Academic Portfolio. PlasticsII. Seminar

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A JOURNEY INTO

PLASTICS CORNELL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ART AND PLANNING DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE SEMINAR. SPECIAL TOPIC IN CONSTRUCTION BUILDING TECHNOLOGY ELECTIVE I N S T R U C TO R : LO R E N A D E L R I O

“So, more than a substance, plastic is the very idea of its infinite transformation; as its everyday name indicates, it is ubiquity made visible. And it is this, in fact. which makes it a miraculous substance: a miracle is always a sudden transformation of nature. Plastic remains impregnated throughout with this wonder: it is less a thing than the trace of a movement.” Plastic, Roland Barthes. The development of a wide range of plastic materials in such a short period of time (1920-1940) drew the fascination of architects and engineers. Their attention initiated a fruitful period of great experimentation seeking new concepts in architecture to harmonize with the new products. High production costs due to the oil crisis, unresolved problems with durability and yet undiscovered avenues of exploitation of the new material resulted in a period when plastics were rarely used. Fortunately new technologies have solved most of these problems. We are witnessing a new era in the use of plastics, a new renaissance of the use of synthesized materials which now, more than ever, can meet all of architecture’s requirements. But the current vision of plastics is less idealistic and less euphoric than the one held by the original pioneers. Now however the material is not the starting point of the design. Instead designers are seeking the perfect material which can fit their conceptual design approaches and notions of form. 81


A JOURNEY INTO PLASTICS The advantages of plastics such as lightness, cost-efficiency, climate control capabilities, extreme tailoring are not its main features. The proper characteristics of these materials in terms of light transmission, bounce, color possibilities, make up a group of new aesthetic effects resulting in the creation of atmospheric, sensual and provocative spaces. But what is the future of plastics? Should architects look for new concepts for plastics in architecture in order to best exploit its particular characteristics? Or should we keep on evolving materials in order to adapt them to our new concept of architecture? This seminar studies the past, analyze the present and make a forecast for the future of plastic materials. The course takes the students through an overview of the history of these materials from their inception to the present. State of the art technologies in plastics is investigated through a group of case studies to help students develop their knowledge and skills in this topic. Plastics are analyzed by considering them in four different ways: 1) as a structural material, 2) as a fluid material, 3) as manufactured elements and 4) as floids, i.e. as an envelope or skin in architecture. This seminar focuses on both theory and practice; students are asked to develop an exercise in which they apply these concepts to their architectural approaches. This seminar tries to relate the proper characteristics of this wide range of materials with a group of new aesthetic effects resulting in the creation of atmospheric, attractive and sensual spaces. It is important to analyze the materials in order to best exploit their particular features and to consider them in the first stages of the design process.The first aim of the seminar is to trace the history of plastics from their inception to the present in order to better understand how these materials were used in architecture in the past and how can architects use them today. The course takes students through a general overview of the main production techniques as well as state of the art technologies. The proper characteristics of plastic materials are studied through the analysis of a group of case studies to help students develop their knowledge and skills in this topic. The final objective of the course is applying these concepts to 82


students’ architectural approaches. The seminar is carried out in both theory and practice. Lectures provide students the necessary basis in this topic. Discussion classes based on recommended readings are held as well. Students are asked to develop two different assignments. In the first one, teams of two students, analyze a contemporary case study, in which a significant element of the building had been constructed using synthesized materials. In the second one, which is individually completed, students are asked to develop a project considering plastic elements as a main part on the design. This seminar addresses to the distinctively characteristics of the plastic materials giving special attention to the way them can be used in construction. The analysis of the case studies focuses on the concerns that should be taken when constructing with plastic materials, in terms of joining, welding, gluing, element dimension, transportation, etc. But also aesthetic effects are considered. This journey is compound by 15 trips. Trip 01: Experiencing plastic. Introduction. Trip 02: Plastic: a structural material. Trip 03-04: Plastic: from Substitution to Inspiration. Up to 1939: the beginning of a new Industry 1939-1945: the material of the war 1945-1950: industrialization of the plastics 1950-1960: plastic as a formal-aesthetic revolution Trip 05: Historical applications. Trip 06: Project in Detail: Selgascano headquarters. Trip 07: Plastic as a structural material. Trip 08: Plastic Classification. Trip 09: Project in Detail: Cartagena Auditorium. Trip 10: Students’ projects pinup. Trip 11: Projects in Detail: Merida Youth Factory. Trip 12: Plastic as a cladding material. Case studies presentations by students. Trip 13: Projects in Detail: Plasencia Auditorium. Trip 14: Plastic as floids, envelop or skin in architecture. Trip 15: Final presentation.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY A JOURNEY INTO PLASTICS

Quarmby, Arthur. Plastics and architecture. New York: Praeger, 1974.

Jeska, Simone. Transparent Plastics, design and technology. Basel: Birkhauser, 2008.

Engelsmann, Stephan ; Spalding,Valerie and Peters, Stefan. Plastics: in Architecture and Construction.

Ballard Bell,Victoria and Rand, Patrick. Materials for Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006.

Kaltenbach, Frank, (Editor) Various Authors. Translucent Materials : Glass, Plastic, Metals. Basel: Birkhauser, 2004.

Koch, Klaus-Michael ( Editor ), Habermann, Karl J. Membrane Structures: Innovative Building with Film and Fabric. Munich: Prestel, 2004.

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Toni, Michela. FRP. Architecture. Building by Fiber-Reinforced Plastics. Firenze: Alinea Editrice, 2008.

Borden, Gail Peter. Materials Precedent: The Typology of Modern Tectonics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Ashby, Mike and Johnson, Kara. Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2002.

Beukers, Adriaan and van Hinte, Ed. Lightness: The inevitable renaissance of minimum energy structures. Rotterdam: 010 publishers, 2001.

Berge, Bjorn. The Ecology of Building Materials. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2000.

Meikle, Jeffrey L. American Plastics. A Cultural History. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 85


Deplazes, Andrea. Constructing Architecture: Materials, Processes, Structures, a Handbook. Basel: Birkhauser, 2005.

Simmons, H. Leslie. Olin’s Construction: Principles, Material and Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

Knippers, Jan; Cremers, Jan; Gabler, Markus and Lienhard, Julian. Construction Manual for Polymers + Membranes. Materials, semi-finished products, form-finding and Design. Basel: Birkhauser, 2011

Hegger, Manfred; Auch-Schwelk,Volker; Fuchs, Matthias and Rosenkranz, Thorsten. Construction Materials Manual. Basel: Birkhauser, 2006

Lokensgard, Erik. Industrial Plastics: Theory and application. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning, 2010

Weston, Richard. Materials, Form and Architecture. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2003 86


Uffelen, Chris Van. Pure Plastic. New Materials for today’s Architecture Salenstein: Braun 2010

Herzog, Thomas. Pneumatic structures. A Handbook of Inflatable Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press 1976

Topham, Sean. Blowup. Inflatable Art, Architecture and Design New York: Prestel Publishing 2002

Conrads, Ulrich. Programs and Manifestoes on 20Th-Century Architecture Massachusetts: MIT Press paperback 1970

LeCuyer, Annette. ETFE.Technology and Design. Basel: Birkhauser, 2008

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CASE STUDIES: PLASTIC IN ARCHITECTURE. HISTORICAL APPLICATIONS.

Frederick Kiesler. Space House for the Modern Furniture Company. Full scale mock-up. New York USA, 1933.

Ionel Schein,Yves Magnant and R. A. Coulon. La Maison tout in plastique. Full scale mock-up. Paris France, 1955.

Ionel Schein,Yves Magnant and R. A. Coulon. Mobile Library Exhibition Units. Model. Paris France, 1956.

Alison and Peter Smithson. House of the Future for the Ideal Home Exhibition. Full scale mock-up. London UK, 1956.

Richard Hamilton and Marvin Goody, engineer Albert Diez. House of the Future for Monsanto Company. California, USA, 1957. 88


Jean Maneval. La bulle six coques. Pyrenean Mountains, Launched and sold in several countries, 1968.

Angelo S. Casoni and Dante M. Casoni. Rondo Housing. Research Project, 1968.

Angelo S. Casoni and Dante M. Casoni. Rondo Housing. Prototype for the Basel Exhibition. Basel, Switzerland, 1969.

Matti Suuronen. Futuro house. Launched and sold in several countries, 1968.

Wolfgang Feierbach. FG 2000 House System. Altenstadt Hessen Germany, 1968. 89


Pascal Hausermann and Claude Costy. Variable G.F.P housing. Model. Research Project, 1973.

Jean Louis Chaneac. Amphora cells. Modular Living Units. Research Project, 1973.

Johann Ludowici. Kugelhaus. Research Project, London, UK 1961.

Jean Louis Chaneac. Prototype junction unit for cellular housing system. Prototype. Chambery, France 1962.

Jean Louis Chaneac. Cellular housing system. Model and drawings. Research Project 1962. 90


Arthur Quarmby. Relay Room system for Bakelite LTD. Birmingham, UK, 1963.

Richard Buckminster Fuller. Fly’s Eyes Dome. Colorado USA, 1967.

R. Buckminster Fuller and MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Prototype for First Rigid Radome. Artic, 1952.

Wolfgang Doring. Spatial Housing Solingen-Caspersbroich. Room Shells. Research Project, 1969.

Pascal Hausermann and Claude Costy. Prefabricated housing. Prototype.1973. 91


Jeffrey Shaw and Theo Botschuijver. Event- structure Research Group. Water Walk. Instalation Amsterdam, Netherlands 1969.

Jeffrey Shaw and Theo Botschuijver. Event- structure Research Group. Water Walk Tube. Street Art Festival, Hannover, Germany 1970.

Hans Walter Müller. Nomadic Church. Inflatable 10’ . max occupancy 200 p. Nantes, France, 1968.

Reyner Banham. A home is not a house. Transparent Pneumatic envelope. Research Project, 1965.

Arthur Quarmby. House and garden project. Free-form double-skin transparent dome. Research Project, 1964.

William Katavolos. Floating city from liquid plastic. Research Project, 1960.

Bruce Goff. House in Urbana. Research Project, 1952. 92


Arthur Quarmby. Folding plastic structures with collaboration of students of Bradford Regional College of Art. Prototypes.1970.

Hexagonal dome. Folded and unfolded.

Hexagonal valt. Folded and unfolded, using 30ÂŞ triangles.

Renzo Piano. Mobilble Covering for a Sulphur factory. Roma, Italy.1966.

Florian Vischer. Covering for the Swiss National Exhibition. Lausanne, Switzerland.1964. 93


CASE STUDIES: PLASTIC IN ARCHITECTURE. CONTEMPORARY APPLICATIONS.

Matthew Malone, Amanda Goldberg, Jennifer Metcalf, Grant Meacham. The Accordion reCover Shelter. New York USA, 2008.

Mats Karlsson. Xile. Winner of the Forum AID Award. Stockholm, Sweden 2008.

Adrian Lippmann. Fold flat shelter, DMY International Design Festival. Berlin, Germany. 2010.

Stephan Englesmann,Valerie Spalding, Melanie Fischer and Gerlind Baloghy. Pavilion for the Ideen Park. Stuttgart, Germany 2008.

NIO architecten. Bus Station in Hoofddorp. Hoofddorp, Holland 2003. 94


Arteks arquitectura. Perruquet’s Pinegrove Park. Vila-Seca, Spain, 2004.

Marco Serra. Reception Pavilion at Novartis Campus. Basel, Switzerland. 2006.

Felix Knobel architect, Artevetro architecten + fiberline. Eyecatcher Building for the Swissbau. Basel, Switzerland. 1999.

Pei Zhu Architects. Blur Hotel. Beijing, China, 2006.

Fiberline. Mobible bridge. Pontresina, Switzerland. 1999-2000. 95


Riccardo Giovanetti Designer. Plasticamente Pavilion. Milan, Italy 2008.

Kengo Kuma Architect. Gensei Oribe Zanmai Fair. Higashi-cho Tajimi-shi Gifu Prefecture, Japan 2005.

dmvA. Rini van beek and xfactoragencies. blob VB3. Mobible, anywhere. 2009.

Shiro Studio. Radiolaria. Pontedera, Italy 2009.

JKMM Architecture Office. The finnish Pavilion at Shanghai World Expo. Shanghai, China 2010. 96


Lacaton & Vasal. House in Floriac. Floriac, Francia. 1993.

Lacaton & Vasal. Universitè Pierre MendÊs. Grenoble, Francia. 2001.

Lacaton & Vasal. Fair and Exhibition Hall Paris Nord Paris, Francia. 2007.

Abalos & Herreros Architects. Municipal Hall Colmenarejo. Madrid, Spain. 2001.

Abalos & Herreros Architects. Luis Gordillo Studio. Madrid, Spain. 2002. 97


Anderson & Anderson Architects. Chamaleon House. Michigan, USA 2006.

Abalos & Herreros Architects. Recycle Facilities at SantAdrià de Besos. Sant Adriá de Besos, Spain. 2004.

Weis Architects. Y House. Seoul, Korea. 2010.

Herzog & de Meuron Architects. Ricola Production and Storage Building. Mulhouse-Brunstatt, France. 1993.

Herzog & de Meuron Architects. Laban Dance Center. London, UK. 2003. 98


Shigeru Ban Architect. Artek Pavilion for the Furniture Fair Milan. Milan, Italy. 2007.

Hank Koning and Julie Eizenberg Architects in collaboration with Ned Kahn Artist. Children’s Museum Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, USA. 2004.

cc-studio & studiotx in collaboration with R.Veening. Private House. Amsterdam, Holland. 2010.

Atelier Feichang Jianzhu. The Shanghai Corporate Pavilion. Shanghai, China. 2010.

Kengo Kuma Architect. Plastic House. Tokyo, Japan 2002. 99


R&Sie (n) François Roche, StÊphanie Lavaux and Jean Navarro. Hybrid Muscle Pavilion. Chang Mai, Thailand, 2003.

Gernot Riether. AIA Pavilion. New Orleans, USA, 2011.

Pei Zhu Architects. Yi garden at the Venice Biennale. Venice, Italy, 2010.

James Stirling Architect. Olivetti Training School. Haslemere, England, 1969.

Renzo Piano Architect. IBM Travelling Pavilion. Several cities throughout Europe, 1983-1986. 100


Mario Cucinella Architect. Ebo Pavilion. Bologna, Italy, 2003.

Mario Cucinella Architect. Ebo Pavilion. Bologna, Italy, 2005.

Thomas Heatherwick Architect. The UK Pavilion for the Shanghai Expo. Shanghai, China. 2010.

Ensamble Studio. The Cloud. Playground at Readers House. Madrid, Spain. 2012.

Johnsen Schmaling Architects. Parts House Pavilion. Milwaukee, USA. 2003. 101


SOMA. Thematic Pavilion Expo 2012. Yeosu, South Korea 2012.

P-A-T-T-E-R-N-S. Prism Gallery Art. Los Angeles, USA 2009.

Zaha Hadid Architect. Mobile Art Chanel Contemporary Art Container. Hong Kong, Tokyo, New York, Paris ,2008 -­ 2010.

Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. National Space Center. Leicester, UK. 2001.

Raumlabor Berlin. Kuechen Monument. Various locations. 2007. 102


Sou Fujimoto Architect. Uniqlo Flagstore. Shinsaibashi, Japan. 2010.

Kusus + Kusus Architects. BBI info Tower. Berlin, Germany. 2010.

Wilkinson Eyre Architects. Olympics Basketball & Handball Arena. London, UK, 2010.

Behnisch Architects. Unilever-Haus. Hamburg, Germany, 2010.

Christo, artist. 42390 cubic feet empaquetage. Minneapolis, USA. 1966. 103


Foster & Partners. Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre. Astana, Kazakhstan, 2010.

Atelier Brückner. Cyclebowl. A pavilion for The Duales System Deutschland AG at Expo 2000. Hannover, Holland. 2000.

Tomás Sarraceno. Cloud City. Hamburger Bahnhof. Berlin, Germany. 2011.

PTW Architects, Arup Engineering CSCEC and CCDI. Beijing National Aquatics Center. Watercube. Beijin, China. 2008.

Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. Eden Project. Cornwall, UK. 2001. 104


Herzog & de Meuron Architects. Allianz Arena. München-Fröttmaning, Germany. 2005.

Massimiliano Fuksas Architect. Zénith de Strasbourg Sports Arena. Eckbolsheim, Bas-Rhin, France 2008.

Herzog & de Meuron Architects. St. Jakob Park Basel, Football Stadium, Commercial Centre and Residence for the Elderly. Basel, Switzerland. 2002.

Daly Genik Architects. Art Centter for the College of Design. Pasadena, USA. 2004.

Tara Donovan. Untitled exhibited at Ace Gallery. New York, USA. 2004. 105


EXERCISE 1 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS

Case Study I: Structure An exhibition to teach children about plastics and recycling, the pavilion was made for the screeening of the new Disney Movie Tinkerbell. Since it was an eco friendly cartoon, the pavilion was to be ecofriendly as well.

114


ructure

avilion was made for the o friendly cartoon, the pavilion

Individual Module Elements

Exploded Pavilion Elements

Section showing simplicity of attachment

* Work by Julia Gamolina BArch 2014 115


Case Study II: Facade Ricola-Europe SA, Production and Storage Building Mulhouse-Brunstatt, France Project 1992, realization 1993

Both long walls are light walls providing the work area with constant, pleasantly filtered daylight. Light filtering occurs through printed translucent polycarbonate faรงade panels, a common industrial building material. Using silkscreen, these panels are printed with a repetitive plant motif.

116


acade

t, pleasantly filtered onate faรงade panels, els are printed with a

* Work by Julia Gamolina BArch 2014 Front Entrance Section showing panel attachment 117


Case Study III: ETFE

118


ETFE

20% of solar energy used for

letting in more light than glass Steel Structure with ETFE Detailing

ventilation system

20 mm drain hole

main steel structure

steel bracket

extrusion; waterproofed between caps

Section showing environmentally friendly design

Individual Piece attachment detailing

* Work by Julia Gamolina BArch 2014 119


[E]SPIRAL BENCH 3' The [E]spiral bench will be made out polycarbonate pipes. Some of the properties of this PLAN AND ELEVATIONS [E]SPIRAL BENCH material are:

3'

The [E]spiral bench will be made out polycarbonate pipes. Some of the properties of this

- Transparent material are:

3'

- Light Weight but strong - Transparent

- Having an excellent mechanical strength - Light Weight but strong

- U.V. Resistant

- Having an excellent mechanical strength

3'

- Scratch, fire and water resistant (Not water proof) - U.V. Resistant

- Durable and long lifefire and water resistant (Not water proof) - Scratch, 5'-9"

- Available in differentand Design, shape, Thickness and Dimensions. - Durable long life TOP VIEW

Some of the thermal in propeties are: shape, Thickness and Dimensions. - Available different Design, 5'-9"

MATERIALS REQUIRED

of the thermal propeties are: - Maximum Some Temperature: 250°F 121°C 5'-9"

TOP VIEW - Maximum

Temperature: 250°F 121°C - Melting Point: 300°F 149°C - Melting Point: 300°F 149°C 5'-9" - Minimum Temperature: -40°F -40°C

MATERIALS REQUIRED

- Minimum Temperature: -40°F -40°C

- Tensile Strength: 10,000 psi

- Tensile Strength: 10,000 psi

1'-8" 1'

PLAN AND ELEVATIONS

PLAN AND ELEVATIONS 3'

FRONT VIEW

WRENCHES

POLYCARBONATE PIPES

They will be used to tighten the nuts.

For this piece of furniture, I’ve decided to use a 3” diameter pipe. They will be

We will be using security bolts and nuts in order to ensure the stiffness and durability of the connections.

ELECTRIC DRILL

WRENCHES

POLYCARBONATE PIPES

BOLTS AND NUTS

PART DESCRIPTION

They will be used to tighten the nuts.

For this piece of furniture, I’ve decided to use a 3” diameter pipe. They will be

ELECTRIC DRILL

The electric drill will be used to drill the holes that will be used for the connections.

3'

BOLTS AND NUTS

1'-8"

1'

The electric drill will be used to drill the holes that will be used for the connections.

FRONT VIEW

We will be using security bolts and nuts in order to ensure the stiffness and durability of the connections.

- Number of Pipes: 35 vertical and 10 horizontal 3'-0 1/16"

3'

- Number of bolts and nuts: 70 pairs for vertical pipes and 20 pairs for horizontal pipes.

PART DESCRIPTION

3'

- Mechanical tools: two wrenches.

- Number of Pipes: 35 vertical and 10 horizontal - Electrical Tools: Drill.

3'-0 1/16"

- Number of bolts and nuts: 70 pairs for vertical pipes and 20 pairs for horizontal pipes. - Other parts: Drill bit.

SIDE VIEW

- Mechanical tools: two wrenches.

SECTION + DETAILS SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW

INVOICE - Electrical Tools: Drill. 5'-9"

5'-9"

TOP VIEW

SECTION + DETAILS

5'-9"

- Other parts: Drill bit. PART 3” DIAMETER POLYCARBONATE PIPE

3” OD x 2-3/4” ID x 1/8” Wall Polycarbonate Tubing INVOICE

MATERIALS REQUIRED

Stainless steel 18-8 - Bolts and Nuts

5'-9" 3” DIAMETER POLYCARBONATE PIPE

MATERIALS REQUIRED

PART Kobalt 1/2-in Standard (SAE) Ratcheting Wrench

3” OD x 2-3/4” ID x 1/8” Wall Polycarbonate Tubing DEWALT 18-Volt 1/2-in Drive Cordless Impact Wrench

1'

SECURITY BOLTS GAUGE !0

FRONT VIEW

* Work by Arturo Corzo BArch 2013 120

STRINGS

SECURITY BOLTS GAUGE !0

$1,095.12

100 pairs

$198.55

QUANTITY 2

PRICE $42.98 $1,095.12 $149.00

100 pairs 1

Kobalt 1/2-in Standard (SAE) Ratcheting Wrench

2

DEWALT 18-Volt 1/2-in Drive Cordless Impact Wrench

1

DEWALT 6-Piece High-Speed Steel Metal Twist Drill Bit Set

1

$198.55 $13.97 $42.98 $1,499.62 $149.00 $13.97

1'-8"

1'-8" 1'

PRICE

120 FT

120 FT 1

Stainless steel 18-8 - Bolts and Nuts DEWALT 6-Piece High-Speed Steel Metal Twist Drill Bit Set

STRINGS

QUANTITY

ELECTRIC DRILL

The electric drill will be used to drill the holes that will be used for the connections.

ELECTRIC DRILL

The electric drill will be used to drill the holes that will be used for the connections.

FRONT VIEW

PART DESCRIPTION

WRENCHES

$1,499.62

They will be used to tighten the nuts.

WRENCHES They will be used to tighten the nuts.

POLYCARBONATE PIPES For this piece of furniture, I’ve decided to use a 3” diameter pipe. They will be

POLYCARBONATE PIPES For this piece of furniture, I’ve decided to use a 3” diameter pipe. They will be

BOLTS AND NUTS

We will be using security bolts and nuts in order to ensure the stiffness and durability of the connections.

BOLTS AND NUTS

We will be using security bolts and nuts in order to ensure the stiffness and durability of the connections.


Carrington Ryan Ryan Carrington

ARCH 4605 Journey into Plastics ARCH 4605 Journey into Plastics Prof. Lorena Del Rio Gimeno Prof. Lorena Del Rio Gimeno

EXERCISE 11

Material: Expanded Polystyrene

or

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Material: Expanded Polystyrene Ryan Carrington Material: Expanded Polystyrene ARCH 4605 Journey into Plastics Prof. Lorena Del Rio Gimeno

Wall

Window

Glue

Human Human Human Birdhouse Birdhouse Birdhouse

Material Properties: Material Properties: 3’

1’

1’6’

1’

6’

6’

3’ Thermal Insulation Thermal Insulation Low Wieght (98% air) Low Wieght (98% air) Material Resistance Properties: to humidity Resistance to humidity Chemical resistance Chemical resistance Low water absorption 3’ Thermal Insulation Low water absorption Shock Absorption Wieght (98% air) Shock Low Absorption Resistance to humidity Chemical resistance Low water absorption Shock Absorption

Wall

Wall

oror or

Window Window

Glue Glue Wall

Window

Glue

* Work by Ryan Carrington BArch 2015 121


122


* Work by Josehp Kennedy BArch 2015 123