the lignite seam. The seam thickness is less than 10 meters, and the overburden thickness is less than 10 meters as well (Vattenfall Europe Mining AG & Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH 2005a). The site of the existing Kosovo B TPP is similar, and the foundation systems could be similar as there. More extensive site preparation and excavations would, however, be required as the height difference between the floodplain and the hill top is about 25 to 30 m. The water supply is close as the bifurcation station of Ibër-Lepenc (Feronikel and Kosovo B) is located at the site. The area needs a new two lane access road and the Sitnica river and river plain have to be crossed with a good bridge. The estimated length of the access road is 5 - 6 km from Milosevo.

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There are 400 kV transmission lines crossing the area. The distance to the 400 kV Kosovo B substation is approximately 3 km.

Figure 4-2. Bivolak site preliminary layout.

4.4.3

Kosovo A site The Kosovo a site is located just to the west from the existing Kosovo A TPP. There are old currently abandoned fertilizer, gasification and heating plant facilities. That area can be used after dismantling the existing structures for the new power plant. The site topography is flat. The site is just outside of the lignite seam ((Vattenfall Europe Mining AG & Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH 2005a). The foundation systems could be similar as for the existing TPP's. The site is recognised as a probable source of extensive phenol contamination in the river Sitnica and needs to be rehabilitated (UNEP/OCHA Assessment Mission 2003). No exact figures on the extent of the soil and river pollution exist. There is a double conveyor belt system feeding the existing Kosovo A from the Mirash mine. The site is bordered to the west by a railroad to Kastriot/Obiliq. Road access is good.

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The 400 kV switchyard at Kosovo B receives all the cross border 400 kV lines and it is located some 2 kilometres from the site. At the site in its eastern side there are 110 and 220 kV switchyards. For water supply either the Iber-Lepenc channel system has to be lengthened or the actual supply source for Kosova A TPP can be used. Currently the Kosovo A TPP receives its water from a pump house located some 4 km to NE in Brukovc village. There are 3 x 600 l/s and one 300 l/s pumps. The pipeline can transfer more than 2 m3/s water to the plant. The operation at this site makes it possible to have many joint auxiliary functions with Kosovo A units if considered advantageous and acceptable for both parties.

Figure 4-3. Kosovo A site preliminary layout.

4.5

Site evaluation criteria The following aspects have been assessed for the three TPP sites based on criteria listed. Additionally an initial screening of potential conflicts with the listed aspects resulting from construction and operation of the required infrastructure and connections, such as the transmission lines and access roads, has been carried out although the exact locations and routes of these connections have not been defined.

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Some other aspects that are not mentioned below were checked, such as air traffic security zones, potential conflicts to spatial planning, restricted areas (e.g. military areas) etc. 4.5.1

Environmental aspects Air quality • •

Immission and deposition of airborne pollutants (measured and calculated) Sensible receptors for these pollutants as people and soils

Surface waters • •

Water flow and water quality of surface waters in respect to their function in the ecosystem and as recipient of wastewater Water pollution sources and patterns

Soil and groundwater • •

Soil properties such as suitability for agriculture, permeability and buffer capacity in respect to groundwater enrichment and groundwater contamination risk Pollution of soil and groundwater

Fauna, flora and biotopes • • • • • • 4.5.2

Biodiversity magnitude Degree of hemeroby (natural state) Occurrence of valuable biotopes Confirmed or potential occurrence of species protected in the EU / threatened species Area importance on a regional and national scale Risk of negative impacts on significant values in the surrounding area

Social aspects Properties, resettlement and compensation • • •

Occurrence and magnitude of residential buildings/properties to be resettled and compensated Occurrence and magnitude of agricultural land to be compensated Number of private citizens owning properties to be compensated

Infrastructure and utilities • • •

Existing infrastructure at the site conflicting with the project Existing infrastructure at the site to be removed Required infrastructure and connections, distance to connecting points, potential conflicts along routes

Landscape • •

Magnitude of change to current overall current landscape Suitability of power plant in the landscape

Historical, cultural and archaeological sites and values

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Occurrence of and potential conflicts with historical, cultural or archaeological values

Health impacts • •

Incidence rates for diseases associated to environmental factors Potential sources for these diseases

Safety issues • •

Occurrence of population centres along transport routes, risk of occurrence of potential conflicts Occurrence and number of settlements in the immediate vicinity, distance to these settlements

Noise •

Distance to nearest settlements, risk of occurrence of potential conflicts with guideline values

Vibration •

Distance to nearest settlements, risk for occurrence of vibration during transports and operation of TPP

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5

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

5.1

Air quality

5.1.1

Methodology and data basis

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In the assessment of the environmental impact of existing and future energy production infrastructure, the use of a suitable air pollution dispersion model is indispensable. The dispersion calculations for gases and dusts were performed using the Lagrange particle model LASAT (Lagrange-Simulation of Aerosol-Transport). This model calculates the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere on a local and a regional scale. Emitted particles (gases) are followed on their way through the atmosphere. The particles are following the mean wind flow, turbulence and an additional flow. With the additional flow the sedimentation and deposition can be computed. The model contains a boundary layer model for flat areas and a diagnostic wind-field-model, which simulates the impact of uneven areas on the wind-fields. Emission sources can be defined as point-, line, area-, or volume-sources. The plume rise is includes in the model and comprises the aerodynamic plume rise and the plume rise due to buoyancy. Therefore also the discharge of exhaust gases via cooling towers can be simulated. The model can be adjusted to site specific conditions by adjusting surface parameters (surface roughness) and terrain characteristics. The impact of buildings like cooling towers on the air flow pattern und dispersion is simulated with a meteorological preprocessor which includes a diagnostic wind-field-model. The chemical transformation for NO oxidation to NO2 is taken into account to evaluate the actual NO2-concentrations in the ambient air. In this study the initial fraction of NO in the emission is assumed to be 90 % of the volumic rate of the NOxemission. NO conversion is approximated via empirical relation from NO-lifetime measurements. For the determination of pollutant concentrations the assessment area is covered with a three-dimensional enumeration grid, where the particles are moving. Residence time and amount of particles give the concentration within the grid volume. The data requirements for this model are 1. allocation of emission sources 2. emission rates and emission conditions 3. meteorological and topographical dispersion conditions In this project, the calculation was restricted to the emission sources TPP stacks, the existing ash transportation and tipping facilities and the existing ash dumps. Other sources as mining areas, industrial / commercial facilities, traffic, domestic heating and power generation, soil erosion etc. are not included. Therefore, our calculations will present only one group of emissions sources, and the results are to interpret as additional immission to the rest of all other immission from natural and man-made sources. The allocation of sources was done on the basis of available plans and, above all, the most actual orthophotos (2004) from the Cadastral Agency of Kosovo. European Agency for Reconstruction PĂśyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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Emission rates and conditions for the TPP had been compiled from former studies, data from KEK and own expertise. Emission conditions concerning the ash handling, transportation and dumping facilities as well as the ash piles had been communicated by M. Feiss (personal communication), whereas the emission rates had been calculated on the basis of German technical guidelines. Due to the emission rates and the noxiousness of the substances emitted, SO2, NO2, PM10 and heavy metals (the latter as fraction of PM10 have been included in the calculation). In the frame of the Prefeasibility Study (Electrowatt-Ekono Oy 2006) the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) had already performed a dispersion calculation for TPP Kosovo B. The meteorological data used in the calculation was extracted from the archives of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast. The data covering the years 1996 - 1998 were interpolated from the available observations of synoptic weather stations located nearest to the plant site. These data are basically very meagre (8 wind directions, 3 years period only). Extensive investigations brought about a much better statistic (16 wind directions, 20 years period) as hardcopy (Rudarski Institut / INKOS 1990), but as in ”private property” not available for the project. Further investigations at INKOS had no success. So the data from FMI have been used for the calculations. Due to weakness of the meteorological data, only the mean annual immission and depositions were calculated. The terrain in the project area has only minor topographical fluctuations, so the terrain unevenness must not be taken into account. More detail on the data basis and the methodology are presented in Annex 2. Generally, available immission measurements could be used to validate computed immission values. In the project area, there are indeed 3 measurement stations, operated by INKOS (on the site of Kosovo B, at INKOS site about 1 km E of Kosovo A site and in Dardhisht). Following the findings of other studies and own investigations, the available results from these measurements are not convincing in respect to their reliability (questionable representativity of measurement spots, conditions and methods, serious doubts concerning accurate calibration, unprofessional evaluation and representation of results etc.); e.g., the EU-Directive 1999/30/EC states, that measuring station have to provide data on area where the highest concentrations occur resp. which stations are representative of the exposure of the general population. Measured pollutants are SO2, NO2, dust immission and deposition, and smoke/smut/unburned particles. PM10 and heavy metals are not measured. Measurements presented in available reports generally relate to 2005 or earlier. Meanwhile at least one notable improvement of the emission situation of ground near sources has taken place - the burning of lignite in the mines by self-ignition (due to operation faults) has been reduced to an irrelevant minimum. Carl Bro (2003) names about 3 Mt to be burnt every year. Even if the amount of burning may be overestimated, the continuous burning of some thousand tons of lignite under reduced oxygen presence at ground level will cause a tremendous air pollution with at lot of half- and unburned hydrocarbons causing a major load to the environment. Just recently mining consultants reported, that at the southern rim of Bardh mine an area of at least about 700 m x 70 m, i.e. about 5 hectares, is burning (personal communication, May 2007). This area is part of a enormous sliding with a volume of about 30 Million m³ and is not accessible due to geotechnical instabilities of the slided masses. Up to now, no serious measures have been implemented to stabilize these masses (first cost estimates indicate some 40 Million €) and to extinguish these fires. European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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Therefore a comparison between measured and calculated immission will be questionable due to the changed situation. 5.1.2

Results and recommendations Calculations have been performed for the following emission situations: 1. actual/current situation with operation of Kosovo A and B TPP's, fly ash emissions from the ash dumps as well as the facilities for ash handling, transportation and tipping 2. actual/current operation of Kosovo A and B TPP's without fly ash sources 3. future situation with maximum operation of Kosovo B and C (4 blocks) TPP's Calculations have been conducted for the emissions of SO2, NOx, total dust and PM10 as well the heavy metals nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) as the most important substances in the fly ash due to their content and the limit value for humans along the inhalation pattern. Table 5-1 gives an overview of the current and future emissions and emission factors used, Table 5-2 gives the contents of selected heavy metals in the emitted fly ash. Compared with the current situation, 1. the NOx and the fly ash emissions from Kosovo B will drop to 40 % resp. to 36 %, due to refurbishment measures 2. the total emissions from the power plants of SO2 will increase by 38 % whereas the emissions of NOx, total dust, PM10 and heavy metals will drop to 64 % (NOx), 13 % (total dust), 19 % (PM10 and heavy metals), despite a 3fold higher power production.

3 770 5 278 844 12 6

15 600 17 160 2 808 16 16

1000 t/a 1000 t/a g/MWh 1000 t/a

14 305 5,10 5,7

3,3

1,2

2,2

5,6

0,88 1,3

0,32 0,54

0,14 1,0

0,86 1,7

Emission factors A B current B future Dust mg/m³ 1000/700 150 30 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) mg/m³ 300 400 400 Nitrogen oxides (NOx) mg/m³

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700

500

500

C 30 200 200

Future / actual

3 770 5 278 844 12 15

Future (B+C)

Kosovo C

2 786 4 758 761 8 20

Current (A+B)

Kos. B future

MWh 1000 t/a 1000 t/a 1000 t/a 1000 t/a

Ash tips (assessed)

Kos. B current

power produced fuel burned ash content of burned fuel SO2 emitted NOx emitted fly ash emitted dry fly ash deposited fly ash emission per MWh fly ash PM10

Kosovo A

Table 5-1. Power production and related emissions (current and future).

6 556 10 036 1 606 20 35

19 370 22 438 3 652 28 22

295 % 224 % 227 % 138 % 64 %

18 305 6,0 7,0

3

19 % 0% 7,6% 21 %

0,5 1,5

Assumptions for future Kos. A dismantled Kos. B refurbished Fly ash wet dumped & sealed in the old mines


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Table 5-2. Heavy metals in fly ash from Kosovo B.

Element As Cd Co Cr Ni Sources

mg/kg 31 0,5 17 160 190

Limit values Immission Deposition ug/m³ ug/m²*d 0,006 4* 0,005 2* 0,02 0,017 ** 0,02 15 *

EU-Guideline 2004/107EG * Section 4.3 Technical Instruction of air Quality ** LAI 2004 Target Value for cancerogenic air pollutants

Table 5-3 gives an overview to the resulting immission maxima for SO2, NOx, PM10 and Ni as well as the depositions of total dust and Ni according to the three emission situations described above. The main issues are: 1. Looking for the maxima of the immission and deposition caused by the stack emissions of all TPP, currently and in the future, all values are below 10 % of the limit values. The maxima are situated about 8 km SSW from Kosovo B site and about 800 to 1000 m north of Bardh. This is, despite the current high emission levels, due to the height of the emission sources (stacks) and the intense plume raise because of the high thermal capacity of the emitted flue gas. 2. In accordance with German Technical Instructions in Air Quality an addition of max. 3 % of the annual limit value for protection of human health as a result of the pollution from an installation can be classified as irrelevant. The immission and deposition of PM10 and heavy metals caused by the emissions from the stacks of the power stations B and C in the future situation will not exceed the irrelevance thresholds. 3. The maxima for the current immission and deposition of total dust, PM10 and heavy metals from all sources are situated, as to be expected, on the ash tips. The habitation area with the highest load is situated some 800 m west of Dardhisht. There, the values for total dust and Ni immission are 4,5-fold resp. 1,7 fold higher than the limit values; for the deposition of total dust and Ni, the calculated values are 3,4-fold resp. 15,3-fold higher than the limit values. 4. In this area closest to the ash dumps, more than 98 % of the load on dust and heavy metals is caused by the fly ash handling and tipping methods and the tips, only less than 2 % is caused by the TPP stacks.

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Table 5-3. Comparison of calculated immission maxima. Immission SO2

limit value 3 µg/m 50

NO2 PM10 Ni

40 40 0,02 2

g/m d 0,35

Deposition Dust

2

Deposition Ni

TPP A&B + ash handling 3 % of limit µg/m 2,5 5,0% 3,1 170 * 0,033 *

7,8% 425 % 165 %

3,1 2,6 0,00067

343 %

g/m d 0,004

2

g/m d 1,2 * µg/m d

15

230 *

3,5 0,4 0,000082

1,2%

g/m d < 0,001

2

1,1

* Dardhisht, max. at inhabitated areas

8,8% 1,1% 0,4%

2

< 0,3%

2

µg/m d 1533 %

TPP B&C future ** 3 % of limit µg/m 4,6 9,2%

7,8% 6,5% 3,4%

2

2

µg/m d

TPP A&B ** 3 % of limit µg/m 2,5 5,0%

µg/m d 7,3%

0,0086

0,057%

** max. about 1 km N of Bardh village

More information on the results can be found in Volume 2 of the Task 4 report. Some selected maps showing the spatial patterns of immission and deposition are presented in Annex 2: • • • • • • • • •

Map 1. Additional mean annual PM10 Concentration Current Map 2. Additional mean annual Nickel Concentration Current Map 3. Additional mean annual Nickel Deposition Current Map 4. Additional mean annual SO2 Pollution Current Map 5. Additional mean annual PM10 Concentration Current, without Ash tips Map 6. Additional mean annual PM10 Concentration Future Map 7. Additional mean annual Nickel Concentration Future Map 8. Additional annual mean Nickel Deposition Future Map 9. Additional annual mean SO2 Concentration Future

It should be stressed that all the data presented in these figures resp. maps (as well as in the other figures concerning this item in volume 2) do not include the immission and deposition caused by other emission sources, e.g. also not the ground near diffuse emissions from Kosovo A TPP and lignite handling, which may have a significant contribution the dust immission and deposition in the vicinity of the site. Concerning PM10 (but not the heavy metals), the so-called ”background” pollution in rural areas may be assessed to 15 - 20 µg/m3, or about 40 - 50 % of the limit value. The concentration values for PM10 and nickel exceeding the limit values indicate a health risk for the people concerned. Taking into account that the background concentration for PM10 has to be estimated to be about 20 µg/m³, the area with a calculated PM10 immission of >20 µg/m³ will be affected by more than 40 µg/m³. The inhabitants affected by this pollution might be estimated on the basis of Map 1 of Annex 2 to about 17 000 people in the municipalities of Kastriot/Obiliq and Fushe Kosove. The exposition to nickel (which will not be found in relevant concentration in the ”normal” background PM10) exceeding the limit value (see Map 2 of Annex 2) might be estimated to some 100 inhabitants in Dardhisht. The nickel deposition (Map 3 of Annex 2) will be addressed in chapter 5.3. Map 4 of Annex 2 presents the SO2 concentration with values far below the limit value. Map 5 of Annex 2 presents the current PM10 concentration without the emissions from the ash tips with a maximum of 2,3 µg/m³ (about 6 % of the limit value) near European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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Kuzmin, about 2 km west of Fushe Kosove, caused by the emissions from Kosovo A as the main stack source with unfavourable emission conditions. Map 6 of Annex 2 confirms the fact, that in the future with a refurbished Kosovo B TPP and a fully built out Kosovo C, constructed in compliance with the most modern state of technology, the immission and deposition values will be far below the limit values. It should be stressed that these findings for the future situation are based on the assumption, that not only the facilities for retaining air pollutants are installed, but also operated and maintained in a professional manner due to the best practise and technical regulations as well as the manuals of the manufacturer. In the worst case, the fly ash emissions may increase up to 1 000 mg/m³, i.e. 50-fold the calculated standard emission, and the immission caused by the stacks with the same rate. Recommendations ƒ

Stop disposal of dry fly ash from Kosovo A as soon as possible and install wet deposition facilities for a deposition at Mirash Open Pit Mine (as already in operation at Kosovo B TPP). Following EU regulations (e.g. Directive 91/689/EEC), the fly ash may have to be classified and handled as hazardous waste due to its high content on heavy metals.

ƒ

Remove the ash dumps with priority for the Western Tip of Kosovo A (this activity is already scheduled in the CleanUp project)

ƒ

Install systems for automatical monitoring of fly ash emissions with sealed autorecorders accessible by an international experienced and independent control organisation only. Relevant exceedings of the standard values have to be punished according to World Bank recommendation for the assessment of environmental damages.

ƒ

Install an air pollution monitoring system for the mining and energy production area up to a distance of to 50 times the actual height of the stacks and in which the additional pollutions amount to more than 3,0 percent of the long-term concentration and in accordance with the EU-Directive 1999/30/EC

5.2

Surface waters

5.2.1

Methodology and data basis The main water course in the project area is the Sitnica River, which belongs to the water catchment area of Danube River and receives all drainage and wastewater from the power plants as well as from the ash tips and the mines. Only Bardh mine is dewatering to Drenica River, which joins Sitnica about 6 km south (upstream) from Kosovo A site. The river stretch between Kosovo A TPP and Bivolak TPP sites with a length of about 10 km receives only some minor brooks and ditches, so the relevant contributories in respect to water flow and pollutants will be drainage and wastewater sources mentioned above. For a solid assessment of the water pollution situation, consistent data on water flow resp. discharge and pollution freight from pollution sources as well as of recipient water courses will be mandatory. Generally, monitoring activities are carried out by INKOS only. Monthly results are available for some monitoring sites of the water courses, but data on effluents from power stations and ash tips are sparse and have to

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be collected from different sources. Neither any compilation nor evaluation of these data has been performed. So the available information basis is far from sufficient to determine the true extent of contamination. The main deficits of monitoring activities are: •

Monitoring does not include all necessary parameters, the set of parameters is not consistent

Simultaneous monitoring or at least estimation of water discharge

No regularity of measurements

No representative allocation of sampling sites

No monitoring strategy (orientated on the question “who wants to know what and why?”) is recognizable.

Despite of multiple efforts we didn’t succeed to get a map or coordinates of the monitoring sites from INKOS. The scheme delivered by INKOS and presented below (Fig. 5-1) will be far from reality and not on the current general level of cartography. For example, Drenica influx to Sitnica has to be located near Vragoli upstream from Gracanka River; the ash tip of Kosovo B is located directly at Sitnica, and the TPP Kosovo B east of the tip. Therefore, an accurate localisation of monitoring sites as well as waste water discharge sites will not be possible.

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1.4. PARAQITJA SKEMATIKE EVEND MOSTRIMEVE Efluentet e KEK-ut, dhe recipientet: Sitnicë, Drenicë dhe Llap Vushtrria

Sitnica Liqenii Batllavës

7

Llapi 6 10 TC B

DEPONIA E HIRIT

27

26 25

21

5 24 19

TC KOSOVA B

23

20 22 Bardh

4

Mirash

17

DEPONIA E HIRIT TCA 18 Kastrioti

13 3

16

11

15

TC KOSOVA

12 8

9

2

14

Drenica F.Kosovë

Prishtevka Graçanka

PRISHTINA 1 Vragoli

Figure 5-1. Monitoring sites of INKOS.

5.2.2

Results and recommendations For an evaluation of data on waste water and water quality, Table 5-4 presents a compilation of available World Bank and EU quality standards as documented in guidelines and directives.

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Table 5-4. Limit values for water. limit values Parameters El. conductivity pH value BOD5

units WB waste a) µS/cm

COD Oxygen Ammonia Chloride Nitrate Nitrite Phosphors total Sulfate Suspended solids Phenol Nonylphenol Octylphenol Pentachlorphenol As (arsenic) Cd (cadmium) Cr (chrome)

mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l

Cu (copper)

µg/l

Hg (mercury) Mn (mangan) Ni (nickel) Pb (lead)

µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l

6-9 50 250 10

EU fish b)

EU surf. c)

6-9 <6 >7 <1

EU raw d) 1000 6,5 - 8,5

EU drink. e) 2500 6,5 - 9,5

0,05 200 50

0,5 250

250 25 1

250

50 5 50

10 5 50

50

2000

1 50

1 50 20 10

< 0,03 2,0 50

25 0,3 0,1 0,4

100

0,08 - 0,25 f)

0,05 50 100

20 7,2

50

a) World Bank Guidelines for waste water (process, domestic, storm water) b) EC Directive 78/659/EC (fish water guideline), values for cyprinides c) EC Proposal (2007) amending Directive 2000/60/EC (policy on surface waters) d) EC Directive 75/440/EC (raw water for drinking water prep.), expires 2007, values for physical treatment only e) EC Directive (98/83/EC) for drinkng water f) depending on water hardness (from <40 mg to ?200 mg CaCO3/l).

The data presented below we found in former reports on mining and energy production, or have been made available by INKOS resp. KEK. The data selected from theses sources may indicate the problems of water pollution, but are by far not complete, often contradictory, not plausible and difficult to interpret, as sufficient information on site, date or period of monitoring is not always reported. No guarantee can be given for the reliability of these data. Pollution sources An important source for surface water pollution are drainage waters from the mining area, originating from rainfall, groundwater influx and seepage water from Sitnica River, which is located some 100 m east of Mirash mine. Drainage water from Bardh mine is discharged to Drenica River, a larger contributory of Sitnica, joining a few km upstream from Kosovo A TPP site near the village Vragoli. The concentrations found (see Table 5-5) exceed •

for suspended solids the World Bank guidelines for waste water up to 18-fold, the EC directive for fish waters up to 36-fold

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nickel and lead values exceed the proposed EU values for surface waters by about 40 %

sulphate, nitrate (both strong acidifiers) and chlorine values are very high and may damage the river fauna and flora.

phenol contamination is very high and up to 50-fold of (proposed) EU limit values.

Table 5-5. Wastewater from mines.

Parameter pH Suspended substances Dissolved oxygen Cl Nitrate Sulphate Phenol Cd Ni Pb

unit mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l

Bardh 7,2 - 8,4 35 - 900 7 - 18 50 - 330 0,9 - 272 55 - 2304 7 - 15

Mirash 6,7 - 8,7 400 - 750 5 - 15 30 - 220 2,7 - 271 534 - 2014 4 - 50 <0.2 27 9,7

Source: Carl Bro 2003

In the material documented by Carl Bro (2003), data for wastewater from facilities at Kosovo A TPP for 2001 are reported by KEK as follows: Table 5-6. Waste water from Kosovo A facilities (2001). Water treatment pH Value Suspended substances Ash handling&disposal

Jan Feb Mar 10,4 9,6 7,8 90 470 55

Apr May Jun 2,9 10,3 7,5 120 155 215

pH Value Suspended substances

8,5 8,1 8,1 2465 2345 330

8,1 330

8,1 410

8,3 95

Jul 11 85

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 9,5 7,7 10,5 1,6 10,2 100 220 150 13 25 10,4 12,4 11,8 250 4630 4120

Source: Carl Bro, 2003

Monthly averaged values of pH 1,6 or 2,9 seem to be not very plausible and may indicate a capital error in the process between sampling and documentation. Anyway, low pH values indicate very serious damages in the receiving watercourse. For example, to bring 1 litre of water from pH from 2 to 6 will need 100 000 litres of water of pH 7 for dilution, but, to bring 1 litre of water with pH 12 to pH 8 will need 0,1 litre of water with pH 7 only for dilution. From the heating plant waters are discharged from chemical preparation of the water, the systems of cooling and ash removing, different cleaning processes etc. Water from chemical preparation process is from decarbonisation part, removal of the lime from reactors, washing of sand, electrofilters and ionic exchangers after regeneration. These waters are discharged through a channel into Sitnica River. Very often this water has very high pH values. Waters from the drying plant are characterized by a phenol pollution with concentrations from 2,45 to 46,75 mg/l. This water (about 126 m³/d) is discontinuously pumped to the slurry lagoon; surplus water from the slurry lagoon is discharged directly to Sitnica River. European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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Other sources for water pollution are the ash dumps. Rain water is leaching and also eroding the ash dump surface. The ashes contain salts and heavy metals, of which some quantities, when in contact with water, sooner or later will be released and infiltrate surface waters as well as the groundwater. The table below indicate the leaching ability of some trace elements and salts; salts are reaction products from metals with acids. The column “Total leaching ability” indicates the amount leaching from the ash when in contact with water. Table 5-7. Leaching ability of heavy metals and salts. Selected trace Total leaching ability % Fast leaching ability % elements of content of total As Cr

30 2

25 90

Mo Se

50 40

90 75

V Salts

20 95

25 90

Source: Carl Bro 2003

Close to the Kosovo B ash dump, which is located only a few meters from Sitnica River, some monitoring sites have been installed in order to control the quality of drainage water as well as ”underground water” (the latter by piezometric pipes. The results are presented in Table 5-8. Table 5-8. Quality of drainage water / underground water near Kosovo B ash tip.

Parameters pH value Suspended solids Sulphate

maximum values unit surface water groundwater 6,8 - 11,5 6,5 - 9,2 mg/l 2.040 2.590 mg/l 1.293 1.533

Phenols

µg/l

108

97

Source: KEK 2002

The high values for sulphate (a very strong acidifier) indicate that e.g. metals will be leached easily and may contaminate the ground water. The high values for phenols indicate that also the ash dump is contaminated, probably by the use of waste water for wet ash dumping. All waters from Kosovo B TPP are discharged directly to Sitnica or are used for hydraulic transport of the ash to the ash dump. Pollution of Sitnica River Sitnica water flow is estimated (Vattenfall 2005) as minimum 0,5 – 1,5 m³/s, average 5 – 10 m³/s, maximum 50 – 100 m³/s. Main water discharges from mines and TPP’s, more or less untreated, are estimated in total to be 0,85 m³/s: •

drainage water from Mirash mine

0,15 m³/s

waste water from Kosovo A

0,37 m³/s

waste water from Kosovo B

0,23 m³/s

Domestic waste water, also untreated, from the municipalities Kastriot/Obiliq, Fushe Kosove and Prishtina with about 600 to 700 000 inhabitants is discharged in the river stretch between the influx of Drenica River and Plemetin with an estimated minimum European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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amount of 1 m³/s (assumption 120 l/inhabitant/day), so in dry periods the total water flow of Sitnica may be more or less (untreated) wastewater only. For the assessment of Sitnica water quality, we got from INKOS on request data for 3 monitoring sites (i) upstream from the Kosovo A site between the influx of Drenica River and the discharge site from Mirash drainage, (ii) upstream and (iii) downstream from the influxes from Kosovo B facilities. Differences between these years are not interpretable, as no information on water flow is available; minimum values are not reported. No information on the monthly frequency on and selection criteria for the dating of monitoring is available. Table 5-9. Water pollution of Sitnica River 2005. upstream Kosovo A Parameters El. conductivity pH value Nitrate Nitrite Sulfate Chloride Oxygen BOD5 COD KMnO4 cons. Phosphors total Ammonia Suspended solids

units µS/cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

aver. 535 7,95 4,1 0,15 63 13 6,4 2,7 3,1 10 0,18 1,9 110

max 600 8,6 8,7 0,62 89 43 8,8 3,7 4,4 53 0,56 3,8 240

between A + B aver. 670 8,1 3,4 0,18 127 22 7,3 3,9 3,4 19 0,23 1,2 140

max 755 8,85 9,6 0,85 193 37 9,6 7,6 5,8 38 0,97 4,7 205

downstream Kos. B aver. 535 7,6 4,1 0,23 63 31 6,9 2,7 3,0 20 0,24 2,1 110

max 600 7,9 9,0 0,95 89 43 8,9 5,7 8,1 41 0,89 4,1 240

Regardless of considerable doubts on the reliability of these data (see above), the values for sulphate and chloride are high, but still somewhat lower than the EU limits for raw water (see Table 5-4), suspended solids exceed the World Bank limit 4-fold and the proposed EU limit 10-fold. Conspicuous are the very low values for BOD5 (biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) despite of the freight of untreated domestic waste water to be expected (see above). Conspicuous is also that for some parameters (for example sulphate and suspended solids) the values for upstream and downstream are identical. Phenols are not reported whereas measured due to other sources, for example in November and December 2005 at Vragoli with 3,5 resp. 5,0 µg/l, i.e. 3,5 resp. 5 fold the EU limit value. Heavy metals are not analysed by INKOS. The data in Table 5-9 reflect only partially the expected increase of the water pollution of Sitnica River between entrance to and exit from KEK area and does not correlate with the data on discharges as described above. The data from INKOS suggests, in contrast to public opinion and publications of international organisations as well as our own ”educated guess”, a more or less moderate pollution of Sitnica River. In the voluminous data collection prepared by Carl Bro, 2003, we found results of analyses of Sitnica River water samples, collected by INKOS at well defined sites at 05.03.2003 and analysed by KFOR Preventive Medical Laboratory the same day. The sampling sites are located at: •

Vragoli river bridge upstream from Drenica influx

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Mirashi river bridge downstream from Drenica and Mirash mine influx and upstream from TPP Kosovo A influx

Palaj river bridge downstream from TPP Kosovo A influx and upstream from TPP Kosovo B influx

Plemetin river bridge just downstream from TPP Kosovo B influx and upstream from Llap River influx

Nedacovc river bridge some 12 km downstream from TPP Kosovo B influx and some 6 km downstream from Llap River influx

Table 5-10. Water quality of Sitnica River 05.03.2003.

Parameter * Phenol Cd diluted total Ni diluted total Pb diluted total BOD COD

µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l µg/l mg/l mg/l

Source: KFOR 2003

Vragoli < 0,02 < 0,1 0,1 2 4 4,4 4,8 15,2 44

Mirashi < 0,02 < 0,2 1,6 27 61 9,7 820 14 37

Palaj < 0,02 < 0,2 0,46 25 37 6,2 240 41 15,6

Plementin < 0,02 < 0,2 < 0,2 26 28 5,6 33 13,6 38,2

Nedacovc < 0,02 1,28 1,48 42 45 4,3 680 33,2 41

Analyses by KFOR Preventive Medical Laboratory * not diluted heavy metals are bound to suspended particles

These data present a quite different reality than the data provided by INKOS and presented above, and are a simple and convincing example for a monitoring strategy, which delivers with little effort a maximum of information (and not only data). Not surprising, but enlightening are the findings concerning BOD5 and COD, as these parameters indicate domestic wastewater, and this is a very steady source of river pollution and will change with the water flow only, as everybody has to visit the toilet every day. Really alarming are the findings on heavy metals, as they exceed for Pb the waste water limits of World Bank up to 8-fold, and the EU limits up to 40-fold. The value for Cd exceeds the proposed EU limit at least 6-fold, supposing a high hardness of water (> 200 mg CaCO3/l) even 18-fold. Phenols have not been found in the analyses from KFOR. This is understandable, as (i) the KFOR samples represent only one single day, and (ii) phenol pollution in the rivers is said to be very fluctuating and has sometimes not even been found. Generally, phenol contamination in this area is said to originate from the former gasification plant near Kosovo A. But, phenols are found in high concentrations also in the drainage water from Bardh and Mirash mines (see Table 5-5) as well as in the waste water from at least Kosovo A TPP facilities (see above). As waste water from the TPP’s is used as ash transport medium, the ash dumps might also be a source for this pollution. In the rivers, phenols are also found in Drenica River upstream from Bardh mine drainage water release as well as in Sitnica River at Vragoli upstream from KEK area. According to the available data, the phenol concentration downstream from Kosovo A site is not higher but even lower than upstream. Pollutants seeping from a contaminated area via soil layers of some meters with a relatively poor permeability to ground and surface waters will occur as a quite steady source. All these findings indicate that the gasification plant site is not a relevant, at the most only European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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a minor source for the observed phenol contamination of the waters within and around the KEK area. No information was found on the chemical composition of the phenols. Natural phenols (C6H5OH) are ubiquitous and degrade quite fast, in soil within one day, in surface water within a few days (GTZ 1995). Phenols from the mines and probably also the bulk of phenols found in waste waters from the TPP’s may be of this type. This suggestion would be another explanation for the above mentioned fluctuation of phenol concentrations in the surface waters as well as for the absence in the analyses of KFOR. Recommendations •

Installation and operation at the Kosovo A and B TPP’s as well as in the mines of suitable waste water collection and treatment facilities for cleaning and neutralisation of waste waters in compliance with EU regulations in order to prevent further contamination of surface and ground water bodies

Compilation and scientifically responsible evaluation of existing data on water pollution sources as well as contamination of surface and groundwater bodies in order to identify fundamental information deficits as well as to detect patterns of pollution

On this basis, a scientifically properly designed long term strategy for water pollution monitoring has to be developed and executed; water analyses should be executed by independent and experienced laboratories only

As no data concerning the quality of drinking water from local wells have been found, analyses of at least heavy metals in these waters are urgently required

Analyse the phenols from different emission sources and sites as well as in different waters in order to identify their compounds

5.3

Soil and Groundwater

5.3.1

Methodology and data basis For site selection, soil properties that are of interest are at least three soil functions: • • •

soil suitability for agricultural production capability of the soil to fix/accumulate heavy metals in respect to a potential risk for agricultural products and livestock permeability of the soil and deeper layers in respect to a potential risk (in the sense of sensitivity) for groundwater to be polluted by heavy metals and other hazardous substances.

Thematic maps showing this aspect are not available. So, these soil functions have to be derived by interpretation from the soil maps with the largest available scale. This will in Kosovo be the soil map 1:50 000, which differentiates altogether 101 soil units. These soil units are associated with specific properties, due to their genesis and development with more or less broad variations. For each soil type to be found at the sites Kosovo B and Bivolak, a sample had been taken and analysed in order to check the soil properties and the soil contamination. The hydrogeological map presents information on the characteristics of the aquifers, e.g. the permeability, and direction of groundwater flow. European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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No information has been found on the quality of water derived from local wells for drinking water purposes. 5.3.2

Results and recommendations A first evaluation of the soil map 1:50 000 with respect to the above mentioned properties is presented below (Figure 5-2).

Figure 5-2. Soil map.

At the three sites the following soil units have been identified: •

vertisol with low to medium permeability, very high absorption capacity and lower fertility

dystric kambisol with medium permeability, very high absorption capacity and medium fertility

fluvisol with medium permeability, very high absorption capacity and medium fertility.

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These classifications are not in full accordance with the more general classification of the soil map presented above due to the findings in situ. The results of the soil investigations at the selected sites are shown in Table 5-11. Following the hydrogeological map, there are at least, with respect to the three sites, two different hydrogeological formations of interest: •

in the Sitnica floodplain an aquifer of sand, gravel and mud/silt with very high to medium permeability and confined or artesian groundwater

west of the floodplain an aquifer of clay, sand and mud/silt with low permeability; this is also stated in Vattenfall (2005), where it is also stated that wells have quite poor productivity sufficient only for private use.

Bivolak site At this site, all three different soil types named above have been identified. In the floodplain, the fluvisol is present with medium suitability for agriculture, very high absorption capacity and medium permeability. As the groundwater level is high, this resource is very exposed to contaminations by hazardous substances. As only little or no horizontal movement of groundwater occurs, any contamination will easily infiltrate the Sitnica river. Hillside, vertisol dominates (with a minor proportion of kambisols) with medium to low suitability for agriculture, very high absorption capacity and low to medium permeability, covering an aquifer of poor productivity. This means that here a minor aquifer is quite well protected. As this site is not exposed to significant deposition of heavy metals, the content of these elements in the soil have to be addressed as the natural background contamination of this soil type in the Sitnica valley. All values are somewhat higher than the “natural value” as presented in Table 5-11, but this is in accordance with the richness of minerals in the upstream river basin of Sitnica river, from where the fluvisol sediments are originating. Kosovo B site More than 80 % of the site area is identified as fluvisol with medium permeability, very high absorption capacity and medium fertility. This area is somewhat elevated over the floodplain, therefore the groundwater level will not be as high as at the Bivolak site, but the groundwater is still quite exposed to contaminations by hazardous substances. The groundwater is most probably already polluted, at least by heavy metals leached from the fly ash dump. KEK personnel state that the groundwater level is -2,0 m. Two profiles have been analysed, both from the fluvisol soil type. The exposition of profile 4 to fly ash deposition is about 30 % higher than the exposition of profile 5 (see Map 5 of Annex 2 PM10 deposition). A comparison with profile 2 from the fluvisol at the Bivolak site demonstrates, that •

the contamination of profile 4 with chromium resp. arsenic in the upper 60 cm is up to 2,5-fold resp. 11-fold higher than the contamination of profile 2. chromium exceeds the toxic value by a maximal of about 12 %, arsenic by about 40 %.

the contamination of profile 5 with chromium resp. arsenic is as a maximum about 40 % resp. 20 % lower than the contamination of profile 4.

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The samples had been taken some weeks before we got the results from the air pollution modelling. These findings are in full accordance with the calculated deposition of heavy metals. Soils with contamination near resp. higher than the “toxic value” are not suitable for the production of foodstuff and fodder for livestock. Kosovo A site The soil of the whole site area has been identified as vertisol with (primordially) medium to low suitability for agriculture, very high absorption capacity and low to medium permeability. The groundwater body is the same as in the floodplain. Therefore a valuable groundwater body is moderately protected, but anyway not sufficiently against soluble hazardous substances or in case that the buffer capacity of the upper layer is exhausted. The site is claimed to be heavily polluted by phenols and other hydrocarbons (KEK 2006). KEK personnel state that the groundwater level is 2,0 m. No samples have been taken from this site as due to the former use for a gasification plant, the upper soil layer will be completely disturbed or sealed and the natural functions destroyed, and no representative sampling point can be found. Therefore, a very detailed investigation would be necessary. The calculated depostion of PM10 and herewith heavy metals on this site will be in the same range as profile 4, but as the extremely high diffuse ground near dust emissions from Kosovo A TPP has not been taken into account in the air pollution modelling, the soil contamination will be multifold higher than at the Kosovo B site. Table 5-11. Results from soil analyses with evaluation.

III/2

III/2

Limit values

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Cd 2,7 4,5 3,5 2,3 4,9 3,7 3,2 5,7 4,1

Pb 32 88 56 23 80 52 (41) (344) 55

As 4 (44) 6 3 9 7 (5) 69 38

25.30 (118) 105.44 454 63.81 373 20.91 168 44.61 269 27.34 208

2,3 5,1 3,4 3,4 6,3 5,1

15 73 33 7 69 38

(4) 88 62 5 62 27

normal toxic

0,8 12

85 530

29 55

25.17 33.19 29.23 25.00 35.11 30.10 24.80 54.91 35.85

Cr 148 171 159 149 169 155 131 144 137

100 380

Permeability

IV/2

content on heavy metals (mg/kg)

Absorption capacity

III/1

Evaluation Suitabiliy for agriculture

III/1

Absorption capacity ***

Site Bivolak Profile 1 min dystric max cambisol medium min Profile 2 max fluvisol medium min Profile 3 max vertisol medium Site Kosovo B min Profile 4 max fluvisol medium min Profile 5 max fluvisol medium

Suitabiliy for agriculture *

Measured Data

3

4

3

3

4

3

2

4

2

3

4

3

3

4

3

1 2 3 4 5

Rating very low low medium high very high


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Notice: Values multiply lower or higher than the other values are set in brackets and not included in the median value; values exceeding the limit values of the “Dutch list“ (see Table 5-12) are set in bold.

Table 5-12. Reference values for soil.

pattern soil aliment plant, investigation

pattern soil ground water, investigation

children's playground, investigation

investigation

need for action

As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb

"Dutch list" 1991/1999

precaution a)

element

German Soil Protection Regulation 1999

mg/kg 0,4-1,5 30-100 20-60 0,1-1 15-70 40-100

mg/kg 0,4 0,04-0,1 a,b) 1 5 1,5 0,1

µg/l 10 5 50 50 1 50 10

mg/kg 25 10 200 10 70 -

mg/kg 30 5 250 100 2 100 150

mg/kg 55 12 380 500 10 500 530

a) sand - clay b) need for action

Airborne soil pollution The potential airborne pollution of the soil via the deposition of heavy metals outside of the sites addressed above is shown in Map 4 of Annex 2. (chap. 5.1). Following the findings for the Kosovo B site, the area being under suspicion of exceeding the toxic values for soil contamination will cover at least about 18 km² around (and outside of) Kosovo A ash dump and TPP site and about 1,5 km² around (and outside of) Kosovo B ash dump and TPP site. These areas may be unsuitable for cropland as well as private production of vegetables. No measurements for the contamination of plants with heavy metals are available. As a clear hint to this problem, some information from another source may be cited. In a study performed for the German Ministry for Environment, concerning the lignite area of Lower Lusatia (eastern Germany) some results concerning this item have been published (Hanke et al. 1993). The data rely on the old TPP at Lübbenau / Vetschau far away from mining areas and ash tips. Table 5-13. Analyses of heavy metals in parsley exposed to fly ash deposition (Example from the Lower Lusatia lignite area 1993). Element As Cd Pb Zn

Conc. in fly ash (mg/kg) (Kosovo) L. Lusatia (31) 12 (0,5) 0,4 (18) 11 (68) 110

fresh mat. ug/kg 9,8 1,3 89,6 2,5

limit value ug/kg 0,5 0,1 15 0,5

distance to stack (km) 4 4 7-8 4-6

limit exceed 20-fold 13-fold 6-fold 5-fold

In the same study it was stated, that in areas with high fly ash deposition the agricultural harvests as well the yield of livestock kept had been reduced by about 20 %, compared to similar areas without fly ash exposure. Recommendations European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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High priority should be given to a scientifically properly designed and executed program concerning the analysis of samples from soil and cultivated foodstuff plants to identify and localize the above mentioned problems.

The sources especially for ground near fly ash emissions should be minimised.

Wind breaking plantations should be established to minimise windborne soil erosion in open areas.

The land use of areas with high contamination has to be restricted to types of uses which are not sensitive against soil pollution; this may be part of an environmentally orientated spatial planning for the whole lignite area.

The decontamination of highly polluted areas is very costly and should be restricted to areas where a sensitive land use is unavoidable or other valuable resources (e.g. the groundwater) have to be protected.

(see also Chapter 5.2.2 with respect to local wells used for drinking water purposes). 5.4

Fauna, flora and biotopes

5.4.1

Methodology and data basis Some information on biodiversity and nature protection areas in Kosovo as a whole can be found on the internet (http://enrin.grida.no/htmls/kosovo/SoE/biodiver.htm., http://www.rec.org/REC/Publications/CountryReports/Kosovo.PDF)(Figure 5-3).

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Figure 5-3 Major Natural Features, Biodiversity and Protected Areas of former Yugoslavia (UNEP). The location of the project area is marked with an arrow.

No internationally important bird areas (IBA) have been delimited in the area (Birdlife International, http://www.birdlife.org/). The Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning provided some information on valuable natural objects in Kastriot/Obiliq and in Vushtrri. The location of these is presented in Figure 5-4. These objects are mostly trees and hydrological objects like springs, and were identified in surveys in the years 2003 and 2004. None of these objects are located within or in the vicinity of the TPP sites.

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Figure 5-4 Valuable natural objects in the area. Kosovo C sites marked with black.

A field survey of the fauna, flora and habitats of the proposed sites, and the project area as a whole was carried out by two biologists 11-15.4.2007. Several excursions to the three sites were undertaken at different times of day (early morning, late morning and dusk) to see, hear and observe as many vertebrates as possible. The flora and vegetation was mapped at the same time, although the time of year was not optimal for this task. In order to be able to compare and assess the value of the three sites on a national level excursions were undertaken to areas outside of the project area as well. The vegetation of the following locations was investigated more thoroughly: • •

The south-west side of Plemetin (incl. Kosovo B site) and Environs of Bivolak and Berisha villages (incl. Bivolak site).

Most species of plants (trees, bushes and herbs) were identified. The natural plant communities and the plant communities which are a result of anthropogenic factors European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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were also identified. The biotope of which the plant communities form a part was also identified. The fauna, vegetation and biotopes for the Kosovo B site and the Bivolak site were described, showing the prevalence of typical habitats and their vicinities regarding the ecological value (biodiversity, endangered species and habitats as indicators on a national and European level). The Kosovo A site was not investigated as it is in its entirety an industrial area without any natural values. 5.4.2

Results and recommendations The three sites concerned lie in the Sitnica Valley (ca 520 m above sea-level) which belongs to the water catchment area of the Danube (Sitnica–Iber-Morava- Danube). To the west of this lies the Cicavica mountain range (circa 1 000 metres high and covered with deciduous forest), and in between the proposed mining area, a smallscale agricultural region with a high number of diverse biotopes (e.g. woodland, hedges, shrubs, meadows and small valleys).

BIRDS Podicipediformes Little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) Anseriformes Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) Teal (Anas crecca) Garganey (Anas querquedula) Ciconiiformes Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Falconiformes Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) Gruiformes Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus) Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) Coot (Fulica atra) Corncrake (Crex crex) Charadriiformes Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) Redshank (Tringa totanus)

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BirdLife Int. SPEC

Bivolak

Remains of eutrophic stream (contaminated)

Kosovo B

Industrial area

Nearer vicinity, canalised Sitnica

Industrial area

Kosovo A

EU- Wild Birds Directive Annex I (endangered species)

Table 5-14 Observed or potential vertebrate fauna.

+ +

+ + +

(v)

(v)

(v) (v) (v)

v (v) (v)

(v) (v) (v)

(v) (v)

+

(v)

3

(+) + + +

* *

+ + v +

*

+ + + (+) + +

*

* 2 2


Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Task 4 - Site selection Volume 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Main report Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) Passeriformes Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava feldeggi) Nightingale (Luscinia megarhinchos) Corn Bunting (Miliaria calandra) Skylark (Alauda arvensis) Stonechat (Saxicola torquata) Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) Raven (Corvus corax) Carrion Crow (Corvus corone cornix) Rook (Corvus frugilegus) Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) Magpie (Pica pica) Jay (Garrulus garrulus) REPTILES Ring Snake (Natrix natrix) AMPHIBIANS Edible Frog (Rana esculenta) Marsh Frog (Rana ridibunda) Common Tree Frog (Hyla arborea)

November, 2007 Page 53 (104) v v

+ + + + (v) (v) (v) + +

+ (v) (v) (v) (v) (v) (v)

(v) (v) (v) (v)

*

+ + + + + + + + v + + + +

(+)

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ + +

Symbols and abbrev: + observed, likelihood of breeding (+) not observed; but habitat very suitable for breeding (migrating species return in May) v observed visitor, foraging guest (v) not observed; but probable visitor, suitable habitat * endangered species SPEC (species of European concern, BirdLife Int.) 2: global population concentrated in Europe, which has unfavourable conservation status 3: population not concentrated in Europe, which has unfavourable conservation status

This biotope diversity is reflected in a high biodiversity of fauna and flora, indicated by protected and endangered species at a national level (fide Dr. Schneider-Jacoby, Euronature), such as the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Garganey, (Anas querquedula), Redshank, (Tringa totanus) and the likelihood of the especially endangered Corncrake (Crex crex) and Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus). Moreover the White Stork, Little Bittern and Corncrake are listed in Annex I of the EU-Wild Birds Directive as endangered species. Based on the survey it was found that most of the investigated locations are under anthropogenic influence, i.e. influenced by man. Most parts of (semi)natural meadows and forest vegetation are found among the agriculture associations. In the vicinity of villages ruderal vegetation is found. Natural biotopes are found close to the river Sitnica. Examples are the wet meadows between Bivolak and Prilluzha, willow forests around the river Sitnica and other wet places, bushland around Bivolak and west of Bivolak the natural plant community oak forest. Biotopes and their associated vegetation types (associations) identified close to the Kosovo B site are:

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Ruderal (nitrificated) area (Ass. Tanaceto-Artemisietum (Br. Bl. 1931) Tx. 1942, Ass. Urtico – Sambucetum ebuli Br. Bl. (1936) 1952). Forest under degradation (Ass. Salicetum albae fragilis Soo (1930, 1934) 1958) Park (planted tree species) Agricultural / man-made meadows (Ass. Agricultural plant communities) Bog (Typha sp., Salix sp.) River (Nuphar luteum, Myriophyllum sp. etc.)

Biotopes and their associated vegetation types (associations) identified close to the Bivolak site are: • • • • • • • • • •

Ruderal (nitrificated) area (Ass. Tanaceto-Artemisietum (Br. Bl. 1931) Tx. 1942) Forest (Ass.: Quercetum montanum (Jov. 1948) Cernj. et Jov. 1953) Forest under degradation (Ass. Salicetum albae fragilis Soo (1930, 1934) 1958) Bushland (Ass.: Cratego – Prunetum spinosae Beus. 1971) Wet natural meadows (Alliance: Trifolion Resupinati Mic) Bog (Typha sp., Salix sp.) River (Nuphar luteum, Myriophyllum sp. etc.) Cultivated forest (Pinus nigra etc.) Park (planted tree species) Agricultural /man-made meadows (Agricultural plant communities)

It was found that the natural vegetation is located in the surroundings of Bivolak, whereas the flora and vegetation is notably degraded around the Kosovo B site. The assessed ecological value of the sites is presented in Table 5-15.

Kosovo B industrial area

Kosovo B remains of oxbow (contaminated)

Bivolak

Present habitat value Biodiversity Importance of ecological system at national level Ecological potential Recreational value Habitat value Ecological impact Damage to natural habitats Fragmentation of Sitnica Valley Negative impact on natural surroundings Negative impact on water retaining and revivifying Impact on habitat value

Kosovo A industrial area

Table 5-15. Biotope value and ecological impact of the three sites.

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

3 1 5* 3* 3

7 6 7 4 6

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

2 1 3 2 2

5 6** 6 5 6

* on condition that ash tip is removed and river wetland revivified **because of proposed infrastructure requirements e.g roads, bridges, and power lines

Recommendations European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon

Ranking of value / impact 1 very low 2 low 3 moderate 4 medium 5 good 6 high 7 very high


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It is recommended that the Bivolak area should be included in a larger nature reserve in the Sitnica Valley to preserve and develop a biotope of high value of national importance.

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6

ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL IMPACTS

6.1

Properties, resettlement and compensation

6.1.1

Methodology and data basis

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The number of households to be resettled has been assessed based on orthophoto studies. The orthophotos utilised are from the year 2004, and some construction may have occurred after that. A buffer zone of about 200 meters has to bee established around the TPP itself for this purpose as auxiliary functions and structures such as office buildings, parking lots, roads etc. will require space. Additionally noise limit guidelines or limit values usually limit settlements closer than 200 meters from power plants. For the purpose of the assessment it has been assumed the lignite yard will be located at the TPP. Information on the parcels at and in the surroundings of the sites (in an area of a few km2) has been obtained from the Cadastral Agency. This material included information on the number and area of the parcels, the ownership of the parcels (private citizens, KEK, other companies etc.), and on the land use of the parcels. This information has been analysed and the main results on the proportion of different ownership and land use presented to provide a background for the estimation of land acquisition and compensation requirements at the sites. 6.1.2

Results and recommendations At Kosovo B the only households on the site are the Roma people settlements at the temporary community shelter at the northernmost corner of the site (Figure 6-1). New apartment buildings have been and are being built for the Roma just to the north of the site, and the Roma living in the barracks will apparently be relocated there in the near future. Thus no resettlement has to be done for the project. The area is mainly wasteland, ash dump, and some grassy open areas towards the old Sitnica oxbow remnant. The easternmost part of the area is utilised by KEK for storage and office buildings. Of the land at the site with its nearest surroundings about 35 % is owned by private citizens, less than 1 % by the municipality, 53 % by KEK and 11 % by other companies etc. There are about 240 private citizens owning land, mostly around the site itself. According to the cadastral parcel information about 90 % of the area is agricultural land of different kinds. The rest consists of streets, wasteland, railway and buildings. This information appears to be very outdated, as a significant portion of the area is occupied by the ash dump. Compensation will be required mainly for building of the required infrastructure, especially agricultural land where the transmission line towers will be erected needs to be compensated for.

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Figure 6-1. Temporary settlements of Roma people at the Kosovo B site according to preliminary layout with buffer zone.

Based on the preliminary layout including buffer zone and the orthophotos from the year 2004 the amount of households to be resettled in Bivolak is in the order of 30 to 35 (Figure 6-2). Assuming a number of up to 8 people per household, which has been verified in areas of the future Sibovc mining field, the number of inhabitants requiring resettlement and compensation is about 240 - 280. About half of the households of the small village Beris (Berisha) will have to be resettled. The village Bivolak with some 60 households will be situated only about 300 - 500 meters from the TPP itself. The land use in the area is mainly agriculture. About 75 % of the site area with its closest surroundings is cultivated fields. Some 15 % is other agricultural land like pastures, fruit tree groves and meadows. The rest of the area is made up of the river, forests, streets, channel structures, buildings etc. Of the land at the site with its nearest surroundings about 87 % is owned by private citizens, 5 % by the municipality and 8 % by companies. There are about 150 private citizens owning land. The Bivolak site mainly consists of productive agricultural land, and will require compensation to the farmers. As new compensating agricultural land most likely is not available in the surrounding area the Bivolak site, if chosen, will weaken the concerned farmers livelihood and income. Compensation will also be required for building of the required infrastructure, such as the access roads, and the transmission line towers.

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Figure 6-2. Households to be resettled (red dots) at the Bivolak site according to preliminary layout with buffer zone.

At the Kosovo A site no resettlement will be required. The closest settlements are located 200 meters to the south, and 200 meters to the NW and NE of the Kosovo C TPP itself. The nearest households will be just on the other side of the road from the lignite yard, more or less like the situation is today. The site is occupied by a disused old gasification plant and a disused fertilizer factory among others. The site is adjoining Kosovo A TPP to the east. Kosovo A office buildings, lignite yard/stock pile, conveyor belts and coal handling facilities are partially located on the site. The whole area is owned by KEK and possibly other companies.

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Figure 6-3. Households to be resettled (red dots) at the Kosovo A site according to preliminary layout with buffer zone. No households need to be resettled.

A democratic socially acceptable resettlement procedure of settlements compliant to EU and WB standards will take several years. 6.2

Infrastructure and utilities

6.2.1

Methodology and data basis Information regarding existing infrastructure has been obtained through map studies, existing reports, field visits and orthophoto studies. The occurrence of infrastructure inside the site limits has been checked, and required measures regarding these infrastructures if the TPP is to be built there have been assessed and described. Regarding required infrastructure the occurrence of obstacles for this has been assessed and described. The impacts of the required infrastructure have been assessed in the relevant environmental and social impact chapters. The raw water comes to Kosovo A TPP along the access road from the main road Pristine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Obiliq. The water pre-treatment facility is to the north of the cooling towers. The existing transmission line connections in the area have been obtained from Terna, performing Task 2 of the assignment. This information is schematic, so the routes have been verified from a former Yugoslavia map 1:50 000 (WGS 84), and may possibly be somewhat out of date.

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Due to the very early power plant planning stage the location of the required infrastructure is not yet clearly defined, although the connecting points for some infrastructure are known. Schematic drawings of the connection arrangements for Kosovo C in the different site alternatives have been reviewed. From these the directions of approach and the required number of lines can be determined, as well as crossing points with existing transmission lines. The exact routes can however not be determined from these drawings. 6.2.2

Results and recommendations Existing infrastructure No transmission lines, roads, railway, water channel or other existing infrastructure will need to be relocated at the Kosovo B site. The Kosovo B ash dump will need to be removed to make enough room for Kosovo C TPP. At Bivolak at least two 220 kV and one 400 kV transmission lines are located where the lignite yard of the TPP will be located according to the current layout of the TPP. They would possibly have to be relocated due to the nearness to the lignite yard and the TPP itself from a safety and power supply reliability point of view. A 110 kV transmission line to Palaj crosses the southernmost part of the Kosovo A site, i.e. the future lignite yard. Relocation of this transmission line may be necessary from a safety and power supply reliability point of view. Road access is good and the roads are of sufficient quality and size to enable transportation of heavy equipment at the Kosovo B site. The transport route however includes some tight turns and crossings of the railway. At Bivolak the road to Bivolak from the east has to be relocated to the south. At Kosovo A road access is good and the roads are of sufficient quality and size to enable transportation of heavy equipment. The Iber-Lepenc irrigation and technical raw water channel pumping/diversion station is located directly in the middle of the Bivolak site. From this point the channel diverts towards Kosovo B/(A) to SE, and towards Feronikeli to SW. The pumping/diversion station will need to be relocated which means construction of at least 1 - 2 kilometres in advance of construction of the TPP. The exact location of the raw water pipeline from Brukovc to Kosovo A could not be verified outside the plant. Anyhow its access route will not interfere with the new TPP as that will be on the western side of the plant property. . In the past, a gasification plant and a fertilizer plant were operating at the Kosovo A site. These were permanently closed down in 1988/89. Other structures at the site include the current offices of KEK at the entrance to the whole Kosovo A site, a biological water purifying station, a bunker with radioactive sources, old warehouses and other storage facilities. The lignite conveyor belts, lignite handling facility and partly the lignite yard of Kosovo A are located on the site and depending on where the first block or blocks will be located it may be necessary to relocate them for the duration of construction until Kosovo A can be decommissioned. The current offices of and the entrance to Kosovo A are located by the lignite yard at the site and may have to be relocated as well. The current potentially hazardous materials stored by the former gasification plant of the Kosovo A site include about 15 000 m3 of hazardous waste (e.g., Tar (1 000 m3); Heavy Tar (500 m3); medium oils (1 000 m3); Ammonium Hydroxide (1 000 m3); benzene (500 m3); polluted oil (250 m3); phenol mixed with water (13 000 m3);

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concentrated phenol (750 m3). There is no knowledge of the extent of pollution of the groundwater or soil surrounding this gasification plant (KEK 2006). Some of the oils have now been mixed making the removal and particularly the disposal more complex. These hazardous substances would have to be removed from the site in a sustainable manner before construction commences. Required new infrastructure For the Kosovo B site new 220/110 kV lines for start-ups and 400 KV lines to the Kosovo B switchyard have to be built. For the Bivolak site access roads and transmission lines have to be built from the Plemetin direction in the east, and they would have to cross the ecologically valuable Sitnica flooding area on a bridge. A new required 400 kV and (a new 220/110 kV for start-ups) line will cross the existing transmission lines west of Hamidija making this area very cramped. Those new lines will be built to Kosovo B switchyard south of Plemetin. For the Kosovo A site a new 400 kV line will be built to the SW, and two new 400 kV lines to the north, one of them going to the Kosovo B switchyard and the other one continuing to the north. At all sites the lignite conveyor belts would be about 5 kilometres long if the mining starts at the Sibovc SW field. Existing conveyor belt routes can probably be utilised for the Kosovo B and Kosovo A sites. For Bivolak site new belts have to be built and their routing should follow the eastern borderline of the Sibovc field i.e. straight continuation towards north from the belt conveyors to Kosovo B along the borderline. The ash conveyor belts or preferably pipelines for transporting ash to the old mines (Mirash) for disposal would have to be about 3 kilometres long at Kosovo B, at least 5 kilometres at Bivolak and about 2,5 - 3 kilometres at Kosovo A. 6.3

Landscape

6.3.1

Methodology and data basis The changes in landscape as perceived by man and the extent of the visibility of the Kosovo C TPP have been estimated. Most probably configuration of this plant is four similar blocks with pulverized fired boilers. In that concept the new plant will be characterized by high tower type boiler houses. They may reach 130 - 140 meters height as the cooling towers may be slightly lower i.e. 120 - 130 m. On the other hand there will not be any high stacks as the flue gases will be taken into the cooling towers. For reference the Kosovo B TPP stack is 183 meters high and the cooling tower is 130 meters high.

6.3.2

Results and recommendations With respect to the view from the nearest settlements and the orientation of the powerhouse row, the changes in landscape will at Bivolak from east and west be serious, in Kosovo B from north and south significant, and at Kosovo A from South and North acceptable. At the Bivolak site the change in landscape will be serious as the area is a rural smallscale landscape without large industrial structures. As the Bivolak site is elevated the Kosovo C TPP will be very visible in a large area with a diameter of several

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kilometres. It will dominate the landscape seen from Plemetin, Bivolak, Glavotina and Prilluzje villages and even from greater distances. 6.4

Historical, cultural and archaeological values

6.4.1

Methodology and data basis A team of Kosovar archaeologists from the National Museum of Kosova on 16 – 28 April 2007 carried out an expedition in the whole “zone of interest” (Figure 6-4). The focal aim of this expedition was exploration of all probable existing archaeological sites within the prior selected area. This mission had investigative character and cabinet researches, consultations of various publications, unpublished material, and excavation reports from the nearby sites were carried out. Cadastral maps and aerial pictures (orthophotos) were part of the analyse processes. There are numerous archaeological sites that have already been identified or excavated in the surrounding villages, as listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Prehistoric fortification of the Bellaçevc castle (excavated) Early Medieval necropolis (cemetery) in Lower Grabovc (excavated) Early Christian Church in Upper Grabovc (identified) Prehistoric and Late Antique fortification in Upper Grabovc (identified) Fragments of a Medieval pottery in Hade Traces of Medieval settlement in Bakshia Traces of ancient building material remains in Sibovc 8. Traces of ancient building material remains in Bivolak These structures are not located on the sites. A systematic and detailed survey of the region has not been carried out. Survey methods involved pedestrian walkover-surface reconnaissance and observation of the landscape. The areas- “zone of interest” that were part of our survey are mainly agriculture-crop growing land and to some extent industrial built-up areas. The archaeological team, with the permission of the landlords, conducted a thorough examination, particularly on ploughed parcels, while as the soil is turned up from the agriculture machinery, artefacts normally move or rise to the top. The first stage of the field survey involved consolidation and verification of the knowledge gained from background studies. Moreover, any kind of relevant information that might indicate a certain type of information was part of the presurvey study. Map studies and close analyses of the aerial photos −orthophotos were part of the thorough investigation. The team talked to local inhabitants and carefully listened to the local legends and recorded the place names (toponymy) that potentially sometimes can reveal important data from the past. A field survey in “the zone of interest” was conducted by 5 team members that walked in parallel lines spaced 5-10 m apart from each other and while they were monitoring the surface, search for the finds or archaeological evidences was the main goal. (Museum of Kosova 2007)

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Figure 6-4 Zone of interest in the archaeological survey.

6.4.2

Results and recommendations The archaeological surface survey did not reveal any kind of archaeological proof within the sites or their surroundings. Recommendations The importance of attendance of archaeologists when the building foundations and unearthing processes start by developers is strongly emphasised. In addition, even though the archaeological survey did not produce any significant information, it does not inevitably mean that the sites are free from archaeological remains. Sometimes, erection of buildings or similar undertaking can by chance uncover and reveal from underneath the ground, fragments and bits of past civilisations. (Museum of Kosova 2007)

6.5

Health impacts

6.5.1

Methodology and data basis Public discussions, Internet contributions and earlier studies on mining activities and power production in the Prishtina area (as Kampsax International 2006) as well as publications from international organisations and UNMIK newsletter “UNMIK on AIR” (as Qorraj 2003) state, that (i)

in the municipalities Kastriot and Fushe Kosove the prevalence rates for diseases of the respiratory system as well as malign neoplasms (tumours) will be much higher as in other municipalities of Kosovo, and

(ii)

this situation is caused by the high air pollution in this area due to the emissions from the stacks of the TPP.

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Following Kampsax International, 2006, and our own findings, up to now no quantifying studies addressing these problems had been undertaken. Also statistical data on diseases rates as indispensable basis is rare in Kosovo or handled as private property of the officials. Looking for such data at different organisations (as the Institute for Occupational Medicine, WHO or UNMIK), a statistic counting the visits of patients in public hospitals by groups of diseases and place of residence for the years 2005 and 2006 was acquired from the National Institute for Public Health. Different frequencies between the municipalities of visits per 1 000 inhabitants per year can be accepted as a fairly suitable indicator for different prevalence rates for specified groups of diseases, as there is neither an indication nor a logical argument that e.g. a patient living in Kastriot with a certain disease will visit more often the hospital than a patient with the same disease living in Vushtrri or Drenasi. Consistent and actual data on the population by municipality is also not available. The only consistent statistic that was found was the statistic of the Ministry of Finance (used for the actual budget planning) for the year 2001. Due to the return of thousands of refugees and a surplus of the birth rate of 1,5 % p.a., the population of Kosovo was growing between 2001 and 2006 (according to different sources) by at least 10 to 15 %, but due to the spatial inhomogenity of the economical development and the awkward housing situation especially in rural areas, the demographical development varied in a wide range. Own estimations of the municipalities (Association of Kosovo Municipalities, 2005) exceed the figures from 2001 by an average of 40 %, which probably is quite unrealistic. Calculations performed alternatively with the population statistic 2001 and the ”best available actual data” from different sources showed only marginal differences in the results as presented below. Based on the above mentioned data, the frequency of visits in public hospitals per year and groups of diseases was calculated for each municipality and Kosovo as a whole. Larger cities will have quite higher background pollution than rural municipalities. As Kastriot and Fushe Kosove may be addressed as municipalities with a more or less rural character of the living conditions of the majority of their population, municipalities with cities larger than 50 000 inhabitants have been excluded from further analysis. 6.5.2

Results and recommendations The raw data for visits in hospitals per 1 000 inhabitants is presented in Table 6-1. For the comparison between different municipalities and groups of diseases it is easier to look at the percentage of visit rates as presented in Table 6-2. For all groups of diseases, Kastriot listed 150 % and Fushe Kosove 79 % more visits than the average of all 17 municipalities, and are ranked 2nd (Kastriot) and 3rd (Fushe Kosove) behind the 1st ranked Shtime. Kastriot is 8 times ranked 1st and 9 times 2nd, and Fushe Kosovo is 4 times ranked 1st and 1 time 2nd (see Table 6-4, 1st rank in bold, 2nd rank marked with yellow). Looking for outstanding rates for disease groups and counting Kastriot and Fushe Kosovo together (i.e. 6,6 % of all inhabitants in rural municipalities), it can be stated that these two municipalities listed, concerning •

neoplasms (tumours) 25 % of all visits assigned to this diagnosis, resp. about 5-fold the rate of all other rural municipalities (see Table 6-1 and Table 6-3)

effects from perinatal complications 44 % of all visits assigned to this diagnosis, resp. about 11-fold the rate of all other rural municipalities

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congenital complications and chromosome anomalities 43 % of all visits assigned to this diagnosis, resp. about 11-fold the rate of all other rural municipalities

Concerning diseases of the respiratory system ”only” 12 % of all visits assigned to this diagnosis, resp. about 2-fold the rate of all other rural municipalities, had been listed. These findings could be interpreted as long term effects of cancerogenous and/or mutagenous and/or teratogenous environmental loads which are specific for these two municipalities. Such environmental loads are, following the findings in Chapters 5.1 and 5.3, the immission and deposition of PM10 and heavy metals as Ni, As, Cd originating from near ground fly ash sources exceeding the limit values multifold. The same substances may be found in drinking water from wells and groundwater in this area (see Chapter 5.2.2). A few indications of health effects associated with for example nickel, found in a short Internet search with the keywords ”nickel + mutagen”, may be cited here: •

Observed effects of nickel (a carcinogen and mutagen) in aquatic environments include tissue damage, genotoxicity, and growth reduction... (www.epa.gov/region5superfund/ecology/html/toxprofiles.htm)

As a potential mutagen, nickel can cause chromosome damage both in vitro and in vivo; and on a molecular basis, nickel is found to induce DNA damage... (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_u ids=8187719&dopt=Abstract)

Although by itself it is a weak mutagen, nickel (II) is able to significantly enhance the genotoxicity of other mutagens and carcinogens... (carcin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/3/455)

Also cadmium and chromium are classified as carcinogen and mutagen, arsenic as carcinogen.

So, the three indications named above, are clearly associated with the exposure to nickel and other heavy metals. Additional, heavy metals are associated with an lot of other disease concerning •

the immune system and therefore infectious diseases and allergies

the central nervous system

the gastrointestinal system (stomach and bowel)

the ears

the skin and subcutaneous tissues

and last not least a lot of not classifiable clinical and laboratory findings

More details will overstep the objectives of this study and should be subject to scientifically properly designed and performed epidemiological studies, or at least an expertise elaborated by a specialist for environmental medicine.

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Recommendations Improvement of health statistics by: 1. Listing of incidents instead of visits 2. Further differentiation of classification of diseases according to WHO guidelines 3. Refinement of spatial resolution of the place of residence (Cadastral Units instead of Municipalities, due the high spatial variation of airborne pollutants, see chapt. 5) 4. Establishment of adjusted monitoring programs to quantify and allocate the concentrations of the suspected pollutants in air, water, soil, plants and foodstuff as well as their propagation patterns and functional chains. See also Chapters 5.1.2 (Air Pollution), 5.2.2 (Surface water) and 5.3.2 (Soil and Groundwater).

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Table 6-2. Percentage of Visit Rates in Hospitals (average of all rural muncipalities =100%).

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% FK + Kastriot / all other rural mun.

without Fushe Kosove + Kastriot

Group of diseases (KN 10)

Fushe Kosove + Kastriot

all rural municipalities

Table 6-3. Visit Rates in hospitals in Kastriot & Fushe Kosove vs. all other rural municipalities.

Effects from perinatal complications

1

4

0

1109

Congenital complications, chromosome anomalities

1

8

1

1062

Neoplasms (tumours)

5

20

4

467

301

911

258

353

7

19

6

298

41

104

37

283

196

491

175

280

Ears, mastoide processes

30

75

27

276

Injuries, intoxications and other external causes

60

147

54

274

Psychiatric and personality disorders

25

59

22

267

Blood, hemotoporesis organs and immune system

12

27

11

255

Eyes

36

80

32

247

112

247

102

242

23

49

21

235

Urogenital tract

114

236

105

225

Muscularsceletal system and connected tissues

127

254

118

215

84

160

78

204

Respiratory system

776

1396

732

191

Infectous diseases

101

178

95

187

7

11

7

152

246

343

239

144

2303

4820

2126

227

External impacts on health conditions Pregnancy, birth and puerparal Endocrinology, nutrition and metabolic disorders Cardiovascular system

Not classifiable clinical and laboratory findings Central Nervous System

Skin and subcutane tissues

External causes of morbility and mortality Gastrointestinal system sum

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Table 6-4. Ranking of rurale municipalities by visit rates in hospitals. Morbidity in Rurale Municipalities in Kosovo

Hospital visits / 1000 inhabitants (Average of all rurale municipalities = 100

300

250

200

150

100

50

Kamenicë

Istok

Podujevë

Kacanik

Drenasi

Skenderaj

Vushtrri

Suharekë

Malishevë

Viti

Dragashi

Klinë

Lipjan

Decani

Fushë Kosove

Kastriot

Shtime

0

Table 6-5. Visit rates in hospitals for selected indications in Kastriot & Fushe Kosove. Morbidity in Kastriot and Fushe Kosove Gastrointestinal system Infectous diseases Respiratory system Skin and subcutane tissues Urogenital tract Central Nervous System Hemotoporesis organs & immune system Cardiovascular system Endocrinology / metabolic disorders Pregnancy, birth and puerparal Neoplasms (tumours) Congenital & chromosom anomalities

Hospital visits / 1000 inhabitants (Average of all rurale municipalities = 100)

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1.200

1.100

1.000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

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Other aspects

6.6.1

Safety issues

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A preliminary discussion has been held with the airport authorities. The proposed sites are within the airport approaching zones but the new power plant structures will not be higher than the existing ones. Proper aviation lights and markings were requested as well as the exact coordinates of the high structures. To minimize traffic congestion the railway should be utilised as much as possible for transport of equipment. This should be possible especially in the Kosovo B and Kosovo A site alternatives. Road transports through Kastriot/Obiliq centre should be avoided due to traffic safety issues. There is an alternative route from the NE. The access road to be constructed in the Bivolak site alternative should pass outside the Plemetin village centre for traffic safety reasons. Other safety issues are the protection against fire and explosion on the TPP site. Risks of this type will be minimized by a buffer zone in the order of 200 meters between habitated areas and the power plant as well as storage facilities for dangerous substances. 6.6.2

Noise The main noise sources during operation of the TPP are the cooling tower, the inlets of ventilation units and outlets of the ventilation system on the roof of the buildings. The noise is characteristically a stable, humming sound, which will be emitted continuously around the clock and year. Lignite transport, crushing plant and stackerreclaimers emit noise outdoors. The EU has not issued any limit or guideline values for ambient noise. The World Bank guidelines for ambient noise levels apply to residential areas, industrial areas and commercial areas. The World Bank guidelines state that the ambient noise should be lower than 55 dB(A) for residential, institutional and educational areas outside of the project property boundaries during the day and 45 dB(A) during the night. In industrial and commercial areas noise should not exceed 70 dB(A) at any time. Alternatively noise abatement measures should achieve a maximum increase in background levels of 3 dB(A) (World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998). Inlets and outlets of the ventilation system should be located well away from the nearest settlements and turned away from these. The emitted noise can be reduced through additional technical solutions if required. A buffer zone of about 200 meters should be sufficient to achieve the guideline values at the nearest settlements at all the sites, although the Bivolak site may prove problematic as several settlements will be located at the border of the TPP site, and the Bivolak village will be located close to the TPP. The change in the ambient noise level will in any case be significant in the surroundings of the Bivolak site. The corresponding change at the Kosovo B and Kosovo A sites will not be very significant. The noise issue has to be carefully studied at the Kosovo B site as well as the Plemetin village is located close by.

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Vibration Vibration is not a significant issue as the vibrating machinery will be equipped with dampening mountings. Transports of heavy equipment during construction may cause some temporary vibrations at the houses closest to the transport routes. Significant vibration will not be detected at the closest settlements, and will not affect structures in the vicinity of the TPP at any of the sites.

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OTHER FACTORS POTENTIALLY INFLUENCING SITE SELECTION In this chapter other factors with relevance to site selection that are mentioned in the TOR are presented. These have partly been dealt with earlier in the report from an impact point of view, but here they are analysed from a more technical and economical feasibility point of view. Soil pollution The soil of the Kosovo A site alternative is known to be polluted by former activities and storage of hazardous substances. If this site is chosen it will have to be cleaned up, i.e. large amounts of soil will need to be removed and disposed of in a sustainable manner. This component is included in the Energy Sector Clean-up and Land Reclamation Project. The extent of the pollution is not known, and thus the costs of rehabilitation of the site can not be calculated exactly. A cost estimate of 15 925 000 to 18 250 000 € has been given for the hazardous chemicals cleanup, dismantling and remediation of the Kosovo A TPP gasification plant area (Pohl 2006). This estimate is said to be conservative and it assumes all the hazardous waste including soil has to be disposed off site as hazardous waste and cannot be backfilled into Mirash OPM. Pohl gives a disposal cost of ~300 €/t for the disposal of phenol contaminated soil. The amount of phenol contaminated soil to be disposed of in the calculations of Pohl 2006 is 5 000 t, but he clearly states that there is no foundation for this estimate of the volume of soil to be disposed of as no proper investigations have been carried out. The cost for the clean-up of the Kosovo A site could therefore be substantially greater or smaller. At Kosovo B no evidence of pollution differing from the situation in surrounding areas, where the ash has polluted the topsoil with metals, was found. Small scale pollution caused by storage of oil barrels or leaking equipment in the open at the site, as well as from the existing oil and chemical storage buildings of Kosovo B which are located at the site may occur, but is most likely not a significant problem. Fuel supply If lignite will be mined from the Southern Field south of the existing mines in the future after the Sibovc field is exhausted it will probably be impossible or at least very difficult to transport the lignite to the Bivolak site due to the existing mines and the future Sibovc mine. The new Kosovo C TPP will need some 4 million tons of lignite annually per 500 MW block i.e. the total lignite consumption of the plant will gradually climb up to 16 million tons annually. That is almost double the amount of the current production. As Kosovo A will stop that portion of the lignite production, approximately 5 million t/a, can be diverted to the new TPP. Kosovo B will continue its operation as before up to 2029. It is estimated to need some 5 million per annum. At the moment there is no clear plan how the lignite supply to the new TPP will be organized i.e. whether it will have its separate mining operation or it will receive lignite from a combined mining operation starting at the SW of Sibovc. Kosovo A and B sites can use the same conveyor corridors from the mine.

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If separate mining operation is started the lead time to develop the mine, get it licensed and population relocated might be so long that the timely fuel supply will be in danger at least for the first units. Therefore the joint operation feeding KEK plants would offer much safer approach in this respect. The mining operation may suffer short stops due to bad weather, equipment failures etc. and therefore it is envisaged to have an intermediate lignite stock yard at the plant. It will have a capacity of 14 days at the plants rated capacity. Water supply The new TPP will need some 45 million cubic meters of raw water (up to 1,6 m3/s). Apparently this amount is available through the Iber-Lepenc system from the Gazivodo Lake. This system can serve any of the sites considered. In case of siting the plant at Kosovo A its current water supply sources the Batllava and Lapi rivers can also be considered besides the Iber-Lepenc source. The raw water quality is fairly good although there are some seasonal variations as the channels are open. There is a separate project, funded by EAR, starting to verify the adequacy of the water supply. Iber-Lepenc is also planning to refurbish partly damaged channel systems in order to reduce leakage losses. Ash and FGD residues utilisation or disposal Ash and FGD residues disposal is more difficult in the Bivolak site alternative compared to the two other site alternatives if Mirash and Bardh are to be utilized for disposal because the Sibovc mine will be located in between the TPP site and the disposal area. In this respect the Bivolak site is most unfavourable as the transportation distance is double compared with Kosovo A & B sites. There is a company interested in buying the gypsum from the FGD plant for panel making. Anyhow there must be a back-up waste dump available for the case this product cannot be sold. Ash dumps The ash dump at the Kosovo B site will have to be relocated if this site is chosen. This component is not included in the Energy Sector Clean-up and Land Reclamation Project. Cost estimates for the relocation of the ash dump to the old mines range from 6,6 MEUR (Pohl 2006; including preparation of Mirash mine for ash deposition) to 30 MEUR. Whether these calculations include preparation of Mirash for ash deposition in compliance with EU regulations for waste landfills, especially regarding permeability of bottom lining, is not known.

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ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF SITE ALTERNATIVES The results of the Environmental and Social Assessment of the three selected sites are summarized in Table 8-1, where the essential characteristics and impacts of each site have been described qualitatively in a form which may make the direct comparison easier. Details are presented in the chapters assigned. Table 8-2 is an attempt to quantify these findings. The sites have been given points for the different environmental and social impacts and for some aspects of more technical character potentially affecting site selection. The smaller the point given is, the better the site in question is in this respect. Thus the site with the overall smallest cumulative amount of points is the most suitable site as a whole based on this Site selection study. Some annotations have to be given for readers who will not study the details of this report. •

Air pollution will, despite the fact that this aspect has been identified as a crucial burden for the environment and people in the project area, not be a relevant aspect for site selection. The current situation is a legacy from the past caused by outdated facilities, mismanagement and disregard of people and the environment. In the future, when this legacy hopefully will have been cleaned up, the new TPP Kosovo C will be in operation and the old TPP Kosovo A will have been decommissioned, all airborne pollutants will be far below the health-based limit values.

Sitnica River is the only receiving river of water from the TPP along a river stretch of about 10 km, so this item will be not relevant for site selection. With respect to water quality and surface water, only conditions at the sites have been taken into account for site evaluation. The contamination of the river is extremely high with concentrations of heavy metals and suspended solids exceeding the EU and World Banks limit multifold, and this will require a thorough modernisation of mining and energy production techniques according to EU standards. As in dry periods the natural water flow of Sitnica River is quite poor, dominated by waste water discharges also from untreated domestic sources and upstream sources, the remaining pollution will be still severe and require further improvements in order comply with EU regulations.

Even if the ongoing soil contamination by deposition of fly ash will cease, the contamination accumulated up to today will be a fact for decades as far as no mitigation measures are performed. Mitigation would be feasible (whereas costly) only for areas, where unacceptable risks for other resources and people are caused. This is the case in the vicinity of Kosovo A site as well as of Kosovo B site (due to the ash piles). At all other areas concerned, the land use has to be adapted to the (indicated but not yet verified) soil pollution level in compliance with EU standards.

As for the construction of a new TPP at all three sites, due to seismic risks, the soil has to be excavated up to a depth of 8 to 10 m for seating purposes. Therefore the presumed soil contamination at the former gasification plant site (site Kosovo A) could be eliminated with little few additional effort.

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Items with cultural, historical or archaeological heritage values have not been found at a first investigation stage performed. Generally, such findings will happen by chance during excavation works, so accompanying observations by archaeologists are recommended in the construction phase of the new TPP at the sites Kosovo B and Bivolak.

The findings concerning health aspects are caused by effects assumed to be associated with heavy metals, above all originating from airborne fly ash. This will also be a legacy from the past. Based on the findings they are mainly associated with the ash dumps and not as much with specific TPP sites. So, there is no significant influence on site selection. Even if the sources of pollution will be eliminated, elevated incidence rates of some diseases will be a fact for many years, due to the specific duration of latent periods between initiation and evidence.

After exhausting the Sibovc field from lignite, the Southern Field (south of the existing mines) ) or Field D to SE of Kosovo A are the options to be mined. Assuming that Kosovo C will still be operational at that point it will then probably be impossible or at least very difficult to transport the lignite to the Bivolak site, and again a new site may have to be found in a quite densely habitated and utilized area in the proximity of the airport thus causing new environmental and social conflicts and also costs. Also the transport of the ash to Mirash mine might be problematic.

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Kosovo B

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Air pollution Surface waters Soil

Ground water

Fauna & flora, habitats

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by mismanagement only

Environmental assessment

no risk

none

Kosovo A

abandoned industrial site, soil contamination with hydrocarbons as well as by airborne deposition of heavy metals to be expected low hydraulic permeability of soil, valuable groundwater reserve probably polluted none

no population on the site, N 200 m to Obilic, S 200 m to Dardhisht

KEK property; abandoned industrial site (former gasification plant and fertilizer plant), TPP Kosovo A, ash dumps, extensive agriculture existing, relocation of active utilities+ clearing of inactive structures required, potential conflicts with infrastructure for Kosovo A before decommissioning level, acceptable impact on landscape

see chap.

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.3

5.4

6.1

6.1

6.2

6.3

7

7

7

6.6

6..6

6.4

no risk

good

no conflicts

none

none

6.5

Other issues

sufficient water supply available at or near to all sites

difficult

safety measures required

by mismanagement only

road, Sitnica bridge and transmission line to be constructed crossing the floodplain, transmission lines may need to be relocated slightly hilly, quite exposed, severe impact on landcsape

about 30 - 40 households to be resettled, W 100 m to Beris, 300 m to Bivolak, E 200 - 500 m to Hamidija, scattered farmhouses to be resettled Mainly private property; Sitnica floodplain and oxbows, rich and small-sized structured cultural landscape

Social assessment

oxbow of Sitnica river; water quality very bad, inundation some brooks and ditches with quite good water quality, risk floodplain of Sitnica, partly inundation risk partially abandoned industrial site, not suitable for medium suitability for agriculture, no contamination agriculture due to contamination by airborne deposition of heavy metals high hydraulic permeability of soil, valuable groundwater 15% high hydraulic permeability of soil + valuable reserve, groundwater quality / pollution unknown groundwater reserve, 85% poor permeability of soil + poor groundwater reserve NW oxbow of Sitnica with some biological value, high biodiversity at national level, protected / contaminated by fly ash endangered species, natural biotopes, conflict with EU guidelines + international conventions, protection recommended some temporary Roma people settlements on the site, relocation intended, N 200 m to Plementina, SE 400 m to Obiliq Mainly KEK property; abandoned industrial site and wastelands, extensive agriculture, Kosovo B TPP, switchyard, ash dumps existing, warehouses & office buildings to be relocated

Population on the site / nearby Properties, land cover & land use on the site & nearby Infrastructure & Utilities

fairly level, significant impact on landscape

medium risk, can be avoided by embankments

fair

conflicts easily avoidable

Topography + landscape Cultural, Historical and Archeological values Health effects Safety issues Noise and vibrations Fuel supply from South Field, ash disposal Water availability Flooding risk

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o

1 2 3 4 5

Kosovo A

Environmental restrictions Social restrictions Other restrictions sum

Bivolak

Environmental assessment Air pollution Surface waters on the site Ground water Soil Fauna & flora, habitats Social assessment Properties, resettlement, compensation Infrastructure & Utilities Topography and landscape Cultural, historical and archeological values Health effects Safety issues Noise and vibrations Others Fuel supply from South Field, ash deposition Water supply Flooding risk

Kosovo B

Table 8-2. Site Evaluation.

o

o

o

2 4 2 2

4 3 4 5

1 2 1 1

2 1 3 1

5 5 5 1

1 2 2 1

o

o

o

1

2

1

o

o

o

2

5

1

o

o

o

2

1

1

10 8 4 22

16 18 6 40

5 7 2 14

Ranking not relevant for site selection no restrictions low restrictions medium restrictions high restrictions very high restrictions

Summarising all aspects investigated in this study, the ranking of the three alternative sites is: 1. Most favourable: Kosovo A site 2. Acceptable: Kosovo B site 3. Not acceptable: Bivolak site

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This result reflects the simple fact, that a site already contaminated or disturbed should be preferred for site selection, as in general there will be no or less ecological and social conflicts compared with a virgin site. Concerning the site Bivolak it should be mentioned, that the conflict with the ecological values of the floodplain of River Sitnica and the groundwater resource could be mitigated (but not fully avoided) by shifting the TPP allocation about 500 meters to the south and relocating the lignite yard to another place between the mining area and the power plant. This measure will have no effect on the ranking (the total sum of points in Table 8-2 will drop by 3 points only).

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POLICY, LEGAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK Kosovo is an entity under interim administration of United Nations. Kosovo is governed in a democratic manner by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government in Kosovo (executive, judicial and legislative), in conformity with the Constitutional Framework and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999). The applicable legislation in Kosovo: i. ii. iii. iv.

The regulations promulgated and endorsed by SRSG (Special Representative of Secretary General) – Administrative Instructions for implementation of Regulations; Laws promulgated by the Assembly of Kosovo and announced by the SRSG – Administrative Instructions for implementation of Regulations; Laws promulgated before 1989; and Laws promulgated after 1989 which are not discriminative.

Below is a listing and short description of Laws and Administrative Instructions related to, social and environmental issues, that are directly related to the construction and operation of thermal power plant (TPP) Kosovo C. 1. Spatial Planning i. Law on Spatial Planning No. 2003/14 promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/30; ii. Administrative Instruction No. 04/2004 on the Establishment of Spatial Planning Council in acted Government in Kosovo; iii. Administrative Instruction no. 40 and protocol no. 01/2005 for the conditions of location, issuance of urban agreement and permission of MESP; iv. Administrative Instruction no. 54/2005 no. of protocol 15/05 of MESP 2. Expropriation and Illegal occupation of property i. Law on Expropriation is incanted 1978; ii. European Convention for Human Rights (ECHR); iii. UNMIK Regulation 2001/19; iv. UNMIK Regulation No. 2006/10 On the Resolution of Claims Relating to Private Immovable Property; v. UNMIK Regulation No. 2002/12 on the Establishment of the Kosovo Trust Agency; vi. UNMIK Regulation No. 2000/45 on the Self-government of Municipalities in Kosovo; vii. Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006 3. Environmental protection, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental permits and transmission line i. Law on Environmental Protection adopted by the Assembly of Kosovo and promulgated by the SRSG no. 2003/09; ii. Law on Air Protection promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation no. 2004/48 was issued; iii. The Tractate for Creation of Energy Community; iv. Kosovo Water Law No.2004/21 promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2004/41; v. Kosovo Environmental Protection Strategy; vi. The Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006-1010; European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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Administrative Instruction No. 02/2004 ”On Establishment of Inspectorate of Environmental Protection; Administrative Instruction 2004/09 of MESP; Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006; Administrative Instruction no. 3/2004 for licensing of persons and enterprises for drafting of report for EEI is in acted Government in Kosovo; Administrative Instruction no. 25 and protocol no. 22/03, issued by MESP; Administrative Instruction for issuance of ecological permits no. 565 and protocol no. 26/05, signed by the Minister of MESP; Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006; Law on Environmental Protection promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/09; Law on the Energy Regulator promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation No. 2004/20.

5. Health i. Law on Occupational Safety, Health and the Working Environment No. 2003/19, promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2003/33; ii. Law on Health no. 2004/4 promulgated with UNMIK Regulation 2004/31; iii. Law for Sanitary Inspectorate announced with Regulation 2003/39; iv. The Kosovo health strategy 2005-2015; v. Action Plan for European Partnership - Kosovo 2006 6. Transport i. Law on Roads announced with Regulation 2003/24; ii. Law on Transport of Dangerous Goods, promulgated with the Regulation no. 2004/17; iii. Administrative Instruction No. 2005/07 of MTTC; iv. Action Plan for European Partnership – Kosovo 2006; 7. Cultural heritage i. Law on Cultural Heritage no. 02/L-88 promulgated with the Regulation no. 2006/22; ii. Law on Spatial Planning promulgated with the UNMIK Regulation 2003/30; iii. Action Plan for European Partnership 8. Natural values i. Law on Nature Conservation promulgated with UNMIK Regulation No.2006/22; ii. Government of Kosovo has issued the Administrative Instruction 04/2006; iii. MESP has issued the Administrative Instruction for the way of marking of zones protected from nature no. protocol 01/07 no.78; The Treaty establishing the Energy Community The European Community and some southeastern European states, including Kosovo have signed the Treaty establishing the Energy Community on the 25th of October 2005. For Kosovo because of the international administration this tractate was signed by the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG). The parties of this tractate shall create an energy community. Chapter III- Acquis for environment, section 12 determines that each contracting party shall implement the acquis communautaire on environment. The “acquis European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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communautaire on environment”, for the purpose of this Treaty, means (i) Council Directive 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, as amended by Council Directive 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997 and Directive 2003/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003, (ii) Council Directive 1999/32/EC of 26 April 1999 relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels and amending Directive 93/12/EEC, (iii) Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants, and (iv) Article 4(2) of Directive 79/409/EEC of the Council of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds. The timetable for the implementation of the acquis on environment is as follows: 1) Each Contracting Party shall implement Council Directive 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, as amended by Council Directives 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997 and Directive 2003/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003, on the entry into force of this Treaty. 2) Each Contracting Party shall implement Council Directive 1999/32/EC of 26 April 1999 relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels and amending Directive 93/12/EEC by 31 December 2011. 3) Each Contracting Party shall implement Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants by 31 December 2017. 4)

Each Contracting Party shall implement Article 4(2) of Directive 79/409/EEC of the Council of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds on the entry into force of this treaty.

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ANNEXES Annex 1 - Drawings and maps: 4/1 Topographical overview map of the region around the site with infrastructure. 4/2 Geological map 4/3 Layout drawings for the three sites with existing infrastructure with emphasis on all common systems and interconnections. 4/4 Plot plan of the development stages. 4/5 Layout of the new unit with all buildings, structures, facilities, buried pipes and cable ducts, channels, roads, rail tracks and high voltage lines. 4/6 General layout of the unit (two unit sizes) with 2 longitudinal and 2 sectional drawings. 4/7 General arrangement of coal storage yard and ash handling system. 4/8 Map showing the site and the closest 400 kV transmission line/substation. Annex 2 - Air pollution maps Annex 3 - References used in site selection study preparation. Annex 4 - Task 4 report preparers—individuals and organizations Annex 5 - Photolog

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ANNEX 1 - Drawings and maps

see separate annex/file

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ANNEX 2 - Air pollution maps see separate annex/file

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ANNEX 3 - References Association of Kosovo Municipalities 2005. Kosovo Municipalities short Profile. Carl Bro 2003: Environment Impact Assessment and Action Plan for Kosovo A and B Power Plants and Coal Mines. Environmental Impact Assessment. - June 2003. Korporata Energjetike e Kosovës (KEK). Electrowatt-Ekono Oy 2006a. Pre-feasibility study 2006. GTZ 1995. Environmental Handbook, Volume 3, Eschborn 1995. Hanke et al. 1993: Environmental Rehabilitation and Development Plan for the Lignite Area Lower Lusatia, published by the German Federal Agency for Environment, 1993. Kampsax International 2006. Technical Assistance for Supervision of New Tipping Scheme for Obiliq A Power Plant Kosovo. KEK 2002. Report on Environmental Situation in KEK 2001. KEK 2006: Kosovo Energy Sector Clean-up and Land Reclamation Project. Pre-Feasibility Environmental Impact Assessment. Final Draft May 2, 2006. - E1395 Vol. 2. Museum of Kosova 2007: Detailed archaeological field survey in the "zone of interest" (Obiliq-TCA, Plemetin-TCB, and Bivolak). Working report. - Pristina, May 2007. Pohl, W. 2006: Social and environmental support project for Kosovo's lignite power initiative. Clean-up and land reclamation project (CLRP). Preparatory works report and prefeasibility study. Final version 2. - World Bank. 8.2.2006. Pöyry, CESI, Terna & Decon 2007a: Task 1. Electricity market review. Draft report. Pöyry, CESI, Terna & Decon 2007b: Task 3 - Technology review. Draft report. Qorraj 2003. in: UNMIK ON AIR, Health Hazards at Obilic. Rudarski Institut / INKOS, 1990: Utvrdjvanje zivotne sredine od partojezih energetskihi drugih objektata a blizoy i daljoj okolini sour elektropirreda Kosovo“ – II. Knjica, utvrdji vanje imisija - Analisa resultata. STEAG consortium 2006: Complementary Mining Plan for Sibovc SW. Draft Final Report. European Agency for Reconstruction. Contract 02/KOS01/10/021. April 2006. UNEP/OCHA Assessment Mission 2003: Phenol spill in Sitnica and Ibar river system. Assessment Mission Kosovo/Serbia 17 - 26 February 2003. Report. - Geneva, February 2003. Vattenfall 2005: Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Field, Final Report. Vattenfall Europe Mining AG & Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH 2005a: Preparation of a mid term plan for existing coal mines and a main mining plan for the development of the new Sibovc mine. Europeaid/116986/D/SV/KOS. Final Report. Part I Basic investigations. - European Agency for Reconstruction. Vattenfall Europe Mining AG & Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH 2005b: Mid term plan for existing coal mines. Draft report. Executive summary - European Agency for Reconstruction. February 15, 2005. World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998 http://enrin.grida.no/htmls/kosovo/SoE/biodiver.htm. http://www.birdlife.org/ http://www.euinkosovo.org/upload/Fact%20Sheet%20on%20Energy%20March%202007.pdf http://www.kek-energy.com/kek-cmnPg.jsp?mID=167&cat=161&l=2 http://www.ks-gov.net/mem/pdf/PMU%20-%20director-final.pdf European Agency for Reconstruction Pöyry-CESI-Terna-Decon


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ANNEX 4 - Task 4 report preparers—individuals and organizations This report is part of a larger project entitled "Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission". The project has been carried out by a consortium consisting of Pöyry, CESI, Terna and Decon, led by Pöyry and appointed for the task by the European Agency for Reconstruction. The project leader of the consortium has been Mr. Tuomo Marjokorpi from Pöyry. Decon has had the main responsibility for the preparation of this report, Task 4 report - Site selection. The Key Experts have been Dr. Herbert Hanke from Decon, and Mr. Thomas Bonn from Pöyry. Subconsultants appointed for various tasks during the preparation of this study are: Subcontractors Sub-task 4.1 Environmental/ social impact assessment

Aspects Air pollution modelling Soil & waters Fauna & flora, biotopes Laws & regulations Cultural heritage

Subcontractor GfA Münster / Germany AGROVET, Laboratory, Fushe Kosove Karl Roth, Biologist, Salem / Germany Dr. Fadil Millaku, Biologist, University of Prishtina Agron Maxhuni & collegues, Lawyers, Prishtina Museum of Kosovo, Prishtina

Mr. Vesa Roivas and Mr. Antero Keskinen from Pöyry have assisted in the georeferencing and preparation of maps and orthophotos. Mr. Mustaf Neziri has assisted in, a.o. contacts to ministries and other institutions, data aquisition, interpretation and practical arrangements.

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ANNEX 5 - Photolog Kosovo B site

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Bivolak site

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Studies to support the development of new generation capacities and related transmission Task 4 - Site selection Volume 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Main report

European Agency for Reconstruction PĂśyry-CESI-Terna-Decon

November, 2007 Page 104 (104)