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The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin Bringing the World to the Island

Arab Spring: One Year Later

Spring 2012

Scottish Independence?

Korean Entertainment Goes Global KONY 2012

Brazil Prepares for Sports Spotlight

Foreign Policy 2012: Obama vs. Romney

Cover Illustration by Mimi Do ’12

from the Editors-in-Chief

A letter to our readers: The Invisible Architect


The development of human civilization reflects Man’s continuous journey in fathoming the human mind. Psychologists, from Freud to Jung, analyze the mechanics of the human brain and study how people react in different circumstances. Politicians learn oratory methods that will allow them to win the hearts of the people. Economists analyze the incentives, the internal motivations that propel individuals to make decisions in a world of scarcity. As the element that makes the world go round, the human mind continues to burgeon its influence in the present. International affairs have thus become a venue for individuals to explore the intricacies of the human mind, to understand what makes a person tick and how his / her actions affect the global stage. It is important for people to understand the human mind in order to comprehend international affairs because from the human mind manifests ideas of political reform and entrepreneurship. It is the origin of Bahrain’s policies of economic innovation. It is the source of Burma’s free elections, as the former authoritarian country begins to adapt democracy within its borders. It is also where Brazil gets inspiration for its political maneuvers, as the country prepares to host the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics. However, as the number of ideas increase, these ideas will eventually rub shoulders. Political coalitions in Egypt clash with each other, due to their divergent perspectives on their country’s present political state. Scots argue on the effects of their homeland’s allegiance with Great Britain, as well as the consequences of a possible independence. Liberal and conservative stances on homosexuality spark political discord and suppression in Russia. Through its cultivation of ideas, the human mind becomes the source of not only development, but also conflict. In this year’s spring issue of the Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin, we encourage readers to discover how the human mind and the ideas it breeds affect the global stage. Our Obama vs. Romney series illustrate the doctrinal differences between the two U.S. presidential candidates and how their views will affect

the position of the United States in the world. Commentaries on corruption in India’s energy industry, the recent election in France, and reverse racism in South Africa demonstrate the continuous exchange of past and modern ideals. Throughout this issue, we hope to allow readers to explore how ideas interrelate with each other and how the human mind shapes the world surrounding us. Sincerely, Samson Chow and Liana Fernez

Spring 2012 / Volume 3, Number 2 EDITORS-IN-CHIEF: Samson Chow ’12 Liana Fernez ’12 Junior Editors: Arianna Calabrese ’13 Woo Jin “James” Lee ’13 Contributor: Patrick Kennedy-Nolle ’12 Faculty Adviser / Copy & Layout: Rachel M. Engelke


Spring 2012 / Volume 3, Number 2


Middle East

4 | Changing Tides on the Seine: France’s Presidential Election -Samuel Verney ’14

18 | The Arab Spring and What It Means for Israeli-Egyptian Relations -Leah Rubin ’14

5 | Dutch Prime Minister Resigns Amid Collapse of Budget Talks -Purven Parikh ’13

19 | Economic Development in Bahrain -Esraa Sabah ’13

6 | Sex, Scandal and Sacrifice: The Fall of Silvio Berlusconi and Rise of Mario Monti -Arianna Calabrese ’13 7 | To Secede Or Not To Secede: A Question of Scottish Independence -Paige Mickel ’14 8 | A Cold Denial of Human Rights: Anti-LGBT Legislation in Russia -Ekaterina “Kath” Kryuchkova ’13

The Americas 20 | U.S. Foreign Policy: Consequentialism and Its Discontents -Patrick Kennedy-Nolle ’12 21 | The World of Sports Has Its Eye on Brazil -Riley Clark-Long ’12 23 | Argentina, Spain, and Oil -Paul Kyumin Lee ’13


24 | S.O.L.— Save Our Language! -Ji Hee Yoon ’13

9 | The 2012 Egyptian Election and the Legacy of Hosni Mubarak -Tuan Anh “Thomas” Lam ’14

Obama vs. Romney 2012

10 | Violence in Sudan - Naphisa “Pim” Senanarong ’13 11 | Implications of KONY 2012 -Alexander Lafrance ’12 12 | Reverse Racism in South Africa -Billy Holloway ’15 14 | Angola, Crony Capitalism, and Colonialism -Jake Bosée ’12

Asia 15 | Corruption in India - Rohin Bhargava ’14 16 | The Globalization of the Korean Entertainment Industry -Jungyeon Lim ’14 17 | Burmese Elections: Baby Steps Toward Democracy -Arianna Calabrese ’13

26 | Sweet or Sour: Obama vs. Romney on China -AsiaSol Goring ’12, Monica He ’12 & Abby Lavalley ’13 27 | Murky at Best: Mitt Romney’s Plans for Afghanistan -Arianna Calabrese ’13 & Meredith Thomas ’12 28 | Israel and Palestine: A Two-State Solution? -Riley Clark-Long ’12, Paul Han ’12 & Kevin Lee ’12 29 | The Politics of the Arab Spring -Samson Chow ’12 & Woo Jin “James” Lee ’13 31 | Iran: Confrontation or Compromise? -Michael Danielczuk ’12, Grace Foster ’13 & Theja Yalamanchili ’12 32 | Immigration -Abigail Adams ’12, Liana Fernez ’12 & Sarah Williams ’13 — 34 | Image Sources


europe Changing Tides on the Seine: France’s Presidential Election by Samuel Verney ’14

After the first round of the French presidential unemployment. As a result of the financial crisis, election in April, two the unemployment rate has actually risen during his SAM VERNEY is a day candidates remain: tenure, now hovering at around 10%. Thus, for the student from West current president Nicolas present election, Sarkozy has chosen new key issues Simsbury, Connecticut. He Sarkozy and Socialist to rally support: immigration, protection of French is a two-year veteran of the Party nominee Francois borders, and maintenance of French domestic Club Soccer program, he production. Keeping French production local would sings in the Concert Choir Hollande. Sarkozy and and Chamber Singers, Hollande will compete in certainly help bolster the French economy and pull it and this winter he made a runoff election on May further away from the dire straits of the debt crisis. his NEO debut as Wilbur 6th. Their comparatively His plans to halve immigration and respect France’s Turnblad in Hairspray. equal showings in the borders doubtlessly stem from a strong sense of Sam also made his World initial election indicated national identity. His campaign centers on the idea Bulletin debut this winter with an article about the nothing short of a that France must survive the debt crisis as a strong, growth of the Al-Jazeera significant historical unified country. Unfortunately, Le Pen, the far-right, news network. result, all the more so as nationalist, anti-immigration candidate, has strongly Marine shown that Sarkozy, a right-centrist Le Pen, leader of France’s far right politician, has been unable to sway movement, finished a strong third. the far right to his side. A potential All three came to the election with abstention from voting for Sarkozy, remarkably different viewpoints or a vote for Le Pen instead of for and strategies for dealing with the Sarkozy, could give Hollande the European debt crisis, the most lead he needs to edge out his rivals. significant present issue facing Hollande holds different views France and all of Europe. rather, not only from Sarkozy, but Sarkozy made many promises also from the centrist, conservative in his initial bid for the presidency, presidents of the past 17 years. which the European debt crisis However, Hollande also subscribes derailed. Among other proposals, New French president Francois Hollande to considerably different positions he declared to energize France’s from his Socialist Party. As economy, shrink its public sector, and halve opposed to agreeing with Sarkozy’s initial policies of unemployment to 5%. However, when the debt crisis austerity, Hollande supports tax increases and proper struck, Sarkozy decreased government spending. He governmental programs. For instance, he plans to followed a policy of austerity, believing that it was increase government spending in order to create the best method to reduce the risk of state jobs for teachers and policemen. further economic collapse. Although He will try to renegotiate a European he did not succeed in fulfilling his Union treaty limiting budget deficits promise of energizing France’s and national debt, while petitioning to economy, he eventually reversed his the European Central Bank for more previous plans and began to support a toleration on inflation. With these strategy to promote growth. new programs in place, Hollande will While Sarkozy has changed his thus increase spending to expand job perspective on France’s economic opportunities and stimulate economic growth and its relationship to debt, growth. Like Sarkozy, Hollande there is a very good chance that the aims to avoid significant French French people may perceive it as being entanglement in the European debt too little, too late. In addition, he crisis. Interestingly, Hollande’s plan failed to keep his promise of lowering to raise taxes, rather than cutting 4 Former President Nicolas Sarkozy

spending, has been well received by the French public. The majority of the French population tends to view Hollande’s plans as more or less in line with the social and political values at the heart of the country. It appears that the austerity measures so promoted by Sarkozy and his strong ally German Chancellor Angela Merkel have failed to win the support of the French people. As May 6th approaches and the runoff election draws ever nearer, questions about France’s future political leaders continue to bristle. Will the French people re-elect Sarkozy and continue their 17-year

centrist streak? Or will they opt for the Socialist Hollande, whose bolder, newer policies may provide the change the country needs, or plunge them further into the European debt crisis, as some economists have feared? Though Sarkozy may gain victory by garnering the support of those initially supporting Le Pen, Hollande’s lead in the polls indicates a very close election. [Editor’s Note: This article was written just before the May 6 runoff election; Socialist Francois Hollande did, in fact, defeat conservative incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy with a vote of 51.63% to 48.37%, according to tallies provided by the French Ministry of the Interior.]

Dutch Prime Minister Resigns Amid Collapse of Budget Talks by Purven Parikh ’13

On April 23rd, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte Rutte’s cabinet remain in place. Diederik Samson, the handed in his resignation letter to Queen Beatrix of leader of the Labor Party, accused Rutte of resigning the Netherlands after the far-right Freedom Party at the worst possible moment. Samson proclaimed walked out on negotiations proposing budget cuts that the former Dutch for the 2013 fiscal year. The Dutch had backed the Prime Minister should PURVEN PARIKH, from European Union’s fiscal policy and urged for Greece “have delivered clarity Wethersfield, Connecticut, is active in the Back to be stripped of its sovereignty for lagging behind on to the country as soon as Country program, is a QRC spending cuts, part of the austerity measures that have possible,” and demanded tutor, and is a co-founder been at the forefront of recent European economic that elections be held of Inventech Enterprises, policy. Hoping to lower the deficit to less than 3%, promptly in order to a company formed with a group of friends to create the European Union’s goal for 2013, Rutte proposed stabilize the country. to slash foreign aid and increase the retirement age to Finance Minister products to help people with disabilities. This is 66 from 65. Jan Kees de Jager tried Purven’s World Bulletin Believing that the planned budget would be reassuring markets that debut. harmful to the Dutch economy, Geert Wilder, leader the Netherlands will of the Freedom Party, cut off talks with Rutte’s continue its good housekeeping policy, stating, “The administration. The Netherlands has traditionally Netherlands will retain its solid fiscal policy and held a very low deficit limit and is expected to post one will also show the market it will lower its deficit and of 4.6% in 2012. But many parts of also have a path of sustainable the Dutch government, including government finances.” According the Central Plan Bureau, still agree to government analysts, the that the target is too aggressive. only way for the Netherlands to Nevertheless, the Dutch have avoid disaster is for parties inside been one of the main supporters of and outside the center-right the 3% deficit limit. Others, such coalition to agree on budget cuts. as Dutch Central Bank President Otherwise, the Dutch AAA credit Klaas Knot, claim that meeting the rating, indicating strong financial goal is vital to keep the country’s stability, could be damaged. (By financial reputation intact. comparison, in August 2011 the Without a majority backing in United States lost its AAA credit parliament, as well as support from Mark Rutte, Prime Minister of the Netherlands rating, and was downgraded to the Freedom Party, Rutte could do AA+ by Standard & Poor’s, one of little to ensure an agreement on the proposal. In his the so-called ‘Big Three’ credit rating agencies.) resignation letter, he wrote, “The government now Rutte is to debate with the Dutch Parliament over knows that it is no longer sufficiently assured of the how his cabinet can still improve the budget and necessary parliamentary support to do what is necessary when to schedule new elections. Though no date has for our national economy.” However, in order to assure been announced, opposition lawmakers are calling for national fiscal stability, Queen Beatrix requested that a vote in late June. 5

Sex, Scandal, and Sacrifice: The Fall of Silvio Berlusconi and Rise of Mario Monti by Arianna Calabrese ’13 Italy, a country of passion, love and lightattracting foreign investment and expanding the job heartedness, has finally demanded seriousness. market, Berlusconi signed 18 laws meeting his own This past November, personal needs. This was eagerly overlooked when the Prime Minister Silvio EU was strong and powerful but soon the political ARIANNA CALABRESE, of bloc began to see Berlusconi’s erratic behavior as a Vernon, Connecticut, is a Berlusconi resigned at liability. Italian President Giorgio Napolitano urged resident of Mason Dormitory. the urging of the Italian She is captain of the JV people. Celebrations Berlusconi out of office and happily appointed Mario Field Hockey team, plays broke out throughout Monti as Italy’s new prime minister. JV Lacrosse, is co-president the country. People Nicknamed “Super Mario,” Monti took office in of the Italian Club, and flags and November 2011. He holds a few impressive positions is a member of the FPA. waved on his résumé: a Yale graduate, a political economy Arianna’s previous Bulletin toasted to Berlusconi’s professor and a European Commission member. In essays include “Quashing ignominious departure Ignorance: Islam in America” with Prosecco, Italian order to save Italy, Europe’s third largest economy, (Spring 2011), “Mingalaba white wine, dancing in Monti appointed a cabinet of academics and steered to Reform!” (Winter 2012), the streets and singing his country from following the same course as Greece. and “Occupy Wall Street “Hallelujah.” To end Italy’s economic recession, Monti proposed or Preoccupied?” (Winter During his tenure, a “Save Italy” package, a series of radical reforms 2012). She was recently named Editor-in-Chief of Berlusconi essentially intended to boost growth, cut debt and enhance next year’s Bulletin. turned the Italian competitiveness. These were all accomplished in his government into a first 24 hours in office. Monti’s plans also included a reality TV show. As the wealthiest man in Italy, he wealth tax, liberalization of closed professions such controlled the media through as taxi drivers and pharmacists, his television empire, Mediaset. and legislative enforcement of a A cultural revolution followed healthy, competitive job market. suit. He broadcast shows where Although most of the half-naked showgirls surround Italian population supports male hosts. He then appointed Monti, they have received his these entertainers to important economic reforms with protest political positions such as Cabinet and dissent. By changing labor Minister. Italians, women in laws, Monti sought to “restore particular, soon equated sexuality the balance between those with wealth and celebrity. They already in the labor market…who viewed Berlusconi as a man who Italy’s new Prime Minister, Mario Monti are ‘hyperprotected’…and those could make dreams come true, as struggling to enter it.” (The New a true Italian who parties, has sex, and has fun. York Times, 15 February 2012) However, when youth Furthering this image as a “helper,” he created a unemployment hit 31% in December, he raised the government where every member and every minister retirement age, encouraging employees to give up owed everything to him—a government of his lovers, their privileges. These changes were—for obvious personal lawyers and even personal doctors. In turn, reasons—unpopular. In the face of rising protests, he corruption, nonstop bribery broadened the terms of his “Save scandals, and tax fraud polluted Italy” plan into a “Grow Italy” his office. Berlusconi was too busy plan. with his own scandals and trials to To win more support, “Super follow through on his promises of Mario” also changed Italian laws budget cuts and political reform to impose property taxes upon for the Italian people. the Catholic Church. In 2005, During the decade of his Berlusconi exempted the Vatican tenure, political and economic from local property taxes. His growth in Italy became a myth. decision upset a great number Instead of passing measures of Italian citizens, who were 6 boosting competitiveness, Silvio Berlusconi, former Prime Minister fed up with the Church’s unfair

privileges. Therefore, many Italians were enthusiastic about this change. If formally enforced, Monti’s tax plan could result in revenues of $650 million to $2.6 billion annually (The New York Times, 16 February

2012). As “Super Mario” continues to elaborate and modify his “Grow Italy” measures, the Italian people wait with baited breath to see whether their new Prime Minister will propel Italy to its former glory.

To Secede Or Not To Secede: A Question of Scottish Independence by Paige Mickel ’14

People often think of Scotland as a haven of green rolling hills, rainy weather, and men in plaid kilts playing bagpipes. But below this peaceful stereotype lies a dilemma that the Scots have grappled with for years: whether or not Scotland should remain part of the U.K. or claim sovereignty. In 1707, struggling with a financial crisis, Scotland agreed to join the U.K. in exchange for access to the English market and its goods. However, Scotland’s rich history and national identity have spawned cries for total independence in recent years. Despite criticism and complications, some argue that Scotland’s departure from the U.K. is long overdue. If Scotland becomes independent, the country will totally control its own finances, foreign affairs and legislation. With the rising dominance of the Scottish National Party (SNP) this dream of independence could be realized. Alex Salmond, the leader of the SNP and First Minister of Scotland,

Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland

has announced his intention to hold a referendum on Scottish independence in the fall of 2014. Despite Salmond’s plans, the future of Scottish sovereignty relies on public opinion. A May 25 YouGov poll, conducted by Scottish Labour MP Alistair Darling, a leader of the anti-independence movement, indicates only 33% of Scots favor independence, while 57% oppose it, and 10% are undecided. This poll is consistent with others over the past year that have revealed support for independence ranging from no more than 25-35%. Many citizens have reservations

about leaving the economic and political security that the United Kingdom provides, and even if the referendum were to pass, declaring independence is not a simple matter. A constitutional settlement is necessary between the PAIGE MICKEL, from governments of the U.K. New Providence, New and Scotland. The two states Jersey, is a boarder in would have to negotiate Carter Dormitory. She Scotland’s share of UK enjoys ceramics and debt, its claims to natural playing soccer and resources and its future lacrosse. This is Paige’s World Bulletin writing military planning. Scotland debut! would also have to consider entering the European Union. If Scotland becomes independent, would the country automatically be admitted into the EU, or would it have to undergo the lengthy membership application process of other newly independent countries? Countless economic concerns would have to be addressed in order to move forward with this long and complicated path towards national independence. There is another alternative. Some Scots have proposed a compromise between Scottish independence and its union with the UK. Devolution, nicknamed “Devo-Max,” will award the Scots more power in domestic affairs, while the United Kingdom will have full control over Scotland’s defense and foreign policy. Scotland relies on an annual cash grant from London, but devolution would require the nation to raise its own funds. Polls suggesting Devo-Max, along with Salmond’s referendum, project a 52% opposition against this brand of Scottish independence. With a simple majority definitively voting against total separation and another quarter polling as undecided, it will be difficult for Salmond’s mission to succeed. Until the official results of the referendum are released, the fate of Scotland, and the rest of the United Kingdom, hangs in the balance. 7

A Cold Denial of Human Rights: Anti-LGBT Legislation in Russia by Ekaterina “Kath” Kryuchkova ’13

On March 7th, international agreements. The Kremlin, along with Georgy Poltavchenko, anti-LGBT extremists, responded to the opposition the governor of St. by detaining protestors and human rights groups. Petersburg, Russia, signed In early April, the Russian police arrested Igor a law prohibiting “public Kochetkov, chairman of the “Vykhod”—“Coming actions among minors Out”—organization for holding a poster promoting for the propaganda equal treatment among citizens regardless of their of homosexuality, sexual orientation. Government officials later lesbianism, bisexuality or released a statement declaring that supporting social transgenderism,” with the equity among homosexual and heterosexual couples equivalent of a $16,000 is synonymous with “promoting sodomy” and is fine for violation of this therefore punishable. Russian Orthodox radicals law. By suppressing the attacked two individuals for holding signs saying, “Gay activities of LGBT rights is Normal.” Resistance to the anti-LGBT legislation organizations, the law not eventually faded into nonexistence. only sparked a protest One may attribute the demise of the protest movement in Russia, but movement to the recent rise of the Russian Orthodox fomented dissent among Church and the Kremlin’s promotion of traditional international human family values. However, the anti-LGBT law is a right groups and Western product of neither the church’s nor the government’s governments as well. caprice. Cultural limitations in Russia and the sevenHowever, Poltavchenko decade-epoch of the Soviet Union have culminated ignored the uproars, as in widespread anti-gay sentiment. A poll regarding other provinces in Russia passed similar legislations. same-sex marriage was conducted in Moscow in Furthermore, the Russian parliament is now 2010, in which 85% of the participants stated that considering prohibiting homosexual propaganda at they opposed granting same-sex couples the right the federal level. to marry. Forty-one-percent expressed strongly that Vitaly Milonov, one of the law’s drafters, has LGBT citizens should not possess the same rights called the legislation “a declaration of Russian moral as heterosexuals. On April 21st, 2012, an anti-gay rally sovereignty.” He referred to gay people as “perverts” marched across Moscow, claiming that homosexuality and suggested that Western governments support gay and liberalism “contradicts traditional Russian rights movements in order to spirituality and culture.” undermine Russia’s traditional Analysts predict that all values. According to Milonov, of the Russian Federation homosexuality and pederasty will likely become subject to are not distinct from each this controversial legislation. other, because, he claims, that If the Kremlin prohibits its they subvert traditional values children from learning about and are equally immoral. In human rights, the national addition, he declared that the opinion will not change and principal purpose of the law is homophobia will remain to protect the children of his prevalent. On a larger scale, country, fostering their “right” such a policy segregates Russia mindset. His beliefs have from progressive Western caused a fervent reaction in governments and will definitely the media, both within Russia engender international and abroad. conflicts, engendering a Opponents of the law have deleterious effect on the On April 5th, police arrested two gay rights activists labeled it “unconstitutional.” for holding up “Homosexuality Is Normal” placard in country’s reputation. They point out that the St. Petersburg. It was the first arrest under the new 8 legislation violates several law. KATH KRYUCHKOVA, from Moscow, Russia, enjoys volunteering with the community service program and playing guitar. A resident of Ammidon Dormitory, Kath is a member of the Foreign Policy Association and the Model United Nations. She has written two previous articles about Russia for the World Bulletin: “The Cult of Putin” (Spring 2011) and “Russian Parliamentary Elections: Fraud Goes Too Far” (Winter 2012). A recipient of the Junior History, English, Mathematics, Philosophy, and Modern Language Prizes, Kath was recently named an editor on next year’s Bulletin staff.

africa The 2012 Egyptian Election and the Legacy of Hosni Mubarak by Tuan Anh “Thomas” Lam ’14

Following the overthrow of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011, the second presidential election in Egypt’s history is to be held from May 23rd to 24th, 2012. This event marks a significant milestone in the country’s transition from a military-ruled regime to a full-fledged democratic nation. However, just weeks before the actual election process is to take place, political chaos plagues Egypt once again. On Saturday, April 14, the Supreme Presidential Election Commission (SPEC) announced the disqualification of 10 out of 23 registered presidential candidates. Various reasons were given to justify the disqualification of several of these candidates, including influential figures in Egypt such as Hazem Salah Abu Ismail, an ultra-conservative Salafi Islamic lawyer, and Khairat El-Shater, former deputy chairman of the Islamic social movement Muslim Brotherhood, and Omar Suleiman, director of the General Intelligence Service and former vice president of Mubarak. Despite their appeals to the SPEC’s decision and angry protests from their avid supporters outside the Commission’s headquarters, Khairat El-Shater, Hazem Salah Abu Ismail and Omar Suleiman all lost their appeals on Tuesday, Hazem Salah April 17th, 48 hours after the SPEC’s Abu Ismail official announcement of their ban from the presidential race. Shater’s name was crossed off the ballot; his release from jail in March 2011 violated the election rule that all presidential candidates had to be released from prison for at least 6 years before being registered as legitimate contenders. On the other hand, Suleiman was barred from running for the presidency for an obvious reason: his former position as vice president during the Mubarak era

sparked outcry from liberals and Islamists THOMAS LAM, from Ho alike, who claimed that Chi Minh City, Vietnam, lives in Flagg Dormitory. he served as an extension Thomas is a member of the of the former military Phage and Robotics clubs, regime. Moreover, he writes for the LOG, and Suleiman failed to participates in community gather supporters’ service, specifically the signatures from at Boys and Girls Clubs and Caring Connection. This is least 15 governors and Thomas’s first article for was thus automatically the World Bulletin. disqualified. Ismail was disqualified because his mother was rumored to hold U.S. citizenship in 2006 and thus has dual nationality, according to the Egyptian Foreign Ministry. Another important figure in Egypt, Ayman Nour, who previously emerged as the runner-up to the victorious Mubarak in Egypt’s 2005 presidential election, was also considered ineligible, again due to his too-recent jail release in 2006. The Commission, mainly consisting of military generals under Mubarak’s reign, was criticized by many of the disqualified candidates’ supporters as being biased. Opponents include the Muslim Brotherhood and the ultra-conservative Salafists. They proclaimed the Commission’s actions as attempts to eliminate liberalist and Islamist control over the country’s political climate and prolonging the transition period. As of last week, thousands of supporters of disqualified candidates rallied in Cairo’s downtown Tahrir Square, voicing angry accusations against the military council. The protestors simultaneously shouted out various messages, causing more division and rifts among different political groups. The previously ousted Muslim Brotherhood followers drew dismay from other protesters. Salafists and liberalists alike all accused the Islamist followers of being more concerned with increasing their own political influence rather than being genuinely interested in pushing back the military. The Brotherhood supporters defended their position by stating that they simply did not want the Mubarak regime 9 Omar Suleiman, left, and Khairat El-Shater

to return. Even onlookers and obligations of the new viewed the protests in the president in a more democratic symbolic Tahrir Square, where Egypt. However, a court similar protests happened ordered the dissolution of the a year ago to overthrow panel since accusations against Mubarak’s authoritarian rule, the Brotherhood’s hunger for as absurd. “Everyone has a power arose from liberalists different demand. How can it and other moderate political be effective?” said Mohammed groups alike. Parliament must Monsef, an onlooker in a still vote on the final draft one middle-class neighborhood. month before the election. “Salafists are protesting Although last year’s revolution Protest in Cairo’s Tahrir Square because of Hazem Salah Abu helped Egypt escape from the Ismail’s elimination. Liberals totalitarian rule of Mubarak, are out for God knows what reasons. They’re all much more is needed to be done to prevent the looking out for themselves. Nobody is looking out for advent of a similar regime and ensure the success of a Egypt.” civilian democracy in Egypt. [Editor’s Note: This article Meanwhile, the drafting of the constitution before was written before the May 24 election. Preliminary election the presidential election in May also faced turmoil. results indicate a tight race between Muslim Brotherhood A 100-member panel, mostly dominated by the candidate Mohammed Morsi and Mubarak’s last prime Muslim Brotherhood, was supposed to draw up the minister, general Ahmed Shafiq. A run-off is scheduled for new constitution, which would determine the rights June 16-17.]

Violence in Sudan Battling soaring inflation, numerous protests and a fast receding economy, the Sudanese government is also in a constant, extenuated conflict with its recently separated counterpart, South Sudan. In 2005, the U.S., under George PIM SENANARONG, from W. Bush’s administration, Bangkok, Thailand, has succeeded in bringing the written two previous country’s lengthy war to a articles for the World temporary hiatus, thanks Bulletin: “Rising Anxiety to a peace accord that on the Korean Peninsula” both sides signed. South (Winter 2011) and “South Africa’s Renewable Sudan successfully earned Energy Industry” (Winter its independence, and the 2012). A resident of generations-long conflict Ammidon Dormitory, Pim seemed to have been is the Features Editor of eliminated. However, due the LOG (and next year’s to ambiguous borderlines Co-Editor-in-Chief), vicepresident of the junior and the feud over who is class, and she participates in control of the nation’s in the community service vast resource of crude oil, program. the fighting inevitably resumed again. Although the South holds most of the oil reserve, the pipelines and refineries are stranded in the North, making oil the crucial bond between the two countries. The spark of conflict was initiated by yet another rebellion in Sudan, leading its government to point the finger of blame at the South. President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, 10 the current and long-reigning leader of the Sudanese

by Naphisa “Pim” Senanarong ’13 government, accuses South Sudan of inciting rebellion and arming the rebels. Subsequently, in November 2011, South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir followed up with accusations, calling out the Sudanese government for the alleged threat of an invasion and for a bombing that occurred in Guffa, South Sudan. The constant game of brinkmanship engaged in by the two nations was not unusual, given their long history of animosity. However, in April 2012, violence escalated into a more serious matter. Launched by South Sudan’s capture of Heglig, a major oil-production region within Sudan, violence ensued when, after recovering its land, Sudan decided to retaliate. Accompanying a series

Sudanese Soldiers

close acquaintance and ally of borderline skirmishes, to both Sudan and South the Sudanese government’s Sudan, was reluctant to take plane also crashed into South sides. Having previously Sudan, inflicting damage on been the alleged supporter its major city and even on a and financier behind Sudan’s United Nations compound. infamous nefarious actions, After the incident, South China preferred to take an Sudan agreed to withdraw its ambivalent, detached stance troops from Heglig, probably because of its dependence on struck with fear of other Sudanese oil. China offered possible damage. to provide humanitarian aid Nevertheless, Sudan released another stream of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, left, and South but emphasized that the country will be completely troops and warplanes on Sudanese President Salva Kiir Mayardit unattached to both South Sudan just three days conflicting sides. With conflict stirring and gaining after the proclamation. Regardless of the United momentum as each side foolhardily pursued their own States’ consistent attempts at advocating peace and interests and encroached precariously on the borders, the settlement of matters in a diplomatic manner, there is no telling where this drawn-out war will lead… President Bashir insists that the war tactic was or how long it will last. necessary to resolve this conflict. In the reported Notorious for its long-lasting civil conflicts and words of the President himself, Bashir was recorded the excess of lost lives that accompany them, Sudan’s saying he will drive “the insects in the South out of civil conflict is unlikely to affect only this region. power.” With the belligerent attitude maintained, the Previously, in its Darfur conflict a few years back (the two nations delved straight back into intense combat legacy of which still continues today), Darfur refugees and emerging warfare. had to escape the country and run for the borders, On April 24, South Sudan’s President Kiir met filtering out into neighboring countries and war-torn with one of the country’s close friends, President refugee camps. Hu Jintao of China, and proclaimed officially that Sudan had declared war on his country. China, a

Implications of KONY 2012 Ever since its rise into the public eye this past March, the Kony 2012 Movement has received both acclaim for its humanitarian motives and criticism for sensationalism and its implementation. The phenomenon began with the release of the San Diegobased advocacy group’s video “KONY 2012.” The film, approximately 30 minutes in length, documented a mass nocturnal exodus of Ugandan children hoping to avoid capture, forced conscription, and even death at the hands of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), the militia headed by Joseph Kony since 1988 (the group was established two years earlier with the intent of overthrowing Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni). Since its inception, the LRA has expanded beyond the borders of Uganda into Sudan, the Joseph Kony

by Alexander Lafrance ’12

Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Central ALEX LAFRANCE, a day student from Granville, African Republic. Massachusetts, and a A March 26 Time recent recipient of Senior magazine article about English and Modern the evolution of the Kony Language Prizes, makes 2012 Movement noted his World Bulletin debut that the LRA had little with this article. Alex is chance of accomplishing a representative to the Student Council, a News its initial goal. The rebel Editor on the LOG, and is group never a member of the NEO pit would have orchestra and various jazz even garnered performance groups. the attention of outside nations were it not for its leader, described in the same article as “one of the cruelest and most twisted men ever to hold a gun.” Of the crimes committed by the group, the LRA’s abductions have received the most widespread public attention. Children comprise a large part of the LRA, the vast majority of whom have been 11

forcibly taken from their spokesperson Justine Labeja homes and made to serve also noted, “In Uganda, the as guards, concubines and Invisible Children has been soldiers. used to cover up on many The army’s other occasions the vile acts of atrocities yet expand beyond the U.S.-supported military the enslavement of youths. regime of Uganda in its dirty LRA bands subsist off of war activities that its army villages, pillaging food and has carried out against the humans for trafficking. civil population in Northern, Allegations of rape, torture North Eastern, Eastern and and mutilation of captives, Mid-Western Uganda.” and even cannibalism have A sequel to the Kony all been directed at the 2012 video, Kony 2012: Part Survivors from LRA raids in Uganda militia. Kony himself was the first II - Beyond Famous, was posted individual to be indicted by the on April 9, with the intent of International Criminal Court at the Hague in 2005 providing a more comprehensive investigation of the for crimes against humanity. LRA, which has since retreated from Uganda and is The LRA’s initial motivation of overthrowing the presently thought to be based in either the Central Ugandan president has since given way to religious African Republic, South Sudan, or the Democratic zealotry. Kony has claimed to fight for the sake of Republic of Congo. Additionally, the video aimed to the Ten Commandments. Time magazine described explore further the ineffectiveness of traditional peace Kony as “a messianic sociopath,” notorious for abrupt talks by political and religious leaders in curbing the emotional shifts and “unique” interpretations of the warlord’s violent activity. Bible as, according to a former LRA soldier, Kony had Beyond Famous also discusses the United States’ asserted, “The Bible says if you are going to do good, efforts to stop Kony and the LRA, citing two bipartisan do good all your life, and if you are going to do evil, resolutions sponsored by 92 members of Congress, do evil all your life. I chose evil, and that’s what I will both in support of efforts to disarm the LRA. In always do.” addition to these efforts, however, President Obama In response to increasing pressure brought about by deployed 100 Special Operations troops in Africa in Kony, the LRA published a 19-page statement accusing 2011 to collaborate with local forces in bringing down Invisible Children, the organization responsible the LRA. March 23rd of this year marked the African for the online film, of being “a ‘front organization’ Union’s announcement of the Regional Cooperation acting as a pawn for the U.S. government,” according Initiative, established to coordinate efforts to end to a March article in the Huffington Post. LRA LRA violence in Central Africa.

Reverse Racism in South Africa To all proud South Africans, our country has come quite far since the harsh discrimination of apartheid. With an estimated GDP of nearly $422 billion (CIA World Factbook, 2011), South Africa’s economy is the largest in Africa. With constantly improving infrastructure and living conditions, many would consider it the only “first world country” on the world’s poorest continent. All this sounds great, but certain measures by the controversial government (sound by African standards), have held the nation BILLY HOLLOWAY, from New York, New York, and South Africa, is a resident of Kravis Dormitory. He is a member of the Debate Club, Student Council, and Model UN, and he makes his debut with this issue of the World Bulletin.


by Billy Holloway ’15

back. Reverse racism is not only extremely irrational, but also very detrimental to economic growth in South Africa and in other nations, such as Zimbabwe. In 2000, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe introduced a radical policy that forced prosperous white farmers, who provided both for themselves and the country’s economy, to give up a portion of their land to unskilled black farmers. What ensued was anarchy, with black militias being formed to eradicate the farmers from the land they had farmed and lived on for hundreds of years. As a result, the Zimbabwean economy spiraled into chaos and the Zimbabwean dollar was worth less than toilet paper. All this has served as a reminder to white South Africans as to how quickly their great nation can be destroyed by

these policies. to Stats South Africa, the Since the demise of government’s official statistics apartheid less than two decades provider, as of December 2011, ago, multiple policies aimed nearly one-fourth of South at empowering the masses Africa’s 50 million citizens of disadvantaged blacks have were unemployed, with many been established. For example, more earning unsustainably under the Employment Equity low incomes from various Act of 1998, many unqualified menial jobs. Over half of blacks blacks took the same aged 15 to 24 are unemployed, opportunities that whites had, while white unemployment albeit at an unfair advantage. stands at 15%. In the last 20 The legislation has boosted years, many would argue that black economic growth, but whites have lost their level South Africans waving their country’s flag during the World Cup because of this policy, over 10% of security and knowledge that of South Africa’s five million they would always have a job, whites live in poverty. Although this percentage while the physical conditions of blacks have not translates to less than 1% of the nation’s population, improved with their newfound rights. reverse racism and job discrimination have not been The study indeed shows that whites in South Africa making up for their detrimental aspects in the white have many inherent statistical advantages and many population. Furthermore, black South Africans still argue that there will forever remain the huge wage face extreme difficulties, with an average income gap between the two races. It has become increasingly of approximately $3,000. Considering the growing hard for blacks to have faith in their elected parties. population of rich blacks, Former presidents the persisting income gap Thabo Mbeki and Jacob in South Africa is a cause Zuma have lost sight of for concern. the true issues at hand. Questions arise in this Their party, the African matter. Who is reaping the National Congress, has benefits? Policies of reverse let down tens of millions racism have certainly aided of hopeful citizens, let black South Africans, slip any financial security but by how much? Today, previously experienced by when driving through the whites, and stigmatized streets of Cape Town, I see any successful blacks, Jacob Zuma and the African National Congress many destitute people of color, while leaving their black struggling to survive, barely countrymen behind in the slums living better than they did as apartheid came to a close of Khayelitsha and Diepsloot. nearly two decades ago. For good reason, these people This has all the marks of a truly African story, had hope when legendary freedom fighter Nelson with the freedom fighter coming to power, doing Mandela came to power, but well for a time, and eventually, for a large majority, nothing for some reason or another, has materialized. While the letting the country slip close notorious township of Soweto to the dissatisfying lows that near the rainbow nation’s it previously experienced. largest city, Johannesburg, For a country with so much has been developing very potential, poor management soundly, Cape Town’s very is a killer, but many hope for own Khayelitsha has seen a future South Africa where its population rise to over individuals receive relatively 400,000 people, 40% of equal opportunities from whom are under the age of 19. birth, an ambitious, yet This leads to the next issue: possible result from decades unemployment, especially of struggle. 13 among the youth. According Khayelitsha, Cape Town

Angola, Crony Capitalism, and Colonialism

by Jake Bosée ’12

Today, the country of Asia and for the partition of China into spheres of Angola is struggling to influence. Near the end of the century, about the rebuild itself, ever since same time Japan began to capture colonial territory, the end of the war of the United States and Russia also initiated their four years ago. A major imperialistic expansion in Asia.” (“Explanations of factor in this process Japan’s Imperialistic Expansion, 1894-1910,” December has been the vast stores 2003) As Japan modernized and seized many different of oil located in the colonies, such as Korea, parts of China, and Taiwan, country. In fact, Angola the Western world became increasingly wary of this is set to overtake Nigeria as Africa’s biggest supplier new power. These events ultimately culminated in of oil. The precious natural resource has given a WWII when Japan began invading colonies held by once destitute country hope for the United States. the future. The nation’s biggest However, the Chinese investor, China, has a major role influence in Africa is very different in this reconstruction. Trade with than the Japanese expansion China has exploded across Africa in Asia, although some writers in recent years, and Angola is one would like to say otherwise. If of the primary countries in that imperialism is defined as “direct process. Chinese aid workers or indirect domination of an have said that they are helping industrialized country over a to rebuild the infrastructure of colonial territory or another Angola, though the progress country,” (Gordon, 2003) then of this report has not been China certainly has not acquired determined. So the question Chinese Commissioner Lü Cinhua and Angola’s Angola as a colony. Nevertheless, remains: is Angola on the path to Consul-General Cupertino Gourgel such a definition raises a few being re-colonized? That’s where eyebrows. If a country becomes the line gets blurry. economically dependent on a different country, On the surface, however, the relations between could that first country be controlled by the second? China and Angola seem mutually beneficial, despite According to China, that is not the case, at least not not being smiled upon by the Western world. In fact, in Sudan. Sudan is a country, much like Angola, with the new wave of Chinese immigration has brought on heavy Chinese interests and a plethora of natural negative comparisons with the European colonization resources. In 2006, Zhou Yuxiao, chargé d’affaires at of Africa. According to journalist Andrew Malone, the Chinese Embassy in South Africa, said: “Sudan is a writing in the UK’s Daily Mail, sovereign country and I’m sorry “With little fanfare, a staggering that we do not develop relations 750,000 Chinese have settled according to U.S. or UK or any in Africa over the past decade.” other country’s instruction.” (“How China’s Taking over Zhou went on to list instances Africa, and Why the West of Chinese aid in other African Should Be VERY Worried,” countries like Angola: “We are 18 July 2008). Malone points cancelling debt owed by the least out many different statistics developed countries, building implying that China seems to more schools and hospitals. We be turning Africa into a satellite have brought and will continue colony at an alarmingly fast rate. Japanese Occupation of China to bring great opportunities to This seems similar to what all parts of the world including occurred during the Japanese Africa.” th Imperial era in the early 20 century. According to Piecing all of this together, it seems that the Chinese Wesleyan University scholar Bill Gordon, “During expansion in Africa and traditional imperialism are the last half of the nineteenth century, the Western two entirely different things. What remains to be seen imperialist powers of England, France, and Germany is if they will have similar results. 14 established the model for acquisition of colonies in JAKE BOSEE, from Darien, Connecticut, is a boarder in Warham Dormitory. He plays Water Polo and Ultimate Frisbee and is a member of the swim team. This is Jake’s World Bulletin writing debut.

asia Corruption in India

by Rohin Bhargava ’14

“Let me see your license!” was all my young father Bofors scandal during the 1980s and 1990s, where a Swedish-based weapons company was speculated to could utter before a gun was drawn and pointed in his face. He had begun his day timely and methodically, a have bribed members of the defense ministry along characteristic shared by many who drop off a relative with the prime ministerial candidate, Rajiv Gandhi, into buying their weapons for a costly multi-billion to the Amausi Airport in Lucknow, India. While he parked his car on the curb to assist his relative, he dollar defense contract. The ‘leaders’ who succumbed to temptation represent heard a deafening crunch of steel, and he knew that how large an influence ROHIN BHARGAVA, a day someone smashed right into the fender of his blue student from West Hartford, corruption had, and Connecticut, originally hails Maruti Suzuki. As it turned out, the car that collided still has, on the Indian from Bellevue, Washington. with my father belonged to a wealthy government government. More A new sophomore at LC this minister who was known to have ties with notorious recently, the issue of year, Rohin appeared in gangster groups. As my father spoke, the minister’s corruption manifested Metamorphoses at the NEO head bodyguard unsheathed his weapon and itself in the 2G Spectrum Theater, competed on the threatened violence. My panicked father started to varsity ski team, and served Scandal in 2008, where on Student Council. Rohin is search the crowd for someone who could help, and his the Indian Telecom a member of the Math Team eyes met with a policeman’s. Ministry was supposed and Project Green and is a Acting as if nothing were to auction the rights semi-professional Pokémon happening, the policeman to broadcast 2G data trainer! This is Rohin’s turned his head away. Again, streams over Indian World Bulletin debut. my father searched the sea airwaves. Instead, the of commuters and saw more officials in charge were caught taking bribes (which policemen, all who turned were large in proportion to the median working class their heads away like the salary) and signing the rights over to companies who first. Suspicious, no? Indeed, actually did not offer the highest bid, but rather to this very day, my father offered a smaller bid interwoven with bribe incentives maintains that corruption for the bureaucrats in charge. The result? A cost in India drives government to the Indian government the equivalent of some workers to inaction. $40 billion. Among all sectors of the public front, Corruption in India has Rajiv Gandhi, prime been, and continues to be, Indian politicians are effectively bribed into allowing ministerial candidate, monopolies to exist. In turn, the companies that a pervasive threat ranging bribed in the Bofors scandal dominate these areas dictate the price of living for the from local politics to nationaverage Indian citizen, making it hard for free market wide government systems; enterprise to thrive. Free market capitalism, as we all it has nearly become a lifestyle bureaucrats and know, drives down prices and promotes innovation. politicians accept. Though anti-corruption laws Numerous scandals in the exist, they are ineffective because past few years have come to light the enforcers of these laws are and many more may be lurking conveniently bribed to ignore in the deep, shadowy recesses misconduct. As a result, it falls of Indian politics. Most of the to the Indian bourgeoisie to lead corruption that occurs follows an offensive against corruption. the typical “principle-agent How are they doing? Not bad, problem,” a situation in which it seems. Recently, Lakshmi the entity in charge of judging Mittal, Chairman and CEO of certain proposals is bribed by ArcelorMittal, the world’s largest the applicant to expedite or immediately accept the proposal Some industrial leaders actively fight against steel company, tangoed with indefinitely. Take for instance, the corruption, such as Lakshmi Mittal, Chairman corrupt officials, but did not and CEO of ArcelorMittal.


fall into the trap of bribing them. When Mr. Mittal acquired enough money to start his company, he wanted to open shop in India itself, but the ministers in charge of approving steel-mill permits expected to receive bribes. The inculcation of this notion was established by previous government leaders. Mr. Mittal insightfully recognized this atrocity and quickly moved his enterprise abroad. As social media in India has become more readily available, communication has improved. These mediums have empowered the Indian middle class by allowing them to learn about the rampant corruption within their government. The movie “Nobody Killed Jessica” was based on a true story, in which a bartender is killed by the son of a powerful minister in a bar full of witnesses, and the son is eventually acquitted through the corrupt Indian legal system. Ultimately, the movie serves its purpose of highlighting how politicians are able to use their status to manipulate the law and order of India. Similarly, websites now exist where regular people

make a log of government workers (of all ranks) who ask for bribes, or dabble in other disorderly conduct. Thus, public shame and disrepute is brought to that member of government. As the plot thickens, hopeful tides of change may wash over India and bring stability to the growing world power. Most recently, on April 5th, a famous social activist by the name of Anna Hazare began an indefinite fast, working in conjunction with the India Against Corruption movement, which strives to end corruption by holding large gatherings and protests. Hopefully, the movement will be one of many to help the Indian bourgeoisie win the age-long war against their self-serving upper-class government. Success in changing the corrupt government bribe ritual should be measured by three standards: eliminating bureaucratic apathy, cutting the red tape that binds so many industries from progressing, and promoting justness and equality for all.

The Globalization of the Korean Entertainment Industry by Jungyeon Lim ’14

Currently, the Korean music industry is continuing its efforts to extend its reach overseas. While the popular talent search TV show “K-Pop Star” has taken root from deep within Asia, including in Japan and China, numerous other internet “fandoms” are now forming in Europe and South America through the wide use of YouTube and other social networking sites. The major entertainment agencies that take the lead in this trend of expansion, including the ‘Big Three’ (SM, YG, and JYP), no longer seek talents in Korea alone. Instead, they are actively scouting for more musical diversity by hosting global auditions. In fact, several current celebrities in their entertainment companies are already from overseas. Most notably, F(x) from SM Entertainment and Miss-A from JYP Entertainment include talent from China. But here’s an important question: Can nonKoreans, or even non-Asians, participate in K-Pop auditions? The answer is yes. As JYP says, “Anyone may participate regardless of nationality and gender,” and indeed, the global auditions judge the competitors on equal terms, without imposing certain qualifications 16 based on the participants’ backgrounds or cultures. JUNGYEON LIM, a resident of Ammidon Dormitory, hails from Gwang-ju, South Korea. She participated in the Yale Model UN this winter, plays flute in the Concert Band, and participates in community service. This is Jungyeon’s World Bulletin writing debut.

While global audition TV shows have been gaining sensational popularity today, a lot of talented nonKorean K-Pop stars have been discovered already. For example, John Park who competed in “Superstar K,” a famous audition program, is a great example of a celebrity who is in active business in Korea today. While a student at Northwestern University John Park, second place in Chicago, John Park winner of “Superstar K,” first appeared in an open singing in his studio. audition in California. After finishing in second place in that competition, he is still leading an active life on stage, making a great hit with his first album. Thus, the Korean entertainment industry is holding various auditions beyond Korea, such as in China, Japan, the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and in Southeast Asia. In addition, many potential singers are being cast from different parts of the world, such as Brazil, Norway, and Romania, through their access to YouTube channels. The most noteworthy example of this case is Shayne Orok from Canada. Shayne, who is half-Pilipino, and half-white, earned a chance to compete in a large-scale audition,

despite his difficulty in speaking so why not allow non-Koreans Korean and his blindness in one to compete in a Korean market? eye. His strong interest in K-Pop Even though it still sounds quite and unique voice appealed to many unlikely for non-Asians to succeed viewers, and producers finally in the Korean entertainment granted him a chance to fulfill his scene, it is certain that a new dream on stage in Korea. Korean culture is emerging day by Non-Asians’ participation in day. The question then becomes: K-Pop auditions has begun to is this a good change? Well, that increase as Korean entertainment Shayne Orok performing at MBC Star all depends on how Koreans value industries have expanded their Audition Final Concert. preserving the ‘old way’ and the talent pools. A lot of Asian ‘old culture’ versus embracing the celebrities fight for recognition and fame globally, reality of a new global entertainment industry.

Burmese Elections: Baby Steps Toward Democracy by Arianna Calabrese ’13

Several hundred Burmese gathered outside of the the USDP. So, the Burmese government now wants National League for Democracy (NLD) headquarters to prove to the world that it can conduct a legitimate on April 2nd to celebrate the party’s victory in vote and that it can make the effort to become more Myanmar’s (also known as Burma) recent by-election. democratic. Therefore, it promised that the votes for Crowds chanted, “We won! We won!” while citizens the 45 open seats would be free and fair by securing sang and danced in the streets, holding up their international observers to monitor polling. The sheer fingers in V-for-victory signs. While the election spread and number of polling booths across the did not change the balance of mainly remote farmland country, power in Parliament, it did mark however, proved that despite the a symbolic victory for a country presence of election monitors, it that has been under military rule would be difficult to ensure an for the past 50 years. honest count. The Burmese government Whether by honest count has been taking these small steps or not, the National League for toward democracy throughout the Democracy filled almost every past year. It pardoned hundreds single one of the 45 open seats. of political prisoners, secured a Aung San Suu Kyi, celebrated cease-fire with the Karen people, leader of the NLD and a Nobel agreed to negotiate with several Peace Prize laureate, won a seat Aung San Suu Kyi, General Secretary of NLD other ethnic groups, and relaxed for the Kawhmu district. Although press censorship. These changes this is her first time holding public have invited foreign officials to visit the country and office, this is not her first time winning an election. the European Union to lift its travel ban on Burmese She first ran in 1990, winning by a landslide. But, the officials. (, 1 April 2012) military junta ignored the results and placed her onOn April 1st, 2012, Burma and-off under house arrest until attempted to hold its first fair November 2010. Hopefully, even election. Two years ago, the more initiatives toward democracy government had staged a general will follow this election. At a election, severely manipulating gathering with journalists outside the election process to ensure the of her residence just before the victory of the militarily-aligned April election, Suu Kyi was asked Union Solidarity and Development where she would place Burma’s Party (USDP). The NLD had democracy on a scale of one to boycotted the election. Today, of ten; she responded, “We’re trying the 664 seats in Parliament, 80% to get to one.” (, 31 are held by lawmakers aligned with National League for Democracy supporters March 2012) celebrate results.


middle east The Arab Spring and What It Means for Israeli-Egyptian Relations by Leah Rubin ’14

The Arab Spring, Brotherhood have been vying for political power in the recent political Egypt. As both the Muslim Brotherhood and Salafists protests and revolutions topped their more in the Middle East, has liberal and secular sparked an increase in rivals in the polls, there violence and tension looms the possibility of for many Israelis with Egypt adopting a strict their nation’s neighbors. theological Islamic For more than 30 years, government, similar to Israel has maintained a that of Iran. Either way “cold peace” with Egypt Ehud Barak, Israel’s Minister of Anwar Sadat, left, and Menachem Begin to the south, and a de Defense, describes the recent facto armistice with Syria to the north. Now, as Egypt Egyptian election as, “very, very disturbing,” as he attempts to move toward a more democratic course, reveals his fear of Egypt turning into an extremist despite continued military rule and concern about the Islamic state, which would inevitably affect Israel rise of Islamist parties, the possibility of new, perhaps and Egypt’s peace treaty. Both parties threaten Israel hostile anti-Israel leaders becomes in ways yet unknown, and if either a factor. While Syria is still in the comes to power, it is likely that they midst of a bloody civil war, there is will act with an increasingly hostile much uncertainty there over possible attitude. For instance, the Egyptian outcomes and how the result will government recently announced affect Israel. that it has decided to end its supply In 1979, following 13 days of of natural gas to Israel through a negotiations at Camp David, the pipeline from the Sinai Desert, U.S. presidential retreat in Maryland, despite having signed a long-term Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Egypt’s Intelligence Chief Omar agreement to do so and possibly in Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Suleiman, left, and Ehud Barak violation of the peace treaty between El Sadat, signed an Israeli-Egyptian the two countries. peace treaty, officially marking a new era of accord Regarding Israel’s neighbor to the north, although between the two countries. In January 2011, Binyamin there have been no recent major conflicts directly Ben-Eliezer, a former defense minister known for his between Syria and Israel, Syria has actively supported close relations with Egypt, stated that, “Egypt is not terrorist organizations’ attacks on Israel for the past only our closest friend in the region, the cooperation few decades. Syria’s current president Bashar al-Assad, between us goes beyond the strategic, (Sydney a close ally of Iran, is known for funding multiple Morning Herald, 27 January 2011)” emphasizing Egypt’s terrorist attacks against Israel. Moreover, Syria was importance as Israel’s sole ally in the Middle East. a key supporter of terrorist organizations during the Nevertheless, much of the Egyptian war in Lebanon between Israel and population holds resentment and Hezbollah in 2006. As both an ally hatred towards Israel. Therefore, to Iran and a non aggressor to Israel as Egypt undergoes a political much of the time, Syria’s Middle revolution, many Israelis fear the Eastern relationships contradict future outcome of the treaty. each other and therefore provide a Following President Mubarak’s political guarantee to the security of decision to resign in February 2011 both countries. Anti-Israel terrorist and the downfall of his political groups, such as Hezbollah and regime, the jihadist Salafist party Hamas, also threaten to impose Israel’s and Syria’s ceasefire line in the power and control over the Assad and the ultra-Islamic Muslim 18 Golan Heights LEAH RUBIN, from Stamford, Connecticut, is a boarder in Harman Dormitory. She has traveled to India twice, is on the Confluence staff, is sophomore class vicepresident, and is a member of the JV volleyball and hockey teams. Leah makes her World Bulletin debut with this article.

government, challenging the controlled Israeli-Syrian security of the past 40 years. Israel is the only true democracy in the Middle East and, although upon first glance it would seem to support the democratic revolutions of its neighbors, the matter is far more complicated. If a democratic revolution in either Syria or Egypt were truly successful, Israel would not be able to ensure that an Islamic extremist or an outspoken anti-Israel activist would be elected. Another concern is whether a new

government in Egypt will choose to honor the EgyptIsrael peace treaty, or instead decide to nullify it. Many Syrians and Egyptians still reject Israel’s existence and Judaism as a religion. Therefore, it is quite likely that an Islamic extremist group, such as the Muslim Brotherhood or the Salafists, could be legally elected into power. With the revolutions happening so quickly, nothing is known for sure, but it is quite likely that Israel’s current relationships with Egypt and Syria will not remain the same.

Economic Development in Bahrain

by Esraa Sabah ’13

Ten years ago, if I had mentioned my home island economy for future generations, competitiveness in of Bahrain, few to none would have recognized its production ability, and fairness in the opportunities presence in the Middle East without also needing to and skills given to mention its neighbors, Dubai and Saudi Arabia, as Bahrainis. ESRAA SABAH hails from geographic indicators. Furthermore, its small size and Today, one of the Manama, Bahrain and small population (1.2 million people) make it even less major organizations currently resides in Mason noticeable. But as the years have gone by, the island implementing the 2030 Dormitory. She is a member of the Arab World Affiliation has gained a reputation for hosting the famous Grand vision is Tamkeen, an club. This is her first article Prix Formula One race, being empowerment company in the World Bulletin. home to the Fifth Fleet of the like no other in the Gulf. United States Navy, and having Tamkeen supports Bahrainis by encouraging them to th the 13 freest economy in the innovate and develop new ideas. This year, Tamkeen world. has budgeted approximately $450 million, which it Bahrain’s economic boom plans to use as funding for training and education, started when the first petroleum as well as sponsoring workshops and exhibitions. well was discovered in the Middle The company offers a variety of programs within East in 1932; however, as a British colony, the island two primary categories: skill development and talent had to share the profits with England until it gained management. The first of these provides training its independence in 1971. The discovery of oil has in certain skills such as nursing or finance, and the greatly helped generate wealth to develop and support second develops leadership and resource management the economy of the country for the most of the past skills. Moreover, Tamkeen allocates loans to decade, but nonetheless the government has decided individuals or groups interested in entrepreneurship. to invest in other important The government also tries to sectors such as tourism, banking, help encourage businesses with and most importantly business a policy of low taxes and lenient to reinforce the economy in registration demands. preparation for the end of the With every new year, petroleum era. Bahrain’s economy strengthens In 2002, the first steps to by growing less dependent on diversify the economy began petroleum exports. Figures with the creation of the EDB show that the volume of service (Economic Development Board), exports grew by over 40% in the an organization that specializes period of 2005-2010, and real in overseeing economic growth. manufacturing output increased EDB started many projects by 106% in the years 2001-2008. soon after its formation, but With a clear vision in mind, and the turning point occurred in dedicated programs designed 2008 with the introduction to help implement that vision, of the “2030 vision,” which A computer-generated graphic of Bahrain Bay, a Bahrain’s government is leading emphasized three guiding waterfront real estate development situated on the the economy to head in the principles: sustainability of the north-east coastline of the Kingdom. The project is right direction. 19 to be completed in late 2012.

the americas U.S. Foreign Policy: Consequentialism and Its Discontents by Patrick Kennedy-Nolle ’12

Is it an acceptable U.S. payments to hostile regimes is therefore unacceptable. foreign policy practice to But the situation is not as black and white as that. fund hostile regimes? It’s What we’re talking about here is a very, very new not a question that gets foreign policy practice – one that does not have much asked much – but that’s substantive precedent backing it. I’m cautious and mostly because there’s unwilling to conclude that it simply doesn’t and won’t so little precedent to work. But what are the key pieces of evidence in support support it, and also of the “impractical and not pragmatic” argument? The because the idea, at strongest example is that of North Korea, an instance first glance, can seem in which the United States made food payments to rather self-defeating the North Korean government, payments which and absurd. But it is, however, a topic I had the were supposed to be given to the starving people of privilege to debate last month at a Lincoln-Douglas North Korea. In exchange, North Korea promised tournament. The exact wording of the resolution to halt its nuclear proliferation program. While the was: “Making targeted payments to hostile regimes latter end was achieved to some success, our food is an acceptable U.S. foreign policy practice.” The payments were actually abused and misappropriated key word here is ‘acceptable,’ which is taken to mean and sent to the North Korean military instead (who morally permissible. But what exactly is a ‘targeted are already well-fed). So, this precedent raises several payment,’ so to speak? Defined loosely, it’s a payment fundamental questions that need to be addressed, the or gifted good directed at a nation for a given purpose foremost being: is there any way to successfully ensure (i.e. investment capital, food rations, etc.). that targeted payments are actually being used to The fundamental argument in favor of achieve their given purpose? I’m hesitant to take one targeted payments to hostile nations is that of position or another. As I’ve said before, not enough consequentialism, the doctrine that affirms the precedent exists to make certain judgment. So therein notion that “the end justifies lies the basic refutation of the the means.” It’s the argument “impracticality” argument: it’s that the United States used simply too early to tell whether to justify bombing Hiroshima targeted payments made to and Nagasaki (saving hostile regimes work or not; American lives), and indeed, hence, we cannot definitively a brief look at the history of rule out their use as unfeasible our country’s foreign policy and unreasonable. But is this tells us that we have a long refutation enough to conclude and storied past of practicing that consequentialism must consequentialism. However, stand? Absolutely not. All the question needs be asked: we’ve done is establish in this particular instance, some healthy doubt as to North Korea’s supreme leader, Kim Jong-un, what exactly do we establish as whether we can actually minimize and U.S. President Barack Obama a good consequence? There are suffering, preserve lives, and three strong criteria that can primarily be used as foster good international relations through targeted end goals: minimizing suffering, preserving lives, and payments. That is clearly not enough to uphold the fostering good international relations. Insofar as these consequentialist’s argument. So where does this leave aforementioned ends are met, the morality of funding us? Let’s consider another key argument against hostile regimes must stand. making targeted payments to hostile nations. At this point, most dissenters simply shrug their This case against making targeted payments is shoulders, say “it’s not practical, it’s not pragmatic,” admittedly more intuitive and commonsensical. It 20 and jump to the hasty conclusion that making targeted seems there’s something fundamentally wrong about PATRICK KENNEDY-NOLLE is a boarder in Warham Dormitory from Bedford, New York. A champion debater, Patrick is also president of the Chess Club. He made his World Bulletin writing debut in the Winter 2011 issue with an article about the powerful German economy.

sending money or food rations to a country often in direct opposition to everything the United States stands for–namely, democracy and human rights. The philosophical term for this is deontology, which, unlike consequentialism, proclaims that the morality of an action depends not on the ends achieved by those actions, but by whether or not the means to achieve those ends are moral to begin with. Hence, via the value of deontology, if one achieves something through immoral means, it is morally unjustified and thus immoral itself – regardless of the end consequence. See where this is going? Take human rights, for instance. Our constitution affirms that each man is endowed with certain inalienable rights, among them the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Suppressing these rights is, by definition, an abuse of fundamental human rights. And yet, it is this exact same disregard for human rights that we see, time and again, in many hostile nations. Take North Korea or Iran, for example. Both countries have repeatedly shown a complete disregard for the sanctity of life, and have executed people for the “crime” of merely professing a dissenting opinion. By making targeted payments to these regimes, regardless of whatever end for which they are being used, the United States sends the message not only that it is okay to openly strip other human beings of their rights, but also that these countries can actually be indirectly rewarded for it. At a basic level, this is intrinsically unacceptable. This

same principle applies for the democracy argument as well. Most everyone nowadays in the West affirms the benefits of democratic rule, and it’s actually in the mission statement of United States foreign policy to “secure the blessings of democracy” around the world. U n f o r t u n a t e l y, however, hostile regimes are often the most opposed to this form of government – the list goes on and on. And yet, by supplying hostile nations with funds and materials, we are effectively condoning that which we purport to stand against: totalitarian, authoritarian, oppressive rule. The unfortunate, alltoo-inconvenient, truth is that democracy rarely happens peacefully, and often requires large-scale military intervention. But that’s beside the point, and at the end of the day we’re left with a confused, contentious situation. After hearing arguments from both sides, the crux of this discussion becomes: Does the deontology case effectively mandate that, in every instance, targeted payments are unjustified morally and therefore unacceptable? Does the consequentialist case guarantee that at least in some instances, good ends are being met?

The World of Sports Has Its Eye on Brazil In 2007, Brazil was selected by FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) to host the 2014 World Cup. This tournament, held every four years, will bring more than half a million visitors to Brazil, and will attract Brazilians from all walks of life as they celebrate the most popular sport in the world. Millions more will witness the competition unfold on television. Then, in August 2016, just two years later, the Olympics will be held in Rio de Janeiro, a city of more than 6 million people. Even more tourists will descend upon Brazil to watch this legendary 2-week event, the first Olympiad to be held in South America. After the excitement of being selected to host two prominent international

by Riley Clark-Long ’12

sporting spectacles has subsided, however, a RILEY CLARK-LONG, a boarder from Storrs, question remains: Is Connecticut, is a member Brazil prepared for the of FPA, a resident of onslaught of tourists, Batchelder Dormitory, press, and athletes? and a member of LC’s What is the country first competitive Ultimate doing to get ready for its Frisbee team. Riley wrote about the elections in Ivory day(s) in the sun? Coast for the Winter 2011 Rio de Janeiro will World Bulletin, and about be hosting many of the political climate in the FIFA matches in Venezuela for the Winter 2014. Although it is a 2012 issue. cultural and political hub of Brazil, Rio has its fair share of socioeconomic problems as well. Many slums and shantytowns circle the city proper, and drug use, gangs and poverty wreak havoc in these settlements. One notoriously poor and shady part of town surrounds the future Maracanã Stadium, where many FIFA and Olympic events will take place. Starting in late 2008, efforts were made by the Brazilian police and military to drive gangs 21

and drug dealers from Rio’s general, could also benefit slums. At one point during from the giant increase in the summer of 2011, there construction, architecture, were 17 occupied slums and engineering jobs surrounding Rio, where created by the necessity of police and military vehicles new buildings, stadiums, patrolled the roads, and and infrastructure projects curfews were imposed. The for the summer Olympics government hoped that the (Brazilian officials say presence of these tanks, approximately 300,000 armored trucks, and soldiers jobs have been created would drive crime and already). FIFA officials have violence down in these poor criticized the Brazilian areas. There was, however, planning committee for The slums of Rio de Janeiro are a cause for concern as ongoing unrest and violence the city readies for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 lagging behind schedule in between police and gang Summer Olympics. the construction of Maracanã members. The high crime rates Stadium. However, Sports and poor infrastructure of Minister Aldo Rebelo many Brazilian cities caused recently claimed that all some to cast doubts on projects will reach its 2014 FIFA’s and the Olympic deadlines. Committee’s decision to This dual location of award Brazil their respective the Olympics and World games. Cup is relatively rare, and The violence continues would be a challenge for today, moving some to claim any country to prepare that Rio is not ready to host for. Brazil sees both these either of the international international sporting events. The “pacification” events as opportunities to of the slums has not been be in the spotlight, both entirely successful, and may have caused more violence athletically and economically. Athletes on the Brazilian than it had planned to prevent. Brazilian officials are national soccer (football) team and Olympic teams optimistic, however, saying are extremely optimistic that much of the areas near and excited to participate planned Olympic or FIFA and play for their country sites have been cleaned in front of home crowds. up and reformed. Drug Some former athletes are cartels and gangs still rule even working with the many parts of the city, Brazilian government however, and only time will to design stadiums and tell if Rio is safe enough schedules for the two for these events. Ongoing events. Essentially, in 2014, monitoring over the next the world will witness 2-4 years will be crucial. how ready Brazil truly is This is not all to say for the spotlight. But the that the Brazilian games clock is ticking for Brazil will fail. The government to complete its major has already spent more Beautiful Rio harbor, the city tourists hope to see when they infrastructure projects. than $26 billion to improve come to Brazil in the next four years. Only time will tell whether infrastructure and reduce the government’s massive crime throughout Brazil ($16 billion alone on the investments will pay off or whether they will serve as World Cup preparations). Currently, Brazil ranks an embarrassment to the nation. Let’s hope for the among the top ten largest economies in the world, former. and it may reach #5 in time for the Olympics. The Viva la futbol! 22 people of Rio de Janeiro specifically, and Brazil in

Argentina, Spain, and Oil

by Paul Kyumin Lee ’13

On Saturday, May 5, Argentinean president Cristina hand. “We’re sure about what we’re doing, that we’ve Fernandez de Kirchner nationalized oil company chosen the responsible path, and that it will bring Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) by signing an results completely different from what’s happening expropriation bill, claiming 51% shares of YPF from in Europe…We have tried the bitter taste of austerity its Spanish parent company, Repsol. Established in measures, and we know that when there’s a profound 1922, YPF was bought and privatized by Repsol in crisis, the worst you 1999. Both companies shared a healthy relationship can do is think that PAUL LEE, recently elected with the Argentinean government until April 2012. the state is bad…that 2012-13 Student Council President, is a prefect in Accusing Repsol of investing an insufficient amount the government is the Kravis Dormitory from of its resources in the Argentinean economy, Kirchner problem,” Kicillof Norwood, New Jersey. Paul argued that an Argentinean ownership of YPF would proclaimed after is a member of the cross benefit the economic development of the country. presenting the takeover country and varsity tennis Moreover, under Repsol’s leadership, YPF in recent bill in the Argentinian teams and is managing months damaged the Argentinean economy with its Senate. (Michael Warren, editor of the LOG. He is also an avid cellist and a two large energy imports, which doubled import bills in Associated Press, 6 May year member of the FPA and the country over the past year. Although both houses 2012). When confronted Model UN. A recipient of the of the Argentinean Congress almost unanimously about concerns that Junior History Prize, Paul approved Kirchner’s decision, the takeover instigated Argentina would be makes his World Bulletin severe condemnation by the Spanish government and isolated in a free-market debut with this article. several other members of the European Union. international economy, Argentina has seen remarkable progress after its Kicillof responded, “What better rule of law, what economic debacle in 2001, which resulted from the better business climate, than a government committed country’s laissez-faire policies in the 1990’s. However, to continued growth, to sustaining internal demand, to although Argentina boasts sustaining our extraordinary the third largest economy exports to the rest of the in Latin America, trailing world?” behind Brazil and Mexico, Both Galuccio and it still faces several troubles, Kicillof ’s plans for YPF fit especially enormous into the political philosophies spending required for of President Kirchner and importing energy. According her late husband Nestor to the Argentine Oil and Kirchner. Historically, the Gas Institute, domestic oil protectionist Kirchners production decreased 22% focused on Argentina’s from 2000 to 2010, while self-sufficiency and demand for oil increased by government control of more than 40%, burgeoning the industry. Even at the A sign reading in Spanish, “They are ours. CFK. YPF. They Argentina’s dependence on are Argentine” hangs in Buenos Aires. President Cristina cost of potentially straining foreign natural resources. Fernandez pushed forward a bill to renationalize the Argentina’s relationship with Miguel Galuccio, the newly country’s largest oil company despite fierce criticism Spain, an important trading appointed leader of YPF, from abroad and the risk of a major rift with Spain. partner, Kirchner hopes to plans to increase shale and shape YPF into a company, gas production, as Argentina holds the world’s third “that is absolutely modern [and] competitive, with largest natural resources reserves. Galuccio, a former professional people but with a political orientation YPF employee, also worked with the American oil aimed at achieving energy self-sufficiency,” she said in company Schlumberger, where he was sent to turn a live televised speech. around failing oil companies in Mexico and Indonesia. After the Argentinean Chamber of Deputies passed As second in command in YPF, Axel Kicillof, the bill, the Spanish industry ministry immediately current deputy economic minister in Argentina, retaliated by introducing a measure that would provides the business-political experience that the curtail biodiesel imports from Argentina, the world’s company seeks. Kicillof maintains a strong view that leading supplier of soy oil and soy-based biodiesel. the government and industry must work hand in Furthermore, Repsol called Argentina’s move 23

“clearly unlawful and seriously will undermine Argentina’s discriminatory” and demanded economy.” Both the European at least $10.5 billion in exchange Commission and the European for the nationalization of Parliament of the EU criticized YPF, a stipulation that neither the takeover. Martin Callahan, a Kirchner nor the majority of British member of the European Argentines approve. While Parliament, even called on the Repsol previously controlled EU to expel Argentina from the 57.4% of YPF, it only holds a G20. stake of around 6% according Whether or not the latest of to the new law. The United Kirchner’s nationalist policies Kingdom, whose relationship help Argentina remains to be with Argentina has also The Argentine Congress building in Buenos Aires seen, but in the meantime, deteriorated recently because of Argentina must face its status disputes over the Falkland Islands, also condemned the as the increasingly secluded country in international national takeover of YPF. William Hague, the British trade and deal with its mounting tension with Spain. foreign secretary, described the move as “damaging to business interests” and commented that, “[YPF]

S.O.L.—Save Our Language! If I forget my native speech, And the songs that my people sing
 What use are my eyes and ears? What use is my mouth? If I forget the smell of the earth And do not serve it well What use are my hands? Why am I living in the world? How can I believe the foolish idea That my language is weak and poor If my mother’s last words
 Were in Evenki? - Alltet Nemtushkin, an Evenki poet When told that there are thousands of endangered languages in our world today, many people are astounded, for most are accustomed to believe in a “one country, one tongue” idea. A common trend throughout human history is that languages of smaller cultures often become extinct; however, the rate of vanishing languages has dramatically accelerated since st 24 the beginning of the 21 century; this is due, in part, JI HEE YOON hails from Seoul, South Korea. She is a resident of Palmer Dormitory and is very active in the Debate Society and Model United Nations. In addition, Ji Hee is a member of the Foreign Policy Association and the Pelican Service Organization. Ji Hee made her writing debut for the World Bulletin in the Winter 2012 issue with an article about post-tsunami Japan.

by Ji Hee Yoon ’13

to the rapid globalization and more frequent usage of common languages such as English, Spanish or Chinese. Today, it is estimated that more than 6,000 languages spoken today will be gone by the end of the 21st century. And according to the UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, the United States, having over 100 endangered languages, is not an exception. In 2008, Alaskan Marie Smith Jones, the last speaker of Eyak, died, and thus, so did the language. Trends have shown that regions with the most linguistic variety have the most endangered languages; thus, a dire problem concerning endangered languages exists in South America, and especially in Chile. With German and Spanish as its prominent tongues, Chile has already suffered the extinction of seven languages and has nine severely endangered languages: Atacameno, Aymara, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Kunza, Mapuche, Ona, Qawasqar, and Yaghan. These dying dialects are preserved in small, depopulated communities where resources are very scarce. Especially with the Chilean government’s newly initiated English Program, in which elementary students are mandated to learn English (at times as their first language), the indigenous languages have been increasingly forgotten and dismissed as inferior to more “globally fitting” languages such as English, Spanish, and French. The Chilean government wants to financially support the indigenous-language communities in order to protect their languages; however, despite its wishes, the government faces severe financial problems and challenges with implementation. Despite the efforts, the problem and gravity of endangered languages has worsened.

One of the most salient languages, 647 definitely endangered languages is endangered languages, and Huilliche (formal name 600 vulnerable languages Huillichesungun), which only clearly indicates that Chile has an estimated 8 to 12 fluent needs to craft a better plan to speakers according to National protect its cultural assets. Geographic’s Chile Expedition Languages are one of the key in 2011. In the Huilliche instruments in sharing culture community, the youngest fluent and passing down ancestral speaker of the language, Hugo knowledge. Unfortunately, Antipani, is 40 years old, and an extinction of a language all the other fluent speakers can thus result in a loss of are at least a generation older. valuable cultural experiences. This indicates a prominent and Huilliche elders Wilma Guenteo Rain and Teolinda So, in order to successfully Rain discuss their concern for cultural survival imminent danger of extinction Guenteo work towards protecting over tea. Photograph by Chris Rainier/Enduring Voices for languages in Chile. Although Project for National Geographic indigenous languages, Chile there have been many in the should implement several Huilliche community who possible measures and have expressed sadness for solutions. First, Chile should the impending extinction create an online database in of their language, their which selected researchers efforts to reinvigorate their and language professors language through methods would gather information on such as cultural education in their countries’ respective kindergarten have resulted in endangered languages. It little to no change; there have should create a panel of been no increases in fluent linguists, historians, and Huillichesungun speakers in computer archivists who their community. will handle the researching Prominent preservation and documenting of these groups in Chile such as the Red languages. This will allow Anselmo Nuyado Ancapichun and Teresa Maripan at the por los Derechos Educativos sacred site “Shuka Kura” (House of Rock), near Choroy for a record collection of y Lingüisticos de los Pueblos Traiguen, Chile. Photograph by Chris Rainier/Enduring endangered languages, Indígenas de Chile (Red EIB) Voices Project for National Geographic and will eliminate the risk and the Chilean government of losing their cultural attempted to plan concrete steps to merits, even if they are no longer preserve the endangered languages spoken. Chile could also establish a in hopes of reversing the trend of volunteer committee in which tools language extinction; however, these for monitoring the preservation attempts were not very successful of endangered languages, and the due to the lack of economic resources assessment of status trends in linguistic available in the global economic diversity, will be discussed. National turmoil. Although UNESCO institutions on indigenous languages initiated an Endangered Languages and the introduction of intercultural Program (ELP) in order to stop the education should be strongly rapid disappearance of languages promoted, though not mandatory. If and in order to assist communities, the Chilean government, as well as governments, and linguists through many other governments, strongly training and the transfer of skills, the encourages the development of more ELP did not see much improvement, diversified language events, such as as many languages still became language campaigns and conferences, Hugo Antipani Oyarzo, the youngest extinct and as many were and are still it will be able to foster awareness of considered endangered. That there speaker of Huillichesungun, at endangered languages, thus aiding Wequetrumao, Chiloe Island, Chile. are still 577 critically endangered Photograph by Chris Rainier/Enduring their protection from extinction. 25 languages, 526 severely endangered Voices Project for National Geographic

obama vs. romney 2012 Sweet or Sour: Obama vs. Romney on China by AsiaSol Goring ’12, Monica He ’12, and Abby Lavalley ’13

One of the most important topics in the presidential election is U.S. foreign policy towards China. The United States’ future relationship with China is critical, especially considering the fact that China currently has the fastest growing economy in the world. While President Obama has affirmed a cooperative approach during his presidency, Romney calls for a much harsher and more aggressive stance. The Obama administration holds the belief that in order to face global challenges, the U.S. must work with China. Ever since Obama’s first visit to the country in 2009, he has exhibited a conciliatory, diplomatic attitude towards China. Economically, Obama has also tried to work with China to boost both the domestic and global economy. At a January 2011 press conference with President Obama and China’s President Hu Jintao, Obama stated: “We discussed China’s progress in moving toward a more market-oriented economy and how we can ensure a strong and balanced global economic recovery. We agreed that in China, this means boosting domestic demand; here in the United States, it means spending less and exporting more.” On more sensitive grounds, Obama has also expressed to China the U.S.’s strong commitment to human rights. However, Obama makes sure not to go too far with his criticism, explaining: “China has a different political system than we do. China is at a different stage of development than we are. We come from very different cultures with very different histories. We can focus on those areas where we agree, while acknowledging there are going to be areas where we disagree.” Clearly, President Obama has realized the rising power of developing Asian countries, particularly China’s, and he hopes to use China to help America broaden its ties across Asia.


ASIASOL GORING, from the Bronx, New York, is a resident of Ammidon Dormitory. AsiaSol appeared in both Metamorphoses and Hairspray on the NEO stage, and she performs with the Hip Hop Club as well. MONICA HE, a border in Palmer Dormitory, comes to the Island from Hangzhou, China. Monica is girls vice-president of Student Council, president of the Math Team and Arab World Affiliation, is a member of the Foreign Policy Association, and serves as a tour guide. She is a recipient of both the Junior and Senior History Prizes, and this marks her third article in the World Bulletin. ABBY LAVALLEY, a day student from West Hartford, Connecticut, is a Peer Counselor, a tour guide, a member of the Confluence staff and FPA, and she participates in the dance program.

Mitt Romney has taken the opposite stance to that of the Obama administration. While Obama focuses on American cooperation with China, Romney insists that standing up to China is the only way to keep it from taking advantage of the United States. Romney refuses to acknowledge the ‘rising’ China concept, declaring in a February 16, 2012 Wall Street Journal op-ed piece that, “The dawn of a Chinese century—and the end of an American one—is not inevitable. America possesses inherent strengths that grant us a competitive advantage over China and the rest of the world. We must, however, restore those strengths.” Economically, China’s lower-priced versions of American products and its refusal to acknowledge the validity of patents have incited frustration from Romney. “On day one, I will issue an executive order identifying China as a currency manipulator. We’ll bring an action against them in front of the WTO (World Trade Organization) for manipulating their currency, and we will go Chen Guangcheng, a Chinese activist recently granted political after them. If you are asylum in the U.S. not willing to stand up to China, you will get run over by China, and that’s what’s happened,” said Romney in a GOP debate in South Carolina earlier this year. Romney also takes a stricter approach to Chinese human rights violations and trade regulations. Recently, the possible involvement of the U.S. in the escape of a Chinese activist, Chen Guangcheng, from house arrest prompted Romney to forcefully state that “Any serious U.S. policy toward China must confront the facts of the Chinese government’s denial of political liberties, its one-child policy, and other violations of human rights.” Romney even goes so far as to criticize the timidity of the current administration, saying “President Obama came into office as a near supplicant to Beijing, almost begging it to continue buying American debt so as to finance his

profligate spending here at home.” (WSJ, 16 February 2012) So Romney has made his policy toward China clear - the question then remains whether or not he would actually stick by a policy so abrasive and potentially detrimental to the relationship between the two world superpowers. China’s influence on the world is expanding just as quickly as its population. Should we be threatened by China’s growing power, or should this be an opportunity to establish a stronger collaboration? Mitt Romney affirms the former. According to Romney, blatant opposition to China and its policies actually supports the superiority of our government and gives credence to democracy. “If the United States fails to support dissidents out of fear of offending

the Chinese government, we will merely embolden China’s leaders,” he said, insisting that America should not allow China’s success to overshadow American policies. However, Obama disagrees: “As we look to the future, what’s needed, I believe, is a spirit of cooperation that is also friendly competition.” Romney argues against relations because he believes Americans deserve better, whereas Obama expects “slow and steady progress” from our alliance with China, hoping to bring America “back into the Asia game.” The 2012 presidential election will play a major role in the future relationship between China and the United States, especially if these candidates truly intend to follow the ideas they have set forth. Either way, it’s clear that there’s a lot at stake this fall.

Murky at Best: Mitt Romney’s Plans for Afghanistan by Arianna Calabrese ’13 and Meredith Thomas ’12

As we approach our 11th year of war in Afghanistan, much of the electorate is calling for the withdrawal of American troops. A year ago, Americans were split 50/50 on the issue; however, recent polling shows that only 32% of Americans support occupation until the situation abroad stabilizes. Mitt Romney has repeatedly criticized President Obama’s scheduled September departure of the 23,000 surge troops that were added in 2010. Romney also opposes Obama’s intent to turn security fully over to the Afghan people. On May 1, Obama declared: “We will not build permanent bases in this country, nor will we be patrolling its cities and mountains. That will be the job of the Afghan people.” He already met with Afghan President Hamid Karzai earlier this month to begin an agreement outlining terms of cooperation between the two countries once troops withdraw in 2014. This agreement provides the U.S. with access to and use of Afghan facilities, as well as the option to continue training Afghan forces to target operations against al Qaeda. More importantly, Romney needs to hold a more consistent stance. At the same time that Romney criticizes Obama’s proposal to withdraw by the end of summer, he also seems to applaud the president’s plan for removal of all combatant troops by 2014. “The timetable by the end of 2014 is the

This is ARIANNA CALABRESE’s third article in this issue of the World Bulletin! See “Sex, Scandal, and Sacrifice: The Fall of Silvio Berlusconi and Rise of Mario Monti” (p. 6) and “Burmese Elections: Baby Steps Toward Democracy” (p. 17) to enjoy more of Arianna’s writing. MATTIE THOMAS, from Woodbridge, Connecticut, traveled to Spain last year with School Year Abroad. This year she participated in Model UN at Yale University, was a member of the Foreign Policy Association, and served as a tour guide. Outside of school, Mattie is very passionate about equestrian.

right timetable for us to be completely withdrawn from Afghanistan, other than a small footprint of support forces,” he answered in a November debate. Romney remains unclear as to the number of these remaining troops. The defeat of the Taliban remains the clearest goal of Romney’s plan in Afghanistan. Pulling troops before December, he says, may send a message of American weakness to insurgents that remain a threat to Afghan and American security. Announcing a clear deadline of withdrawal, the Republican nominee believes, may “[encourage] the Taliban to believe that they could wait us out.” Appeasement of the group, according to Romney, is not an option. If elected, Romney will commission an interagency assessment in order to determine the timeline for withdrawal and to President Obama and his Republican challenger Mitt Romney determine the number 27

of troops necessary to secure the gains American troops have made. “Withdrawal of U.S. forces from Afghanistan under a Romney administration will be based on conditions on the ground as assessed by our military commanders,” a Romney aide said. Romney is in a tough position. The majority of Americans are against a continued presence in Afghanistan - 60% want out as soon as possible (Washington Post/ABC News poll, March 2012). As the Republican candidate, Romney will need to form

potential policies that differ from the President’s in order to gain foreign policy credibility. However, with most Americans agreeing with Obama on his plans for withdrawal, Romney does not have much room to stand alone. By stating that he will assess and consult with military advisors, Romney both buys himself some time and does not pretend that he has great experience in foreign policy. For now, his stance is safe, and will allow him time to gain popularity on pressing domestic issues.

Israel and Palestine: A Two-State Solution? by Riley Clark-Long ’12, Paul Han ’12, and Kevin Lee ’12

The subject of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been controversial for many years. While the United States has always supported Israel, its specific policies regarding the conflict have fluctuated. This article will attempt to outline Obama’s and Romney’s platforms and provide some insight into the similarities and differences between the Democratic and Republican approaches.

Israel-Palestine conflict, stating, “The ultimate goal is two states for two people. Israel as a Jewish state and the homeland for the Jewish people – This is RILEY CLARK-LONG’s fourth article for the World and the State of Bulletin, and the second in this issue! Be sure to read Palestine as the “The World of Sports Has Its Eye on Brazil” (p. 21). PAUL homeland for HAN, a resident in Warham Dormitory, lives in Dhahran, the Palestinian Saudi Arabia and Toronto, Canada. He is a co-president of people – each President Barack Obama with Israeli the Debate Society, and a member of the Foreign Policy Association. Paul made his World Bulletin debut this state in joined self- President Shimon Peres winter with an article about the relationship between the determination, United States and Saudi Arabia. KEVIN LEE, from New mutual recognition, and peace.” Obama insists that Canaan, Connecticut, is a boarder in Warham. He is a the borders separating Israel and Palestine should member of the Foreign Policy Association and plays Club return to the boundaries prior to the Six Day War, Softball. after which Israel took control of the Gaza Strip, West President Barack Obama Bank, and Golan Heights. Returning to the pre-1967 President Obama is a staunch supporter of Israel. borders would imply “permanent Palestinian borders While the Romney campaign may portray him as too with Israel, Jordan, and Egypt,” as well as “permanent weak, empirical evidence proves otherwise. As the Israeli borders with Palestine.” By advocating this first president ever to assert that Jerusalem should stance, Obama became the first president to officially remain forever under Jewish rule, Obama proves endorse a two-state solution to a conflict marked by himself to be one of the greatest supporters of Israel. ideological, sociopolitical, and religious disparities. He has also continued to supply Israel Four months later, in September with billions of dollars of military 2011, the seemingly ground-breaking funding per year, as well as having and ambitious rhetoric that called taken an interest in establishing for separate states for separate long term peace, proposing a people was lost after Obama vetoed return to the 1967 borders with Palestine’s bid for statehood at the minor land swaps. Interestingly, the United Nations Security Council. Obama administration opposed “Peace will not come through the Palestinian bid for statehood statements and resolutions at the last year. At the American Israel U.N.,” Mr. Obama stated in an Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) attempt to justify his opposition to convention on Sunday, May 22, 2011, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin the bid. “If it were that easy, it would 28 Obama affirmed his position on the Netanyahu and Governor Mitt Romney have been accomplished by now.”

After a string of Arab Spring protests that have weakened U.S. influence in the Middle East, it appears that the Obama administration’s previously high-reaching goals have plummeted to reality. It has become increasingly clear that Obama’s veto simply reiterates the United States’ longstanding support for Israel. As American political pressure in the Middle East begins to wane, Obama recognizes that he must prioritize maintaining a relationship with the United States’ strongest ally in the region, even at the expense of stalling Palestine’s bid for statehood. So while Obama will likely continue to advocate for peaceful negotiations between Israel and Palestine during the general election season, take note that his position on the matter has remained thus far unsubstantiated. Governor Mitt Romney Mitt Romney’s policies propose an end to antiIsrael sentiment, while giving Israel greater autonomy, believing that the United States should adopt a ‘hands off ’ approach to the conflict, allowing Israel to set its own standards for negotiations. His official platform

states that peace terms should be dictated primarily by Israel, as opposed to both sides making concessions. Romney believes that “The United States needs a president who will not be a fair-weather friend of Israel.” When asked about Obama’s criticism of illegal Israeli settlements that broke the Geneva Convention, Romney skirted the question and instead falsely spoke of Obama’s apparently ‘lackluster’ record insofar as protecting Israeli citizens from Palestinian rockets. However, a few similarities exist between Romney’s and Obama’s policies. Similar to Obama, Romney doesn’t believe in Palestinian statehood, asserting that he would “reduce assistance to the Palestinians if they continue to pursue United Nations recognition.” He also believes in giving continued aid to the Israeli military. While both Obama and Romney are clearly pro-Israel, Romney is demonstrably more “Pro-Israel” - but only the official implementation of his proposed policies will prove whether they are good for Israel, and the region as a whole.

The Politics of the Arab Spring

by Samson Chow ’12 and Woo Jin “James” Lee ’13 On December 18th, 2010, a dissatisfied mob marched through the capital of Tunisia, protesting against Zine El Abidine Ben Ali’s corrupt regime. This feeling of revolution quickly spread throughout the Middle East, inspiring rebellions in Egypt, Libya, An artist’s rendition of Tunisian Yemen, Syria and Many protestors, ushering in the Arab Spring Bahrain.

SAMSON CHOW, a native of Hong Kong, is a member of the Foreign Policy Association and he participated in the Model UN this winter at Yale University. A resident of Warham Dormitory, Samson is also a four-year devotee of the NEO stage. Previous articles for the World Bulletin include “The Juggernaut of Black Gold: An Introduction to OPEC” (Spring 2011), “A Briefing on BRIC” (Winter 2011), and “Are Diamonds Really Forever? The Future of DeBeers” (Winter 2012). Samson was recently awarded both a Senior History and Theater Prize. JAMES LEE, from Seoul, South Korea, is on the JV tennis team, the Student Council, and is a member of the Foreign Policy Association and Model United Nations. A resident of Taylor Dormitory, this is James’s second article for the World Bulletin, having written previously about the Korean National Assembly for the Winter 2012 issue.


of the equally crooked leaders in these countries as the catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution. Obama have now been overthrown, but problems such as compared the “Jasmine Revolution,” as the uprisings unstable economies and political corruption still in Tunisia came to be dubbed in the Western media, plague the Arab nations. So important are the issues with our very own Boston Tea Party, emphasizing in this region that the the importance of candidates in the 2012 citizens’ rights. Over U.S. presidential election, the past 18 months, President Barack Obama Obama’s responses to and former Massachusetts the Arab Spring have governor Mitt Romney, been primarily positive. have addressed the Arab In fact, he promised to Spring in their respective support Tunisia and Egypt foreign policy platforms. economically in order As demonstrated by to successfully carry out its military efforts in their democratic futures. Iraq, the U.S. regards the Obama further assured Middle East and Northern that he would write off Africa as an important a debt worth $1 billion place to advocate for Egypt, justifying that democratic values. By President Obama with former Tunisian Prime Minister Beji Caid those Arab countries need Sebsi discussing economic aid to the Arab Spring state toppling authoritarian job security and economic governments, the Arab stability in their efforts to Spring provides opportunities for reconstruction— establish a democratic regime. In a 2011 G-8 summit, allowing liberal, democratic principles to consolidate the U.S. and other countries discussed the details of in the region. Thus, the political transitions caused by how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) would the Arab Spring hold great importance in American support Egypt and Tunisia. Obama still claims that foreign policy. While the U.S. approach to the Middle his support for the Arab Spring will fulfill American East emphasizes preserving political influence in the democratic ideals and will subsequently become a region, it also illustrates a certain moral obligation great step forward toward building a democratic for America. According to former National Security world. Despite our own economic troubles here in the Advisor and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, the U.S., it is likely that President Obama will continue to U.S. has aligned itself with revolutionary movements favor the progress of the Arab Spring. in the Middle East to compensate for its Cold War Mitt Romney, the Republican presidential nominee, policies, in which the holds a more aggressive country cooperated approach regarding with nondemocratic foreign policy in the governments for Middle East and Northern security objectives. Africa than his rival. U.S. intervention in the In his book No Apology: Arab Spring attempts to The Case for American both sustain diplomatic Greatness, Romney authority in the Middle emphasizes his belief in East and to enforce the American exceptionalism, democratic ideals that a doctrine accentuating the U.S. government finds U.S. economic and military itself ethically bound to superiority in the world. uphold. (“A New Doctrine Thus, in order to reinforce of Intervention?,” The U.S. foreign policy in Bashar al-Assad, President of Syria Washington Post, 30 March these regions, Romney 2012) has called for an increase On May 19th, 2011, in his speech regarding the of $30 billion in military spending and 100,000 Middle East, President Obama praised the martyrdom troops in active duty. The Republican candidate has of Mohammed Bouazizi, a Tunisian street vendor who continuously criticized Obama for his “soft approach” set himself on fire after continuous oppression from to foreign policy, one that diminishes U.S. influence 30 the government, and whose actions are often credited in the events of the Arab Spring. Romney emphasizes

his aggressive stance by the U.S. has only a marginal shunning Obama’s treatment impact in shaping the of dictators such as Syrian political economy of these president Bashar al-Assad, countries. Both Obama asserting that his rival and Romney, despite their should “use the bullhorn of separate beliefs in U.S. the presidency” to support foreign policy, recognize the suppressed “voices of fact that the U.S. remains freedom and dissent” in a tectonic presence in the Middle East. However, international affairs. Romney also states that Secretary Kissinger he will direct the U.S. “soft notes that if set under a power” to our intervention democratic, “humanitarian” in the Arab Spring. He Electoral workers in Libya making preparations for vote doctrine, U.S. intervention claims that while he will counting in the Middle Eastern ensure a strong response to revolutions will not sustain the revolutionary movement, he advocates peaceful, itself unless it is linked to the interests of the country’s non-confrontational efforts to introduce democracy national security. The two presidential candidates will into the region. He proposes a plan that employs “all have to acknowledge that, in the long run, pragmatism the tools of statecraft” and that prevents the need triumphs over ideology in foreign policy. Kissinger for military action. Romney will organize diplomatic also stresses that it is “not wise to seek an equivalent development initiatives to encourage Arab Spring result” in every country participating in democratic countries to adopt more representative forms of reform. Libya, free from Muammar Gaddafi’s wrath, government, providing technical and budgetary hardly functions as a democratic state. Egypt may assistance. Rather than “regional czars” or “special hold elections free from Hosni Mubarak’s influence, envoys,” a single director will be appointed to manage but the electoral majority is overwhelmingly Islamist. these endeavors. Romney’s foreign policy stresses an In Syria, opposition forces against democrats continue active U.S. in the political reforms of the Arab Spring to dominate the country’s politics. As the Arab Spring countries, where the “Arab Spring realizes its promise countries experience political reform, each of them and…does not fade into a long winter.” faces their own separate obstacles and, thus, will likely While the candidates may differ in their approaches have different outcomes. towards the Middle East and Northern Africa, both These situations also raise another question in the understand that the Arab Spring illustrates limited pro-democracy stance of U.S. foreign policy: does the American power in these regions. The United States United States have a preference as to which groups does not have as many financial resources in the Arab come to power in the Arab Spring countries, or will it Spring countries as in the Persian Gulf states such as remain supportive as long as the process within these Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, states nations is democratic? Obama and Romney will have that do not share the same interest in reinforcing to prepare for dealing with democratically elected democratic values. In terms of foreign investment, Islamist governments.

Iran: Confrontation or Compromise?

by Michael Danielczuk ’12, Grace Foster ’13, Theja Yalamanchili ’12 “Strong countries and strong presidents talk to their adversaries...If Iran ever posed a serious threat to us, they wouldn’t stand a chance. And we should use that position of strength that we have to be bold enough to go ahead and listen. That doesn’t mean we agree with them on everything. We might not compromise on any issues. But at least we should find out [if there are] areas of potential common interest, and we can reduce some of the tensions that have caused us so many problems around the world.” ~ Barack Obama, May 2008

MICHAEL DANIELCZUK, a day student from Enfield, Connecticut, is a member of the cross country, track, and Robotics teams. He is also a tutor in the QRC and an Eagle Scout. Mike is a recipient of the Senior Mathematics, Science, and Modern Language Prizes. GRACE FOSTER, a resident of Ammidon Dormitory, comes to the Island from Cleveland, Ohio. She is on the varsity swim team, is a member of FPA, and is the Director of Communications (and rising Program Director) for Stu-Acts. THEJA YALAMANCHILI is a day student from Windsor, a member of the FPA and cross country teams, and is Director of Communications for the Pelican Service Organization.


As is clear in this that Obama’s “policy of statement, from the engagement” with Iran campaign trail four years has provided the country ago, Obama heavily favors and its leaders time talking to Iran before to develop its nuclear taking military action. program. Romney has He has said on more remarked that the current than one occasion since president’s stance on becoming president that Iran is far too appeasing the strongest position the to excuse the conflict, United States can take is to even going as far as to listen to Iran, to sit down insinuate that Obama has and to discuss the issues given the Iranian leaders at hand to find out if a Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visits a nuclear facility the impression that the diplomatic resolution can in Tehran United States government be reached before military will never step in to stop action becomes absolutely necessary. Obama values the Iranian building of nuclear weapons. Romney the power of compromise, and even though he realizes suggests immediate action, making it clear that he a compromise may not always be reached, he believes would prefer to eliminate the threat of Iranian nuclear in at least giving Iran a chance weapons rather than engage in to negotiate. Although many bargaining. Though Romney of his critics have lambasted has never openly threatened a him for being too lenient and United States military strike, conciliatory, Obama sticks he remarked in November’s to his intended strategy of foreign policy debate that, diplomacy. However, Obama “Of course you take military leaves the option of a strike action if sanctions and against Iran open, saying that internal opposition fail if diplomacy fails, he would to dissuade Tehran from consider military force in making a nuclear weapon.” order to prevent Iran from This comment appropriately Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran, and President getting a nuclear weapon. summarizes Romney’s stance Obama “If we re-elect Barack Obama, on Iran, as he insists that Iran will get a nuclear weapon. If we elect Mitt Romney, taking a direct, forceful approach to discourage Iran Iran will not.” ~ Mitt Romney, November 2011 from creating such weapons is favorable. During a GOP debate last fall, Mitt Romney made his position on Iran quite clear. He has said


by Abigail Adams ’12, Liana Fernez’12, and Sarah Williams ’13


In the upcoming general election, one would believe that both President Obama and Mitt Romney would be playing to the ear of the Hispanic voters. Yet, contrary to common sense, at least politically speaking, Romney has taken one of the hardest stances on immigration seen in the election thus far. Dismissing any option for amnesty, deporting anyone caught, Mitt Romney opts that any illegal immigrant is in fact illegal, and thus should be forcibly exiled from the country regardless of extraordinary circumstances. On the other hand, President Obama’s attempt to reform the United States’ immigration

policy utterly failed to pass through the Republican House of Representatives. His 2008 election pledges of fundamental changes for immigration were never satisfied, and thus he must run his reelection campaign with the perpetual reminder of unfulfilled promises. Obama’s immigration policy appears simple at first glance. As one of the most basic premises, the President wants to further secure American borders— the one overarching agreement between the two candidates. Furthermore, President Obama wishes that all businesses that break the law by undermining American workers and exploiting undocumented

ABIGAIL ADAMS, from Feeding Hills, Massachusetts, is workers be held accountable for their actions; he does president of the Phage Club and is the NEO stage manager not elaborate as to what penalties would be placed upon extraordinaire! A member of the Foreign Policy Association, said businesses, only that consequences must exist. He Abby was the recipient of the Junior History Prize, as well as desires the creation of a new legal immigration system the recipient of both the Junior and Senior Theater Prizes. that reflects supposed American values and diverse Previous World Bulletin articles include “Afghanistan: needs in order to strengthen American economic Costs and Benefits” (Winter 2011) and “Humanitarian Crisis: Uganda’s Gay Community” (Spring 2011). She is a competitiveness. Finally, according to statements two-year resident of Palmer Dormitory. LIANA FERNEZ is published by the White House, President Obama a “day/ boarder” from Bolton, Connecticut. In addition to wants to require responsibility from people who are her work with the Foreign Policy Association, Liana is a living in the United States illegally. peer counselor and tour guide, a 4-year veteran of the NEO Differing from Obama, Romney believes that Theater, a member of both the Concert Choir and Chamber amnesty for illegal immigrants should not exist. Singers, and this spring will appear in the Musical Revue. Liana’s previous articles for the World Bulletin include He desires a stronger enforcement of law, requiring features about Hugo Chávez (Spring 2011), Middle East “tamper-proof employment verification system” politics (Winter 2011), and the Republican presidential that would allow only legal citizens to be hired. He primaries (Winter 2012). Liana was recently awarded wishes to further secure the border by fully erecting a Senior English, History and Theater Prize. SARAH an electrified fence between the United States and WILLIAMS, a boarder in Palmer, hails from Pawcatuck, Mexico along with increased border patrol personnel. Connecticut. She is the newly-elected vice-president of the Pelican Service Organization, and was recently named He wants to change the legal immigration system a Peer Counselor. Sarah is also involved with Spread the such that it would admit more of the foreign students Dough, Model UN at Yale and Cornell, and the Darwin Club. studying at American universities. Both of these candidates list the above goals on instead that the immigrants will just voluntarily their respective websites, outlining their policies leave on their own. to the voters. Yet, In addition, Romney by skimming these named the Arizona sites, many miss law a “model” for the the true gems of future. Contrasting immigration policy Romney’s hopes, uttered from the President Obama, candidates’ mouths. in his 2012 State of On January 23, 2012, the Union address, in a Republican credited his policies presidential primary with the decline debate, Mitt Romney of illegal border announced his selfcrossings, while, in deportation policy reality, economists Student activists in favor of the DREAM Act that many in his own attribute the drop to the (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) party have begun to mock. downturn in the economy, Calmly explaining that, which has made illegal “The answer is selfimmigration less deportation…[where] attractive. people decide they In general, can do better by going immigration has yet to be home because they exposed as a major issue can’t find work here of the 2012 presidential because they don’t have election. As the general legal documentation election approaches, just to allow them to work over five months away, the here,” Romney suggests topic will undoubtedly be that under his policy further explored along the government will with other issues. At the do nothing to actively moment, both candidates deport the illegal are continuing to refine immigrants found in the Mitt Romney spoke to the Hispanic Leadership Network conference their respective policies. 33 United States, hoping in January.

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