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Gabriela Monteroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Westwards Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Academy of St Martin in the Fields with Joshua Bell Tuesday, February 25, 2020
132nd Season 2019-2020
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Up next Prepare to be dazzled
ollowing three standing ovations from our audience in 2018, Augustin Hadelich returns to dazzle us again — this time with the Canton Symphony Orchestra in Canton. Only in his mid-30s, Augustin Hadelich is already one of the greats. Named 2018 Instrumentalist of the Year by Musical America (announced while he was in Akron), he has performed with every major orchestra in the United States, plus an ever-growing number throughout Europe, the UK, and Asia. For this concert, he will perform Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concert in D major, Op. 35. Founded in 1937, the Canton Symphony Orchestra is led by Gerhardt Zimmermann. Subscribers: If you are interested in chartered bus transportation between Akron’s EJ Thomas Hall and Canton, please contact Tuesday Musical at 330-761-3460. Augustin Hadelich, violin Canton Symphony Orchestra Saturday, March 21, 7:30 p.m. Umstattd Performing Arts Hall in Canton
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EJ Thomas Performing Arts Hall—The University of Akron Tuesday, January 21, 2020, 7:30 p.m.
Gabriela Montero’s Westwards Westwards is pianist Gabriela Montero’s homage to the physical, cultural, and psychological emigration westwards of three early 20th century Russian pianist-composers: Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, and Stravinsky. All three emigrations were destined to collide with the concurrently evolving world of film. In recognition of the role played by Los Angeles in the lives of Stravinsky and Rachmaninoff, Gabriela Montero will conclude the program by improvising a piano score to Charlie Chaplin’s short film, The Immigrant. Sergei Prokofiev Sarcasms: Five Pieces for Piano, Op. 17 1891-1953 Tempestuoso Allegro rubato Allegro precipitato Smanioso Precipitoissimo Prokofiev Piano Sonata No. 2 in D minor, Op. 14 Allegro ma non troppo Scherzo. Allegro marcato Andante Vivace Sergei Rachmaninoff Piano Sonata No 2, Op. 36 1873-1943 Allegro agitato Non allegro Allegro molto INTERMISSION Igor Stravinsky Piano Sonata in F-sharp minor 1882-1971 Allegro Vivo Andante Allegro Charlie Chaplin The Immigrant 1889-1977 Film screening with improvised piano score by Gabriela Montero. Restored by Lobster Films and Cineteca di Bologna under the aegis of Association Chaplin © Film Preservation Associates Inc., 2012 © Lobster Films Tonight’s concert and related education/community engagement activities are presented in collaboration with The University of Akron School of Music’s Kulas Concert Series. Gabriela Montero is performing this evening on Tuesday Musical’s Three Graces Steinway D Piano.
Among Tuesday Musical’s season supporters:
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The Artist Gabriela Montero, piano
abriela Montero’s visionary interpretations and unique compositional gifts have garnered her critical acclaim and a devoted following on the world stage. Anthony Tommasini remarked in The New York Times that “Montero’s playing had everything: crackling rhythmic brio, subtleshadings, steely power... soulful lyricism...unsentimental expressivity.” Recipient of the prestigious 2018 Heidelberger Frühling Music Prize, Montero’s recent and forthcoming highlights include debuts with the San Francisco Symphony (Edward Gardner), New World Symphony (Michael Tilson Thomas), Yomiuri Nippon Symphony in Tokyo (Aziz Shokhakimov), Orquesta de Valencia (Pablo Heras-Casado), and the Bournemouth Symphony (Carlos Miguel Prieto), the latter of which will feature her as Artistin-Residence for the 2019-2020 season. Montero also recently performed her own “Latin” Concerto with the Orchestra of the Americas at the Hamburg Elbphilharmonie and Edinburgh Festival, as well as at Carnegie Hall and the New World Center with the NYO2. Additional highlights include a European tour
Fauré Requiem Metropolitan Chorus
James Mismas, Conductor February 29, 2020 4:00PM Holy Trinity Lutheran Church Akron, OH
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with the City of Birmingham Symphony and Mirga Gražinyt-Tyla; a second tour with the cutting edge Scottish Ensemble, this time with Montero’s latest composition Babel as the centerpiece of the program; her long-awaited return to Warsaw for
School of Music
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the Chopin in Europe Festival, marking 23 years since her prize win at the International Chopin Piano Competition; and return invitations to work with Marin Alsop and the Baltimore Symphony, Jaime Martin and the Orquestra de Cadaqués for concerts in Madrid and Barcelona, and Alexander Shelley and the National Arts Centre Orchestra of Canada. Celebrated for her exceptional musicality and ability to improvise, Montero has performed with many of the world’s leading orchestras to date, including: the Royal Liverpool, Rotterdam, Dresden, Oslo, Vienna Radio, and NetherlandsRadio philharmonic orchestras; the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, NDR Sinfonieorchester Hamburg, NDR Radiophilharmonie Hannover, Zürcher Kammerorchester, Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, and Australian Chamber Orchestra; the Pittsburgh, Detroit, Houston, Atlanta, Toronto, Baltimore, Vienna, City of Birmingham, Barcelona, Lucerne, and Sydney symphony orchestras; the Belgian National Orchestra, Württembergisches Kammerorchester Heilbronn, and The Cleveland Orchestra, orchestra of the Komische Oper Berlin, and Residentie Orkest.
A graduate and Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music in London, Montero is also a frequent recitalist and chamber musician, having given concerts at such distinguished venues as the Wigmore Hall, Kennedy Center, Vienna Konzerthaus, Berlin Philharmonie, Frankfurt Alte Oper, Cologne Philharmonie, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Munich Herkulessaal, Sydney Opera House, Amsterdam Concertgebouw, Luxembourg Philharmonie, Lisbon Gulbenkian Museum, Manchester Bridgewater Hall, Seoul’s LG Arts Centre, Hong Kong City Hall, the National Concert Hall in Taipei, and at the Barbican’s ‘Sound Unbound’, Edinburgh, Salzburg, SettembreMusica in Milan and Turin, Lucerne, Ravinia, Gstaad, Saint-Denis, Violon sur le Sable, Aldeburgh, Cheltenham, Rheingau, Ruhr, Trondheim, Bergen, and Lugano festivals. Montero is also an award-winning and bestselling recording artist. Her most recent album, released in autumn 2019 on the Orchid Classics label, features her own “Latin” Concerto and Ravel’s Piano Concerto in G Major, recorded with the Orchestra of the Americas in Frutillar, Chile. Her previous recording on Orchid Classics
EnsEmblEs University Chorale, Chamber Choir, Women’s Concert Choir, Men’s Glee Club, Malone Opera Theatre, Symphonic Band, Marching Band, Jazz Ensemble, Piano Ensemble, Flute Ensemble, Percussion Ensemble, Woodwind Ensemble, Strings Ensemble, Commercial Recording and Performance Ensemble, Music Ministry Experience PROGRAms B.A. in General Music B.A. in Music Ministry
B.S. in Music Education Certificate in Piano Pedagogy
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AUDITIOn DATEs See a schedule at www.malone.edu/music. sCHOlARsHIPs Scholarships are available for majors and non-majors. Malone University is an accredited institutional member of the National Association of Schools of Music.
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The Artist features Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto No. 2 and her first orchestral composition, Ex Patria, winning Montero her first Latin Grammy® for Best Classical Album (Mejor Álbum de Música Clásica). Others include Bach and Beyond, which held the top spot on the Billboard Classical Charts for several months and garnered her two Echo Klassik Awards: the 2006 Keyboard Instrumentalist of the Year and 2007 Award for Classical Music without Borders. In 2008, she also received a Grammy® nomination for her album Baroque, and in 2010 she released Solatino, a recording inspired by her Venezuelan homeland and devoted to works by Latin American composers. Montero made her formal debut as a composer with Ex Patria, a tone poem designed to illustrate and protest Venezuela’s descent into lawlessness, corruption, and violence. The piece was premiered in 2011 by the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields. Montero’s first full-length composition, Piano Concerto No. 1, the “Latin“ Concerto, was first performed at the Leipzig Gewandhaus with the MDR Sinfonieorchester and Kristjan Järvi, and subsequently recorded and filmed with the Orchestra of the Americas for the ARTE Konzert channel. Winner of the 4th International Beethoven Award, Montero is a committed advocate for human rights, whose voice regularly reaches beyond the concert hall. She was named an Honorary Consul by Amnesty International in 2015, and honored by the Human Rights Foundation for her ongoing commitment to human rights advocacy in Venezuela. She was invited to participate in the 2013 Women of the World Festival at London’s Southbank Centre, and has spoken and performed twice at the World Economic Forum in Davos-Klosters. She was also awarded the 2012 Rockefeller Award for her contribution to the arts and was a featured performer at Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential Inauguration. Born in Venezuela, Montero started her piano studies at age four with Lyl Tiempo, making her concerto debut at age eight in her hometown of Caracas. This led to a scholarship from the government to study privately in the United States and then at the Royal Academy of Music in London with Hamish Milne. 8
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Program Notes Without speaking a word Essay by Ariane Todes
here are 40 seconds in The Immigrant that encapsulate exactly why I fell in love with Charlie Chaplin, just as millions across the world have done before me. As the boat bringing the Tramp and his fellow immigrants nears the United States, the Statue of Liberty comes into view – Charlie bites his lip with emotion, but the moment is broken as the stewards pen them in like cattle. Charlie asserts himself in typical slapstick fashion: the kick to the backside of the authority figure. Hope, emotion, irony, rebellion, courage, childishness, comedy – all crammed into one little sequence. In all his films, Chaplin constantly flits like this between aspects of the human spirit and bigger social issues, using infinite shades of light and dark. Without speaking a word, he says the most profound things about us. His sympathy is always with the underdog, in this case beleaguered people coming to the U.S. When filming started in 1917, the U.S. Immigrant Act had just been passed, restricting the entry
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of “undesirables”, people from Asia and the illiterate, so the issue was very real. And yet he also allows us to laugh at the seasick old man, murderous gamblers and the difficulties of trying to eat during a storm. Chaplin’s own arrival in the U.S. was far more agreeable. He first went in 1910 on the SS Cairnrona, aged only 21 but already an up-andcoming star of the London music hall, as part of Fred Karno’s prestigious vaudeville troupe (alongside Stan Laurel of later Laurel and Hardy fame). Variety wrote of his performance in The Wow-Wows, or A Night in a London Secret Society, that “Chaplin will do all right for America.” His first North American tour lasted 21 months, and he returned only a few months later, in October 1912, never to live in his homeland again. His comedic talent was spotted by Keystone Film Company scouts and in September 1913 he signed a contract for $150 a week as an actor. From that point, his rise was meteoric. In 1916 he joined Mutual with a salary of $675,000 to make 12 two-reel comedies – which would include The Immigrant – making him one of the best-paid
Program Notes people in the world. In June 1917 he signed to First National to make eight films for $1 million, with his own studio and total control over his own films. He was living the archetypal American dream. His wild success is even more surprising given the intense poverty and hardship in which he grew up. The son of music hall entertainers, he was reared by his mother Hannah Chaplin. When he was only 7, she had a breakdown and he was sent to the Lambeth Workhouse with his older brother Syd. He spent much of his childhood shuttling between various institutions for destitute children, and the care of his alcoholic father, also Charles. Maybe as an escape from all of this, he developed a bug for performing and joined the Eight Lancashire Lads clog-dancing troupe, touring England with them at the age of ten. By 13 he had abandoned education, although he remained an autodidact throughout his life and enjoyed peppering his writings and interviews with unusual words that make him sound somewhat pretentious. He was also passionate about music from an early age, writing in his autobiography about the moment he fell in love with it: “I suddenly became aware of a harmonica and a clarinet playing a weird, harmonious message... It was played with such feeling that I became conscious for the first time of what melody really was. My first awakening to music.” His musicality was self-evident – when he was still working with Karno on tour in Paris in 1909, Debussy came to see him backstage and told him: “You are instinctively a musician and a dancer.” Nijinsky once told him, “Your comedy is balletic, you are a dancer.” Chaplin taught himself violin, cello and piano, as he explains: “Since the age of 16 I
had practised from four to six hours a day in my bedroom. Each week I took lessons from the theatre conductor or from someone he recommended. As I played left handed, my violin was strung left handed with the bass bar and sounding post reversed. I had great ambitions to be a concert artist, or, failing that, to use it in a vaudeville act, but as time went on I realised that I could never achieve excellence, so I gave it up.” He even plays the violin in two films – the 1916 The Vagabond and 1952 Limelight, but over time his interest in music transferred towards composing, and he wrote beautiful, evocative scores for his feature films, as well as later in life going back to score many that originally featured a live accompanist. At one point, he even owned a music publishing company, which published his tunes, including Oh, that cello. A studio press release written in 1917, just after The Immigrant was finished, stated: “His chief hobby, however, is found in his violin. Every spare moment away from the studio is devoted to this instrument. He does not play from notes excepting in a very few instances. He can run through selections of popular operas by ear and if in the humor, can rattle off the famous Irish jig or some negro selection with the ease of a vaudeville entertainer. Chaplin admits that as a violinist he is no Kubelik or Elman but he hopes, nevertheless, to lay in concerts some day before very long.” Indeed, the idea for The Immigrant was initially a musical one, he wrote: “Even in those early comedies I strove for a mood; usually music created it. An old song called Mrs. Grundy created the mood for The Immigrant. The tune had a wistful tenderness that suggested two lonely derelicts getting married on a doleful, rainy day.”
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Inspired by this tune, Chaplin worked on the café scene of the second half of The Immigrant. One of the luxuries of his situation was that he could keep filming over and over again, improvising until he was happy – this scene took 384 takes. (His sidekick Edna Purviance reportedly became sick from eating so many beans.) It was only when that was finished, and he was looking for ideas for a second reel that he invented the backstory on the boat. By the time that was filmed, he had 40,000 feet of film to reduce to 1,800, a task that took 4 days and nights. The film went on to become one of Chaplin’s most popular films, and his only short film selected by the Library of Congress in 1998 for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant” – alongside several of his later features. In 1917, when The Immigrant came out, films were silent, and accompanied by a pianist, organ or an orchestra, depending on the size of the venue. They either improvised or worked off cue sheets provided by the film company – Chaplin supervised these for his early films. Everything changed in 1927 with the release
of Al Jolson’s The Jazz Singer. New technology meant that you could hear the actors speak and music became integral to the film. Handsome actors with squeaky voices were suddenly out of work (as parodied in Singin’ in the Rain) and the many musicians who had worked in cinemas lost their work. Chaplin resisted. He knew that the Tramp’s power, which made him beloved from Argentina to Zimbabwe, depended on him never speaking. In 1928 he started work on City Lights as a silent film, but featuring his own sound track for the first time (though heavily aided by Arthur Johnson). He compromised further with Modern Times, which started filming in 1934 and featured sound effects and Chaplin singing a nonsense song at the end. Chaplin never learned to read music, but in his scores for City Lights and Modern Times he demonstrates an innate musical sense of pace, rhythm, and structure, and an understanding of how drama and music relate to each other. He wrote: “I tried to compose elegant and romantic music to frame my comedies in contrast to the tramp character, for elegant music gave my
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comedies an emotional dimension. Musical arrangers rarely understood this. They wanted the music to be funny... I wanted the music to be a counterpoint of grace and charm.” While the encroachment of sound was problematic for Chaplin, it meant that Los Angeles became a magnet for composers and musicians from all over the world, some fleeing for their lives from the Nazis (Schoenberg, Korngold, Waxman, Rózsa, for example), or as political dissidents (Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Rachmaninov) – and some just to make a buck in the new market. The self-taught former cockney urchin with aspirations to high culture was like a kid in a sweetshop. Illustrious artists would often stop at his studio just off Sunset Boulevard or come to dinner, and Chaplin’s autobiography is full of wonderful anecdotes about these encounters. He describes dining with Rachmaninov at the house of the pianist Horowitz: “Rachmaninov was a strange-looking man, with something aesthetic and cloistral about him... Someone brought the topic round to religion and I confessed I was not a believer. Rachmaninov quickly interposed: ‘But how can you have art without religion?’ I was stumped for a moment. ‘I don’t think we are talking about the same thing,’ I said. ‘My concept of religion is a belief in a dogma—and art is a feeling more than a belief.’ ‘So is religion,’ he answered. After that I shut up.” Chaplin nearly produced a film with Stravinsky, inventing at dinner with the composer a passion play about the crucifixion, set in a night club, surrounded by a baying mob and businessmen making money out of the entertainment. The only person upset by the scene is a drunk, who gets thrown out. “I told Stravinsky, ‘they throw him out
because he is upsetting the show.’ I explained that putting a passion play on the dance floor of a night-club was to show how cynical and conventional the world has become in professing Christianity. The maestro’s face became very grave. ‘But that’s sacrilegious!’ he said.” Stravinsky (who had written Le Sacre du printemps in 1913) subsequently changed his mind and wrote to Chaplin about doing the film, but by then Chaplin’s attention had moved on. There are no direct references in Chaplin’s writings to Prokofiev, but the composer mentions him in his own diaries, referring to a meeting in France in 1931: “Tomorrow we dine with Charlie Chaplin. I never met him in my life before. It will be interesting to see him.” Chaplin’s own immigration story did not end happily ever after in the U.S. On 18 September 1952, aged 63, he and his family set sail to London for the world premiere of Limelight. The next day, the U.S. Attorney General revoked his re-entry permit subject to an interview about his politics and moral behaviour. He had been under the eye of J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, since 1922 – his files stretching to 1,900 pages. Sequences such as kicking the officer in The Immigrant, the prescient anti-fascism of The Great Dictator and anti-capitalist sentiment of Modern Times may have opened him up to this paranoia, as well as the generally humanist and anarchic subtexts of his films – especially during the 40s and early 50s, when the U.S. was in the grip of its “Red Scare”. He never took American citizenship and was politically active supporting Soviet-American groups during the Second World War but, ultimately, there is no proof that he was an active
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Communist. (Claims about his morality were on firmer ground, though – until he was married to Oona O’Neill in 1945, he was prolific with women and had a particular fixation on very young ones.) It later emerged that the Immigration and Naturalization Service would not have had enough evidence to exclude Chaplin on his way back, but by then he had decided not to attempt to return, and continued with his family around Europe. He eventually settled in Corsier-surVevey in Switzerland, where he died in 1977, at the age of 88. In 1972, he was given an honorary Oscar and returned to the U.S. for the first time to accept it – receiving a 12-minute standing ovation from the best-known faces of Hollywood. It was recognition and a resolution of sorts, but a bitter one. Chaplin films most often end with him picking up his cane, dusting off his hat and walking into the sunset on his own, with a resolute hop-skip. (Spoiler alert: The Immigrant is a rare exception.) He may have been the most famous man on the planet, and one of the wealthiest, but maybe he ultimately remained The Immigrant.
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EXPLORING Perspectives 2019-2020
Upcoming Masterworks performances
1.25.2020 | An Evening of Organ and Orchestra Heather Cooper, organist Organ and Orchestra? Yes please! Enjoy a new viewpoint of some older works with two pieces on the program reworked by our Maestro himself! Our organ soloist is Heather Cooper, who is also a local elementary school music teacher and 2018 Music Teacher of the Year Finalist!
2.16.2020 | Side-by-Side with the Canton Youth Symphpny At this performance, we will enjoy the Canton Youth Symphony Advanced Orchestra as they join the main orchestra for two pieces – Finlandia and Crown Imperial. We will conclude the performance with Beethoven’s “Pastorale” – a journey through Beethoven’s view of the German countryside. This will not be one to miss. expect great music
EJ Thomas Performing Arts Hall—The University of Akron Tuesday, February 25, 2020, 7:30 p.m.
Academy of St Martin in the Fields Joshua Bell, Director/Soloist Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827
Coriolan Overture, Op. 62
Nicolò Paganini Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major, Op. 6 1782-1840 I. Allegro maestoso II. Adagio III. Rondo: Allegro spirituoso Original cadenza by Joshua Bell Joshua Bell, violin INTERMISSION Johannes Brahms Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 1833-1897 I. Allegro non troppo II. Andante moderato III. Allegro giocoso IV. Allegro energico e passionato
The Academy’s work in the United States is supported by Maria Cardamone and Paul Matthews, together with the American Friends of the Academy of St Martin in the Fields. www.asmf.org Exclusive Management for the Academy of St Martin in the Fields: OPUS 3 ARTISTS 470 Park Avenue South, 9th Floor North, New York, NY 10016 | www.opus3artists.com Generous support for this performance and related education/community engagement activities comes from the Gertrude F. Orr Trust Advised Fund of Akron Community Foundation, as well as from other foundations, corporations, and individuals listed elsewhere in this program. Eric Kisch of WCLV-FM’s “Musical Passions” program led tonight’s Concert Conversation. Presented at 6:30 p.m. in EJ’s Flying Balcony Club before most Tuesday Musical concerts, Concert Conversations are an opportunity for audience members to enjoy libations in an intimate setting while getting to know the evening’s performers. The conversations are supported this season, in part, by the Laura R. and Lucian Q. Moffitt Foundation.
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Photo by Benjamin Ealovega
Academy of St Martin in the Fields
he Academy of St Martin in the Fields is one of the world’s finest chamber orchestras, renowned for fresh, brilliant interpretations of the world’s greatest orchestral music. Formed by Sir Neville Marriner in 1958 from a group of leading London musicians, the Academy gave its first performance in its namesake church in November 1959. Through unrivalled live performances and a vast recording output — highlights of which include the 1969 bestseller Vivaldi’s Four Seasons and the soundtrack to the Oscar-winning film Amadeus — the Academy quickly gained an enviable international reputation for its distinctive, polished and refined sound. With over 500 releases in a much-vaunted discography and a comprehensive international touring programme, the name and sound of the Academy is known and loved by classical audiences throughout the world. Today the Academy is led by Music Director and virtuoso violinist Joshua Bell, retaining the collegiate spirit and flexibility of the original small, conductor-less ensemble that has become an Academy hallmark. Under Bell’s direction, and with the support of Leader/Director Tomo Keller and Principal Guest Conductor Murray Perahia, the Academy continues to push the boundaries of play-directed performance to new heights, presenting symphonic repertoire and chamber music on a grand scale at prestigious venues around the globe. 16
The orchestra celebrates its 60th anniversary in the 2019/20 season with exciting projects in the UK and beyond, including a Gala concert at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London, tours of the UK and USA with Joshua Bell, a European tour with Murray Perahia, and collaborations with artists including clarinettist Jörg Widmann and pianist Fazil Say. Complementing a busy international schedule, the Academy continues to reach out to people of all ages and backgrounds through its Learning and Participation programmes. The orchestra’s composition and performance workshops are now intergenerational with local older people joining with schools; partnerships with Southbank Sinfonia and masterclasses on tour further the development of the professional musicians of tomorrow; the Academy provides a creative outlet for some of London’s most vulnerable adults at a centre for homeless people, a highlight of 2019 being a 12-hour performance of Gavin Bryars’ Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet at London’s Tate Modern; and a regular programme of preconcert talks and podcasts create opportunities for Academy audiences the world over to connect and learn with the orchestra. To find out more about the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, visit www.asmf.org, or follow the orchestra on Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. If you are interested in getting involved and supporting the work of the Academy, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. tuesdaymusical.org ■ 330.761.3460
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ith a career spanning more than 30 years as a soloist, chamber musician, recording artist, conductor, and director, Joshua Bell is one of the most celebrated violinists of his era. Since 2011, Bell has served as Music Director of the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, succeeding Sir Neville Marriner, who formed the orchestra in 1958. Bell’s interests range from repertoire hallmarks to commissioned works, including Nicholas Maw’s Violin Concerto, for which Bell received the GRAMMY® award. Committed to expanding music’s cultural impact, Bell has collaborated with peers including Chick Corea, Wynton Marsalis, Chris Botti, Frankie Moreno, and Josh Groban. Recently, Bell joined cellist Steven Isserlis and pianist Jeremy Denk to record Mendelssohn’s piano trios, slated for release in early 2020. He also collaborated with the Singapore Chinese Orchestra on a record featuring the Butterfly Lovers’ Violin Concerto, to be released in fall 2020. An exclusive Sony Classical artist, Bell has recorded over 40 albums garnering GRAMMY®, Mercury®, Gramophone and OPUS KLASSIK awards. Sony Classical’s June 2018 release, with Bell and the Academy, features Bruch’s Scottish Fantasy and G minor Violin Concerto which was nominated for a GRAMMY®. In 2007, a Pulitzer Prize-winning Washington Post story on Bell performing incognito in a Washington, D.C. metro station, sparked a conversation regarding art and context and inspired Kathy Stinson’s 2013 children’s book, >> 44 The Man With The Violin. In 201,7 Bell debuted Man With The Violin family concert, including <<
Photo by Lisa Marie Mazzucco
a newly commissioned animated film, with the National Symphony Orchestra at the Kennedy Center. Born in Bloomington, Indiana, Bell began violin at age 4, and at age 12 began studies with Josef Gingold. At age 14, Bell debuted with Riccardo Muti and the Philadelphia Orchestra, and debuted at Carnegie Hall at age 17 with the St. Louis Symphony. Bell received the 2007 Avery Fisher Prize and has been named Musical America’s 2010 “Instrumentalist of the Year” and an “Indiana Living Legend.” Bell performs on the 1713 Huberman Stradivarius violin, with a François Tourte 18thcentury bow.
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The Artists ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS MUSIC DIRECTOR Joshua Bell
PICCOLO Rebecca Larsen
FOUNDING PRESIDENT Sir Neville Marriner CH, CBE
VIOLIN Harvey de Souza P Martin Burgess P Jennifer Godson AP Fiona Brett Mark Butler Sijie Chen Ruth Funnell Clare Hayes Antonia Kesel Simon Lewis Richard Milone Jeremy Morris Gabrielle Painter Helen Paterson Robert Salter Rebecca Scott Alicja Śmietana
OBOE John Roberts Rachel Ingleton SP
PRINCIPAL GUEST CONDUCTOR Murray Perahia KBE
CLARINET Fiona Cross Tom Lessels SP
LEADER/DIRECTOR Tomo Keller
VIOLA Fiona Bonds AP Ian Rathbone Alexandros Koustas Triona Milne Matt Maguire Catherine Bradshaw
TRUMPET Mark David P William O’Sullivan SP
CELLO Stephen Orton P Will Schofield AP Judith Herbert Juliet Welchman Reinoud Ford Rebecca Knight BASS Lynda Houghton P Benjamin Russell David Johnson FLUTE Michael Cox P Sarah Newbold SP
BASSOON Julie Price P Richard Skinner SP CONTRA BASSOON Julie Andrews HORN Stephen Stirling P Joanna Hensel SP Peter Francomb Jamie Shield
TROMBONE Becky Smith Andrew Cole Joe Arnold
Chief Executive Alan Watt Director of Concerts Alison Tedbury Concerts and Tours Manager Hannah Bache Orchestra Personnel Manager Lesley Wynne Concerts and Participation Assistant Aimee Walton Head of Learning and Participation Charlotte O’Dair Director of Development Susie York Skinner
TIMPANI Matthew Perry
Development Manager Amy Scott
PERCUSSION Julian Poole Chris Blundell
Head of U.S. Development Jacob Cohen
ORCHESTRA MANAGER Nigel Barratt Key P: Academy Principal AP: Academy Associate Principal SP: Academy Sub-Principal
Finance Manager David Hills Marketing and Communications Manager Ellie Dragonetti PR Consultant Rebecca Driver Media Relations
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Coriolan Overture, op. 62 Ludwig van Beethoven
udwig van Beethoven was baptized in Bonn, Germany, on December 17, 1770, and died in Vienna on March 26, 1827. He composed the Coriolan Overture early in 1807, and the work was first performed in two different subscription concerts given at the home of Prince Lobkowitz and possibly also in a private concert at the home of Prince Lichnowsky in March of that year. The score calls for two each of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets, plus timpani and strings. Beethoven knew and admired the works of Shakespeare in the prose translation of Eschenburg, but his Coriolan Overture was not inspired by the Bard’s Coriolanus. He composed it for a much less elevated text, a play by Matthäus von Collin that had enjoyed a brief vogue in Vienna as a vehicle for a star actor during the years from 1802-1805. Originally the play was performed with secondhand music adapted from Mozart’s Idomeneo. Beethoven apparently admired Collin’s somewhat hackneyed poetic tragedy for the ideals of Classical virtue embodied therein, and the author was, in any case, a friend of his, and an influential one at that, since he served as Imperial Court Secretary. The only information we have for the precise date of the work is Beethoven’s own indication “1807” on the manuscript and the fact that it had been performed by March of that year not once but twice in subscription concerts given at the home of Prince Lobkowitz. It seems also to have been given early in March (a press notice appeared on the 8th) at a private musicale sponsored by another aristocrat with whom Beethoven had not been on the best of terms in recent months, Prince Lichnowsky. The preceding autumn, while staying at Prince Lichnowsky’s country home near Troppau, Beethoven was pestered by other guests to play the piano for them. He refused, objecting to their evident expectations that he undertake “menial labor” as if he were a servant. A threat of arrest — certainly made as a joke — caused him to explode and leave on the spot. He walked to the nearest town and took the post carriage back to Vienna. The outburst was characteristic, expect great music
but it blew over quickly. By March Beethoven was happy to allow the prince to use his new manuscript of the Overture. The program of the two subscriptions concerts sponsored by Lobkowitz included the first four symphonies, a piano concerto, arias from Fidelio, and the new Overture. According to an evaluation in the Journal des Luxus und der Moden (Journal of Luxury and Fashion): Richness of ideas, bold originality and fullness of power, which are the particular merits of Beethoven’s muse, were very much in evidence to everyone at these concerts; yet many found fault with lack of a noble simplicity and the all too fruitful accumulation of ideas which on account of their number were not always adequately worked out and blended, thereby creating the effect more often of rough diamonds. Yet the Overture must have made a strong impression, for by April 24 the management of the Imperial Theater mounted a single performance of Collin’s drama, using Beethoven’s Overture, so as to unite the play with the music that it inspired. It is most likely that this happened at the suggestion of Prince Lobkowitz himself, who was a director of the theater. The combination of music with drama seems to have been no improvement over the music alone; the play has apparently never been performed since. Beethoven’s Overture, on the other hand, recognized from the first as being “full of fire and power,” is one of his most admired short orchestral works, a probing essay in musical drama. The tension of Beethoven’s favorite dramatic
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Program Notes key, C minor, is heightened by orchestral chords punctuating the weakest beat of the measure at the phrase endings in the allegro theme. Formally the design is striking in that the second thematic group, representing Coriolanus’s mother Volumnia, is the only part of the exposition that is recapitulated. Finally, the opening theme returns in the home key, but it is transformed rhythmically into a short series of lamenting fragments, and the whole Overture ends with a wonderfully dramatic use of silence—a musical suggestion of tragedy far more potent than that accomplished by the prolix rhetoric of Collin’s verse. Program Note by Steven Ledbetter, used by kind permission of the Aspen Music Festival and School.
Violin Concerto no. 1 in D major, op. 6 Nicolo Paganini
e was the original superstar, and none of our age’s great pop music idols — not even the Beatles — have matched his extraordinary appeal with the general public. From the day the 11-year-old Nicolo Paganini
played his violin in a Genoese church until he retired from the concert stage more than four decades later in 1834, Paganini was one of the most talked-about figures in European public life. At the height of his career, around 1830, his personal magnetism and astounding virtuosity were attributed to witchcraft. (His very name, “little pagan,” suggested as much.) He was famous for his concert appearance (he dressed in black, from head to toe) and, in a pre-tabloid era, his on stage antics were eagerly followed and discussed (it was rumored that the fourth string of his violin, which produced an especially glorious tone, had been made from the intestine of his mistress, whom he had murdered). Several portraits of Paganini, including the famous Delacroix painting, match a description of the great violinist recorded in 1830: a “tall, gaunt figure dressed in old-fashioned black coat-and-tails . . . his right leg, placed forward and bent at the knee, nothing but spirit and bone draped in a loosely apping suit of clothes.” Only later did his admirers learn that everything about his appearance, from his haunted face and exaggerated mannerisms to his disheveled hair
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and unkempt attire, was carefully calculated for its effect. As a musician, Paganini was one of a kind. His admirers included Berlioz, who called him “a genius, a Titan among the giants”; Schubert, who attended his first Vienna concerts and compared his playing to “the singing of an angel;” and Liszt, who thought his virtuosity “a miracle which the kingdom of art has seen but once,” and decided, virtually overnight, after witnessing the frenzy of his Paris debut, to take the violinist as a model for his own career (“the Paganini of the piano” became his slogan). Paganini’s own taste in music was unusually advanced. He admired Beethoven’s late string quartets when they were still dismissed as the feeble works of a deaf man, and he quickly recognized Berlioz’s genius. He was clever enough to ask Berlioz to write him something to play on his newly acquired Stradivarius viola, and then, on receiving the score to Harold in Italy, to know that it was not
what his public expected to hear. (He never played the piece, although he gave Berlioz 20,000 francs and thanked him profusely.) As a violinist, his technique was phenomenal. When he made his Milan debut in 1813, his virtuosity was called “inconceivable.” The most famous of his many innovations included left-hand pizzicato, the ricochet (where the bow bounces on the string to produce rapid staccato notes), and doublestop harmonics. There seemed to be nothing he could not do with the violin’s four strings, and one of his specialties, which always brought the house down, was a fancy encore played entirely on one string. Paganini was jealously secretive about his art. When he played a concerto, he refused to allow the orchestra players to hear even a note of his cadenzas until the performance. (He never wrote his cadenzas down.) Nobody ever heard him practice — “I have labored enough to acquire my talent; it is time that I rest,” he explained — although an Englishman is said to have followed
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Paganini around Europe, bribing innkeepers to give him the room next door. (Once he peeked through the keyhole long enough to see Paganini take his violin out of the case and finger it silently for a moment.) Paganini began to write music when he ran out of demanding, showy things to play. He wrote his First Violin Concerto in 1816. It was an enormous success at the premiere in Naples in 1819, and it was followed, in short order, by another four. (An earlier concerto, discovered and published only in 1973, is now known, inevitably but misleadingly, as no. 6.) Paganini’s First Violin Concerto has three movements, the first in a nearly uninterrupted display of virtuoso reworks for the soloist. The second, a lyrical Adagio, is a wonderfully expressive bel canto aria. (Rossini, the most popular opera composer of the era, is reported to have commented that if Paganini ever started writing operas, “we’d all be in trouble.” Rossini may well have attended the Naples premiere of this concerto, since he had introduced his latest opera, Ermione, there just four days earlier. Paganini and Rossini were longtime friends; the great violinist/ composer even honored Rossini by writing variations on three popular arias from his operas.) When the German poet Rellstab heard Paganini play the Adagio from this concerto later in Leipzig, he said, “I have never heard anyone weep like that in my life.” The finale demonstrates that Paganini specialty: showmanship with substance. Phillip Huscher, Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 Johannes Brahms
shall never write a symphony!” Johannes Brahms famously declared in 1872. “You can’t have any idea what it’s like to hear such a giant marching behind you.” The giant was Beethoven, of course, and although his music provided essential inspiration for Brahms, it also set such a high standard that the younger composer found it easy to discount his own creations as negligible in comparison. Four more years passed before Brahms would finally sign off on his First Symphony. But once he 22
conquered his compositional demons he moved ahead forcefully. Three symphonies followed that first effort in relatively short order: the Second in 1877, the Third in 1882-83, and the Fourth in 1884-85. Each is a masterpiece and each displays a markedly different character. The First is burly and powerful, flexing its muscles in Promethean exertion; the Second is sunny and bucolic; and the Third, though often introspective and even idyllic, mixes in a hefty dose of heroism. With his Fourth Symphony, Brahms achieves a work of almost mystical transcendence born of opposing emotions: melancholy and joy, severity and rhapsody, solemnity and exhilaration. Brahms’s friend and musical confidant, Clara Schumann, recognized this play of duality already in the first movement, observing, “It is as though one lay in springtime among the blossoming flowers, and joy and sorrow filled one’s soul in turn.” Brahms was well aware of his distinct achievement in this work. He composed it during two summer vacations at the Mürzzuschlag in the Styrian Alps — the first two movements in the summer of 1884, the second two in the summer of 1885. On many occasions he was known to suggest that his compositions reflected the places in which they were written. In this case he wrote from Mürzzuschlag to the conductor Hans von Bülow that his symphony-inprogress “tastes of the climate here; the cherries are hardly sweet here — you wouldn’t eat them!” Brahms was given to disparaging his works — he once described this symphony as “another set of polkas and waltzes” — but in this case he perfectly evoked the bittersweet quality that pervades many of the Fourth Symphony’s pages. Although it is cast in the same classical four-movement plan as his earlier symphonies, Brahms’s Fourth seems more tightly united throughout (largely through the pervasive insistence on the interval of the third — especially the minor third), and its movements accordingly proceed with a terrific sense of cumulative power. The opening movement (Allegro non troppo) is soaring and intense, and the second (Andante moderato) is by turns agitated and serene. The Allegro giocoso represents the first time Brahms included a real scherzo in a symphony, quite tuesdaymusical.org ■ 330.761.3460
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a contrast to the lighter, even wistful allegretto intermezzos that had served as the third movements of his first three. And for his finale, Brahms unleashes a gigantic passacaglia, a neo-Baroque structure in which an eight-measure progression (here derived from the last movement of Bach’s Cantata No. 150) is subjected to 32 variations of widely varying character. As soon as he completed the work, Brahms sent copies to several of his trusted friends and was miffed when they all responded with concern over this or that. His confidante Elisabet von Herzogenberg insisted that she respected the piece, but she allowed of the first movement that “at worst it seems to me as if a great master
had made an almost extravagant display of his skill!” His friend Max Kalbeck suggested he throw away the third movement entirely, use the finale as a free-standing piece, and compose two new movements to replace them. Brahms did not cave in, but he anticipated the symphony’s premiere with mounting apprehension. His music had long been criticized as “too intellectual,” and Brahms knew that his Fourth Symphony was at least as rigorous as anything he had previously composed. To his amazement, the symphony proved a success at its premiere and audience enthusiasm only increased in subsequent performances.
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Vocal superstars Lawrence Brownlee and Eric Owens shared their talents with students throughout the region last season, including a masterclass at Kent State University.
Inspiring current and future generations of music lovers Annual Scholarship Competition Hailed as the best of its kind in Ohio, the competition awards more than $25,000 each year to help college and university students prepare for careers as music educators and performers. Decompression Chamber As an antidote to workplace stress, our Decompression Chamber brings free concerts to hospitals, factories, government offices, social service agencies, and other highpressure environments throughout Akron.
“At 12:20 p.m. I was all amped up. By 12:30 p.m., all better!” — Decompression Chamber attendee
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e gratefully acknowledge all donors this season. Every gift helps to support the success of Tuesday Musical’s MainStage and Fuze concert series and Education and Community Engagement Programs. (as of December 19, 2019) Director $5,000+ Anonymous Anne Alexander Ann Allan David and Margaret Hunter Cynthia Knight Kenneth Shafer Tim and Jennifer Smucker Frederick and Elizabeth Specht Darwin Steele Kenneth Taylor James and Linda Venner Lucinda Weiss “Three Graces Piano” Benefactor $1,500 to $4,999 Earl and Judy Baxtresser Linda Hohenfeld Peter and Dorothy Lepp Linda and Paul Liesem Marianne and Russ Miller Michael and Lori Mucha Charles and Elizabeth Nelson George Pope Patrick Reilly Donald and Corrine Rohrbacher Pat Sargent Larry and Cyndee Snider Thomas and Meg Stanton Sustainer $700 to $1,499 Eleanor and Richard Aron Lee and Floy Barthel John Bertsch Kittle B. Clarke Thomas and Mary Lynn Crowley Harloe and Harriet Cutler Barbara and Denis Feld Paul Filon Bob and Beverley Fischer Sue Jeppesen Gillman Joy and Bruce Hagelin Jarrod Hartzler Patricia and James Hartzler Joseph S. Kanfer
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James and Maureen Kovach Lawrence B. Levey Mike Magee JoAnn Marcinkoski Lola Rothmann Dr. Pamela Rupert Elizabeth and Michael Taipale John Vander Kooi Patron $400 to $699 Anonymous William P. Blair III Rob and Alyssa Briggs Alfred Calvaretta Sally Childs John Dalton Lois and Harvey Flanders Robert and Sharon Gandee Ted and Teresa Good DuWayne and Dorothy Hansen Loren Hoch Dr. Tom and Mary Ann Jackson Susan and Allen Kallor Mary Jo Lockshin Mark and Barbara MacGregor Stan and Roberta Marks Anita Meeker Dianne and Herb Newman Earla Patterson Roger Read and Sally Miller Peter and Nanette Ryerson Jean Schooley Sandra and Richey Smith Annaliese Soros Jeff and Jennifer Stenroos Carol Vandenberg Donor $200 to $399 Anonymous Cornelia Aro John and Kathleen Arther Mark and Sandy Auburn Jack and Bonnie Barber Carmen Beasley Cheryl Boigegrain
Jack and Bonnie Barber Sara J. Buck Sara and Alan Burky Robert A. and Susan H. Conrad William and Rebecca Considine Herbert and Jill Croft Gary Devault Barbara Eaton Jon Fiume Barbara and John Gillette Elaine Guregian Michael Hayes Walt and Gwen Heeney Patti Hester John and Suzanne Hetrick Gary and Maureen Iler Moneeb Iqbal and Jessica Haley Mark and Karla Jenkins Cally Gottlieb King Susan Kruder Tom and Cheryl Lyon Marjorie Magee Jim and Mary Messerly Natalie Miahky Jim and Patty Milan Paul and Alicia Mucha Alan and Marjorie Poorman Paula Rabinowitz Sandra and Ben Rexroad John Schambach Anne Marie Schellin Rachel Schneider Richard and Susan Schrop Betty and Joel Siegfried Margo Snider Peter and Linda Tilgner Brooks and Dina Toliver Susan and Reid Wagstaff Kathleen Walker Jorene Whitney Jamie Wilding and Caroline Oltmanns Christopher Wilkins Shirley Workman Douglas D. Zook Jr.
Support: Memorials & Tributes These gifts to Tuesday Musical are meaningful ways to honor special people. In Memory of Margaret Baxtresser Lee and Floy Barthel Earl and Judy Baxtresser Linda Hohenfeld George Bellassai In Memory of William Eaton Doris St. Clair In Memory of Wanda Fair Kittie B. Clarke In Honor of Barbara and Denis Feld Judi and Jerry Brenner In Honor of Bob Fischer Dan Ginis
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Support: Foundations, Corporations & Government Agencies Tuesday Musical thanks these foundations, corporations and government agencies for their support. $25,000+ GAR Foundation John S. and James L. Knight Foundation Louis S. and Mary Schiller Myers Foundation Ohio Arts Council Peg’s Foundation $10,000 to $24,999 Community Fund—Arts & Culture of the Akron Community Foundation C. Colmery Gibson Polsky Fund of Akron Community Foundation Kulas Foundation John A. McAlonan Fund of Akron Community Foundation Gertrude F. Orr Trust Advised Fund of Akron Community Foundation $5,000 to $9,999 Mary S. and David C. Corbin Foundation Mary and Dr. George L. Demetros Charitable Trust Charles E. and Mabel M. Ritchie Memorial Foundation 28
Lloyd L. and Louise K. Smith Foundation Welty Family Foundation
Laura R. and Lucian Q. Moffitt Foundation Rogers Family Foundation
$1,000 to $4,999 Akron/Summit Convention & Visitors Bureau Arts Midwest Touring Fund The Lisle M. Buckingham Endowment Fund of Akron Community Foundation Kenneth L. Calhoun Charitable Trust, KeyBank, Trustee KeyBank Foundation Lehner Family Foundation Lubrizol Beatrice K. McDowell Family Fund R. C. Musson and Katharine M. Musson Charitable Foundation OMNOVA Solutions Foundation Sisler McFawn Foundation
Corporate Partners Akron Tool & Die Co. Nelson Development Marcum Accountants-Advisors Wealth Impact Advisors, LLC
$200 to $999 KeyBank Foundation Community Leadership Fund W. Paul Mills and Thora J. Mills Memorial Foundation Maynard Family Foundation
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An Old ItAlIAn VAlentIne Baroque orchestra jeannette sorrell
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 7:30PM FIRST UNITED METHODIST CHURCH, AKRON
Other performances around Northeast Ohio February 14-16
“Never again even think that ‘classical music’ is boring. Never if it’s done as well as Apollo’s Fire does it.” –COOLCLEVELAND.COM
apollosfire.org 800.314.2535 expect great music af1920_tma_december.indd 1
O Jerusalem! CrOssrOAds Of three fAIths
MONDAY, MARCH 9, 7:30PM FAIRLAWN LUTHERAN CHURCH
Other performances around Northeast Ohio March 5 & 10-11 29 12/6/19 9:49 AM
tuesday musical 2019-2020 Board of Directors
Executive Committee President Paul Filon Vice President/President Elect Linda Liesem
Treasurer Paul Mucha
Secretary Marianne Miller
Governance Committee Chair Magdalena McClure
Committee Chairs Artistic Planning George Pope Brahms Allegro Jennifer Stenroos
Development Charles Nelson Finance Paul Mucha
Hospitality Joy Hagelin
Membership Fred Specht
Members Programs Teresa Good
Scholarship George Pope, James Wilding
At-large Members Stanislav Golovin, Mary Jo Lockshin, Cheryl Lyon, Mike Magee Staff
Interim Executive Director/ Director of Development & Communications Cyndee Snider
Director of Operations Karla Jenkins
Programs Director Moneeb Iqbal
Program art direction by Live Publishing Co.
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