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Architecture Design Studio AIR: ABPL 30048 Qing Ping LEE LIM 371753

A special thanks to my group mates Amanda Ngieng and Zhenghong Pan for taking me through this amazing journey. And to my tutors David Lister and Jerome Frumar for guiding me on my way

CONTENTS Week 1 Week 2 Week 3

Week 4 Week 5 Week 5.5 Week 6 Week 7

Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12

PART 1: CASE FOR INNOVATION Architectural Discourse Computing in Architecture Parametric Modeling

PART 2: RESEARCH PROJECT Matrix Combinations + Develop Reverse Engineer: Spanish Pavilion Further Development of Design Materials Effects: Fabrication Assembly Methods: Fabricate


Project Interpretation: Gateway Design Project Delivery: Jointing Development Project Presentation: Physical Fabrication Project Proposal Conclusion: Construction Development Learning Outcome

EXPLORING THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE Architecture is a profession, and a way of life. With the fast rate of change in our modern day and age, architectural projects are often confronted with unique briefs that require solutions of unprecedented novelty. As Architects ourselves, we need to keep up with contemporary technology of the design industry to solve these problems. To me Parametric technologies are at the fore front of this evolution. As stated by Schumacher (2009), Parametrics succeeds Modernism as the next long wave of systematic innovation. It is a style rooted in digital animation techniques, with the latest refinements based on advanced scripting methods. It is the elegance of ordered complexity and the power of technological control, that constitute the hallmark of parametricism. This project will look into the possibilities of Parametric design and the possibility it brings to scripting, parametric modelling and performance-based generative techniques. “This multiagent systems begins to define a broad shift that has already appeared in certain progressive schools of architecture and that is beginning to spread into mainstream architectural culture� Leach (2009)



WEEK 1- Case for Innovation: Architecture as a Discourse

This section of the journal is a reflection about the study of one personal project and two state of the art projects from which advances architectural discourse. Various distinct aspects of these projects are analyzed for their potential in advancing architectural discourse.



Architecture Design Studio: Earth

Designer Qing Ping Lee Lim


Proposed on Herring Island, Victoria


This fragmented design was for a concert hall. The form was to enhance the visual effect of an explosion of sound from the stage. These fragments served more than just a visual function and were to be used as raised platforms for dancing or as seating areas.

The NURBS format of Rhino gave me a form freedom to control the surface. By having the ability to manipulate various control points of NURB forms, I am able to have more control in design.

“An important property of curves made by splines is that their curvature, the curve radius changes continually along their length” (Kolarevic 2003) I believe computer design software can develop greater advancement for the architectural industry as a whole. It is about unlocking the potential of designers rather than pushing people to conformity. It gives opportunities to designers to freely develop free form objects and have a platform to express their ideas better.

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Another potential aspect of this software is its capability of becoming a simple medium for designers to share design solutions. With the help of the internet there is a wealth of new design concepts and software available for the design community. There is the problem with it being inundated with mindless repetition but it still provides a good opportunity to designers who take advantage of it to innovate.Never has the world been so globally connected that information can easily flow from country to country.

“The preternatural instinct of designers is to be secretive, quite the opposite of the scripting generation who willingly share their content on the internet” (Burry 2011).

Architecture as a Discourse



Arcelor Mittal Orbit , Sculpture of the Olympic Park

Designer Anish Kapoor


Olympic Park, London


This sculpture served the purpose of being an icon for the Olympic games of 2012 in London. It needed an iconic form for a public sculpture and achieved it in the sense of its scale and shape. I like how the form of the sculpture also challenges the basic idea of architecture as a static rectangular building. It shows that with structural and technological advancements, any free form idea becomes feasible.

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“The use of digital modeling and animation software has opened new territories of formal exploration in architecture, in which new shapes and forms are created by generative processes based on concepts such as topological space, dynamic systems, parametric design� (Kolarevic 2003).

To me these dynamic factors contribute to the awe-inspiring factor of a monumental sculpture that would attract visitors of the Olympics and leave a lasting impression on their experiences here. This concept of monumentality can be applied to the Gateway Project to enable Wyndham city to make its mark on the map and attract visitors from all parts of Melbourne to view this sculpture.

Architecture as a Discourse


To help develop Orbit’s shape, Arup’s engineers made extensive use of inhouse 3D simulation software. The entire design process was done in the virtual world Most buildings are plum and square the Orbit is neither. Some of its curves are structural, some are aesthetic, and all of them are subject to difficult stresses until they are completed and the whole thing is in balance. “It pushes the boundaries in both its form and its conception” (Curtis N. 2011) Engineers monitor the structure on laptops running the 3D program that which plots the entire history of every component.

The construction technique of this massive colossal sculpture shows the way of the future. With the advancement of technology, it is a new way of developing architecture design through using computer systems to navigate the construction process. There is no need for contemporary construction drawings, buildings these days rely on 3 Dimensional algorithms which map out the form and all of its structural components integrated with physical world forces.

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I admire how this project pushes the forefront in the relationship between design and construction; and Architecture in general. The rift between these professions is closing and buildings are now being developed through a better and systematic process. By integrating the design analysis, manufacture and assembly of buildings around digital technologies, Architects and Engineers have the opportunity to fundamentally redefine the relationship between conception and production.

I would like to apply the concept of integrating the Designing environment with the Fabrication environment for the Gateway Project. I believe a closer relation of the building environments would be the next endeavor of the Designing profession. This is made possible also with Parametric design which gives us the chance to input real world physics as parameters and account for these factors in the design process. With a better relation between these factors a more systematic and efficient flow of designing would be possible and Architecture as a whole would benefit from this progress.

Architecture as a Discourse



1.26 Sculpture of the Denver Art Museum

Designer Janet Echelman


Powerhouse Museum & Art, Sydney

WEAVING THE PROFESSIONS To obtain the form, Echelman consulted with NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to obtain data of the Tsunami in 2010, from which her studio generated the first 3D model of the tsunami. She then used her proprietary net-building software to transform an outline of the data into a knotted sculptural form. The project 1.26 is about exploring form to develop meaning and engages with issues of temporality and interconnectedness. This analysis based form design shows a development of how relationships can be formed between statistical data and form finding. Although the design was a bit too direct and could have been developed for a more subtler meaning,

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this project shows the potential to develop stronger relationships between the design and the context itself. I believe that all designs would need a deeper meaning for its form than just its aesthetics. A relation to important data and statistics of its context would be a good way to give meaning to the design of a sculpture. I would like to explore this aspect in giving meaning to my concept and see what it can bring for the Gateway project and link it closer to both the city of Melbourne and Wyndham.

Architecture as a Discourse


The development of the nets are the result of a detailed, computerassisted process that ensured it corresponded with the artists vision. The process for the nets begins with 3-D digital sketching in Maya which is then imported to Rhino by Engineers to rebuild geometry. Then exported to a form finding software of Dynamic Relaxation to find deflected shape of the net sculpture under the effects of gravity.

As it was chosen to be a sculpture similar to that of the Gateway project, I believe this project holds potentials to address the Wyndham brief. When hung in space, this fibrous form appears to be dynamic as it moves with the wind. With its changing shape and bright colours it enriches the static space of the city. This unique interaction with the natural environment through the use of simple elements is a principle we could include in the Gateway Project to create a diverse form that continually changes, enriching space.

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This project is also revolutionary in a different way it collaborates many diverse fields of professions to make a single vision come true. This involves more various and contrasting fields of industry such as between the fabric manufacturing industry and Engineering design. These relationships are developed through the break down of barriers using digital technologies incorporated to form the sculpture. It also tries to “tie in meaning with the projects itself Echelman strives to create a visceral experience in diverse city environments, accessible to all” (To Extremes 2011). This project will make a significant impact on advancing architectural discourse “giving new precedence to designers on how various industries can work together to achieve something greater than it can accomplish alone” (Echelman Studio 2010).

Architecture as a Discourse


From this study of precedents, I discover how each project advances the field of Architecture in their own way. It is an important concept to enable what we design to contribute to the field of Architecture as a whole to ensure that there is greater progress in all that we achieve. From these precedent study, I can take away various principles to be incorporated into my design. One is an understanding of how digital architecture can expand the boundaries of creativity for Architects. Another is the concept of using advancing digital designing tools to facilitate the construction as a whole. Thirdly, the notion of reestablishing Architectural design to encompass meaning and invite users to establish a relationship with the design.

“The complexity of “blobby” forms that is actually drawing architects, out of sheer necessity back into being closely involved with the making of the buildings, thus giving them perhaps surprisingly more control of the building process” (Kolaveric 2003).


WEEK 2- Case for Innovation: Computation in Architecture This section will explore unique innovations presented by contemporary computational design techniques in relation to suggested readings. These studies will then be integrated into the Expression of Interest proposal

“By openly embracing non-linearity, indeterminancy and emergence the new digital design techniques challenge conventions such as stable design conceptualization� pp27 (Kolaveric 2003)


Project ICE

Designer Klein Dytham Architecture and Toshio Iwai


Bloomberg Headquarters, Tokyo

The task was to disseminate information for Bloomberg through digital forms and interactive media. “ICE promotes the personalization FTSE and NASDAQ financial data are of space by reacting in real time to displayed on the screen represented body as a biofeedback mechanism”. as an electronic ticker tape (Bullivant 2005) following real time information. This presentation board combines What is unique is that this display interactive fun with the resource board has infrared sensors that of real time information. It detect the visitors presence from effectively attracts audiences while 500 mm away. The data begins to achieving the gaol of disseminating interact with the individuals body information. I feel that interactivity movements. The sensors through is the key to this process. Digital the use of real time computational technology has opened up the software, convert movements and potential of this to designers. touch converting them into optical and acoustic signals. “The context of Techno Tokyo allows these things to go forward unquestioned.

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Interacting News I believe this sort of sculpture sets the standard of what is to come, one which people can actually contribute to. Maybe not as direct with body movements for the Gateway but some aspects as simple as changing angles of views, is a concept to be looked in to.

Computation in Architecture 10


BMW Kinect Sculpture

Designer Art + Com

Location BMW Museum, Munich

Out of chaos comes order; out of discord harmony WK 2-

The Kinetic Sculpture is a metaphorical translation of the process of form-finding in art and design. 714 metal spheres, hanging from thin steel wires attached to individually-controlled stepper motors and covering the area of six square meters, animate a seven minute long Mechatronic data sculpture that translates a virtual design process into the space around it. “For us the design process starts in a chaos; it’s a chaos of many, many different ideas that are independent of each other. And then from this chaos, different shapes begin to emerge... then split into several kinds of ideas that compete with each other. And then given the context, the final step in the narrative, you will see a real recognizable shape of a car.�

Computation in Architecture 11

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This kinetic sculpture uses the potential of computing technology. Autoactive, reactive and interactive environments and architectures which present a story and are the future of communication

Although in a different context, I believe this form of kinetic sculpture would be appropriate for the Gateway project, one which is not merely static but has a dynamic appeal and can convey a developing story to viewers.

The design uses some advanced digital software which can map out the precise coordinates of every point. With technology, there is no room for approximation or error: for an effective outcome that was both robust and consistent, precision was non-negotiable. With the precise data on hand, a combination of processing speed and the precision of our technology today enables us to carry out such feats design revolution.

With all this talk of advancing technologies and computer software, one concept from this precedents stood out to me and it was how technology merely facilitates design and does not overtake the design process itself. I believe this is an important concept while undertaking this endeavour of parametric design to not lose the our role as a designer to these programs.

Computation in Architecture

“The projects are always driven by the content and not by the technology. Technology is merely a tool for design development� Art + Com 12

Taking out from these precedents, computers by their nature are precise and efficient in processing and analyzing data structures. Designers need to take advantage of this advancing technology to develop intricate forms that are revolutionizing the way of Architecture and Art. In comparison with the precedents of the previous section computers are no more merely used as tools to achieve outcomes but are now being incorporated into the Design form itself. Dynamism and interactivity are concepts that I take away from this study. With dynamic designs that use computers to change its form and are no longer static, they instill a sense of wonder in the viewers. Interactivity is an appeal that would attract viewers to engage with the design itself and develop a deeper connection with the art.


WEEK 3- Case for Innovation: Parametric Design

This section will analyze the project of Biothing that expresses contemporary scripting cultures and discuss the author’s design philosophy.

Scripting involves writing code that generates geometry following constraints and parameters. It is used to design systems that generate into complex forms. “through scripting the eventual outcome will be that much more sophisticated”. (Burry 2011)


Project The Invisibles

Designer biothing


Prague Biennial 2003

The Thing Is biothing WK 3-

“Holosonic speakers were used to create sound patterns projected into an interactive space. These speakers isolate individual cones of sound, creating a counterintuitive experience for the visitors as they move through different vibrations of sonar projections. At the same time LCD Screens display streams of information through pulses of dynamic morphologies of 3D Cells scripted in animation software� (Biothing 2011). At the core of the audio/visual/physical interface is an interactive sound-programming environment that alters conventional forms of musical composition through the incorporation of algorithmically based processes.

Parametric Design 15

The system is made up of three interrelated layers: a skeletal field, a speed distribution field and a skin or surface field. This unit, or ‘cell’, is programmed through inverse-kinematics-based skeletons in MEL script which sets algorithmically defined constraints or limits to movement. Ripples of data spread, their effects are registered through skeletal joint rotations, inducing a complex set of relations in a skeletal swarming. In the cacophony of this event there is a striving that tempers development: to create or compose the morphologically dynamic system that constitutes the animation.

This use of algorithms as an interactive feature takes computational algorithm a step further to incorporate them into inter-relational patterns between various factors. The core of this interface is a sound programming environment incorporating algorithmically based processes. The sum of it, acts as input points for data from the interaction of sound frequencies with people.

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The plus point of this project is that it seeks to “explores how computational patterns can actively link projects, traverse scales and function through a network of practitioners collectively developing material in an open source manner” (Pia 2006). It tries to form particular linkages between various disciplinary and technological relationships; matching sound waves with tendencies of behavior. This project is revolutionary in its traversing of unexplored territory

Parametric Design 16

A visitor commented that “to create scripted imagery - these images are always incredibly beautiful, and would be very hard to realize/create by hand processes” (McDonnell 2009) The problem to me with this approach to scripting algorithms is that to people out of this field, the process may be too complex an issue to be grasp quickly. As an exhibition it needs to be able to convey its process quickly and effectively to viewers. In its drive to cover new feats, it leaves behind the beauty of simplicity in understanding. This project shows the vast scales of scripting and how it can be used to achieve new horizons that have never been explored. Scripting has the power of bringing together various relationships and make them interact with one another to develop an entire System that changes with time. This inspiring concept can be used for the Gateway project to bring about an iconic appearance and also hold cultural meaning in its form which would enrich the identity of Wyndham and put the city of Wyndham on the map.

“entirely new perception of our environment…one less formal, less spatial, defined not by the conventions of boundary” (Kevin Kane 2003)

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Parametric Design 17

Computational Parametrics play a part in digitally developing the designing field. With designers having control over the Parametric relations between influences of design, they offer the ability to designers to develop solutions to more advanced design problems. From the case study above, it is seen how Parametric systems can derive more substantial relationships between intricate factors that were impossible to establish before. This also gives designers more control over details, relationships and explorations but all within set constraints.


Conclusion Taking from the ideas explored in Part 1, it shows me how Architecture as a Discourse develops the way of thinking of designers. From understanding how Architecture works as a system in itself, and how projects and knowledge interacts with one another, I realize how the each project is not an end to itself. It plays its part in a global scale where its innovations contributes to future undertakings. From the precedents itself I can see how digital designing has advanced the opportunities of Architecture. As seen in Anish Kapoor’s and Janet Echelman’s work in bringing together various fields in the design process, it shows potential in bringing a convergence in the industry between professions by developing a unifying language. Looking at the generative scripts explored by Biothing which developed intricate relationships between a whole range of factors, it develops the way design follows as Patrik Schumarcher puts it “from a single system differentiation (for example, a swarm of facade components) to the scripted association of multiple subsystems – envelope, structure, internal subdivision, navigation void”. This would bring about a far richer avenue of design narrative in any project.

As a style parametricism is marked by its aims, ambitions, methodological principles, and evaluative criteria, as well as by its characteristic formal repertoire (Schumacher 2010)





WEEK 4- Research Project: Matrix Combinations

This section will explore the use of CUT definitions to produce a matrix of combinations. There will also be an analysis of the matrix exploration. Specific matrix definitions are then chosen to be further developed.

“To try to overcome this unpredictability, without compromising the delight o f discovery, architects have developed methods that can be relied upon to produce satisfactory results� (Kalay 2006)


MATRIX INDEX 1.1 Arbitary Points 1.2 Arbitary Points + Surface Divide + Attractor Point 1.3 Extrude according to Attractor 1.4 Rotate around mid axis 2.1 Boolean Pattern - true, false, true 2.2 Surface Normal + Cylindrical Plane 2.3 Rotating circles along Z axis 3.1 Curve attractor + Math Functions 3.2 Extrude according to Curve attractor 3.3 Rotate Circles 3.4 Rotate + Extrude according to Curve attractor 4.1 Curve Attractor + Sets 4.2 Image Association + Rotation 4.3 Math Function + Sets 4.4 Math Function + Rotation 5.1 Boolean Pattern + Math Function 5.2 Data Driven Component 5.3 Overlapping Sets 6.1 Curves + Data Driven Components 6.2 Circles + Surface Normals 6.3 Graph Association (Bezier Graph)

7.1 Little change to orignal definition 7.2 Remapped boundary reversed 7.3 Two layer of grids with slightly different parameters

13.1 Curve Intersection + Attractor Point 13.2 Curve Intersection + Polygon + Shader 13.3 Curve Intersection + Curve Attractor 13.4 Curve Intersection + Extrusion 13.5 Curve Intersection + Rotation + Shader 13.6 Curve Intersection + Rotation + Extrusion 13.7 Curve Intersection + Polygon + Rotation + Extrusion

8.1 Little change to original definition 8.2 Two attractor points, relationship: subtraction 8.3 Change in distance between attractor points 14.1 Explicit Grid + Image Sampler 8.4 Two attractor points, relationship: division 14.2 Explicit Grid + Polygon + Image Sampler 14.3 Explicit Grid + Shader 9.1 Little change to original definition 14.4 Explicit Grid + Maths Function 9.2 Stream Text affects offset distance and 14.5 Explicit Grid + Sets rotation 14.6 Explicit Grid + Rotation 9.3 Steam Text file altered 14.7 Explicit Grid + Extrusion 9.4 Steam Text file altered 14.8 Explicit Grid + Polygon + Image Sampler + Extrusion 10.1 Alteration of base curve 10.2 Alteration of base curve 15.1 Overlapping Pattern + Image Sampler 10.3 Alteration of base curve 15.2 Overlapping Pattern + Polygon + Image 10.4 Alteration of Image Sampler Sampler + Shader 10.5 Alteration of Image Sampler 15.3 Overlapping Pattern + Graph Sampler + Maths Function 11.1 Sum Surface to create base form 15.4 Overlapping Pattern + Image Sampler + 11.2 Rotation of base form around an axis Rotation 11.3 Multiple rotations 15.5 Overlapping Pattern + Image Sampler + 11.4 Alteration of base curve Extrusion 15.6 Overlapping Pattern + Graph Sampler + 12.0 Alteration in scale of polygons Extrusion 16.1-16.4 Surface Normal + Image Sampler 17 .1-17.5 Curve Division + Remap + Pipe 18.1-18.4 Surface Normal + Image Sampler + Extrusion

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Cut: Matrix Combinations 23

1. Circles on Arbitary Points 1.1



























2. Circles on Boolean Patterning 3. Circles on Boolean Patterning

4. Rectangle Inputs

5. Rectangle Inputs

6. Blending Inputs 7. Surface Grids + Attractor Points + Circle

Using Surface Normals (Surface created by the Sum Surface component), Attractor Point, Data Driven Shading

8. Surface Grids + Attractor Points + Data Driven Extrusion


The Sum Surface component generated a form that was interesting when combined with Data Driven Shading. Taking the form further, I rotated a flattenned version of the data, producing this form... blalablah.


Using Surface Normals (Surface created by the Sum Surface component), Attractor Point, Data Driven Shading

9. Surface Grids + Streaming Text Files + Rotation

The Sum Surface component generated a form that was interesting when combined with Data Driven Shading. Taking the form further, I rotated a flattenned version of the data, producing this form... blalablah.


10. Custom + Image Sampler + Data Driven Components




Using Surface Normals (Surface created by the Sum Surface component), Attractor Point, Data Driven Shading

ed by ace creat

the Sum




Data Point, Attractor


n Shad



The Sum Surface component generated a form that was interesting when combined with Data Driven Shading. Taking the form further, I rotated a flattenned version of the data, producing this form... blalablah.








als (Surf

ce Norm

Surfa that form ted a Data Driven ned nent genera a flatten ed with compo ah. combin , I rotated Surface The Sum ting whenform further form... blalabl the ing this was interes produc g. Taking Shadin of the data, version


11. Surface Normals + Attractor Points + Data Driven Shading


12. Surface Grids + Streaming Text Files + Hexagon

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Cut: Matrix Combinations 24

13. Curve Intersection 13.1






























14. Explicit Grid 14.5

15. Overlapping Patterns

16. Applying 1D points onto a surface 17. Applying 2D curves onto a surface 18. Applying 3D solids onto a surface




Group Matrix

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Cut: Matrix Combinations 25

Inputs = Surface + Surface Divide Association = Sets Association + Distance to Curve Outputs = Rectangle Component + Shader

The breadth first method of Kalay 2006 was used as the start of the experimentation. In this method several alternative ways to develop a solution are explored briefly

before any one of them is developed to a logical conclusion. This was to give me a brief overview of the possibilities of Parametric modelling.

Inputs = Surface + Surface Divide Association = Image Association Outputs = Rectangle Component + Shader + Rotate

Inputs = Surface + Surface Divide Association = Multiple Math Function (sin(x)*cos(y))*z Outputs = Rectangle Component + Shader + Rotate

Inputs = Surface + Surface Divide Association = Image Association + Boolean + Image Overlay Outputs = Rectangle Component + Shader

Developed a patterning technique which could be manipulated in many ways to form designs with a certain kind of order. I developed an understanding of how images, equations and relations to objects can be used as parameters to form patterns of points.

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This simple exploration showed me how diverse outcomes can come from simple forms which are arrayed and arranged based on parameters. This brings in possibilities to the Gateway project of a Patterned design which can be applied to the facade, or form the design itself and is to be explored deeper.

Cut: Matrix Combinations 26

This was the exploration of pattern and extrusion according to Curve Attraction. This allowed me to control certain parameters according to its relationship with other features. This was more of a Depth First approach as the focus was on exploring the relationship of pattern and external parameters.

The heights and radius of the extrusions could be controlled by its proximity to the Curve Attractor. Parametric software allowed me to explore the relations between various factors to develop a design based on external factors and not just a form in itself.

I would like to bring this understanding to the Gateway project, to enable me to design with various factors of the site itself influencing the design.

Inputs = Curve Attractor Association = Math Functions Outputs = Circles + Polygons

Inputs = Curve Attractor Association = Math Functions Outputs = Circles + Polygons + Extrusion according to Curve

Inputs = Curve Attractor Association = Math Functions Outputs = Circles + Polygons + Rotate Circles

“They have taken the form of trial-anderror searches, constraint-satisfaction methods, rule-based design, and precedent-based design methods.� (Kalay 2006)

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Cut: Matrix Combinations 27

Exploration using the Best First method where the most promising solution is developed (Kalay 2006). After going through the array of Inputs, Associations and Outputs, I soon developed a liking for some tools which offered more possibilities to be combined and further developed.

I wanted to find a way to develop the Surface Normals input, with the Point Attractor + Graph Association and to finish it with a Data Driven Component Output. This undertaking took a considerable amount of effort and was an experiment which was developed until success..

Hyperbole Graph Association

Inputs = Curves + Surface Normals + Circles Association = Graph Association + Point Attractor Outputs = Data Driven Component + Shaders

Bezier Graph Association + Point Attractor

These experiments can be used for the Gateway project to form an interplay of patterns. It gives me a good understanding of how graphical formulas could relate development of form.

Conic Graph Association

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I would like to use aspects learnt from the matrix explorations and take it further by putting in more substantial inputs with correlation to the site. With the idea of a transition space from the urban to the natural environment, I am looking to bring more significance to the design and establish a relation with the site itself by using parametric designing.

Cut: Matrix Combinations 28


8. Surface Grids + Attractor Points + Data Driven Extrusion From top to bottom:

-Extrusion of circles according to attractor points; further emphasises the effect of the attractor point. -Experimentation with the possible uses of multiple attractor points; two attractor points, placed close together, with the relationship being subtraction. This resulted in some of the circles extruded in the opposite direction. -Same as the second image, but with attractor points further apart. -Two attractor points were used again in this case, however the relationship between them is changed to division, with the attractor points close together.

Matrix design 8 was selected to be further developed towards our final design project as its concept was to show a gradual progression of form. It uses Surface Grids and Attractor Points components to achieve this design. By controlling the location of the Attractor Point and even the strength it has on the vectors, we have control over the progression of its form. What we are looking to develop is this understanding to create a metamorphosis of shapes which can progress from structured and ordered to free form and chaotic. This is related back to the Wyndham Gateway project with its relation of being the progression point between the city and nature.

These sequence of images explores the different effects of attractor points through the changing of parameters and slight alteration of code.

15. Overlapping Patterns

Matrix design 15 was also selected to be further developed towards our final design project. Its concept was for an overlapping of patterns to create a diverse mix of form. It uses Overlapping Patterns and Graph Sampler components to achieve this design. By manipulating the input parameters for this parametric definition, it results in a mix of patterns which interacts with one another forming a more dynamic design. We want to develop this interplay of forms and use it with the relationship of a changing perspective which would give this design a variety of forms from different angles. This ties in to our Gateway project as it brings in the concept of the drive by viewer and their relation to the sculpture itself.

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Cut: Matrix Combinations 29

From the exploration of the Cut definitions I was exposed first hand to the possibilities of Parametric designing in Grasshopper. I am now aware of the vast potential of this Parametric software in developing an amazing array of designs. Advancing from the precedent studies of the earlier section, while developing my grasp with this design tool reinforces my knowledge on the world of Parametrics. These experiments have also given my team a direction in which to further develop our design.


WEEK 5- Research Project: Reverse Engineer- Spanish Pavilion This section will attempt to reverse engineer the Spanish Pavilion. Using the provided definitions, I will try to reproduce the tessellated tile pattern on the facade of the Spanish Pavilion. I will also try to take this exploration a step further and look into the possibilities of this facade system.

“Architects are ultimately choreographers of systems, and the benefits of teaching programming in an architectural context are manifold. If architecture wants to survive as a discipline, it needs to engage the culture of innovation and computing�. (Mark Collins & Toru Hasegawa)



Spanish Pavilion

Designer Foreign Office Architects

Location EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan

The enclosure of the Pavilion subsequently developed as a kind of lattice structure comprised of hexagonal, glazed ceramic tiles common in the Mediterranean and symbolizes the Spanish approach to Japan. A standard panel of tiles is configured of six tile variations, each tinted with a different color.

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Each tile is rotated and mirrored to create a continuous facade with a high degree of variation. The lattice envelope yields a differentiated surface encoded with references to the architectural and cultural heritage of Spain.

This Case Study was chosen to explore the perforation of polygons and its effects on patterning of a facade. The possibilities of creating a Panelised array of patterns and its interlocking features would like to be developed here.

Essence of Spain In Data Structure

Reverse Engineer 32

Using the CUT tools I used the Hexagonal Grid Input which effectively gave me a grid lattice structure that could form the basis of my facade. Using the List Item tool with the Graft Tree tool, I managed to specify certain rows and columns of the grid and the simple task of Boolean Differencing enabled me to cut holes in them, while the Shader Output introduced colour to the facade. In trying to explore how to develop the repetitive hexagonal patterns to a panel of 6 different hexagons merged together. I began to experiment with the external structure by drawing out the panel of 6 hexagons as curves itself and arrange them on a surface. Using

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the Bounding Box tool and the Morph tool, it only managed to develop an arrayed facade along the grids but that did not align exactly with each other. I then took another approach by breaking up the hexagonal grid into its essential Control Points and began shifting each point manually to match the hexagonal panels. Using a mixture of the List Item and Path Mapper, to rebuilt the list of points, I redesigned the hexagons using the newly modified points. This gave me successful control over the geometry of the structure and with the use of parametric elements I could modify panels of 6 hexagons together.

Reverse Engineer 33

From that experimentation, I began to take it further and explore some more possibilities of how I could arrange this grid of shapes. Experimenting with the Rotate output I developed more of a free form facade shape which gives more diversity to the hexagonal patterns, but it disrupts the uniform grid like pattern of the facade. I began to take interest in developing my facade along the Z-axis and give it depth. Associating the hexagons with a Move According to Graph output and a sine equation function, gave me a wavy 3 Dimensional arrangement of Hexagonal grids. From the Front Perspective, it still maintains its uniform grid arrangement, however it now has a 3D depth when viewed from other perspectives.

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Reverse Engineer 34

Developing this idea to a further method, these tiles can be arrayed on the facade by being held on steel poles of varying length. This can give the tiles varying heights along the Z axis and give a new diversity to the facade itself

“We expect them, if they are modern buildings, to be revolutionary in some way, to change existing assumptions about architecture. We expect a kind of greatness that is achieved in spite of the world�. (Williams 2005)

This experiment enabled me to explore arraying geometries according to a grid structure and to develop control over specific points along the branches of geometries. I could gather specific clusters of points to change colour or the properties of its geometry.

Introducing depth to the 2D facade array made it into a 3 Dimensional facade gives a new complexity to the facade which changes its arrangement according to the viewers perspective.

be relevant for the way motorist who pass by at high speeds. Their view of the sculpture would be changing as they drive. I can use Parametric design to explore the possibilities of diverse angles and arrangements and find the most optimum positioning of planes.

This is a concept I would like to explore further for the Gateway project as it would

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This exploration in Reverse Engineering the Spanish Pavilion has strengthened my understanding of Grasshopper by reinforcing my grasp of Data Structures. Data structures as I have come to realize is the essence of Parametric design in driving the flow of data from one component to another. Having developed this skill, I have a stronger comprehension of how data structures interact. I can now control selections between Branches, List and Items to achieve an intended design outcome.


WEEK 5.5- Further Development of Design

This section is about the exploration of my teams design concept of Transitional Change between Urban and Nature for our Gateway Sculpture. It also looks into how we explored Voronoi Patterning to convey this concept.

“Morphing which dissimilar forms are blended to produce a range of hybrid forms that combine formal attributes of the base� (Kolarevic 2003)


From the Site to the Concept THE SITE

Entrance to Wyndham

The site lies along Princes Freeway with the main target audience of drivers who commute from Melbourne City to Geelong. The main intention is for a sculpture which is iconic for commuters and also hold cultural meaning with the site. The sculpture on this intersection is to act as the Gateway to Wyndham city for drivers coming from Geelong. In relation to its location as a motorway sculpture, various explorations of arrayed structures introduced to us the concept of changing perspectives of the form. As drivers drive past the sculpture they would have different views of the sculpture and we want to explore this idea of creating a dynamic form which changes significantly in various views.



Between Melbourne and Geelong


The Natural Rural Landscape

The Built Up Urban Environment

Natural to Built

Natural Skyline

Urban Skyline

Chaotic to Ordered

Urban Birds Eye View

Transitional Change

Natural Birds Eye View

The main idea of our project was to convey the concept of progression and transition from one place to another. Wyndham lies in the middle of two extremes of the city and the country side, it acts as a transition point for these places and we would like to convey that concept in our Gateway Sculpture. We are searching for a design that morphs gradually from one extreme of ordered and uniform; representing the city to a more chaotic and organic form; representing nature.

This gradual progressive concept also represents growth which ties it in with Wyndham city and its new found growth as the fastest growing municipality in Victoria. It is also a response to the Seeds of Change sculpture in Wyndham as a concept of how the seeds has led to the progressional growth of Wyndham. This concept relates to the cultural meaning of the site and the municipality it lies in.

With this design concept in mind, we began using the tools and experiments made available to us along the way and develop to suit our main design idea.


We then began exploring the field of Voronoi patterning to produce a Cut surface that was in line with our concept of progression from structured to organic. Voronoi patterning was chosen due to its organic and erratic form to the patterning style and we wanted to explore how we could develop this pattern to suit our concept. With the help of file sharing, we developed a Voronoi pattern controlled by points in Rhino. Further development of the surface using Surface Divide + Tree Structures enabled us to have more Parametric control over the input points of the Voronoi pattern itself. From there we progressed to filleting the Voronois from their edges, to develop a more organic Voronoi form. Rebuilding + Culling Control Points + Curve Used to create a new rounded Voronoi to represent the scattered organic intent of our concept. We then began to explore placing the Voronois on to a doubly curved surface. Surface Morph + BBox component enabled us to map out the pattern and morph it onto any curved surface. This would enable us to array the Voronois along our form design

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We wanted to further enhance our concept of transition from structured to organic in the Voronoi patterns. Using Attractor Point + Cull Curves Voronois closer to the attractor are removed from the pattern, leaving us with the structured voronoi patterns. Obtaining input points for the Voronoi patterns was crucial in developing a progressive form which gradually morphed from structured to chaotic. SDivide + Random + Exponential Graph We developed a set of grid inputs which had an exponentially random movement of points along the X and Y direction as it progresses down the grid. With this we could have more control of the progression of Voronoi patterns along the structure and tailor it to our needs.


The development of this Voronoi pattern will act as a facade which conveys our concept of Transitional space from Rural to City for our Gateway sculpture. However it is merely a development of Cut patterns which would not be able to form a substantial solid form.

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We are hoping that our concept of Change and Transition between two extremes can help to develop a relationship between our Gateway Sculpture and the City of Wyndham itself. In establishing our concept early on we are able to drive our future explorations in a more focused manner. As we are still in the process of exploration, we hope to be more selective and develop experiments that would lead us to enhance our final designs.


WEEK 6- Research Project: Material Effects: Fabrication

This section will analyze the fabricated physical model of our case study project. We have also made further Fabrication of our Voronoi exploration to understand materiality, and the interplay of light and shadows.

“In parametric design, it is the parameters of a particular design that are declared, not its shape. By assigning different values to the parameters, different objects or configurations can be created. Equations can be used to describe the relationship between objects�. (Kolarevic 2003)



BANQ Restaurant

Designer Office DA

Location Boston, USA

According to Kalay, “Search processes involve two steps: (1) producing candidate solutions for consideration, and (2) choosing the “right” solution for further consideration and development.” with this in mind, each of our group members undertook the task of developing a different Reverse Engineering case studies. Having 3 projects to choose from, the Banq case study was chosen to be further developed to the fabrication process. This choice was made as Banq was the ideal model to develop our concept of progression from city to nature. Banq in its form consist of a series of progressional planes that morphs slowly from plane to plane. This gives the structure an organic layout while still consisting of a series of planes. We wanted to mimic this form of progression and further understand its transition by fabrication.

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In Fabricating the Banq model we were able to explore shadows and movement around the structure. We could see how from our moving perspective around the model the planes gave a dynamic fluid movement to the overall form of the design. In actually having the physical model we could better explore the panelised form of a morphing sturcture. From the material choice we have made which was perspex, the shadows produced had a faint shimmering texture.

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Applying our exploration of this case into our gateway project should be the most crucial part. First, the organic part of our final design might borrow this curvature structure. Second, the skeleton of this model might be used for structure elements in gateway project. Last but not least, those gradually changing panels indicates the metamorphosis concept in future gateway design.

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“Exploiting generative processes; toying with the unexpected and delving into the unknown; engaging with complexity� (Burry 2011)

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This experimentation was following Kalay’s Best First method in which we explored the most promising design solution to our concept. We were trying to tie our efforts with the Exploring of Shadows and Patterns of the Voronoi facade. We Fabricated the Voronoi gradient on a sheet to enable us to explore how the patterns would interact with each other in forming overlapping patterns and with shadows from the light source. The overlapping patterns gave a diverse array of shapes and patterns intertwining with each other. With one screen being closer to the viewer than the other, there is an interplay of patterns. As the perspective progresses along this facade the patterns morph into a mix geometries. The facade also interacts with light producing a beautiful array of shadows cast onto the ground. This physical screen forms a second screen of shadow which is malleable and kinetic in its respects to the moving Sun. This fabrication gave us a good idea of the aesthetics of our facade. It encompasses both the concept of changing views of drivers and the moving path of the Sun.

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A Tale of Fabrication The Fabrication of physical models in the design process introduces to us a series of new issues to comprehend. In digital space, with the absence of real world physics we are unable to comprehend how our designs would perform in the real world. The process of Fabrication also sets us to think of how our design would come together during the building process. Besides the exception of having the model fully 3D printed, we are unable to fabricate an entire design out of a single unit of material. We need to be able to tear apart our design and fit it onto single unit materials and find ways of joining these separate units together to reform the intended design

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With use of Parametric software, it ties the designer closer to the Fabrication process. Parametric software enables us to design with ease controlling specific parameters to obtain diverse outcomes, it also links us up with the fabrication process by giving us the tools to unroll our design into logical panels which would easily be pieced together. Fabrication also makes us think about Materiality and what materials would come together to best realize your idea. What we make in model space would need a medium to be translated into reality and with this an understanding of the pros and cons of a chosen material is needed.

We might need to make design iterations to make Fabrication feasible and it is the balance between how we can design for feasibility and still encapsulate our design concept. Comprehension of Scale is also another key factor that can easily be lost in digital space. Through Fabrication we can make prototypes which enable us to understand our design features and how it will relate with the users and the space. From all these new found aspects, Fabrication has become a crucial step in the overall design process.

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In digital design, we easily lose touch with the real world and its physical constraints. It gives us the opportunity to explore the vast reaches of our imagination, but as architects we need to return to the physical-scape in which our designs would be built. From these initial explorations of Fabrication I become aware of many new implications that were not apparent to me before. I have taken away many lessons which enhances my design process.


WEEK 7- EOI: Research Project: Assembly Methods: Fabricate

This section looks at my teams design proposal and evaluates it against the brief requirements for the Gateway Projects and the competitive advantages it presents to Wyndham City. It then moves on to explore methods for joining multiple CUT sheets together making reference to individual research and provided fabrication definitions. Finally it looks into further development of our own jointing method for the final design. “Much like other design methods, the use of prototypes, precedents, and metaphors is intended to provide the designer with a starting point from which to develop the new design� (Kalay 2004)


BRIEF Requirements exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway. that inspires and enriches the municipality. project follows on from the success of “Seeds of Change” installation will enhance the physical environment through the introduction of a visual arts component. It will have longevity in its appeal

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The concept of progressional from ordered to erratic would be an eye catching sight in its barren surroundings. From both its Voronoi facade design to its gradually morphing form, it would enhance the exciting nature of the Gateway Sculpture and become an iconic landmark. The sculpture would have a dialogue between existing successful sculptures such as the Seeds of Change. Developing from the idea of the seeds and the start of something, our sculpture would convey the concept of Growth and Transition in Wyndham. The cultural significance of our concept to Wyndham regarding its location as a Transition Point between city and rural and also its representation of Growth ties it in greatly with Wyndham. It spreads cultural meaning to drivers who view our concept and enriches the space around the sculpture. Exploring the scale of the Sculpture as it would develop from a low lying erratic form which represents nature to a towering iconic ordered structure that would evoke strong emotions on drivers.

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Digital Renders of our Concept model

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COMPETITIVE Advantage What Parametric Modelling brings for the Gateway Project, as seen from the Precedents in Part 1, Parametric design brings to us new and diverse opportunities to explore our design ideas. The Gateway project needs to advance itself and ensure that it is up to date with the ever advancing technology, to create a new, inspiring and iconic project. With the ease of file sharing and obtaining definitions that reproduce design features, this feature should not be exploited as a cloning tool and only be used as a timesaver. Premade definitions should be used as a basis to allow for efforts to be focused on the development of the design. Where design concepts and required modifications can be

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applied to create a project that is original. Efficiency in the design process is also another strong point for Parametric Modelling. With the integration Parametric software and Computer Aided Manufacturing; which gives greater control to the designer in processing and fabricating menial and repetitive tasks to produce bountiful amounts of units, it gives us an extreme amount of efficiency in the Design to Construction process. Parametric modelling allows us to develop relationships between a whole range of factors, making the design itself more relevant and site specific. It gives us the possibilities to explore multiple parameters of data efficiently

and link its performative features effectively to the design process. Using these technologies we can establish stronger relations between the design itself and the context of Wyndham City. All in all Parametric Design as a design tool brings vast avenue of benefits to both designers and clients. It not only expands various possibilities in efficiency and design freedom, but also develops a whole new depth for the design itself in its functionality and greater site value.

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JOINTING- Interlocked

This model was fabricated to explore the Interlocking Jointing system between different panels. From this experiment we understood that having equal spacing between the teeth will enable a smooth interlock between panels, however with plywood, the interlock is not strong enough and the panels may slide out easily from the joints. For future undertakings we could use wedge shaped interlocks which would enable a tighter fit between the joints. This jointing method is simple and effective in putting panelised components together, and not require

any other sort of fastening method. This jointing method would mainly limit us to more geometrical shapes due to its nature. With the fabricated model, we then began experimenting with the Shadows formed by this perforated design. The interplay between the perforations and the multi-angular panels form very diverse and interesting shadows. With the light source being cast at different angles, there is a rich mix of shadows formed by the structure.

“Prototypes are the most common formalism used to capture and apply architectural cases knowledge about these elements (semantics), relationships among the elements, and, in some cases, parameterized design escriptions, or description generators� (Kalay 2004)

Experimentation of Sun path on the Model

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This fabrication was to explore using Tabs to join strips of Panelised geometries. This method allowed for the development of an Organic form as the organic form is firstly broken down into strips and panelised according to the angles of each specific section. The tabs would ensure that each panel would correspond to the geometry of the overall form. However, we encountered problems with using our Voronoi perforations with this method of jointing. Due to the erratic nature of the Voronois, there might be some Voronoi patterns which lie on two different strips and the void formed by this will gives us problems when trying to tab them together.

One method is to ensure the Voronois lie in each strip but this would defeat the chaotic form of our concept. A further resolution of our jointing method is needed. The interplay of light and shadows was also explored with the Perforations giving a rich array of light onto the shadows. Although in relating it back to its intended function as a road way sculpture, shadows cast on the road might not be easily seen from the drivers perspective. In giving the sculpture a wall to project its shadows on to maybe a solution or even raising it up so that its shadows cast downwards may be another solution.

Experimentation of Sun path on the Model

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IDEAS OF FABRICATION We then began exploring various Precedents of jointing methods used. Each type of joint would present to us different pros and cons. Some joints are rigid right angled connections which limit the possibility of angular connections. While others require a row of joints. It is our task to choose the most appropriate type of Jointing which would successfully convey our Concept.

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Through this research, we took an interest in the work of TheVeryMany and their jointing methods to develop a 3D structure from a series of surfaces. It is basically an assembly of 500 flat panels which are joined with another 500 assembly joints. They used a subdivision algorithm which creates the model according to a recursive parameter that regenerates itself and draws a primitive tetrahedron which gets subdivided. This repetitive system form a series of components that can interlock at specified angles and form a network of structure. Using computer generated designs, they were all fabricated with machines within six sheets of corrugated plastic.


Aperiodic Vertebrae

Designer TheVeryMany

Location Frankfurt, 2008

“Like the form finding, all the panels, connections pieces and helpers coded strings engraved have all been 100% the result of a performative explicit protocol entirely coded in vb.� (Fornes 2010)

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Fabrication Direction From our previous explorations of the Group Matrix Cut definitions with the further research of Voronoi patterns, we are trying to integrate them together to develop a form which would be able to be Fabricated. As noted from our Fabrication explorations we would face difficulties fabricating a Voronoi pattern on an organic structure which would need to be divided and tabbed.

Perforation on Organic Surface Explored From Cut Porject

We are looking into a Jointing method of interlocking planes and angles which could hold our Voronoi pattern design and also form a feasible solid structure. This path has yet to be developed but what is certain is the integration of the elements above into our final Gateway design to bring forward our concept of urban to rural metamorphosis

Voronoi Pattern

Explored From Metamorphosis Research

TheEveryMany's Aperiodic Vertebrae Model

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Assembly Methods

Jointing Methods Borrowed from Precedents


This section was crucial in the way it helped us bring our conceptual development and compare it with the requirements of the brief. It helped us relate back to the user and not lose focus in our design explorations. The scale of our design was also explored by placing the digital model on a site plan. This would give us a sense of how our conceptual design would interact with users. The exploration of jointing methods enabled us to experiment with different methods of putting a model together. Each jointing method had its positive and negatives, however all these jointing methods were derived through Parametric resolutions.


Conclusion From exploring the possibilities of Grasshopper first hand, I was able to better appreciate the possibilities generated from Parametric designing. The goal of pure experimentation here has been valuable to me as I had the freedom of designing without a specific outcome in mind. Reflecting back, the seemingly redundant freedom of direction has given me great experiences to take away. In developing an EOI, it enabled us to formulate the advantages of using Parametric designing in the Gateway Project. It also prompted us begin to formulate the direction of our design intent. Taking from the precedents and the experimentation we carried out, we needed to look into how we wanted to use these opportunities to address the project Brief. The EOI was a good guide to set us on our way in developing a design narrative. Developing our concept of “Transition between spaces� along the way also reinforced the design direction of our group. It was a good way to move forward from here, with this concept we could better focus on using the skills we have gained for more directed and effective experimentation.






PERSONAL BACKGROUND First entering this Design Studio I had no knowledge of Parametric design or even what Parametrics meant. First looking into Grasshopper and seeing a network of components and wires it seemed like a seemingly alien language to me. But after weeks of progress through this subject and reflecting back, I have developed a lot from an outsider to Parametrics into a user of Parametrics as a designing tool. Going into Part 3, I would need to use the skills I have gained from the exploration in Part 2 and effectively use it for our design concept to develop a project that successfully utilizes the possibilities of Parametrics as seen in Part 1. This would be a new stage in the learning process from merely learning about something to actually pushing the boundaries of it and creating something unique with the skills that you have gained.


WEEK 8- Project Interpretation: Gateway Design

This section is on form development, further exploring the possibilities of Grasshopper by looking into further Parametric definitions and plugins such as Kangaroo that will enable a more substantial relationship between the form and the site context. It then goes through the development process of our teams final form.

“the dynamic nature of culture requires that buildings each time define their own group and develop an internal consistency. It is precisely through these internal orders that architecture gains an ability to perform relative to culture� (Moussavi 2006)



Kangaroo is an add-on for Grasshopper/Rhino and Generative Components which embeds physical behavior directly in the 3D modeling environment and allows you to interact with it ‘live’ as the simulation is running. I wanted to explore this engine to develop the form of our design according to site features. The Spring Component of Kangaroo was used here to develop a tension sheet material that is tied down to Anchor Points.

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The Anchor Points were changed according to the features of the Site and the Kangaroo mesh deforms according to the location of these anchor points. The unique features of Kangaroo is that it allows us to change the parameters in real time and view its rippling effects on the form itself. This gives us freedom to pin point specific parameters to change with real time results on the design.

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These are some forms developed using different anchor points according to the site features. The mesh structure will be connected to these anchor points and will deform accordingly. However in using Kangaroo, we found it hard to develop a substantial form as it only develops a thin tensile sheet structure. We were looking to develop a form that was 3 Dimensional and have a shape. We also wanted to link the design with our earlier Voronoi explorations.

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Here we experimented with the development of our Voronoi pattern and how we could apply it to a form to act as a sculpture and hold our concept of Rural to Urban.


Experimentation 1. We applied our Voronoi pattern directly onto this form, The patterns developed from this were extruded to give this framed shape. But in physically structural terms this design was not feasible as the shapes would not be able to be held up.

Experimentation 2. We looked at a 3D voronoi form one which is bound between a rigid structure a stretched according to the Voronoi shapes. This form was effective in developing a mesh of 3 Dimensional shapes. However the bounding box limited the effectiveness of this design and was not effective for sculptural purposes

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LOPMENTExperimentation 3. We developed a 3D Voronoi form which is bound by the form itself. This gave us more control over how we wanted to control the Voronoi sculpture. We could use the Voronoi pattern itself to form a substantial 3 dimensional shape. However we were unable to incorporate our transitional Voronoi form into this structure and only a Rigid Voronoi could be developed.

Experimentation 4. We wanted to explore the transitional experience of how change slowly develops in an organic series of progressions. Using panels and controlling its end points and its amplitude we could develop a morphing form which had a gradual transition to viewers who would drive past the site

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Comparing each developed experiment with the site itself to see how it sits in with the site and the spatial experience this sculpture would have on drivers

Experimentation 1. The Arch form was a strong Gateway representation on the road to Melbourne, however it did not have significant impact for the other roads of the site

Experimentation 3. The 3D Voronoi design had a strong intricate form, however it did not have a strong relationship with the road itself and was merely a sculpture by the site

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Gateway Design

Experimentation 4. The morphing shape of this design blended well with the form of the road giving a gradual progression as drivers drove past, however a stronger effect with the road was needed to be eye catching 70

FINAL FORM DEVELOPMENT From the initial experimentations, we managed to extract certain principles and criteria that we would like to integrate in obtaining our final form. Criteria: Kangaroo- Develop a design that was site specific by having factors of the site influence design Experimentation 1- Develop a design that has a strong Gateway element of transition Experimentation 3- Develop a design that has a relationship with drivers

Experimentation 4- Develop a morphing design that carries the concept of Transition

“Digital technologies, in particular performance based simulations have made the notion of performative architecture possible, analytical computation could be used to actively shape buildings in a dynamic fashion� (Kolarevic 2003).

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Site Boundaries- The form of our

sculpture was derived from the coherent boundaries of the site itself. We wanted a design that would fit in with the site and incorporate the key features of the site

Design Response With the new form derived from the site, we applied principles from Experiment 1 where we added the Voronoi pattern onto the form itself. This resulted in a Cage like tunnel being defined by Voronoi patterns

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Direction Of Traffic Flow- The direction

of Traffic Flow across the site was taken into account as we wanted to orient our sculpture to enable views for drivers along both directions of the Princes Freeway. A Perpendicular Orientation was chosen for our sculpture to cater for the road network of the site

Design Response We decided that this pattern should be on a second skin to be able to be seen from the other two lanes of the site

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GATEWAYTo the City

We considered our Design that needed to be in line with the Brief which wanted a sculpture that would act as a Gateway Sculpture to both Melbourne and Wyndham. We wanted a design that would have a strong impact on Drivers and acts as a transition point to broadcast the presence of what lay ahead. Our response was to develop a Rigid Panelised structure which would represent the city in a impending Arch form

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Design Response

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GROWTH In the City and the Culture

We also took on the concept of Growth, with Wyndhams largest growing population and as a response to the Seeds of Change we wanted something that would Transition from low to high. This form of growth also enhanced the concept Transition of our design.

Design Response

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RURAL TO URBANInterior Change

Once we got the general form of our design, we brought it back to our Concept of Chaotic to Ordered Change to try to incorporate these values into our design. The metamorphosis part of the design was associated with the interior skin of the structure. This part of the sculpture would be an experiential experience for drivers who actually drive into this form. They will experience a series of shadow slits cast down from the Sun. Rationalising the internal skin to a form as developed in experimentation 4 which has a gradual change from dense to less dense. We also took the concept from our Banq Case Study and refined it to our concept.

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To show a gradual change, we used a series of slits similar to the idea of Banq. We placed these slits at increasing angles from one end to the other. This developed a form which looks solid at one end, while the other end have widely spaced thin lines. To further emphasise the density we increased the thickness of the panels, such that as one moves towards Melbourne, the form appears solid for a longer period of time. As seen from the pictures, the gaps developed morph gradually from one end to the other, bringing forth the idea of the increasing density of people and buildings between the two regions.

Design Response


I N T E R I O PARAMETRICS The interior structure was derived from an inner surface developed during the final design. We wanted to obtain an internal form that morphs from a less dense to a denser arrangement. The rib structure was obtained through a process of rationalisation. Isocurves were obtained along the sheet by isolating the data structure of the surface, which formed the initial ribs. The doubly curved isocurves were straightened by projecting them down onto another straightened surface and reoriented onto a straight line to follow the road of the site. Thickness was then given to the ribs by projecting them further according to their normals. Taking from our Matrix explorations, the thickness of the ribs varied according to their distance to an attractor point. Some further changes to the internal form by manually deleting certain ribs to get a stronger change from one end to the other.



S We then developed the supporting structure to hold up the ribs. We produced a rake that would interlock with the ribs and hold it into its intended angles. We started by extending the sides of our ribs to enable a section for interlocking. Rationalising to balance between functionality and aesthetics. We isolated the curve of the interior structure and extruded this curve to form a surface that would act as the rake. The rake is then intersected with the sides of the ribs to form notches that would follow the angle of the ribs. It was then a simple task of nesting these curves for fabrication. What I took away from this task was how effective Parametric designing was in rationalizing a design. Understanding and locating data structure could help isolate certain points on a surface to produce an exact design outcome. It gives me the knowledge of using Parametrics to process the repetitive and menial task, while having a manual over ride control to obtain the final desired outcome

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SITE FEATURES Exterior Change We split the Exterior skin in half to develop a strong contrast between two extremes the structured and the organic representing City and Nature, and to emphasise Wyndham as the mid point. Also taking into consideration the Site Specific Sun Path from the site analysis, this split in the exterior skin would allow extra light into the Interior Structure of our Design.

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With this strong disconnection on the Exterior Skin allows drivers from other roads to understand the concept of the two ends clearly. They can also have a clearer glimpse of the interior slit form that acts as a tunnel structure for the middle road. For those traveling through it, the exterior form can be experienced through the slits, with the panels creating a more disorganized dappled pattern in the light and shadows. This effect becomes lighter with the gap in the exterior form, then increasingly darker again with the increase in thickness of the interior form.

Design Response


P A N E L PARAMETRICS Taking from our previously developed Voronoi Metamorphosis, we used this in developing the floating panels of our exterior structure which represents the two contrast between structure and nature. With the Voronois projected onto the surfaces, we were able to obtain floating panels that morphed according to the structure of our surface. We then obtained a grid according to the location of the Voronois. This method was derived by our group mate; where the centre points of the Voronois were obtained. The points were then interconnect with a polyline to form a grid of lines which connects the mid points of the voronoi panels. This grid was rationalised by manually removing the excess joints and offsetting the curves. Through a mix of Parametric and manual control we were able to obtain our intended effect of the floating panels. 82

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D E S I G N NARRATIVE The main idea of our project was to convey the concept of “Transition” between the suburbs to the city. Through the development process of our design however, our concept has grown to incorporate a more diverse issue of Change. “Change” is a very vague concept - and our design we focuses on two aspects of change: Change that is gradual, to show the contrast or difference in two areas that indicates a change in location. This is in relation to the landscape of drivers which change gradually in the distance. Another concept is the definite contrast in the two poles of organic and structure and how Wyndham is caught in between. The two aspects are expressed on the two layers of the form. The Internal Structure consist of a series of ribs which are placed at increasing angles to develop a morphing form representing Gradual change. The External Structure represents the Contrast of change in the form of Voronoi to grided panels these two poles were separated to reinforce this effect. We are hoping that this concept and form of our Sculpture would be an eye catching sight in its barren surroundings. From both its Voronoi facade design to its gradually morphing form, it would enhance the exciting nature of the Gateway Sculpture and become an iconic landmark. By pushing for our concept of Change to be easily read in our form, we aim to inspire interest in the Western Interchange by encouraging further reflection about the installation beyond first glance. While we have mentioned specific examples to explain our concept of change, the final design may not necessarily refer back to the same examples.


Driving through the Gateway Sculpture

ON THE ROAD “Rather than an environment that strictly interprets people’s desires, an environment should allow users to take a bottom-up role in configuring their environment” (Gordon Pask 1968)

View of the Gateway Sculpture from Road C

Exploration of Animation in Rhino. Using an animated Camera path we were able to explore the sculpture from the perspective of the drivers driving through the sculpture. From this we were able to understand the effectiveness of the form in giving an immersive spatial experience. We could also view it from the perspectives of the other roads to understand how they would view our sculpture to give them a feeling of iconic landmark.

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Gateway Design

View of the Gateway Sculpture from Road A


Taking from initial explorations until the final design outcome, Parametrics has been used to explore and obtain various forms that hold strong relationships with the site. We are hoping to take advantage of Parametrics throughout the development of this Gateway Sculpture and use its resources to push the boundaries of our design techniques. We would further want to explore the possibilities of producing our jointing methods of holding up our floating panels through Parametric derivations.


WEEK 9- PROJECT DELIVERY: Jointing Development

This section will explore the development of jointing methods for the Exterior structure of our Gateway Sculpture. It will show how my team derived the jointing network using Parametric tools and conclude with the steps leading to Fabrication.

“exploiting generative processes; toying with the unexpected and delving into the unknown; engaging with complexity� (Burry 2011)




Jointing 1. Floating Panels held up by steel poles which are connected to the Internal Structure such as proposed in the Spanish Pavilion case study

Jointing 2. Floating Panels interconnected by a universal jointing network. These universal joints can hold the panels at all sides. This jointing system would need an extra fastener to hold it together

Jointing 3. Floating Panels interconnected by another universal jointing network. This system is more effective in which it can keep the panels angled at specific places according to the cuts made in the joints. May also need an extra fastener other than notching

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Jointing Development 92

With some advice from our tutors, we decided to explore the jointing method 3 and rationalise it better to be able to form a robust jointing system for the floating panels. They showed us a technique to isolate the mid points of the Voronoi curves enabling us to form a network of lines between the Voronois. We did not like the idea of actually cutting the joints into the panels. We went back to our Case Study of TheVeryMany to mimic their network interlocking systems which could be developed from repetitive joints. We wanted to develop a different jointing method which would attach the middle panel to another joint which is the node in which other skeletal joints were interlock with to form a 3 Dimensional shape.

“they've developed new mathematical programming techniques to create truly incredible geometric structures that are finding their way into everything� (Seed Magazine 2010)

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Jointing Development 93

The Exterior form was referenced into Rhino with the Voronoi pattern mapped onto this form. These Voronois were just curves mapped onto a surface.


By using the move and extrude according to Normals we were able to make Voronoi panels that float a certain distance from the initial referenced surface

Next was the step of creating circular joints, this was done by first isolating the centre points of the Voronois. These points were associated into a Circle tool which would act as the joints in which would hold up the Voronoi panels and the joist would connect to. Through this definition we had control over the thickness and distance of the joints from the initial surface. These parameters were important to enable the joist and the joints to work together

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Jointing Development 94

Next was to create the Joist structure which would form a interconnected network that would hold up the joints and the panels. The centre points of the Voronois were interconnect with a polyline to form a grid of lines which connects the mid points of the voronoi panels.

These grid lines were then referenced into a definition that extruded these lines to form joist. The thickness of the joist was an important parameter to be controlled as we needed a depth of 2.7mm to suit the material used. The height of the joist was also important to ensure that it does not clash with the Floating Panels

We then differentiated the intersection between the joist and the joints to create notches. Using the Solid Difference tool twice to create notches in both joints and joist we were able to develop a system that would determine the angle and orientation which each joist and joint would connect to, to form the exact jointing network as represented in digital space.

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Jointing Development 95

Internal network supporting the Floating Panels

Journey Outcome

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Jointing Development

Having control of the parameters of this joint system is what enabled this system to come together. The joist was extruded in two directions, one to mimic the thickness of the material and the other to form a height that could hold up this jointing system, and the control of these parameters were the most crucial. We needed the height to be sufficient to be able to hold this jointing network but not get in the way of the connection with the panels. We also needed to ensure that the length of the joist was reduced to intersect slightly with the circular joints to form the crucial notches which would determine the angle and orientation of the system.

Expected Render of the Fabricated Model


Due to the organic nature of the surface, I found that an intricate balance between all these parameters was needed to ensure the functioning of the system. Every member needed to intersect sufficiently with the panels to ensure there was notches for every joint.

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Jointing Development

With Grasshopper, we had control over various aspects of the system and obtain the exact ratio needed. It was also a very efficient process of development with high amounts of joints of the system being developed using Parametric definitions.

Digital model of the Jointing System



Nesting of the Joist Structure

Nesting of the Voronoi Panels and Joints

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Having worked the system out with each joint having sufficient intersection, it was a task of arraying the panels out and labelling them. By orientating them on an X and Y plane with spacing between the mid points of each panels, a labelling system from the definition provided was used to label each joint, joist and panel was nested effectively. This labelling system was crucial to be able to be referenced from the digital model during assembly.

MATERIALS FOR FABRICATION Next was the choice of materials used, from pervious experiments we found that Perspex was a strong material, however it did not have enough friction to form an interlock between notches. We opted for Plywood material of 2.7mm thckness which would have friction between the notches and could be glued together if need be. We designed for the notches to be 2.65mm to ensure a snug fit. The panels itself were made of perspex with a 3mm hole at centre for a screw to connect it to the joint.

Jointing Development 98

Diagram of Jointing System



We have gained a lot of experience and lessons from building up our actual physical model, instead of merely 3D printing it. Firstly we had to actually resolve our jointing system and learn how to develop a Parametric method of jointing to hold up our External Floating Panels.

The first thing was to work in a group, I was in charge of getting the designs together and sending it off to fabrication.

We wanted to mimic the method of Theverymany models and their jointing style; and with our interlocking network of joist and joints I would say is a successful attempt at achieving what we wanted. Overall it lead to the development of our Grasshopper skills. Through this I have also gained a bigger appreciation for Parametrics. I now have a better understanding of the possibilities of Parametric design and how it relates to the Fabrication process, improving the efficiency of design to construction.

With 3 different sections of the design coming from 3 different people I found that scale was really a crucial factor here. Some of us have changed the scale of our models and some of our files were not up to date with new developments of our own team mates and this became apparent to me only during the fabrication process. Working with a scale of 1:200 I needed to ensure that all the fabricated parts would fit together in the end. We needed a master model where everybody could refer to and derive their surfaces to be associated into Grasshopper with. This form of project management and communication was interesting to me as I have never experienced it working alone. I begin to appreciate this skill more as it will be a crucial one in the work place


Using the Parametric knowledge we have obtain over the semester, we developed a jointing system that uses simple but effective Parametric definitions. With a greater grasp of Data structures and 3D booleans, we could develop a network of self supporting joints to hold up our floating panels. The efficiency of Parametrics have become paramount to us in the ease of controlling large numbers of elements and classifying them according to their structure. We effectively used Parametric design throughout the entire design process from the conception of our form to the fabrication files sent and have developed a great throve of skills in the end.

The first is scripting for productivity, the second is experimentation by scripting a path to ‘the answer’, and the third is scripting for a voyage of discovery. (Burry 2011)


WEEK 10- PROJECT PRESENTATION: Physical Fabrication In this section we document the construction process of our 1:200 physical model and discuss various tribulations we experience when assembling our model. We also document our models actual performance in regards to Air


Process of Fabrication When assembling the model we also came across various challenges which were only discovered when explored in the physical world. These tribulations were in part due to the problem of human error in assembly. Our internal system of notching to hold the panels up was too fine and complex. When we actually sought to put it all together, there was some deviation in the fixing of the joints. If these joints were separate the error would be dismissable, but when we have to join all the joints and notches to form a network of joints holding up a single structure, these errors multiply and in the end created joints which did not align at all with one another. This problem was overcome by removing certain joints which were not structurally needed.

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Physical Fabrication 102

Also with the notches not being aligned exactly at the right angle, we were not able to get the exact shape of what we designed in Rhino. The Exterior Structure could not stand on its own after the model was built as the curvature was not fixed, with the joints flattening out. To solve this, we needed to keep the ends together to give it an arch structure and enable it to hold itself. This could be done with either retaining walls on the sides of the Exterior Structure or actually tieing the ends together. We opted for tieing the ends together as a retaining wall would disrupt the overall nature of the Exterior Structure. Another problem was the forces of Gravity on the large cantilever of the Rigid Panels. It could not support itself and we needed to provide columnar support to keep it upright.

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Physical Fabrication 103

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Physical Fabrication 104


The actual fabrication process was very challenging bringing in new problems which were not considered in the digital development stage. Through this process, I better appreciate how the fabrication stage was a crucial learning platform for us to discover greater issues of design. From this, we learnt to take into consideration more of the physical world forces which would act on our design and consider the structural support for our design; this is something that is easily forgotten in the digital world. Another crucial aspect to me was learning on site problem solving skills. Through the Fabrication of our model and the encountering of problems along the way we developed diverse methods of solving these problems. As all designs will never be able to be perfect, and problems may arise, I believe it is a crucial skill to be able to handle these problems using critical analysis to obtain practical solutions.

This technological system “has the potential to span the architectural process from concept formation to digital fabrication in a system of related design models� (Aish 2003).

Photos of the Fabricated Model


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Physical Fabrication 106



Light and Shadow exploration

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Physical Fabrication 108

In this section we explored the interaction of our design with aspects of “Air�. One of these aspects was the interaction of Light and Shadows, from the design of our structure. We wanted to explore what the immersive effect of the model would be like for drivers going through it. We were aiming for an effect of shadows which were morphed from thin to dark from the internal Rib structure of our Model. We also wanted to achieve a dappled effect at both ends of the model from the Floating Panels. We also explored light sources from different angles to represent the movement of the Sun through the day. From our experiments we found that only with light sources at a certain angle can we obtain the desired effect of our design. This may be due to the complicated lattice of joints which disrupt the distinct shape of the Floating Panels. Some recommendations from our tutors during the final presentation was that it would not need the Internal Structure as it conflicts with the Exterior Structure.


Through this process of model assembly we gain a greater understanding between the relationship of digital design with physical construction. There are certain limitations in the physical world that need to be carried into the digital world when designing to ensure that digital models can be fabricated. I have come to appreciate the beauty of testing your perceived design against the physical model.


WEEK 11- PROJECT PROPOSAL CONCLUSION: Construction Development In this section we look into how our actual design comes together in a full scale construction. We also further developed our Final Design and explored suggestions according to feedback received during the final presentation.


Construction Process The jointing method for the full-scale on-site installation is similar to that used in our physical model at 1:200. In the physical model, the plywood structural members are held together by circular joints with unique notches, which hold the joists in their correct orientations. Panels are held away from the joints through the use of screws and bolts, a panel directly above each joint. In the full-scale installation, the plywood structural members and screws will be replaced by steel rods with phosphorescent coating, and the joints replaced by CNC machine forged steel nodes. The Panels itself would need further rationalization as the scale is a bit too large for a single sheet of metal to hold itself up. Either by further dividing the panels to smaller sections or developing a structural system for the panel itself to enable it to span longer distances which can be done with Parametrics. The many unique panels and joints are prefabricated in factories, arranged and sorted before being transported to the site to be assembled. The numbering of members is an important factor as every member of this system is unique and every part needs to be able to be referenced to a system, to come together. Parametric modelling simplifies this process and rationalizes it in a few simple steps

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Construction Development 112

Taking our design all the way to the Construction Stages, we started to think about more fundamental aspects to the construction process. We looked into footings and what would hold our Sculpture in place. We also looked into the components of our Sculpture and the materiality of each aspect of the design. This diagram shows the overall sequence of construction on site: first structural columns are placed, followed by the rake of the internal structure, and then the rest of the internal structure. The exterior steel structure then goes over the interior structure, followed finally by the panels. As the design was all generated digitally, we are able to use the design information itself as construction information. As seen from the Precedents, our design specifications could easily be translated into construction details and sent to fabrication all using the same software.


Crit. Feedback

- The cut in the middle does not sit well and makes the design look disjointed - Concept of Metamorphosis was lost on the exterior surface - Does not need the Interior Rib structure. - Wasted effect of the Floating Panels due to presence of the joints and interior structure

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Construction Development 114

Development Analysis

From the feedback obtained, we wanted to explore the effect of removing the interior rib structure and having the floating panels run throughout the entire form. We maintained our jointing network, but decided to explore two versions of this new form.

Some interior renders exploring the interior effects of this new design. It gives off a more uniform style of design with the morphing patterns being more apparent as users move throughout the Sculpture.

One version would have floating panels on the outer surface of the Gateway Sculpture, while the other version would have floating panels on both sides of the sculpture to hide the jointing network.

This uniformity however makes the sculpture lose its iconic appeal of having disjointed sections and two distinct sections of floating panels.

To me, the hiding of the jointing somehow simplifies the design and takes away from the intricate appeal. While the panels on the surface is apparent with the light filtering through the gaps

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Construction Development 115

From undertaking this 4 week design journey of form development to fabrication to final presentations, it has been an enlightening experience of how the birth of a concept changes form though the many processes. There will never be an end to design and ever aspect of this journey has contributed greatly to shaping the outcome of the Gateway Sculpture. With the never ending design cycle, I have noted some improvements to address for future development. Our jointing system could have been rationalized further as there was an excess amount of joints that were not needed structurally and created complications. Need to understand how the model actually connects to the ground and if it can be self supporting. Need to understand and rationalise the span of certain segments and if it will be feasible at a 1:1 scale. Look into development of the Notching system which would create a better interlock between the joints as certain notches needed gluing together.



Amanda Ngieng | 377998 Zhenghong Pan | 380089 Qing Ping Lee Lim | 371753


The competition brief asks for “a proposal that inspires and enriches the municipality”. Studying precedents that successfully does exactly this would be an important starting point in determining the direction to take to design a compelling project. One example given in the brief is “House in the Sky”.

DESIGN INFORMATION AS THE CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION “[T]he processes of describing and constructing a design can be now more direct and more complex because the information can be extracted, exchanged, and utilised with far greater facility and speed; in short, with the use of digital technologies, the design information is the construction information.” - Kolarevic

The first of a few roadside projects aimed at changing perceptions of Melbourne’s west, this project is a suspended wire 2D perspective representation. An illusion of a 3D object, it is perceived differently from different vantage points, and invites many potential readings. “In an ambiguous landscape of signs and symbols it is another form of advertising, a form of very accessible public art. As a Pop Art object, it raises the banal and ordinary to the level of the extraordinary and recognises the suburbs as a source of artistic and cultural inspiration. It is also a warped mirror of the ‘Great Australian Dream’ and the contradictions that this particular cultural condition entails.”


House in the Sky

Architect Brearley Middleton Pty Ltd Architects & Urban Designers


Interchange of the Western Ring Road and the Princes and West Gate Freeway

Its multiple and ambiguous meanings spark off discussion and draw attention to it. This can be considered in the development of the Gateway project as a means to create a project that is successful in advancing architectural discourse.

Not only born out digitally, buildings are also being realised digitally through “file-to-factory” processes of computer numerically controlled (CNC) fabrication techniques. This has greatly impacted the construction and fabrication phase in architecture.


One good example of this is the Tverrfjellhytta, the Norwegian Wild Reindeer Centre Pavilion by Snøhetta.



Architect Snøhetta Oslo AS

Hjerkinn, Dovre Municipality, Norway

Digital 3D models were used to drive the milling machines, creating the organic shape of the interior of the pavilion. This method of fabrication is also known as subtractive fabrication, which is the removal of a specific material from solids using electro-, chemically-, or mechanically-reductive processes; in this case 10 inch2 pine timber beams were cut down into their require shapes as specified by the digital models of it, which was then assembled in a traditional way using wooden pegs as fasteners to create the final form. Similarly, in using Rhino and Grasshopper, fabrication information can be contained within the Rhino file and sent directly to machines for fabrication.

CONSTRAINING PARAMETERS “In parametric design, it is the parameters of a particular design that are declared, not its shape. By assigning different values to the parameters, different objects or configurations can be created. Equations can be use to describe the relationships between objects, thus defining associative geometry.” - Kolarevic


Parametric modelling turns design into an open ended search for new possibilities, instead of just problem solving. An example of this in the design of the façade of the new building for the Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning, which adopts a solar screening system that responds to the orientation of the building.

To obtain the form, Echelman consulted with scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research to obtain data of the Tsunami in 2010, from which her studio generated the first 3D model of the tsunami. She then used her proprietary net-building software to transform an outline of the model’s higher amplitude area into a knotted sculptural form. When hung in space, this fibrous form appears to be dynamic as it moves with the wind. With its changing shape and bright colours it enriches the static space of the city.

Project 1.26

Designer Janet Echelman


Although intelligent facades are not exactly new, this façade has a notable difference – it does not require computer programming or physical adjustments, moving on its own in response to environmental conditions. The innovation here is in the material, dielectric elastomer, which uses electricity to change shape. Keeping up with and making use of the ever advancing technology is a way to create new, inspiring and unusual projects, simply because the designs made possible by these new technologies are new and not common. Grasshopper, which is the main tool we will be using for the Gateway project, is barely 5 years old and can be considered new in architecture. Through this parametric design modelling tool innovative designs can be generated.


John Wardle Architects and Office dA

Using parametric techniques, the spacing and angles of the panels have been designed to maintain protection from glare and solar heat gain while providing maximum day lighting. By setting the specific parameters to ensure effective solar protection, it was possible to play around with the overall aesthetics of the panels and to arrange them such that they direct specific views from the east façade – at and across the Elisabeth Murdoch building, and toward the tree lined Mason road.


University of Melbourne, Parkville (to be constructed)

Powerhouse Museum & Art, Sydney

This unique interaction with the natural environment through the use of simple elements is a principle we could include in the Gateway Project to create a diverse form that continually changes, enriching space.

Decker Yeadon’s prototype, the Homeostatic Façade System, is made up of a smart material that flexes and bends in response to heat, effectively regulating temperature in the building.

The New Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning



Using parametric modelling, generating patterns can be done quickly over many different techniques to explore a diverse range of options that can be use to fulfill the design intent.


Daniel Gillen’s bridge was designed parametrically to create the metamorphosis pattern used in the skin design.

Daniel Gillen

Parametric Bridge


This bridge was used as an example in a parametric workshop at Tsinghua University which targets the understanding and capabilities of parametrism. It is an excellent example in showing what parametric modelling can do. As it had inspired the students in the workshop, the metamorphosis pattern, created parametrically, too can serve as an inspiration to others.

Homeostatic Facade Prototype System

Architect Decker Yeadon

RATIONALISING DESIGNS FOR PHYSICAL FABRICATION This is one of the many projects designed by Marc Fornes, a leading figure in the development of computational protocols applied to the field of design and fabrication.


This project gives an example of how parametric modelling can be used to rationalise designs for physical fabrication. Through scripting, hundreds of unique joints can be created, allowing the fabrication of complex forms, which would be next to impossible to fabricate should the joints be created manually.

Marc Fornes

Aperiodic Vertebrae v2.0


WEEK 12- Learning Outcome

Location NODE08, Frankfurt, Germany

The structure and joinery system used in this design is an option we could use in the Gateway project.

This section concludes Studio Air with a reflection of the entire semester and all that I have taken from this 12 weeks. “The designer who wants to be completely in control of the results must be in control of the process. To be in control of the process, the designer must be in control of the tools. The tools are computation; therefore a designer who wants to be in control must also be a scripter (or suffer the consequence of the unseen influence of using other people’s tools).” - Robert Aish While it is true that “scripting affords a significantly deeper engagement between the computer and user by automating routine aspects and repetitive activities, thus facilitating a far greater range of potential outcomes for the same investment in time”, as Burry puts it, there is a danger in scripting being used as a cloning tool with little originality, especially when it is used in a generative design approach using generic algorithms.

As the Gateway project will be using provided CUT definitions, it is imperative that Grasshopper does not just become a cloning tool. Instead, it should be used as a time-saver, using various combinations of relevant premade definitions as a basis to allow for efforts to be focused on the development of the design, where design concepts and required modifications can be applied to create a project that is original.


LEARNING OUTCOMES It has been an interesting journey in this 12 weeks. This was more than just a design subject, it has opened my eyes to the academic world and how to explore not only my way of designing but also my way of thinking as a designer. In this manner and from Precedent studies in pages 6-18 it has pushed me to not merely accept that all projects are important in their own right, but also to question what boundaries does it push in its development. This subject has given me avenues to explore new concepts of not only digital design; but of photography, fabrication and model making, interaction with nature and precedent studies. To discover both the concepts of the Expression of Interest, and self exploration and self reflection. At this point now, I find I have learnt so much more than what I first thought entering this subject.

I greatly value the experience of Fabricating models (pages 48-50, 104-111), even the test models thought us new things from the mistakes we learnt of material differences and tolerances. Measurements and scale was also crucial in a multi layered assembly as all the parts needed to fit together in the end. I discovered new jointing methods and how to develop these methods; from the design of joints to the labelling of each member was done Parametrically. Greatly improving the efficiency of fabrication and construction.

The undertaking of Parametric design in this course has been a good focus, with this course exploring contemporary design techniques I believe is crucial for my future as an Architect. The course took the risk of having to spend most of its time teaching us to use this technology instead of actual designing, but I found this sacrifice well worth it. Coming out with the ability to apply Parametric design in my future work, will greatly help me for my future in this advancing industry.

Working in groups was also another large learning curve. At times it was a struggle to find the balance between the wants of the group, each person had different mind sets and desires and the key was to find the balance of working together for a mutual goal. We needed to divide and use the best of our talents at what we were best at and it was a journey of learning together. Through this I can say that we achieved something greater than what we could achieve ourselves. From the EOI I learnt how to develop the skills of conveying a successful design narrative for my project. This was an important skill to me which would help me for my future prospects in being able to communicate my design innovations to convince future employers.


It has been a refreshing course one which focusses more on the learning outcomes than the actual design itself. With the student journal being “the centre of students work�, it emphasizes on the growth of a character instead of competition between peers. I appreciate this tailored learning goal as I did not come from a digital design background and have found it challenging to grasp the concepts of scripting and applying it towards a design out come. But I now understand the logics of Parametric design better and can freely use it for future undertakings.

It has been a studio that touched on a wide range of subjects building up character and design philosophies. Reflecting back, after the entire journey, I now learn how to savour every step of this journey which has built me up slowly but surely for the final outcome.


Bibliography Antoine Picon (2010), ‘Digital Culture in Architecture: DIAGRAMMING COMPLEXITY’ Burry, Mark (2011), ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, Chichester: Wiley Echelman J (2011), ‘1.26: Denver Art Museum’ , accessed on 10th April 2012, from Kolarevic (2003), ‘Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing’, New York; London: Spon Press, 2003 New Scientist, ‘Olympic Sculpture’, accessed on 14th April 2012, from http://www. Neil Leach (2009), ‘Digital Morphogenesis’, Architectural Design Patrik Schumacher (2009), ‘Parametricism’, Architectural Design Yehuda E. Kalay (2004), ‘Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design’, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press


Final Journal