The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin www.loomischaffee.org
Fifteen Minutes with Jon Meacham Crisis in Haiti The Korean Dynamic Townships of South Africa
BRINGING THE WORLD TO THE ISLAND
From the Desk of the Editor‐in‐Chief
To Our Readers:
“Never before have students held greater importance than now in this post‐9/11 world.”
The human race has never before been more connected than one finds today. The development of the modern global communication network allows peoples across the planet to enjoy privileges previously exclusive to the Western elite. Yet with more to gain, there is so much more to lose. One need only think back to that clear day in September that marked an irreparable turning point in world history. 9/11 not only reminded mankind of the fragility of Western society, but also illuminated the fear and mistrust that propels man to commit such heinous acts. Change, however, can manifest itself in a variety of
The Inaugural Issue
forms. In November 2008, the world witnessed the election of Barack Obama, the first African‐ American president, on a platform of “change we can believe in.” Less than five months after taking the oath of office, President Obama addressed the Muslim world from a podium at Cairo University in Egypt. After eloquently delineating the Arab‐ American relationship, Mr. Obama looked to the future, stating, “I want to particularly say this to young people of every faith, in every country ‐‐ you, more than anyone, have the ability to reimagine the world, to remake this world.” In this spirit, The Loomis Chaffee Foreign Policy Association has established The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin with the conviction that never before have students held greater importance than now in this post‐9/11 world. Moreover, the significantly privileged young men and women of Loomis, the leaders of tomorrow, bear a great responsibility as global citizens to use their educations for the benefit of mankind. Thus, with the aim of provoking thought rather than providing bias The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin will bring the World to the Island, serving to prepare the young
scholars of Loomis for their lives as global citizens. Sincerely, Thomas T. Barry ’11 EDITOR‐IN‐CHIEF
The editors of this publication thank Mr. Andrian and Ms. Engelke for their guidance and support.
EDITORS: • • • •
Thomas Barry ’11 Alexandra Crerend ’11 Tyler Anne Isaman ’10 Heather Reisner ’10
Spring 2010 2 | To Our Readers: The Inaugural Issue -Thomas T. Barry ’11-
12 | Korea, Koreans, and Their Challenges -Sojin Kim ’12 14 | Country Profile: Thailand in Brief -Polnop Samutpraphoot ’10
Europe 4 | Regional Introduction: European Union -Alexandra Crerend ’11 4 | The Chilcot Inquiry: A Foreign Concept -Alexander Gropper ’10 5 | World Economic Forum: Lessons From Davos -Tyler Anne Isaman ’10
Middle East 15 | Regional Introduction: Middle East -Jacob Robbins ’10 15 | Conflict in Afghanistan and Pakistan -Elizabeth Rights ’10 16 | Slow and Steady Wins the War -Nathan Harris ’13
6 | Opinion: French Xenophobia and the Burqa -Ngoc Nguyen ’11
The Americas Africa 7 | Regional Introduction: Africa -The Editors 7 | Townships of South Africa -Kai Wilson ’10 8 | World Cup 2010: South Africa Takes the Stage -Kalon Tsang ’10
17 | Special Interview: Jon Meacham, Editor of Newsweek -Alexandra Crerend ’11 19 | Regional Introduction: North America -Helen McDonald ’10 20 | Regional Introduction: Latin America Fast Approaching Change in a Forgotten Region -Tyler Anne Isaman ’10 21 | Crisis in Haiti -Heather Reisner ’10
23 | Country Profile: Jamaica -Vijay Mansukhani ’12
9 | Regional Introduction: Asia-Pacific Multilevel Chessboard: United States Policy in Asia-Pacific -Viet Phuong Dao ’11 11 | Google in China -Ariel Kwok ’10
24 | Survey: Definition of Terrorism 25 | Also in the News
The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin The Inaugural Issue
Europe Regional Introduction: European Union -Alexandra Crerend ’11 Europe is a continent whose history is better documented than any other region in the world. Over the years, the borders within Europe have changed dramatically thanks to the rise and decline of great empires, as well as the countless major conflicts that have transpired there. Unfortunately, Europe's incalculable contributions to the world's political, economic, social, intellectual, and aesthetic history have often been overshadowed by such conflicts. Today, Europe's population is approximately 831 million, if one includes Russia and Turkey.
However, only 500 million of them belong to the European Union, a regional political and economic partnership between 27 of Europe's democratic countries. Sixteen of the member states have adopted a standard currency, the euro, since the EU's establishment in 1958 with the Rome Treaty. However, since globalization has led to the unprecedented political and economic development of regions around the world, Europe is no longer the global crossroads it once was.•
The Chilcot Inquiry: A Foreign Concept -Alexander Gropper ’10 The Iraq Inquiry, or Chilcot Inquiry as it is often called for its Chairman, Sir John Chilcot, was established on June 15th, 2009. The inquiry is led by a committee of non‐partisan members including Chilcot, Sir Lawrence Freedman, Sir Martin Gilbert, Sir Roderic Lyne, and Baroness Usha Prashar. The inquiry, commissioned by Britain's Prime Minister Gordon Brown, has begun investigating Britain's involvement in Iraq over the past eight years. It is to be "fully independent of government" and "Its scope is unprecedented." Both the legality and the success of what we know as the 'War in Iraq' are in question. Dispelling years of accused secrecy concerning previous inquiries into Iraq, the inquiry's sessions are viewable online on the inquiry’s official website. The panel will not report until late 2010. The panel has been criticized for lacking trained lawyers and military experts. Many British liberals hope to see former Prime Minister Tony Blair convicted of perjury, although this is very unlikely; even if the panel consisted entirely of trained lawyers,
it would still be difficult to press charges due to a lack of definitive proof that he lied to the British people. Overall, the inquiry hopes to shed light on the legality and success of British involvement in Iraq over the past eight years with a non‐partisan independent committee. Recently, several political notables have appeared before the inquiry, including: former Prime Minister Tony Blair; Blair's Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw; and Blair's Communication Director, Alastair Campbell. In the coming months, current Prime Minister Brown, who was finance minister during the eight‐year period in question, will appear before the inquiry. Brown will appear before the inquiry before June's general election due to political pressure placed on him by opposing parties. His hearing will be the inquiry's biggest since Blair. In Blair's six hour hearing, he brazenly claimed that even with his current knowledge he would still go to war to remove Saddam Hussein as he did years past. Justifying his actions, he claimed, "I've no regret... I think
he [Saddam] was a monster. I believe he threatened not just the region, but the world." Campbell cited a meeting with Iraqi exiles who were against Saddam, but irrationally implied that just because Iraqis were against Saddam, they were for the 'foreign invaders' as we would have appeared. Now having appeared twice before the Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair visiting Iraq
inquiry, Straw denies claims that he avoided legal advice concerning the war. He first claimed his legal advisor, Sir Michael Wood, gave contradictory advice, which led to his dismissal of all advice from Sir Wood. On the other hand, Sir Wood retorted that Straw repeatedly ignored his warnings that the invasion into Iraq breached international law. Straw, in his second hearing before the inquiry, even claimed that he read all of Wood's recommendations in such detail that he thought it necessary to respond in writing; Straw's note began "I note your advice, but I do not accept it." The British public hopes to see these men punished for their parts in bringing Britain into the conflict, but the combination of the lackluster evidence against them and the dubious legality of the war makes it very unlikely that formal charges will be brought against them.•
World Economic Forum: Lessons From Davos -Tyler Anne Isaman ’10
The five day long World Economic Forum held in Davos, Switzerland ended this January with advice and warnings about the state of the world economy. The most pressing observation was that emerging markets are bouncing back the fastest from the global recession and subsequent recovery, evening the playing field between long‐established financial superpowers and less economically developed countries. The U.S. economy will appear as a “U” in coming months, with a slow recovery from a bad recession, whereas countries with emerging markets, like India, China, and Brazil, will have a rapid recovery in a “V” shape. Europe was hit the hardest by the recession, making recovery the hardest, with the economy appearing as an “L” shape. Although the U.S. economy will stabilize, unemployment will continue to rise. As Larry Summers, the director of Obama’s National Economic Council said, leading economies were
“experiencing a statistical recovery and a human recession.” On paper, markets are stabilizing and things look to be getting better, but people are still feeling the financial pressures. Public opinion on unemployment and other domestic issues could lead to a rise in populism in the United States—something that would harm the long‐term economy. The inevitable warning also came that while stimulus package funding cannot be decreased too soon, or else a double dip recession could amount, deficit spending is quickly getting out of control. There was some optimism at the conference, however. Technological innovation is increasing as the economy is down, and cell phones can be used to solve social problems and get aid to rural areas.•
Opinion: French Xenophobia and the Burqa -Ngoc Nguyen ’11 Although tensions between different mainstream. The next step that the ethnicities have always been a major issue in government would take, one would guess, is France, the national identity debate, proposed last simply to erase all that distances these November by the Minister of Immigration, National immigrants from the true “French Paragon,” Identity, Integration and Co‐Development, Eric which is basically Islam and everything that is Besson, and reinforced related to it. by French President Shortly Nicolas Sarkozy, has now afterwards, the been raging for several proposal of banning months, all due to its the burqa was born, in colonial past. In fact, the the name of the search for “Frenchness” revolutionary slogan: started last fall, when “Liberty, Equality and legislators from the Fraternity.” In fact, Union for a Popular this plan has probably Movement “proposed a turned France into one law to forbid foreign flags of the most during immigrant controversial weddings in city halls.” countries in the world, In addition to that, for if the law passes legislators have also and every Muslim proposed a ban on the husband has to pay a burqa in public places in fine of 750 € France, under the whenever his wife Women wearing the burqa with the pretexts of defending the wears a burqa in public, then backdrop of the Eiffel Tower in Paris. republican, secular values, the individual liberty that giving Muslim women more this law is supposed to freedom to express themselves and of course, protect would eventually becomes, by giving them more chances for integration in what definition, an imposed liberty, that not they defined as the “real” French culture. These everyone wants nor needs. In addition to two propositions have not only ridiculed the that, this law seems to be based on the clichés silliness of the French authorities, but also that people have in their mind regarding the provoked a lot of tensions between the barbaric Muslim forcing his wife to cover government and its five million French Muslims. herself, head‐to‐toe, all the while As the government has been asking the disregarding these women’s freedom of French people to think about what it means to be religion and conscience. French and supposedly, there exists a model of the Instead of debating on the definition of real French citizen, to which everyone should being French, these policy‐makers should adhere; people have clearly noticed that behind probably debate whether they have remained this debate on national identity is the recognition faithful to the promises that the Republic that being French and a practicing Muslim is made, when welcoming these people into plainly incompatible. Furthermore, this debate has their lands, when France was in need of only highlighted France’s failure to integrate the them.• children of its former colonies into the French
AFrIca Regional Introduction: Africa -The Editors
From the pyramids of Egypt to the pirates of Somalia, Africa is a complex and diverse continent capable of great prospects. Still underdeveloped, Africa has often been plagued with genocide, war, and racial segregation at the hand of autocratic dictators. Oil further complicates issues, as seen in Sudan and Nigeria. While certain countries like Egypt, Tanzania, and South Africa are
expanding their economies through burgeoning tourism industries, others still confront the issues they faced during colonial times. Religion also plays a large role in Africa. Sudan, for example, has seen conflict between the Muslim north and the Christian, oil holding, south. In the end, Africa is an important region to watch on the world stage, both for its great need and great potential.•
Townships of South Africa -Kai Wilson ’10
Since the global economic shock of 2008, countries around the world have struggled with the public response to immigration. In current African news, violent clashes between South African township residents and Zimbabwean immigrants have highlighted the social problems created by the global economic downturn. While South Africa grows in wealth, with a GDP greater than all sub‐Saharan African countries combined, Zimbabwe struggles with the cholera pandemic, an unstable economy, and a corrupt government headed by a controversial President Mugabe. The internationally renowned ‘rainbow nation’ attracts Zimbabweans, who flee disease and oppression. Now comprising over 5 million immigrants, South Africa is straining under the weight of xenophobia and economic volatility. During the past two years, violence against immigrants has erupted in South African townships bordering Zimbabwe. Destitute residents in Northern provinces blame foreigners for increased crime and rising unemployment. Declaring, “They kill our brothers, rape our sisters, break into our homes and take our jobs”, a protester believes that there is a link between all
Zimbabweans and wrongdoing. With 30% unemployment in South Africa, mobs attack immigrants, who will take jobs at minimal pay. This unsettled environment and distrust of aliens resembles the apartheid era of South Africa, when impoverished Zulu migrant workers were subjected to township animosity and prejudice. In May 2008, approximately 15,000 Mozambicans, Nigerians, and Zimbabweans took refuge from riots that left 62 dead. The federal government responded by dispatching the army in an attempt to control the crowds. The intervention of the army to quell internal unrest was the first since the end of apartheid. South Africa’s disorganized leadership scrambled for order. Over 3,000 Mozambicans a week left their lives and jobs behind, whereas others hid in police stations and churches. A year and a half later, in December 2009, disruption broke out in Westenburg as eleven people were hospitalized. Over 50 refugees were escorted to the old Peter Mokaba Stadium. Ironically, the victims camped alongside a world‐class
soccer stadium for the 2010 World Cup. Hosted by South Africa, the World Cup intends to attract tourists and show the nation’s stability. The President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, entreated his people to “embrace especially our African brother and sisters, who usually bear the brunt of ill‐treatment more than foreigners from other continents.” His police forces tried to contain the township violence with rubber bullets. However, all charges of murder against South African rioters have now been withdrawn. The courts released the arrested, claiming the prosecutors lacked evidence. Unfortunately, this failure of justice is epidemic. Last year,
40% of homicide cases were dropped for the same reason, raising concerns about the rule of law in the country. With 10% of the South African population being immigrants, the reliance on foreign labor for menial work has thrown the entire region into a crisis. Countries worldwide also have immigration problems, but few have reacted like South Africa. The long‐term goal of rebuilding Zimbabwe requires the peaceful removal of Robert Mugabe from political authority. With an election in 2010 and Mugabe in poor health, a new and transparent Zimbabwean government could be just over the savannah. The eventual stability of Southern Africa entails the end of authoritarian rule in Zimbabwe and security and employment in South Africa.•
World Cup 2010: South Africa Takes the Stage -Kalon Tsang ’10 For the first time in history, the World Cup will be hosted by an African nation – South Africa. The competition is due to start on the 11th of June with the final to be played exactly one month later. As usual, 32 teams will compete in eight groups of four, with five teams from the Asia‐Pacific region, six teams from the African continent, five teams from South America, three teams from North America, and thirteen teams from Europe. Italy lines up as defending champions and must overcome the likes of Paraguay, New Zealand and Slovakia to make it through to the last 16. The United States has been drawn with England, Algeria and Slovenia, while North Korea makes its second appearance in the tournament in a group with Brazil, Portugal and the Ivory Coast. Many have labeled this last group as the “Group of Death” for Brazil, Portugal and the Ivory Coast are all very strong teams. Brazil is the most successful nation competing in the tournament, having won the cup an unprecedented five times, while Italy has four, and Germany, three. The United States came in third in 1930, and England has won it
once, in 1966, when they hosted the Cup on home soil. Set to welcome an estimated 3 million passionate football fans from all around the world, South Africa has prepared ten spectacular stadiums to host the 64 matches that are set to take place, and has taken steps to improve security and facilitate and enhance the experience for all foreign visitors. The country should rake in substantial profits from tourism, but the larger potential benefit of this tournament might in fact be a burnished image of the nation, and of the entire continent – prompting further foreign investment in the country and the larger continent. Some have ruminated on the possible political tension that may arise with both North and South Korea playing in the tournament along with the United States, but sport is at its best apolitical and universal. Certainly there is a place for candid discussions of issues, but it is not during a sporting event that will light up the world and unite people who share a love for the joy of football. Let us lay aside our differences and support our respective countries as they seek the glory of lifting that golden cup aloft in the South African dusk.•
ASIA Regional Introduction: Asia-Pacific Multilevel Chessboard: United States Policy in Asia-Pacific -Viet Phuong Dao ’11 The Asia‐Pacific region is comprised of East Asia, South East Asia and Oceania. According to a testimony by Kurt Campbell, the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, the region is home to one‐third of the world’s population, and accounts for almost a third of global GDP. Asia‐Pacific has become an indispensible part of the globe, and the United States has a strategic interest in enhancing its engagement in the area. However, before we explore the focal points of United States policy in Asia‐Pacific, we have to examine the dynamics in the region. The history of Asia‐Pacific, especially of East Asia and Southeast Asia, has conflict as a frequent, almost constant, theme. Up until the twentieth century, for more than two thousand years, one Chinese dynasty after another pursued expansionist ambitions that often led to war with Japan, Korea and Vietnam. The chaos of the last century, with the destruction spread by fascist Japan and the tumult caused by the Cold War, further heightened the engrained mistrust, pitting Korean and Chinese sentiments against Japan, Japanese sentiments against Korea, and everyone’s sentiments against China. At the moment, the various territorial disputes, mostly maritime, continue to put a strain on relations in East and Southeast Asia. Against this unpleasant backdrop, China emerges as a world power. American policy in Asia‐Pacific, therefore, has to be calculated with the “Central Kingdom” as a constant player. In this context, the United States policy in Asia‐Pacific has four important components: China, the Koreas, Japan and Southeast Asia. The Korean Peninsula is discussed in this issue of the World Bulletin in a separate article, given its immediacy to international security at the moment. With regards to China, the United States faces tough challenges on both economic and military fronts.
The U.S. trade deficit with China continues to grow, while China remains one of America’s top trading partners, a leading market for exports and a major source of imports. On top of this, China is one of the largest holders of American debt. Economically, the United States depends greatly on China. Militarily, the last major communist country has gone to great lengths to strengthen its armed forces. While China is by no means anywhere clear to pose a challenge to the power of the American military, policy‐makers can no longer downplay the increasing weight of the country in regional security. However, China itself stands in a tough spot. It depends to a large extent on the United States economically, since the latter is its largest trading partner and export market. In terms of military policy, the United States already maintains a heavy presence in Asia‐Pacific, with bases in Japan, South Korea, the Philippines and various islands. Beijing surely does not want Washington to increase the already high level of military involvement in the region, and therefore will likely abstain from provocative actions. As a result, current economic interdependence between China and America and present military setting in Asia‐Pacific force both sides of the relationship to favor dialogue over conflict, despite growing Chinese influence around the world. Barring any extraordinary turn of events, U.S.‐China relations will probably revolve around the same tenets for the foreseeable future. With regards to Japan, American standing in this nation has never been shakier since the end of World War II. With the new government controlled by the Democratic Party of Japan sworn in last year,
Japanese policy has adopted a more conciliatory tone towards China, and a more stern and independent approach to the United States. The recent controversy over the relocation of an American base on the island of Okinawa stands out as the example of the changing relationship between two strategic and traditional allies. Yet, this does not signify the end of American importance in Japan. The United States remains the provider of national defense for this nation, and while some Japanese resent the presence of American troops in their country, many still look at China with great skepticism and distrust. The changes so far in U.S.‐ Japan relations have been very much on the surface, while the fundamentals of the alliance between the two countries remain strong. The United States will continue to have a vital role to play in Japan’s security for some time to come.
With regards to Southeast Asia, the United States needs to adopt a more engaging policy. Chinese dominance in this area poses a threat to international stability, as fifty percent of the world’s cargo travel through the Malacca Strait and the Southeast Asian Sea (also known as the South China Sea). While the eight years of the Bush Administration were the eight years of American neglect, since coming to power the Obama Administration has been actively involved in the politics of the area. Last summer, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton attended an ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Summit in Thailand and signed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation. She declared that the United States was “back in Southeast Asia.” Among the most important aspects of American involvement in this
Southeast Asia highlighted
corner of Asia are the issues of Myanmar and the Southeast Asian Sea, both involving China. The military dictatorship in Myanmar, sustained with support from its northern neighbor continues to stand as a bulwark against the ideals of democracy and justice. Further east, China claims approximately eighty percent of the surface of the Southeast Asian Sea, encroaching on the reasonable economic interests of ASEAN nations as well as the freedom to navigate. The United States has ample reasons to monitor and, if necessary, intervene in these issues, especially the latter, since it has implications for global security and economic stability. As the world moves into a new decade, American foreign policy needs to move onto a new page. A focal point of that new approach to the world is Asia‐ Pacific. Much American blood has been shed in the region in the past due to miscalculations and failing policy, a tragedy the United States can and should avoid repeating, not only for its own 300 million citizens but also for the billions who live in the area. Amid two wars and an economy in shambles, it is seemingly sound to put the focus of the U.S. government on the Middle East and domestic affairs, away from the western rim of the Pacific. However, as Assistant Secretary Campbell astutely noted, “Asia and the Pacific are indispensable to addressing the challenges and seizing the opportunities of the 21st century,” and the United States should not at any moment lose sight of this fact.•
Google in China: A Stand Against Censorship -Ariel Kwok ’10 To start off the new decade, officials of Google Inc. publicly declared their exasperation with China’s censorship policies. Google threatened to pull out of China if they are not able to freely release information, for the restrictions clash with Google’s mission “to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful”. Google and the Chinese government have had many conflicts concerning censorship, yet the tension escalated exponentially when Chinese hackers infiltrated Google’s corporate infrastructure, allegedly to access the Gmail accounts of human rights activists in China, Europe and the U.S. Upon investigation, iDefense revealed that this had been part of a highly sophisticated attack
that targeted over thirty companies for valuable intellectual property called “source codes.” The hackers broke into Google’s corporate base by sending emails with malware to Google employees. China’s web surfers have expressed their discontent with the possibility of losing Google.cn. Some even fear that the loss of Google will be detrimental to other Chinese search engines; Baidu, a prominent search engine in China, may be good for media and entertainment, but Google provides most of the educational and factual information. Google executives will be discussing these issues with Chinese government officials, and we all hope that a compromise will be reached.•
Editor’s Update: Google China has since moved its operations to Hong Kong, where the search engine can operate free of censorship from the mainland Chinese government. Nonetheless, Google continues in its attempt to balance the ideals of free information with the clear goals of higher profits in emerging markets.
Korea, Koreans, and Their Challenges -Sojin Kim ’12
Out of the ashes and rubbles of the Korean War, South Korea – slightly larger than one‐fourth the size of Japan – has turned itself around in a mere sixty years. Today, Korea is the world’s fourteenth strongest economy, and a full‐ fledged democracy with a per capita income of more than $20,000. Also known as the home of Samsung, LG, Hyundai, POSCO, and as the world’s largest shipbuilder, Korea’s economic success has fed the growing popularity of Korean culture referred to as the “Korean Wave.” This spread of Korean culture especially impacts Japan, China, and Southeast Asia, where Korean entertainers are being turned into mega‐stars, and Korean goods and the language are becoming highly popular. The word “bally bally” (meaning “quickly”), the hot and spicy dishes that Koreans love, along with the large cheering crowd called the “red devils” during Seoul’s 2002 World Cup games,
Map of South Korea and the national flag
all demonstrate the zeal for life that is deeply rooted in Korean culture. Moreover, this passion and eagerness have enabled the country to become one of the IT industry’s foremost leaders, with Samsung Electronics generating more profit last year than nine Japanese electronics companies put together. Also, by being the first to recover from the present global economic crisis, Korea surprised the world.
However, beyond the ‘miracle of Han River’ lies a country with its own set of problems like any other. The national parliament, which periodically showcases the immature side of Korean democracy, violent labor protests and unrestrained civil demonstrations are just some of the past legacies and practices that need improving. An effective social welfare system for those left behind in the turmoil of rapid economic development is also needed. Then there is the constant face off with North Korea that threatens to disrupt what South Koreans have achieved. Last November, Korea formally joined the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) Development Assistance Committee, becoming the first country ever to successfully transform itself from the least developed to a donor country in just sixty years. Accordingly, Korea pledged emergency assistance of USD 10,000,000 to Haiti’s recent earthquake relief efforts. For a country that once relied on the world’s humanitarian aid for survival, becoming a 12
member of the G20 Summit, in addition to hosting of this year’s upcoming fifth G20 summit in Seoul in November, are all noteworthy achievements. The G20 summit was formed in 2008 to bring both the developed and developing countries together to cooperate in coping with the global financial crisis. While the Group of Eight (G8) will continue working on issues concerning global security, the responsibility of looking after global economic wellbeing has now shifted to the G20. The significance of South Korea as the host for the 5th G20 summit lies in the fact that it symbolizes change in global
governance. Recognizing Korean the importance of close traditional cooperation between the folk dress developing and developed economies, world leaders chose South Korea as the first non‐G8 country to chair and mediate the summit. It is welcoming that world leaders see South Korea’s “Yes we can!” spirit as a positive motivator in seeking new international economic order, while giving hope to under‐developed countries. Among the main driving forces
behind the recent remarkable progress in South Korea is its passion to educate the future generation. Instead of relying on the state, Korea’s now grandparent generation, despite their poverty, took the responsibility of educating their young in their own hands. As a result, the government and industries could find quality work forces without difficulty. The synergy effect of adding diligence to the well educated people were tremendous ‐ generating successes at a much faster pace. Nowadays, many Korean parents who are aware of the importance of global education opt to send their children to the United States. These international students ‐ who are bilingual and still have firm roots in their countries of origin – are in many ways well equipped to function as future facilitators and mediators for Korea‐US and global cooperation. Grandparents and parents educated in the States still serve as bulwark allies of the U.S. in Korea. The recent decision by the Korean government to send troops to Afghanistan to aid in the reconstruction efforts was made possible in many ways because of the trust and understanding that goes back these three generations. However, like everything else, overzealousness can also cause damages. Recently, it was revealed that many of the Hagwons—high‐ cost private cram institutions—in Korea have regularly stolen the SAT and GMAT exams to bring up the scores of their students. These ugly Koreans do not know how detrimental their cheating is to the future of Korean children, including their own. Though these cheating students have gained access to the U.S.’s top quality educational institutions, a majority of them eventually drop out, robbing much better qualified students the opportunity to study at these schools. Although there are no easy solutions to all these concerns, Koreans’ zeal for life will continue to check and balance its many problems, guiding the country towards maturity. Thus, as Korea advances, it will definitely become a much more reliable global partner.• 13
Country Profile: Thailand in Brief -Polnop Samutpraphoot ’10
The Kingdom of Thailand, located in Southeast Asia, was established in the mid‐14th century. The country had been governed under absolute monarchy until a bloodless revolution in 1932, which reformed the country into a constitutional monarchy. The current king, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, is the longest reigning monarch on Earth. Revered as semi‐ divine by Thais, he has been more than a moral compass for his 60‐plus years on the throne. His Majesty was born in Cambridge, educated in Switzerland, speaks multiple languages and holds several agricultural patents. He also composes and plays some jazz, designs sailboats, is an accomplished painter and photographer, and the first recipient of the UN’s Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award. The capital of Thailand is Bangkok, lying on the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. Bangkok was once wedged between British India and French Indochina, but “due to its strategic location, the kingdom acted as a buffer‐zone” between these two powers. Thus, Thailand was never colonized. Bangkok “gained notoriety in the world as an independent, dynamic, and influential city” because it remained sovereign during colonization. “In the span of over two hundred years, Bangkok has grown to become a political, social and economic center of Thailand, Indochina, and Southeast Asia.”
The official language of Thailand is Thai. One characteristic of Thai is its levels. The speech in a royal ceremony is composed with entirely different words from normal speech, although the meanings remain the same. In general, the spoken Thai sounds monotonic, but emotions are conveyed through a group of words used to end sentences. In fact, Thai has different pitches. Each pitch changes the meaning of a word. For example, the word “pa” can refer to “throw”, “forest”, “aunt”, or “father”, depending on how high or low the tone is. Of course, there is a lot more to say about Thailand. In the following editions one will learn more about the role of Thailand on the international level, the king as a revered figure, and facts about Thai culture.•
Tourist boats in the Andaman Sea
Middle East Regional Introduction: Middle East -Jacob Robbins ’10
The Middle East is a region in South West Asia and Northern Africa, roughly the size of the continental United States. The Middle East is a vast network of countries, with varying ethnic backgrounds, religious views, and political systems. Although the primary religion in the region is Islam, there also exist large groups of Jews and Christians. The varying political systems that have been adopted include monarchies, democracies, republics, as well as theocracies. The primary
economy of many of these countries relies on their ability to produce natural resources, primarily oil and natural gas. While it is currently the site for two wars, in Iraq and Afghanistan, it has in the past scene many conflicts. In addition to this, it has also spawned radical militant groups, who have brought conflict to other regions of the world. In its current state, the region is a rich region with a great history, but is also the site for much discord and strife.•
Conflict in Afghanistan and Pakistan -Elizabeth Rights ’10
According to the U.S. Mission to NATO, the goals in Afghanistan range from military to humanitarian. “The United States has spent more than $4 billion in development aid to Afghanistan since 2002, with USAID providing the largest amount in civilian assistance for rural, regional, governmental, and infrastructure development,” while also having “significant troop numbers deployed in Afghanistan under Operation Enduring Freedom.” U.S. mission to NATO continues to work towards better women's rights and a truly democratic government. Joint efforts have been partially, though not entirely, effective. Infrastructure in Afghanistan is a slow growing market, governmental and terrain challenges delay delivery of both immediate and long term aid programs. The Taliban began as a group of fundamentalist Islamic scholars. Originally educated in Pakistan and provided supplies by the Pakistani government, the Taliban governed Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001.
After being overthrown in 2001 by the American‐ led Operation Enduring Freedom military operation, the Taliban regrouped as an insurgent force, using guerrilla warfare to fight “against the governments of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the NATO‐led International Security Assistance 15
Force.” The Taliban movement is headed by Mullah Mohammed Omar ‐ he has to date not been located. The Taliban currently holds some political influence over Pakistani boarder regions. Pakistan recently launched an anti‐Taliban offensive in the Swat Valley to combat the aggressive tactics of the Taliban over the region.
The main concern of the U.S. lies in whether or not Pakistan, which holds nuclear weapons, can effectively and fully defend itself against the Taliban.•
Slow and Steady Wins the War -Nathan Harris ’13 The events in Haiti and the situation in Afghanistan have been the focus of Americans in the past weeks. Iraq has been mostly out of the news except for the tally of the rising death toll in the fight between the Sunni and Shiite Muslims. Many U.S. soldiers have “There are four been caught in the crossfire objectives that of this ongoing battle. Is the rising death toll of Iraqis a the Iraqis sign that they no longer should meet want us there, or is it a sign before the that the country is still completion of unstable and that we need the American to maintain our presence longer? pullout.” During his presidential campaign, Barack Obama stated that the U.S. would remove the majority of combat forces from Iraq by mid‐2010. The current plan of the Obama administration is that by August, between 35‐ 50,000 U.S. troops will remain in Iraq. By the end of December 2011, the rest of the U.S. forces are scheduled to depart from Iraq. Although this is the current plan, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates “predicted that after 2011 he would expect to see perhaps several tens of thousands of American troops as a part of a residual force in Iraq.” Even though this is the predicted plan, it may not be a very realistic one. There are four objectives that the Iraqis should meet before the completion of the American pullout. First, the Iraqi government should reconsider the ban on the Sunni politicians so that they can participate in the upcoming election. Second, the Obama administration has
called for a “transitional” U.S. force of 35‐ 50,000 troops for the training of the Iraqi forces in counterterrorism and intelligence so that the Iraqi military should be able to protect its own people. Third, the Iraqi military has taken control of the major cities in Iraq, and the U.S. military has moved to bases outside of the cities. Even though the Iraqi military has regained control of these cities, they still rely heavily on U.S. “logistics, intelligence and air support.” A great deal of financial and practical support is needed now and will be needed in the years to come. Last, there should be a working government in place before the last of the U.S. troops begin their departure. While the situation is receiving less press than before, the nation remains plagued by problems. Americans are deluding themselves into thinking that the situation in Iraq is mostly solved and that the U.S. is ready to pull out. Serious doubts remain as to whether Iraq is ready for autonomy. Have U.S. policy makers not examined what the Iraqi people and the country needs? There are different plans proposed by politicians, but the most supported, and possibly the most effective proposes a slow withdrawal of troops from Iraq. If the United States pulls out too fast, then the U.S. may shatter the Iraqis’ fragile government and leave the situation worse then before. Would it be practical to pull out of Iraq? Slowly, over time, seems the more sane answer.• 16
The Americas Special Interview: Jon Meacham, Editor of Newsweek -Alexandra Crerend ’11 Don’t let his southern drawl and repeated use of the word “damn” fool you; Jon Meacham’s intellect was evident even in the fifteen minutes I spent interviewing him. His subtle eloquence was both refreshing and surprising coming from a renowned editor, writer, and historian. Jon Meacham has written for newspapers such as The New York Times Book Review, The Washington Post and The Los Angeles Times Book Review. He also makes regular appearances on “Meacham MSNBC’s discovered his “Morning Joe”. In addition to his passion for history at a young work as an editor of age thanks to his Newsweek magazine, Jon grandfather.” Meacham is also the author of three New York Times bestsellers: Franklin and Winston: An Intimate Portrait of an Epic Friendship, American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation, and Voices in Our Movement. Moreover, Mr. Meacham’s most recent Blood: America's Best on the Civil Rights book, American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House, was recently awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Biography. Meacham discovered his passion for history at a young age thanks to his grandfather, who raised him during his adolescent years. Today, he is a member of the Society of American Historians, the Leadership Council of the Harvard Divinity School, he is a trustee of the Churchill Centre in London, and he is a recipient of an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the Berkeley Divinity School at Yale University. Perhaps most relevant to our World Bulletin, Jon Meacham is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. For almost a decade,
terrorism has been the focus of U.S. foreign policy and a major cause for public concern. And while the State Department has its own “official” definition of terrorism, providing a standard definition that appeals to enough people, organizations, and nations around the world has proven impossible. Nevertheless, Meacham, like most people, has his own definition: “Terrorism is the use of asymmetrical warfare targeting civilians and/or noncombatants as a means of achieving a psychological or political end.” Although terrorism is often cited as the most pressing foreign relations issue, Meacham disagrees. When asked which foreign relations issue the U.S. needs to focus most on, he immediately responded, “Nuclear proliferation and whether [Obama] can keep would‐be nuclear reactors from arming terrorists. Everything else pales in comparison.” His concern regarding the threat of nuclear proliferation to homeland security is by no means unfounded; whereas large numbers of terrorists have no way of procuring the resources required in order to directly invade the U.S., nuclear warheads can be sent from anywhere in the world via intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and can annihilate millions in a matter of minutes. Meacham further expressed his
concern for homeland security when he insisted that despite efforts to keep terrorists off American soil, sleeper cells are here and are an enduring threat. President Obama’s election was hailed worldwide as a fresh start for American diplomacy. The President reciprocated these “The U.S. needs to sentiments when he pledged to practice focus most on tough and direct nuclear diplomacy, proliferation... especially in nuclear Everything else nonproliferation pales in negotiations. However, Meacham comparison.” reminds us that “diplomacy is the work of decades, centuries even.” Regarding Obama’s approach to diplomacy and whether he has been successful thus far, Meacham notes, “At this point, it’s hard to prove a negative; it’s truly too soon to tell.” Jon Meacham still feels that the U.S. is the world’s military superpower, but he also insists that there are definite threats to our security. On the other hand, he doubted America’s ability to remain atop the global economics totem pole in the face of China and India’s rapid growth. And even though our president is a Democrat, he maintains that America is a center‐right country. To say the least, Jon Meacham understands the United States to be a nation in limbo militarily, economically, and politically. Quite frankly, it is hard to disagree with him.•
Regional Introduction: North America The Border Dispute -Helen McDonald ’10 With much of America’s attention directed toward the Middle East, as well as domestic issues such as health care and the recession, it is fairly easy to forget our neighbor to the north—Canada—and our neighbor to the south—Mexico. Who cares about Canada, eh? The Canadians stay “quiet” for the most part. And Mexico has its own internal problems to settle. America is too busy settling affairs with more “important” nations such as Pakistan, Russia, and China, right? Wrong. Our relations with Canada and Mexico still play, and will continue to play, a large role in this nation’s foreign policy, as they impact matters of immigration and our economy. Since the Christmas Day 2009 bombing attempt aboard a Detroit‐bound Northwest Airlines flight, American officials and citizens cannot ignore that the recent emphasis on tough border controls, strict immigration policies, and a dependence on information‐ gathering technology is not protecting America adequately from terrorist attacks. The borders that separate Mexico and Canada from America are not as secure as we might pretend. The Mexico‐United States border extends from California in the west to Texas in the east. From the Gulf of Mexico, the border follows the course of the Rio Grande River, crossing diverse terrain from major urban regions to inhospitable deserts. Since the mid‐ 1500s, massive groups of migrants have crossed the border, although the issue has amassed a great deal of controversy in recent years. With the exception of the Canada‐U.S. border, the Mexico‐U.S. border has the “highest number of both legal and illegal crossings of any land border in the world.” While more than 17,000 agents guard the border, they have only “effective control” of 700 miles of
the border, thanks to the Secure Fence Act of 2006, leaving 1,254 miles unprotected. Border Patrol activity centers around cities like San Diego and El Paso, prompting illegal immigrants to cross the border in rural and desert areas. Nevertheless, although several hundred migrants die along the U.S. border attempting to enter the United States without authorization, estimates suggest that half a million illegal aliens successfully enter the United States each year. Though the U.S. government is currently in the process of constructing a border “barricade” of sorts, comprised of many individual fences and “virtual” fences “heavily monitored by cameras, sensors, and Border Patrol agents,” we cannot deny that our country is far from discovering a foolproof solution for border control. To the north lies the Canada‐U.S. border, otherwise referred to as the International Boundary. This border was established by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and often since has been recognized as the world’s longest “undefended” border. While the International Boundary remains the world’s longest non‐militarized border, civilian law enforcement is present and necessary; both Canadian and U.S. officials have complained of drug, cigarette, and firearms smuggling. Nonetheless, it goes without saying that the relatively low security measures enacted at the Canada‐United States border provide a stark contrast to those requisite at the Mexico‐ United States border. Though the words “foreign affairs” may divert our attention to countries overseas, we must not forget our North American neighbors. It is necessary to tend to diplomacy here in our own hemisphere, ensuring that our borders are safe, without attempting to drive away our continental “relatives.” We must remember that we benefit economically from Canada and Mexico because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which brought three incredibly
different economies under one contract. NAFTA strives to eliminate barriers of trade and investment between Canada, the United States and Mexico, revealing that these three countries truly do rely on one another. In the
future, as we aim to protect our country and defend our borders, we cannot forget the relations we must maintain. As paradoxical as it may sound, foreign policy starts at home.•
Regional Introduction: Latin America Fast Approaching Change in a Forgotten Region -Tyler Anne Isaman ’10
Latin America’s history is littered with coups and revolutions, guerilla warfare, U.S. interventions, fixed elections, struggles for democracy, dictators, autocrats, and authoritarian regimes. From the rise of Peron‐ style politics to the Dirty War in Argentina and from the fondness of Allende to the U.S.‐ sponsored violence of Pinochet in Chile, Latin American history is nothing if not captivating. Often shrouded in mysticism, Latin America is one of the most ignored regions in the world. Lacking the booming economies of Asia, the fear of the Middle East, and the celebrity‐attention garnered by Africa, South and Central America fall by the waist side in the press even though over 15% of the United States population is composed of Latin Americans. [Even the fine educational institution that is Loomis Chaffee only has one Latin American history‐intensive course. However, it must be pointed out that the course does not include the entirety of South and Central America, instead choosing to focus on the Caribbean, and the course has not been offered for the past two years.] Who can blame Loomis Chaffee, however, when the United States seems to have the same approach toward the region? America has been all too happy to pump money into Latin America to deal with transnational organized crime and drug trafficking; the issues that directly affect the United States, while domestic issues certainly do not reap the same attention. Latin America is, do not forget, the United States’ largest foreign supplier of oil,
illegal drugs, and immigrants—a potentially nasty combination. Recently, the United States has redirected its attention toward other regions, particularly the Middle East, and expected Latin America to wait, as it has historically done, for the U.S. to return and to re‐forge relations. Latin America this time around, however, has developed relations with other countries in wake of the United States’ absence. Case in point: Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva’s November 23rd hosting of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. President Barack Obama, who originally sought to put U.S.‐Latin America relations on sounder footing, was a disappointment in 2009, with the first half of the year surrounded in promising speeches and the second half showing startlingly little action. For example, although calling for Manuel Zelaya, Honduras’s President who was displaced in a June 28th coup, to be restored to his position, the Obama administration did nothing substantial to back up their statement. Regarding Cuba, 2009 seemed to be the year of change. Obama’s speech at the Cuban‐American National Foundation's headquarters gave hope to thousands, but a year later and Obama seems to be sticking to normal policy. According to Julia E. Sweig, the Council on Foreign Relations director for Latin American studies, “[It's] the same equation of, you commit suicide domestically and then we'll lift the embargo. That's been the equation essentially for the last fifty years, so without shifting that paradigm, the Obama administration really is perpetuating the policy of its predecessors.” 20
Corruption and political extremism still exist in Latin America. After rising to power, autocratic Hugo Chavez dissolved or quieted the Venezuelan court system, political parties, and Congress before reaching his current state of unlimited power in the Bolivarian Republic. This “threat to democracy,” as seen by many in the U.S., has lead to the Obama Administration’s biggest blunder in the region. A leaked Air Force document stating that the recent military base agreement between Colombia and the United States was for the purpose of dealing with threats from bordering countries (read: Venezuela) enraged the entire region. As a reaction, Hugo Chavez tightened border security and trade with Colombia. To further the problem, Colombia and Venezuela’s “did‐they‐or‐didn’t‐they” airspace violation claims have increased tension between the two countries and the United States. Latin America entered onto the world
stage dominated by a feudal, mercantilist system, so the transition to democracy has not and will not be easy. However, as we move forward into the 21st century, Latin America’s extreme political polarization seems to be starting to fade. The recent election of Chile’s moderate, conservative Sabastian Pinera and the emergence of Costa Rica’s Laura Chinchilla are good signs that the socialist tendencies of the past are giving way to more pluralistic systems of governance. Cuba even seems to be gradually releasing its firm totalitarian grip on domestic affairs, without the help of the United States, with its two‐month amnesty, from February 12 to April 12, for unlicensed guns and weapons to be registered and then kept by citizens. The right to bear arms in Cuba is a step in the right direction—and a symbol for where Latin America is going.•
Crisis in Haiti -Heather Reisner ’10 On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake hit the town of Leogane, Haiti, approximately 16 miles from the nation’s capitol of Port‐Au‐Prince. With an estimated 240,000 people killed and over 3 million Haitians struggling for food and shelter, international aid agencies, including Doctors Without Borders and the UN World Food Program, are struggling to efficiently deliver resources. The United States, one of the world’s largest providers of humanitarian aid, has already agreed to donate $100 million to the aid effort. While historically the United States’ involvement in Haiti has not always benefited the Haitian people, President Obama has ordered 10,000 troops to Haiti “for the sake of our own common humanity.” Although Obama’s efforts to rehabilitate the impoverished nation are commendable, many claim that Haiti’s own president, René Préval, should take a more active role in restoring his country. Others argue that the U.S. owes this
humanitarian aid to Haiti, as retribution for its unfavorable occupation of the nation from 1915 to 1935. While opinions differ on this complicated issue, certainly Haiti, already one of the poorest countries in the world, and the poorest in the western hemisphere, is in dire need of assistance and even the U.S.’s magnanimous donation will not completely relieve Haiti’s burden of poverty. America’s controversial relationship with its southern neighbor dates back to Haiti’s independence from France, a mere 28 years after the United States’ own liberation from British rule. While both colonies ostensibly sought the same goal of freedom, Haiti, a nation entirely comprised of slaves seeking emancipation, posed a threat to other slave‐reliant nations, particularly the United States. Fearful that their own slaves would follow the Haitian slaves’ lead, Southern slave owners provoked the United States’ government into refusing recognition of Haiti as a nation until 1862, 58 years after Haiti’s independence. Many European nations, prompted 21
by both America’s and France’s resistance to Haiti’s nationhood and by the fear of their own slaves mutinying for independence, agreed to boycott Haitian‐made goods. This event, paired with the 80 year debt that France imposed on the newborn country for the land they “stole” from the former slave owners, spiraled Haiti into a state of economic depression from which it is still recovering today. In 1915, the corruption in Haiti’s government, leading to either the assassination or overthrow of seven consecutive presidents, prompted the U.S. to intervene. In an effort to protect American assets and, more importantly, to keep Haiti out of German hands during World War I, President Woodrow Wilson ordered an invasion of the nation. Wilson’s decision to seize control of Haiti crippled the already immobilized country, and is considered by many to be another cause of Haiti’s current poverty. Not until 1934, when President Franklin Roosevelt initiated the Good Neighbor Policy, did the U.S. finally withdraw from Haiti. Likewise, in 1994, when political turmoil prompted many Haitians to flee for America, President Bill Clinton sent an intervention force to reinstate the leftist president, Jean‐Bertrand Astride. While America did put forth an effort in mollifying the corruption, many claim that the U.S. backed out too soon, as evidenced by Astride’s eventual descent to alleged fraud and drug‐trade involvement. Even today, as international relief agencies flounder to insure their aid is distributed properly, Haiti still suffers from corruption. One problem that has stemmed from the earthquake is the unintended liberation of over 5,000 prisoners from Haiti’s jails. This influx of criminals, while detrimental to all Haitians, bears the greatest consequences for the nation’s women. Since
the earthquake, the sexual abuse rate in Haiti has increased dramatically. Foreign aid agencies are trying to counteract this occurrence by distributing food coupons only to women. However, said organizations have not been able to truly ameliorate the problems of Haiti’s women. Even if a Haitian woman can acquire her food without her coupons being stolen by a hungry man (a common occurrence, according to Catholic Relief Services), she must get back to her family without the precious sustenance being taken as well, all the while risking sexual assault. Many camps have begun to provide special tents for women to seek refuge from men as well as trauma counseling for rape victims. However, tents, the only form of shelter for the few Haitians who even have shelter, will soon prove inadequate when the annual hurricane season begins. One reason for the inadequacies in aid distribution is that help could not reach Haiti for days after the earthquake, due to the destruction of ports and humanitarian aid outposts. Brazil, the nation that has led the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti since 2004, claims that the security situation in Haiti is “perfectly under control,” but the alarming statistics of sexual abuse and improper food distribution suggest otherwise. As the UN mission chief, Hédi Annabi, a Tunisian, was killed in the earthquake the peacekeeping initiative in Haiti is struggling. However, while America’s help is gravely needed, President Obama cannot risk infringing on Haiti’s sovereignty. As the Obama administration has said, the American government is “trying to pull off a delicate balancing act by offering massive humanitarian relief while avoiding giving the impression that they are taking over Haiti.” While the situation in Haiti is not even close to resolved, the generous assistance from myriad international aid agencies will definitely expedite the process.•
Country Profile: Jamaica: Land of Wood and Water -Vijay Mansukhani ’12
Jamaica is an independent, democratic country located in the Caribbean Sea. Its motto, “Out of many, one people”, suggests that Jamaica is a country of many races fused together as one nation. When you hear someone say “Jamaica” the name Bob Marley is often what first pops into the minds of many, but Jamaican music is much more than this. In such a country where music runs in everyone’s veins one can imagine the number of artists trying to “buus” (release a song to the public). Thousands of artists release songs but only a few make it big. Two of the main genres of music in Jamaica are dancehall and reggae. The main difference between the two is that dancehall has a faster beat whilst reggae is soft and a bit slower. A few notable artists are Sean Paul, Shaggy and Sean Kingston. In Jamaica the three main sports are soccer, cricket and track. Jamaicans love soccer and in every street corner you can see kids kicking a ball. Sadly, our national team has not been doing too well with the last World Cup qualification date being in 1998. Another
major sport is cricket. The game of cricket is represented on the world stage as the West Indies (a team comprising of the best players from the Caribbean) and national by the Jamaican team, which plays neighboring nations. Jamaica’s greatest advancement in athletics, however, would have to be in track. Jamaica, although a small nation, is known for producing the world’s best sprinters such as Usain Bolt, Asafa Powell, Shelly‐Ann Fraser, and Merlyene Ottey. Jamaica is known for palm trees and her clear water and white sand. It is one of the top tourist destinations because of the beautiful environment of the North Coast. Jamaica also has many other activities, from zip‐lining to cliff jumping at Ricks Café one of the top ten bars in the world. The Caribbean in general is known for food exploding with flavor and spice. In Jamaica, ackee(a boiled yellow fruit) and salt fish(salted cod) is our national dish. All Jamaican dishes are unique, as each culture that came to Jamaica brought with them their cuisine. Rum is probably Jamaica’s most famous drink export. Jamaica consists of many sugar cane fields, which have gone into only rum production from the cane, as it is more profitable. Jamaica is a great nation, blending cultures located in the warm climate of the Caribbean. It’s well known for food, music, athletics, and tourism. She is a great country, which will continue to greaten her presence on the world stage in the years to come.•
2008 Olympic Gold Medalist Usain Bolt
Survey: Which of the definitions below best defines the term "terrorism"?
The act of inflicting terror upon a The act of inylicting terror upon a population to serve set population to serve set goals and goals and objectives. objectives. 9/11 9/11. War War Terrorism is the premeditated, "Terrorism is the premeditated, deliberate, systematic murder, deliberate, systematic murder, mayhem, and threatening of the mayhem, and threatening of the innocent to create fear and intimidation in order to gain a innocent to create fear and political or tactical advantage, intimidation in order to gain a 1 usually to influence an audience." political or tactical advantage, usually to inyluence an audience. “Peacetime equivalents Peacetime equivalents of war of war crimes.” 2 crimes. “Activities that involve violent… or life‐threatening acts… that are a Activities that involve violent… violation of the criminal laws of the or life‐threatening acts… that are United States or of any State and… appear to be intended: to intimidate a violation of the criminal laws of or coerce a civilian population, to the United States or of any State influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, and… appear to be intended: to or to affect the conduct of a intimidate or coerce a civilian government by mass destruction, population, to inyluence the assassination, or kidnapping.” 3 The use of violence and “The use of violence and intimidation in pursuit intimidation in the pursuit of of political aims.” 4
The editorial staff of the World Bulletin conducted this survey informally. Of the one hundred Loomis students surveyed, all 100 results are shown.
James M. Poland, professor of criminal justice at California State University, Sacramento, is the author of numerous works on terrorism. He earned his Ph. D from Michigan State University. 2 Alex P. Schmid, a Dutch scholar in Terrorism Studies and an Einstein Fellow at Harvard’s Center for International Affairs. 3 United States Federal criminal code 18,2331. 4 The definition of “terrorism” from The Oxford American Dictionary. 1
The World Bulletin conducted a survey of Loomis students this January. Students were asked to choose a definition for “terrorism,” a task that has troubled soldiers, statesmen and scholars for centuries. After all, if one cannot define the enemy, then how can one even begin to combat it? Also, one can reasonably argue that many if not all Western powers, as well as Eastern, have engaged in terrorism or terrorist activities at one point or another. Ultimately, the question persists as to who are the true terrorists. Yet, in the end, the sixth century B.C. wisdom of Sun Tzu remains true, “know your enemy”.•
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ALSO IN THE NEWS Australia – A court in Sydney sentenced five unnamed Muslim men, convicted last October of planning to carry out terrorist attacks on Australian soil, to 23 to 28 years in prison. One man was said to have received training at Pakistani camp run by Lashkar‐e‐Taiba, the extremist group that carried out the bloody November 2008 attack in Mumbai, India. China ‐‐ Construction continues in Shanghai, as the 2010 World Expo is scheduled to open May 1st, 2010 and run until 0ctober 31st, 2010. Ukraine – Pro‐Russian opposition candidate Viktor Yanukovich defeated the pro‐Western Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko in the presidential race. Costa Rica – Laura Chinchilla was elected in a landslide to become Costa Rica’s first woman president, defeating conservative Otto Guevara. U.S.A. – President Obama signed historic healthcare legislation into law, bringing about monumental, yet controversial, changes regarding the health industry in the United States, including the extension of coverage to approximately 30 million citizens. Brazil – Rio de Janeiro celebrated Carnival this February, determined to prove itself stable in the lead up to the 2016 Summer Olympics. Guinea – Prime Minister Jean Marie Dore, appointed in January by military ruler General Sekouba Konate, appointed a caretaker government to transition the West African nation from military to civilian rule. Russia – Coordinated explosions, the suspected work of female Muslim suicide bombers from the breakaway Russian province of Chechnya, ripped through two subways cars below the streets of central Moscow on March 29th. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin promised the “Terrorists will be destroyed,” while international leaders, including U.S. President Barack Obama added their condemnation of the attacks. Israel – While hosting U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, Israel announced the expansion of 1,600 settlement houses in occupied East Jerusalem, sparking off the worst diplomatic row between the U.S. and Israel in decades, as well as reigniting old tensions with Palestinians, ultimately threatening the peace process in the region.
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The Loomis Chaffee Foreign Policy Association has established The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin with the conviction that never before have s...
Published on Apr 2, 2010
The Loomis Chaffee Foreign Policy Association has established The Loomis Chaffee World Bulletin with the conviction that never before have s...