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LORENA DEL RIO

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Sculptures Museum in Leganes Madrid

Honorable Mention International Competition. Spain 2011 Authors: Lorena del Río, Iñaqui Carnicero Collaborators: Rafael Carbonero, Barbara Bardín

On our first visit, we looked around. We saw the trees, the sculp tures, the paths. After a while, when we got to know (got used to) the place a little better we watched. We looked for the settings that seemed more interesting to us, the scenary that made us feel best. Last, we observed. We analyzed the elements that scored higher than others. We also studied the visitors’ behaviour at this open sculpture museum. We noticed that some of the sculptures were situated below the porches, and that people were concentrated under the vine shadows. The wide, paved paths remained completely empty while the small, serpentine, dirt trails were almost always crossed by some passerby. We also realized that the vegetation that covered the main façade of Las Dehesillas´s building made it look more inviting, more integrated with the park. We observed the sculptures carefully, (some of them huge), and we didn’t get the chance to see them from all angles. That was our starting point. With this proposal we want to address all the needs that we detected on our visits. We wanted to recreate in our building all the attractive spots that already exist in the park. We didn’t want to create a strange object, different than the surroundings that separated the open air exhibition from the newer, one inside. We thought that the new building must serve as a link between the park, the two exhibitions and the city. We also wanted that the visitors could enjoy these four areas at once. We tried that the whole way through the building resembled a walk through the park, either inside the building or in the open space protected by its shadow. We propose to restore the natural appearance of the park by recreating the land’s natural topography, and generating small gardens between the curves of the building in order to separate one sculpture from the others, giving them all the highlight that they deserve.

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The new building will be a continuous section piece of 5.50 meters wide by 550 meters long and it curves, turns and bends, in order to adapt itself to the plot limit and to maintain as many of the existing trees as possible. It abides by the empty spaces and embraces the sculptures, the trees, and the beauty of the art pieces surrounded by nature. The piece also twists and interlaces upon itself in its vertical dimension, in order to adapt itself to the topography, and to communicate through the smooth use of ramps all the heights of the project. The visitor is carried away by the way and goes up and down, inside and outside, almost without noticing it.

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Young Potential Development Headquarters

Madrid

Private Comision Spain 2011 Authors: Lorena del RĂ­o

The Young Potential Development is a recently created Spanish company, dedicated to teaching pre-college students ages 15-18, different and general job skills that are not part of a college curriculum. The students are taught how to increase their creativity, to develop their communicational capacities and to manage pressure and stress by taking care of their body. To this end, they needed a central headquarter, where the offices and classroom could contribute to increasing their creative development. They asked that each classroom should be different: the TV studio, the creativity, the communication and the space dedicated to physical activity. The original building was a conventional space of offices, polished granite floors with a strong, concrete structure of big dimensions. All floors were alike. The challenge consisted in hiding the structure, differentiating one level from another and give each assign each one of them a different personality. To this purpose, we used different colors of vinyl flooring on each floor: chrome green for the TV studio, light green for communication, yellow for creativity and orange for physical development, every color clearly implied in the activity to be developed in each room. Finally, we used different systems to hide the structure on each floor, always trying to integrate it with different elements. In the creativity room, we used a polycarbonate translucent wall, with a light system on the inside that changes color, to adapt to the requirements for each exercise. iencies with the south oriented patio of the same proportions than the house.

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Europan 11 San Bartolomé

Spain

Honorable Mention International Competition. 2011 Authors: Lorena del Río, Iñaqui Carnicero, Silvia Fernández Colaborators: María Vega, Jose Javier Gonzalez

The climate of San Bartolome is characterized by pronounced aridity due to the low height of the relief that surrounds it. The city’s development has occurred around the farm roads, leaving memory in the interior of apples rear gardens of housing designed to produce for the house. In a place of transition between the urban and the natural environment lies the plot of the competition. In the limit of the municipality where new buildings are forced to respond with some formal autonomy versus usual insensitive and uncontrolled growth of cities. The square that defines the perimeter of the performance is a vindication of the autonomy of the residential complex. HOUSING. We propose as a starting point a minimum housing and capable of responding flexibly to the different ways of inhabiting the house. Each spatial unit is conceived as a container where a simple hinged system can transform the interior depending on time of day. Through a simple housing depression could open its entirety to a single common space to be closed or divided into smaller spaces and more privacy. The houses are developed on two levels, first floor, always in direct relationship with a courtyard for the exclusive use of the dwelling, and a second housing with separate access via stairs, resulting in some different types duplex. FLEXIBILITY. This is a tight space but dimeniones offset its minimum with the incorporation of the same size patio where housing extends and builds on the excellent climate of the island. This place is understood as a bedroom but could retake the island tradition for personal use and exploit the cultivation of a garden. These courts, inspired by the walls of the geria arise from the need to combat the wind and exterior space semiacondicionar but protected from the elements. COMMUNITY. We propose a new model of community away from the traditional individualistic pattern we see in the terraced houses that we see in some houses around and the opposite and closed block diagram e hausted. The aim is to stack houses closer together, overlap to achieve a density capable of generating an active community. The meeting and social life will be held in the covered streets that provide continuity to the intervention and which represent a new urban space where they perform different types of community activities.

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Europan 11 in Wittstok Germany

Competition. 2011 Authors: Lorena del Río, Iñaqui Carnicero, Silvia Fernández Colaborators: María Vega, Jose Javier Gonzalez

A CITY THAT GROWS INWARDS: SEARCHING FOR IDENTITY We propose to confront the whole of the urban complexity putting our attention in one operation that focuses in an architectural piece with a very strong character, regarding the issue of local identity and trying to reinforce it this way. We started playing with the idea of a sloped roof as distinctive of the architectural language of the region, almost as an arquetipical factor that puts each house in relation with the whole; Our proposal for Werderstrasse tries to subvert the traditional fabric present in Wittstock as a possible future model of operation. This piece, standing as a isolate volume, can be walked around in all its perimeter, opening the interior of the block to the street showing a new series of interstitial concatenated spaces that can give birth to new urban spaces that develop themselves inwards. On the other hand, this piece does not present itself completely sealed, but, in overt contraposition with the current model, results quite permeable through a series of passages that give access to the living units and walk across the volume. In this manner, the piece that is formally conceived also presents a very clear interior order based in the sucession of bands that are completed, alternatively,by free space or by living units. So it is all about defining this compact volume, that represents the wholeness, as the piece that will bring identity, but keeping to itself a very clear order that permits the disposition of individualities. THE STREET ENTERS THE HOUSE This volume emerges as a geometrical play that results from the disposition of sloped roofs adapted to the modulation of the living units upon the given perimeter and turning them around until they face south, in order to gain maximum of sunlight. This movement deforms the volume and introduces an interesting tension that continues this discourse about the whole and the fragments; and at the time trusts itself to the originality of the form to create identity: the dense and compact urban fragment that is contained in the interior of the urban fabric and deforms unpredictably facing south. The resulting cross section present very different spaces under this deformed roof, as in Wittstock, where every roof seems different, all of them contained in the same architectural experience that defines the whole of the piece.

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Europan 11 in Savenay

NEW IDENTITY. In the future Nantes-Saint Nazare’s metropolitan area will be necessary to

France

catch enterprises, business, shops and new inhabitants. To achieve that, the

International Competition. 2011

town needs to change how the people knows about itself, looking for an ex-

Authors: Lorena del Río, Iñaqui Carnicero, Silvia Fernández Colaborators: María Vega, Jose Javier Gonzalez

pansion of the limits and proposing new nodes of activities. we can avoid dealing with the railway. The new building will be visible from the distance and may could be the first remarcable place after Nantes and Saint Nazare. The goal is to gain importance to appear in the maps taking the most of its situation in the middle of the railways. DYNAMIC NEIGHBORHOOD. With the planning for the new metropolitan area, an important amount of people will be passing across the town. They will be visitors if the government won’t bring them opportunities to live and develope their lives in Savenay. the expansion is founded in a democratic system of live where you can debate how to rule your society. In this sense, there are necesaries some spaces to discuss and to have social expressions and relations . NODES MULTIPLICITY. Some plazas as the greek ‘agora’ or the roman ‘foro’ are the perfect urban element to generate the complexity for the new inhabitants. There are distributed in relation with the users and the further expansions. Each node has the flexibility to accept some use programs, on depend of the necessity of the society every moment. MODULE HOUSE. On the living unit we propose the definition of a minimum and flexible unit capable of absorbing the constant transformations that housing suffers in our days. Each special unit is conceived as a container where a complex system of revolving doors permits the transformation of the interior depending of the moment of the day. Just with a simple abasement the living space can open all its elements to a common space or close itself and divide in minor spaces with more privacy. The living units develop in two stages, the first one in ground floor, always in direct relation with a patio which is of exclusive use for the unit and a second level with independent acces through a stairway. It is a tight space that compensates its spatial deficiencies with the south oriented patio of the same proportions than the house.

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Guest House in Fregenal de la Sierra Extremadura International Competition Spain 2010 Authors: Lorena del Río, Iñaqui Carnicero, Colaborators: Juan José Payeras, Jeongjoo Choi

In our manner of speaking, we usually use the periphrasis, which is defined by the dictionary as, “a roundabout way of expressing something that could be expressed in less words, but not in such an attractive way.” Sometimes it’s better not to choose the shortest, most direct way, in order to increase the enjoyment of the ride. In our proposal, the crooked trace of the new building sets an itinerary that stitches and unifies the historic buildings of the Jesuist Church and College; and it also contains all the spaces required for the new Guest House. The proporsal completely adapts to the limits of the site, in order to free space on the interior of the site and to transform it into the center of the project. The continuos section of the new building turns and bends, in order to stricly adapt to the free space between the existing buildings, connected to the streets of “Almendro,” “Juan Bravo,” and “Alemania.” The part of the building that is not connected to the streets, is suspended over the site, creating a shadow, open space that divides and adds value to the exterior spaces of the Guest House. We tried to modify the hermetic nature of the site. We wanted the project to be deeply connected to the city. To this purpose, we opened up an exterior area of the Guest House for public use. The access to this elevated garden opens through a stairway, from Juan Bravo Murillo street. From this observation point it is possible to see the city from a new angle. The big palm, the lemon tree and the other trees that have been around for many years, remained in this new public space. Behind theirs foliage lies the terrace of the cafeteria, and the entrance to the Guest House. From that point we get to see the two other Guest House gardens: the smaller and more private one, which serves as an entrance to the patio guest rooms, and the other, much bigger, which we can see as big garden, through the windows of the Jesuist College. The proposal includes three types of rooms, the historical rooms, the patio rooms and the viewpoint rooms. The first type of rooms are situated on the first floor and they adapted and are conditioned by the structural and composition elements characteristic of the older Jesuit School. The second type is linked with the garden level and it introduces a small patio in each room. This increases the feeling of privacy from the street and it improves the thermal and visual comfort of the room. This terrace-patio, inspired by the town’s history, serves as a prism through which the guest perceives the street and the contour of its buildings. 37


The third type of rooms is located on the first plant of the new buildings, in the broken piece, which elevates to help enjoy the scenery next to a new view of the town. These viewpoint-rooms bend to find the best perspective of the immediate surroundings. Although, both building interventions---at the Jesuit School, as well as the Church--- have followed the rehab, consolidation and remodeling proposal, and kept the architectonic faรงade configuration and other singular elements, as well as the existing structure of the main walls; their interior organization has been completely transformed.

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Guest House in Villafranca de los Barros Extremadura

Shortlisted. International Competition Spain 2009 Authors: Lorena del Río, Iñaqui Carnicero

The guest house will be located within the limits of Villafranca, where there’s barely any sign of small constructions on the horizon. This is our focus point. We try to capture distance with our view because it allows us to contemplate the attractive geometry of the ploughed fields, the olive and vine tree plantations and the random encounters with nature. For this reason, our building gets distorted, it turns, it gets fragmented and i trises, as if it were imitating the vine branches, capturing the best shots of the immediate surroundings. The building is thus integrated in the preexisting plot/site and it conforms to the new silhouette, perceived as Villafranca de los Barros, from a distance. The contour of the building on the ground floor defines and qualifies the exterior spaces. On one hand, the interior patio serves as the heart of the guest house and it is intimately linked to the way it functions. It contains a concentration of the main plant and tree varieties, which purify and refresh the air that circulates through all the guest house rooms by way of crossed ventilation. The rooms are grouped in small towers on the second and third level of the building, separated from the noise and with additional sight privacy. These towers – of no more than three rooms for each floor are tilted, so they don’t interfere with each other, opening to a wider view, alienating the user from the scenery. They try to be on best terms with the sun, embracing the morning light and the plantation views, imagined toward the east as well as the noon sun, coming in direct contact with the Villafranca pine woods.This good orientation reduces the energy expenses during the coldest months and accentuates the room comfort. The blinds and other elements---on the outer side of the glass---offer sun protection during the summer months.

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Auditorium and School of Music Madrid

Lorena del RĂ­o. 2007

A space for the artistic representation, the music. A space for creativity and illusion. A bridge between the bare and unsavory, surrounding city and nature, as an improvised scenery for anonymous artists. Simultaneous integration and segregation of artistic activity. The city dweller is attracted to it, and yet it must be apart, protected from the surrounding, urban reality. This is reduced to a continued integration of the street into the ground level of the building, the creation of an interior street on the first floor that simulates the activity of an urban street within the artistic, virtual world; and the segregation by means of elevating the rest. The ground level, with big hallways, independent from each lobby, the cafeteria located in the park and the stores, is transparent and visible from the street. It incorporates its activity into the city life and it welcomes participation. The covered, exterior space displayed between the pieces, suggests the idea of the park and poses as a door to nature. The facade pointing toward the city uses the same language, straight lines, straight volume. None of it gives away the scenery that unfolds towards the park. Another world.

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ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE 2013

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DESIGN STUDIO SPRING 2013

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U N D E R

T H E

S K I N

Spring Semester 2013. Architecture Departement Cornell University. Second Year Comprehensive Design Studio. Professor: Lorena del Rio. This semester’s design studio Under the skin intends to look beyond the surface of architecture. We will inquire: what are things made of, how many components are involved in the construction of space, what are the relationships between parts, which ones remain visible and which become invisible, and why. The Spanish physicist, Jorge Wagensberg, describes architecture as the way that man has to reduce environmental uncertainty. The comprehensive design studio will be presented as a design studio in which projects and solutions face that uncertainty and deal with it. Students will learn how to negotiate with the real and use it as a guide for making decisions during the design process. The translation of conceptual ideas into physical space is a circuitous journey that will require research, study, analysis, and more importantly synthesis; that is, the ability to put together in a congruent way inputs that have arrived from completely different sources. But this journey also requires enthusiasm, passion, creativity, and imagination. In fact, it is the engagement with the real that will allow for renewed creativity and a questioning of convention. 65


SYLLABUS

UNDER THE SKIN

Baird Prize: first assigment. As a warmer up for the semester, we will start with the Baird Prize Competition. The project to be design is a lamp, one to one scale prototype with an instruction pamphlet. The Baird Prizes were established in 1927 by Mrs. M. Z. Baird of Cleveland Ohio, the mother of two former students in Architecture, Thomas J Baird ‘25 and Lincoln Baird ‘28. The prize directs that one or more prizes, each in the amount of at least $200 with a total maximum of $850, be awarded to a winner(s) of a special second-year design competition. Students will work individually for the competition, without instructors influencing them on design. Only one pin-up is scheduled to set up general conclusions and guidance for the presentation. There are no rules for the lamp other than its definition as “a device that generates light.”

The walker’s lighthouse. The main project of the semester will be developed through an iterative process, introducing the cyclic reconsideration and evolution of design with the gaining of new knowledge. Six main cycles are to be considered: -research/analysis -conceptual strategy -implementing tools, process -checking viability -architectural drawings as instructions -architectural images as promises The project. The lighthouse as a program and a site operates as an index to both a physical and a virtual environment: students should engage both of these environments. The lighthouse is relatively inaccessible, exists in a harsh environment, and is typically ‘off the grid’. And it exists in our imaginations as a lonely icon that serves as both warning and welcome - both a devil and an angel. 66


More than 30 lighthouses are still in use along Galicia’s powerful and fractured coast, in places called “Coast of Death” (Costa de la Muerte) or “End of Earth” (Finisterre). The Pilgrimage has become a characteristic of Galicia. The way of St. James (Camino de Santiago) follows the Roman’s trails and, the international interest for those is growing everyday. Building on that, the regional government is working on a project called “the lighthouses trail” that connects all the lighthouses along the cost, and at a larger scale, is part of something that could be called “the Atlantic route”(from Lisbon to St Petersburg). Therefore, Galicia is full of walkers’ hostels and we will design a new one that will accommodate both pilgrims and lighthouses routers in a little town called Laxe, in A Coruña. There is already a lighthouse in Laxe, with no other constructions attached. It is a very simple and austere cylindrical construction. The semester project will have to decide (students choice) weather to add a new construction for the hostel in the existing lighthouse surroundings or replace it, incorporating a new light to the proposal, making it more powerful in length coverage. Program The program will be informed by the walker’s activities; sleep, bath, eat, rest, enjoy, read, communicate, in a building not larger than 5000sf. Research / Analysis Groups of 5 students, one from each section will work together for this purpose. Each group will do a presentation on a given subject varying from technical aspects, codes, context, or concepts. Prelimiray selection of subjects: 1-climate, environmental data 2-physical context 3-historical/social context 4-precedences on similar activities 5-gravity/lightness 6-opaqueness/transparency 7-thik/thin 8-rough/smooth 9-heating and cooling 10-life safety 11-detailing

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Conceptual Strategy Work will be individual for this important phase of design, when ideas have to be fixed. Sketch pin-ups and models could be the best way to make this cycle dynamic and loaded. Implementing Tools. Process Still working on individual basis, students will need to implement their ideas with solutions. Geometry and order will play a mayor role in the process of merging program with structure and image with construction. Mid-review will be the turning point for proposals, and only one out of three projects will earn the privilege to have further development. Sections will vote for the winners on arrival after spring break. Checking Viability Groups of 3 students will work for the rest of the semester on the four remaining proposals. Once again they will check viability regarding codes and regulations, materiality and function, stability and behavior making sure that the original conceptual ideas are being reinforced and never betrayed. Architectural Drawings as Instructions Architectural drawings include a set of codes and information that could be understood as instructions. It is not reality, but a way to represent real facts and data that will allow someone else to realize them. Architectural Images as Promises Before we are able to build a certain space, we are expected to show it. The more we know about the specific, the easier it is to turn that information into a promise. Large scale models and detailed sections, elevations and floor plans will be crucial at this point. The Final review will go through the whole process of comprehensive design.

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DESIGN SEMINAR SPRING 2013

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A JOURNEY INTO PLASTICS Fall Semester 2012. Architecture Department Cornell University. Seminar: Special Topic In Construction.

The development of a wide range of plastic materials in such a short period of time (1920-1940) drew the fascination of architects and engineers. Their attention initiated a fruitful period of great experimentation seeking new concepts in architecture to harmonize with the new products. High production costs due to the oil crisis, unresolved problems with durability and yet undiscovered avenues of exploitation of the new material resulted in a period when plastics were rarely used. Fortunately new technologies have solved most of these problems. We are witnessing a new era in the use of plastics, a new renaissance of the use of synthesized materials which now, more than ever, can meet all of architecture’s requirements. But the current vision of plastics is less idealistic and less euphoric than the one held by the original pioneers. Now however the material is not the starting point of the design. Instead designers are seeking the perfect material which can fit their conceptual design approaches and notions of form. This is where plastics meet architecture. The advantages of plastics such as lightness, cost-efficiency, climate control capabilities, extreme tailoring are not its main features. The proper characteristics of these materials in terms of light transmission, bounce, color possibilities, make up a group of new aesthetic effects resulting in the creation of atmospheric, sensual and provocative spaces. But what is the future of plastics? Should architects look for new concepts for plastics in architecture in order to best exploit its particular characteristics? Or should we keep on evolving materials in order to adapt them to our new concept of architecture? This seminar will study the past, analyze the present and make a forecast for the future of plastic materials. The course will take the students through an overview of the history of these materials from their inception to the present. State of the art technologies in plastics will be investigated through a group of case studies to help students develop their knowledge and skills in this topic. Plastics will be analyzed by considering them in four different ways: 1) as a structural material, 2) as a fluid material, 3) as manufactured elements and 4) as floids, i.e. as an envelope or skin in architecture. This seminar will focus on both theory and practice; students will be asked to develop an exercise in which they apply these concepts to their architectural approaches.

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SYLLABUS

A JOURNEY INTO PLASTICS Arch 4605/6609. Building Technology Elective.

“So, more than a substance, plastic is the very idea of its infinite transformation; as its everyday name indicates, it is ubiquity made visible. And it is this, in fact. which makes it a miraculous substance: a miracle is always a sudden transformation of nature. Plastic remains impregnated throughout with this wonder: it is less a thing than the trace oI a movement.� Plastic, Roland Barthes. I. Rationale: This seminar try to relate the proper characteristics of this wide range of materials with a group of new aesthetic effects resulting in the creation of atmospheric, attractive and sensual spaces. It is important to analyze the materials in order to best exploit their particular features and to consider them in the first stages of the design process. II. Course Aims and Objectives: The first aim of the seminar will be to trace the history of plastics from their inception to the present in order to better understand how these materials were used in architecture in the past and how can architects use them today. The course will take students through a general overview of the main production techniques as well as state of the art technologies. The proper characteristics of plastic materials will be studied through the analysis of a group of case studies to help students develop their knowledge and skills in this topic. The final objective of the course will be applying these concepts to students’ architectural approaches. III. Format and Procedures: The seminar will be carried out in both theory and practice. Lectures will provide students the necessary basis in this topic. Discussion classes based on recommended readings will be held as well. Students will be asked to develop two different assignments. In the first one, teams of two students, will analyzed a contemporary case study, in which a significant element of the building had been constructed using synthesized materials. In the second one, which will be individually completed, students will be ask to develop a project considering plastic elements as a main part on the design. This project will be revised during the semester and due to 21st and 28th November and presented to the class. Attendance and an intense participation of students will be mandatory. 74


IV. My Assumptions This seminar we will be addressed to the distinctively characteristics of the plastic materials giving special attention to the way them can be used in construction. The analysis of the case studies will focus on the concerns that should be taken when constructing with plastic materials, in terms of joining, welding, gluing, element dimension, transportation, etc. But also aesthetic effects will be considered. V. Course Requirements and grading procedures: Class attendance and participation policy: 80 % attendance and an intense participation of students will be mandatory. Grades will be based on: 30% : attendance and class participation 30% : case study presentation 40% : final design project and presentation This Journey into plastics is composed by 15 trips: Trip 01: Experiencing plastic. Introduction. Trip 02: Plastic: a structural material. Trip 03-04: Plastic: from Substitution to Inspiration. A brief history. Up to 1939: the beginning of a new Industry 1939-1945: the material of the war 1945-1950: industrialization of the plastics 1950-1960: plastic as a formal-aesthetic revolution Trip 05: Historical applications. Trip 06: Project in Detail: Case Study n 1. Trip 07: Plastic as a structural material. Case Studies presentations by students. Trip 08: Plastic Classification. Elastomers: Silicone, EPDM. Thermoplastics: Polycarbonate. Methacrylate. PVC. Polystyrene. Polyurethane. PTFE. ETFE. Thermosets. GFRP New materials: Composites. UPM. Ecoresin. Trip 09: Project in Detail: Case Study n 2. Trip 10: Students’ projects pinup. Trip 11: Projects in Detail: Case Study n 3. Trip 12: Plastic as a cladding material. Case studies presentations by students. Trip 13: Projects in Detail: Case Study n 4. Trip 14: Plastic as floids, envelope or skin in architecture. Case studies presentation by students. Trip 15: Final presentation.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

A JOURNEY INTO PLASTICS

Quarmby, Arthur. Plastics and architecture. New York: Praeger, 1974.

Jeska, Simone. Transparent Plastics, design and technology. Basel: Birkhauser, 2008.

Engelsmann, Stephan ; Spalding, Valerie and Peters, Stefan. Plastics: in Architecture and Construction. Basel: Birkhauser, 2010.

Ballard Bell, Victoria and Rand, Patrick. Materials for Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006.

Kaltenbach, Frank, (Editor) Various Authors. Translucent Materials : Glass, Plastic, Metals. Basel: Birkhauser, 2004.

Koch, Klaus-Michael ( Editor ), Habermann, Karl J. Membrane Structures: Innovative Building with Film and Fabric. Munich: Prestel, 2004. 76


Toni, Michela. FRP. Architecture. Building by Fiber-Reinforced Plastics. Firenze: Alinea Editrice, 2008.

Borden, Gail Peter. Materials Precedent: The Typology of Modern Tectonics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Ashby, Mike and Johnson, Kara. Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2002.

Beukers, Adriaan and van Hinte, Ed. Lightness: The inevitable renaissance of minimum energy structures. Rotterdam: 010 publishers, 2001.

Berge, Bjorn. The Ecology of Building Materials. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2000.

Meikle, Jeffrey L. American Plastics. A Cultural History. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 77


Deplazes, Andrea. Constructing Architecture: Materials, Processes, Structures, a Handbook. Basel: Birkhauser, 2005.

Simmons, H. Leslie. Olin’s Construction: Principles, Material and Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

Knippers, Jan; Cremers, Jan; Gabler, Markus and Lienhard, Julian. Construction Manual for Polymers + Membranes. Materials, semi-finished products, form-finding and Design. Basel: Birkhauser, 2011

Hegger, Manfred; Auch-Schwelk, Volker; Fuchs, Matthias and Rosenkranz, Thorsten. Construction Materials Manual. Basel: Birkhauser, 2006

Lokensgard, Erik. Industrial Plastics: Theory and application. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning, 2010

Weston, Richard. Materials, Form and Architecture. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2003 78


Uffelen, Chris Van. Pure Plastic. New Materials for today’s Architecture Salenstein: Braun 2010

Herzog, Thomas. Pneumatic structures. A Handbook of Inflatable Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press 1976

Topham, Sean. Blowup. Inflatable Art, Architecture and Design New York: Prestel Publishing 2002

Conrads, Ulrich. Programs and Manifestoes on 20Th-Century Architecture Massachusetts: MIT Press paperback 1970

LeCuyer, Annette. ETFE.Technology and Design. Basel: Birkhauser, 2008

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CASE STUDIES: PLASTIC IN ARCHITECTURE. HISTORICAL APPLICATIONS.

Frederick Kiesler. Space House for the Modern Furniture Company. Full scale mock-up. New York USA, 1933.

Ionel Schein, Yves Magnant and R. A. Coulon. La Maison tout in plastique. Full scale mock-up. Paris France, 1955.

Ionel Schein, Yves Magnant and R. A. Coulon. Mobile Library Exhibition Units. Model. Paris France, 1956.

Alison and Peter Smithson. House of the Future for the Ideal Home Exhibition. Full scale mock-up. London UK, 1956.

Richard Hamilton and Marvin Goody, engineer Albert Diez. House of the Future for Monsanto Company. California, USA, 1957. 80


Jean Maneval. La bulle six coques. Pyrenean Mountains, Launched and sold in several countries, 1968.

Angelo S. Casoni and Dante M. Casoni. Rondo Housing. Research Project, 1968.

Angelo S. Casoni and Dante M. Casoni. Rondo Housing. Prototype for the Basel Exhibition. Basel, Switzerland, 1969.

Matti Suuronen. Futuro house. Launched and sold in several countries, 1968.

Wolfgang Feierbach. FG 2000 House System. Altenstadt Hessen Germany, 1968. 81


Pascal Hausermann and Claude Costy. Variable G.F.P housing. Model. Research Project, 1973.

Jean Louis Chaneac. Amphora cells. Modular Living Units. Research Project, 1973.

Johann Ludowici. Kugelhaus. Research Project, London, UK 1961.

Jean Louis Chaneac. Prototype junction unit for cellular housing system. Prototype. Chambery, France 1962.

Jean Louis Chaneac. Cellular housing system. Model and drawings. Research Project 1962. 82


Arthur Quarmby. Relay Room system for Bakelite LTD. Birmingham, UK, 1963.

Richard Buckminster Fuller. Fly’s Eyes Dome. Colorado USA, 1967.

R. Buckminster Fuller and MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Prototype for First Rigid Radome. Artic, 1952.

Wolfgang Doring. Spatial Housing Solingen-Caspersbroich. Room Shells. Research Project, 1969.

Pascal Hausermann and Claude Costy. Prefabricated housing. Prototype.1973. 83


Jeffrey Shaw and Theo Botschuijver. Event- structure Research Group. Water Walk. Instalation Amsterdam, Netherlands 1969.

Jeffrey Shaw and Theo Botschuijver. Event- structure Research Group. Water Walk Tube. Street Art Festival, Hannover, Germany 1970.

Hans Walter Müller. Nomadic Church. Inflatable 10’ . max occupancy 200 p. Nantes, France, 1968.

Reyner Banham. A home is not a house. Transparent Pneumatic envelope. Research Project, 1965.

Arthur Quarmby. House and garden project. Free-form double-skin transparent dome. Research Project, 1964.

William Katavolos. Floating city from liquid plastic. Research Project, 1960.

Bruce Goff. House in Urbana. Research Project, 1952. 84


Arthur Quarmby. Folding plastic structures with collaboration of students of Bradford Regional College of Art. Prototypes.1970.

Hexagonal dome. Folded and unfolded.

Hexagonal valt. Folded and unfolded, using 30ÂŞ triangles.

Renzo Piano. Mobilble Covering for a Sulphur factory. Roma, Italy.1966.

Florian Vischer. Covering for the Swiss National Exhibition. Lausanne, Switzerland.1964. 85


CASE STUDIES: PLASTIC IN ARCHITECTURE. CONTEMPORARY APPLICATIONS.

Matthew Malone, Amanda Goldberg, Jennifer Metcalf, Grant Meacham. The Accordion reCover Shelter. New York USA, 2008.

Mats Karlsson. Xile. Winner of the Forum AID Award. Stockholm, Sweden 2008.

Adrian Lippmann. Fold flat shelter, DMY International Design Festival. Berlin, Germany. 2010.

Stephan Englesmann, Valerie Spalding, Melanie Fischer and Gerlind Baloghy. Pavilion for the Ideen Park. Stuttgart, Germany 2008.

NIO architecten. Bus Station in Hoofddorp. Hoofddorp, Holland 2003. 86


Arteks arquitectura. Perruquet’s Pinegrove Park. Vila-Seca, Spain, 2004.

Marco Serra. Reception Pavilion at Novartis Campus. Basel, Switzerland. 2006.

Felix Knobel architect, Artevetro architecten + fiberline. Eyecatcher Building for the Swissbau. Basel, Switzerland. 1999.

Pei Zhu Architects. Blur Hotel. Beijing, China, 2006.

Fiberline. Mobible bridge. Pontresina, Switzerland. 1999-2000. 87


Riccardo Giovanetti Designer. Plasticamente Pavilion. Milan, Italy 2008.

Kengo Kuma Architect. Gensei Oribe Zanmai Fair. Higashi-cho Tajimi-shi Gifu Prefecture, Japan 2005.

dmvA. Rini van beek and xfactoragencies. blob VB3. Mobible, anywhere. 2009.

Shiro Studio. Radiolaria. Pontedera, Italy 2009.

JKMM Architecture Office. The finnish Pavilion at Shanghai World Expo. Shanghai, China 2010. 88


Lacaton & Vasal. House in Floriac. Floriac, Francia. 1993.

Lacaton & Vasal. Universitè Pierre MendÊs. Grenoble, Francia. 2001.

Lacaton & Vasal. Fair and Exhibition Hall Paris Nord Paris, Francia. 2007.

Abalos & Herreros Architects. Municipal Hall Colmenarejo. Madrid, Spain. 2001.

Abalos & Herreros Architects. Luis Gordillo Studio. Madrid, Spain. 2002. 89


Anderson & Anderson Architects. Chamaleon House. Michigan, USA 2006.

Abalos & Herreros Architects. Recycle Facilities at SantAdrià de Besos. Sant Adriá de Besos, Spain. 2004.

Weis Architects. Y House. Seoul, Korea. 2010.

Herzog & de Meuron Architects. Ricola Production and Storage Building. Mulhouse-Brunstatt, France. 1993.

Herzog & de Meuron Architects. Laban Dance Center. London, UK. 2003. 90


Shigeru Ban Architect. Artek Pavilion for the Furniture Fair Milan. Milan, Italy. 2007.

Hank Koning and Julie Eizenberg Architects in collaboration with Ned Kahn Artist. Children’s Museum Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, USA. 2004.

cc-studio & studiotx in collaboration with R. Veening. Private House. Amsterdam, Holland. 2010.

Atelier Feichang Jianzhu. The Shanghai Corporate Pavilion. Shanghai, China. 2010.

Kengo Kuma Architect. Plastic House. Tokyo, Japan 2002. 91


R&Sie (n) François Roche, StÊphanie Lavaux and Jean Navarro. Hybrid Muscle Pavilion. Chang Mai, Thailand, 2003.

Gernot Riether. AIA Pavilion. New Orleans, USA, 2011.

Pei Zhu Architects. Yi garden at the Venice Biennale. Venice, Italy, 2010.

James Stirling Architect. Olivetti Training School. Haslemere, England, 1969.

Renzo Piano Architect. IBM Travelling Pavilion. Several cities throughout Europe, 1983-1986. 92


Mario Cucinella Architect. Ebo Pavilion. Bologna, Italy, 2003.

Mario Cucinella Architect. Ebo Pavilion. Bologna, Italy, 2005.

Thomas Heatherwick Architect. The UK Pavilion for the Shanghai Expo. Shanghai, China. 2010.

Ensamble Studio. The Cloud. Playground at Readers House. Madrid, Spain. 2012.

Johnsen Schmaling Architects. Parts House Pavilion. Milwaukee, USA. 2003. 93


SOMA. Thematic Pavilion Expo 2012. Yeosu, South Korea 2012.

P-A-T-T-E-R-N-S. Prism Gallery Art. Los Angeles, USA 2009.

Zaha Hadid Architect. Mobile Art  Chanel  Contemporary  Art  Container. Hong  Kong,  Tokyo,  New  York,  Paris ,2008  -­ 2010.

Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. National Space Center. Leicester, UK. 2001.

Raumlabor Berlin. Kuechen Monument. Various locations. 2007. 94


Sou Fujimoto Architect. Uniqlo Flagstore. Shinsaibashi, Japan. 2010.

Kusus + Kusus Architects. BBI info Tower. Berlin, Germany. 2010.

Wilkinson Eyre Architects. Olympics Basketball & Handball Arena. London, UK, 2010.

Behnisch Architects. Unilever-Haus. Hamburg, Germany, 2010.

Christo, artist. 42390 cubic feet empaquetage. Minneapolis, USA. 1966. 95


Foster & Partners. Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre. Astana, Kazakhstan, 2010.

Atelier Brückner. Cyclebowl. A pavilion for The Duales System Deutschland AG at Expo 2000. Hannover, Holland. 2000.

Tomás Sarraceno. Cloud City. Hamburger Bahnhof. Berlin, Germany. 2011.

PTW Architects, Arup Engineering CSCEC and CCDI. Beijing National Aquatics Center. Watercube. Beijin, China. 2008.

Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. Eden Project. Cornwall, UK. 2001. 96


Herzog & de Meuron Architects. Allianz Arena. München-Fröttmaning, Germany. 2005.

Massimiliano Fuksas Architect. Zénith de Strasbourg Sports Arena. Eckbolsheim, Bas-Rhin, France 2008.

Herzog & de Meuron Architects. St. Jakob Park Basel, Football Stadium, Commercial Centre and Residence for the Elderly. Basel, Switzerland. 2002.

Daly Genik Architects. Art Centter for the College of Design. Pasadena, USA. 2004.

Tara Donovan. Untitled exhibited at Ace Gallery. New York, USA. 2004. 97


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SAMPLE DESIGN SEMINAR SPRING 2013

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100


Spring Semester 2013. Architecture Department Cornell University. Seminar: Special Topic In Theory.

CHROMA

The ways in which architects relates to color have changed through history and are constantly changing today. We can find a wide spectrum of the use of color in architecture

from the total rejection of it, chroma-phobia, to the arbitrary and abusive use, chroma-hysteria. Often, color is considered superficial, supplementary, inessential, fake or cosmetic, but intentionally used, it can be a potent perceptual tool, offering interesting opportunities in architectural design. Color perception in architecture is a complex phenomenon influenced by many parameters that go beyond the physical qualities. It has cultural associations and implications that vary from one place to another and that are related to memory and history. It has the power to modify the perception of context and define the identities of cities, sometimes as a consequence of restrains such as local materials, weather conditions or traditional construction systems. Color can be used as a mechanism to transform the perception of spaces and dimensions. It can articulate and conceal formal elements but also it can render support or counterpoint to architecture features, allowing a plane to retreat or advance, modifying the spatial effect. Also, color can be a method of highlighting the construction process by stressing the presence of an element or making it disappear. Color can be considered an independent layer in design, not being related to program or volumetric composition, but can be also applied with a functional purpose, as a system of orientation, information or identification. These applications of color are based on reason, but frequently color is used for its potential to generate emotion and produce meaning and identity. Color has been described as a bridge between art and architecture. The course will examine some decisive examples of colorful architecture from vernacular constructions such as the white mediterranean villages to the work of architectural practices. This analysis will introduce aspects of color theory in order to provide insights into how contemporary architects use color, counting on it as another material and design tool available to them. The study of these case studies will focus not only on color physics, perception and psychology, but also on the different design strategies. In addition, the class will discuss the main manifestos on this topic from Semper’s “Preliminary remarks on polychrome architecture and sculpture in Antiquity” to the most recent ones which analyze how artificial colored light, translucencies and transparencies are used to generate a global sensorial experience. This seminar aims to contribute to a better understanding of color in architecture, providing a broad overview and discussion of this topic. 101


SYLLABUS CHROMA

Arch 3308/6308. Theory of Architecture Elective.

“Color is life, we should not scorn this means of instilling life into our works”. Antoni Gaudí, Conversation January 23, 1915. I. Rationale: This seminar try to study the different roles that color has performanced in architecture through history in order to best exploit its’ features and to consider it as a powerful tool for the design process today. II. Course Aims and Objectives: The first aim of the seminar will be reflect on the use of color, and the different approaches that have been taken by architects through history, The final objective of the course will be applying these concepts to students’ architectural approaches. III. Format and Procedures: The seminar will be carried out in both theory and practice. Lectures will provide students the necessary basis in this topic. Discussion classes based on recommended readings will be held as well. Students will be asked to develop a practical assigment using as theoretical support the main Manifestoes on this topic. Also a series of case studies will be analyzed by students in order to understand the different strategies, regarding color, used by architects. Attendance and an intense participation of students will be mandatory. IV. Course Requirements and grading procedures: Class attendance and participation policy: 80 % attendance and an intense participation of students will be mandatory. Grades will be based on: 40% : attendance and class participation 30% : case study presentation 30% : final design project and presentation 102


Classes: Class 01: Experiencing color. Introduction. Class 02: Color and Vernacular architecture. Text: Luis Barragán, “the Color of Mexico.” Class 03: Text Discussion: Le Corbusier, “Polychrome Architecture.” Class 04: Constructive polychromy: structural color. Text: Gerrit Rietveld, “ Colour in architecture.” Class 05: Text Discussion: Bruno Taut, “The rebirth of color” vs Theo Van Doesburg, “Space, Time and Color” Class 06: Case study choice. Class 07: Color Codes. Class 08: Functional Color. Text: Robert Venturi & Dennis Scott Brown, “Signs and systems for a mannerist architecture for today.” Class 09: Text discussion: Rem Koolhaas, “ The future of color is looking bright.” Class 10: Students’ projects pinup. Class 11: Color meanings. Text: Michiel Riedijk, “Code, space and light.” Class 12: Text Commentary. Class 13: New materials for new colors. Class 14: Color: the psychologic experience. Class 15: Final presentation.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY C H R O M A

Albert, Josef. Interaction of Color. Yale University Press, New Heaven, 1963.

Glasner, Barbara; Schmidt, Petra; Chroma, Design Architecture & Art in Color Basel, Boston: Birkhauser, 2010.

Riley II, Charles A. Color Codes: Modern Theories of Color in Philosophy, painting and architecture, literature, music and psychology. Hanover: University Press of New England. 1995.

Swirnoff, Lois; Dimensional Color. New York: W.W. Norton, 2003.

Meerwein, Gerhard; Rodeck, Bettina; Mahnke, Frank H; Bruce, Laura; Gaskins, Matthew D; Cohen, Paul; Color: communication in architectural space. Basel, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 2007

Bahamón, Alejandro; Álvarez, Ana María; Light, Color, Sound: sensory effects in contemporary architecture. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 2010. 104


Swirnoff, Lois. The Color of Cities: an International Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Lenclos, Jean-Philippe; Lenclos, Dominique. Colors of the world: the geography of color. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2002.

Mahnke, Frank H. Color, enviroment, and human response: an interdisciplinary understanding of color and its use as a beneficial element in the sesign of the architectural enviroment. The Ecology of Building Materials. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996.

Porter, Tom; Mikellides, Byron. Colour for Architecture today. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY; Taylor & Francis, 2009.

Holtzschue, Linda. Understanding Color, an introduction for designers. New York; Wiley, 2002.

Moor, Andrew. Colours of architecture: coloured glass in contemporary buildings. London: Mitchell Beazley, 2006. 105


Webb, Michael; Pizzini, Regina; Luxemburg, Leon. Volume, geometry, color. Mulgrave, Vic: Images Pub. Group, 1998.

Bright, Keith; Cook, Geoff. The colour, light, and contrast manual: designing and managing inclusive built enviroments. Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Lejeune, Jean-FranÇois; Sabatino, Michelangelo. Modern architecture and the Mediterranean: vernacular dialogues and contested identities. London, New York: Routeledge, 2010.

Klanten, Robert; Feireiss. Strike a pose!: eccentric architecture and spectacular spaces.. Berlin: Die Gestalten Verlag, 2008.

Zanco, Federica; Ilaria Valente. BarragĂĄn Guide. Birsfelden, Switzerland: Barragan Foundation; Mexico: Arquine + RM, 2002.

Komossa, Susanne; Rouw, Kees; Hillen, Joost; Mackay, David; Technische Universiteit Delft. Afdeling Architectuur. Colour in Contemporary Architecture: Projects, essays, calendar, manifestoes.. Amsterdam: SUN 2009. 106


Topham, Sean. Plans and details for contemporary architects: building with colour. London: Thames & Hudson, 2010.

Batchelor, David. Chromofobia. London: Reaktion, 2000.

Lancaster, Michael. Colourscape. London: Academy Editions, 1996.

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