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Perceptual Architecture Define, Implement, Resolve How can perceptually informed architecture increase the perceived size and spaciousness of high-density apartments?

Llewelyn Griffiths 300280826


Scope of design Dwelling design

Residential Typical Floor Plan 1:350 @ A3


Scope of design Building design

Public Typical Floor Plan 1:350 @ A3


Public spaces

Dwellings

Public spaces

Dwellings

Public spaces

Dwellings

Public spaces Mixed use

Out of scope

Elevation SE 1:1000

Building Section 1:1000

Elevation NE 1:1000


Site

High density apartments

900m

32 Customs Street E, Auckland


Scope of research How can perceptually informed architecture increase the perceived size and spaciousness of high-density apartments?

Methodology

Optimization of space

Densification

High density Apartment design

Volume parameters

Virtual Reality Perceptual understanding


Virtual reality methodology VR as a tool in architecture

Define

Implement

Resolve

Architectural Fundamentals

Architectural Design process

Architectural Visualisation

Utilising a Virtual Reality aided research

Virtually evaluating how design solutions

Using Virtual Reality to visualize the

method to establish an understanding of

have incorporated the research to provide

finished product, which offers a 1 to 1

how people perceive space.

architectural principles.

representation of an architecture.

New methodology

Developing design process

Current primary use

A developing process which is not traditionally used in architecture

Using VR within the design process to add additional understanding

Client or designer visualisation towards the end of the design


Thesis Components

Primary zone

ht sig of ine gl din ten Ex

Perceived size

Light

rm

Perceived spaciousness

Fo

Ex pa nd ing pe rce pti on

Optimization of space

Materiality

Secondary zone

Define

Implement

Resolve

Define the perceived spatial parameters through experiments to develop an understadning of the issue.

Implement the research into design principles and evaluate the design translation.

Resolve the outputs into a coherent architecture which addresses the issue or investigation.


Experiment Method A virtual reality experiment to investigate optimum high-density apartment parameters

Scale room

Participant

VR experience

Square

Width (X)

Height (Y)

Depth (Z)

Scale room

Stepped ceiling

Corner

Mezzanine Floor

Matching

Movement in room


Change in perceived volume (m3)

The effect of shape on perceived volume

40.00

A

E

B

F

C

G

20.00

0.00

-20.00

D -40.00 1

2

3

A

B

C

VR Rooms

D

E

F

G


Change in perceived volume (m3)

Ceiling height on perceived volume

Perceived volume Objective volume R= 0.283 Average ceiling height


Perceived spaciousness ratings

Room width on perceived spaciousness

Objective volume Perceived spaciousness ratings R = 0.545

Average width of room (m)


Perceived liveability and spaciousness

Perceived spaciousness ratings

10

Objective volume Increased liveability Increase spaciousness

0

0

Perceived liveability ratings

10

R = 0.825


Output of research

Room 2 High ratings

Room 1

People afford the space in terms of use (liveability).

How do people feel in a room?

Low ratings

Room width is supporting behaviour and liveability. The perceived

Room 1

Room 2

Room 1

Room 2

Room 1

Room 2

High ratings

space had large implications over objective volume.

Low ratings


Future direction of research

Current research The current foundational parameters act as an opportunity to explore the thesis question. The parameters require further development to reach their full optimisable potential.

Perceived spaciousness Width increase

Perceived volume Height increase

Optimising parameters Volume increase

Future research Subsequent parameters would expand on the current research, adding more complexity and variables to formulate a complete optimisable system of a volume.

Optimising parameters Constant volume

Adding parameters Lights, windows etc

Adding complexity Real representation


Research Implementation Architectural principles

Primary zone

ht sig of ine gl din ten Ex

Perceived size

rm

Perceived spaciousness

Fo

Ex pa nd ing pe rce pti on

Optimization of space

Light

Secondary zone

Materiality


Key

VR Evaluation matrix

CONCEPT DESIGN E2

Investigating

Tested

PRELIMINARY DESIGN E3

E5

E4

DEVELOPED DESIGN E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

Ev1

X2

Ev2

Ev3

Ev4

Ev5

Ev6

Penetration Strategies

Interior Development

Final Dwellings

75 m3

E1

Chosen solution

Design 1

-2

5m

3

+2

5m

3

45m2

Design 2

+2

5m

3

-2

5m

3

70m2

Design 3

90m2 dd

Volume shape

Apartment Shape

Research Intergration

Circulation/ Movement

Experiment Limitations

Window strategies

Double height Integration

Double height Views

Balancing size and comfort

Exterior Walls

Window Seating/ Arrangement

Facade Design

Final Preliminary

&RQ¿UPDWLRQ Experiment

Rethinking Implementation

P + S Zones + Floor Plates

Materiality Iterations


Extending perceived width Extending the line of sight to create a more spacious environment

Sec tion cut

Traditional

Extended


Two Bedroom Unit

Three Bedroom Unit

Perceptual overlap A perceptual overlap facilitates an increase of perceived width and spaciousness

Living Room

Program overlap

Kitchen

Bedroom

Living Room

Perceptual overlap

ZONES

One Bedroom Unit

Primary Secondary

Kitchen

Bedroom


Optimization of space Creating the largest subjective increase with the least objective increase to improve perceived size and spaciousness

Y

X


Dwelling Shape Concept

One Bedroom

3D Modelling

Conceptual sketches

Two Bedroom

3D Modelling

Conceptual sketches

Three Bedroom

3D Modelling

Conceptual sketches

Zones:Primary & Secondary

Central void

Circulation Placement

Extending width

Splitting Levels

Breaking Program

Soft Boundaries

Rethinking Implementation

Vertical connectivity

Transparent Materiality

Architectural Layering


Confirmation Experiment

75 m3

Confirming that the VR experiment parameters translate to non-abstracted environments

Design 1 Preliminary final

Scale room +2 5m 3

Participant

Design 2

Design 2

Design 3 -2 5m 3

Design 3 Increased width Decreased height +2 5m 3

Design 1

-2 5m 3

Decreased width Increased height

Scale room

Matching


Optimising parameters Balancing perceived spaciousness

Width

Peak

Height

Height

Width

Optimum

Perceived spaciousness and liveability

Optimum solution

Rating

Perceived volume (m3)

Perceived volume

Design 1

Design 2

Design 3

S L Design 1

S L Design 2

S L Design 3

Design 1

Design 2

Design 3


One bedroom 50 m2

Two bedroom 70 m2

Three bedroom 90 m2


Final dwelling types Dwelling Axonometric Sections

One bedroom

Two bedroom

Three bedroom


Dwelling Layouts Primary and secondary spaces

Two bedroom

One bedroom

Three bedroom

1

1

8 5

1

2

8

5

1 1

8

7 3

3

5

2 7

ZONES

4

Primary Secondary

4

Bedroom Living Bathroom Entry

6 3

3

Dwelling Key 1. 2. 3. 4.

1

5. 6. 7. 8.

Kitchen Study Balcony Dining

2 4


Dwe lling Abo ve

One Bedroom Unit 1:200

Se cti on cu t

The one bedroom dwellings formulate a single living environment using the architectural principles.

A mezzanine floor creates a

perceptual overlap and visual connectivity to the dwelling volume. This maximises the perceived volume to create a larger and more spacious environment.

low e B ing l l e Dw


Volume Transparency

The primary zone of the dwelling visually connects the secondary programs. As per the design principles this creates more spacious spaces without increasing the objective volume size


Increasing spaciousness Dwelling bedroom

Dwelling Above

Dwelling Below

Program pockets separate the spaces to allow for privacy from activity from the rest of the dwelling. This provides a visual connectivity without the disruption of invasive noise and exposed privacy.


Two Bedroom Unit 1:200

ove b a lling e w D

Sec tion cut

The two bedroom dwellings formulates a coherent living hierarchy

using the

architectural principles. Pockets containing the secondary zones creates a perceptual overlap and visual connectivity to the dwelling volume.

Dwell ing Be low


Spatial Connectivity

Permeability of the architecture facilitates the perceptual overlap as well as creating more spacious environments. The circulation space inhabits the primary zone to express a visual coherence of volume and movement.


Perceptual overlap Dwelling bedroom one

The

secondary

programs

utilise

existing

volumes to expand the perceived space. The visual elongation of ceiling planes forms an implied space. These interventions improve the feeling of spaciousness within spaces, both in primary and secondary zones.


Dw elli ng Abo ve

Three Bedroom Unit 1:200

Se cti on cu t

The three bedroom dwellings utilize the architectural principles to otimpise the available

low e B g n i Dwell

space. The staggered floor plate allows a perceptual overlap to occur without impeding on privacy or practicability. The volume is shared between the dwelling zones to increase the overall perceived size and spaciousness, and thus liveability.


Communicating volume

The primary zone visually connects the dwelling to all secondary zones. The volume is instantly communicated as soon as you enter the interior. By illustrating the entire volume the perceived size and spaciousness is improved, creating more liveable high density dwellings.


Expanding spaces Dwelling bedroom three

Dwelling Above

Dwelling Below

By creating a connection of widths between spaces the room can share the perceived volume to expand the subjective space. This allows relatively small spaces to feel more spacious and as a result more liveable.


Expressing parameters Dwelling Access

Floor Above

Floor Below

Expanding the perceived space can be achieved by expressing the buildings mass through Panel shifts which extend in both height and width. The perceived space is expanded by implementing the research parameters, illustrating the potential of informed spatial arrangement.


Extending Line of sight Public Balcony

Dwelling Above

Dwelling Above

Dwelling Below

Dwelling Below

By expanding the subjective size through increasing the perceived height, a larger angle for sun light penetration can also create an inviting and open community space. Using the parameters alongside traditional design principles is imperative to form succesful perceptually informed architecture.


Community spaces Planting areas

Dwelling

Journey

Public space

Perceived space

This extends the building program for the occupant, removing people from the confines of their home. Extending program has the potential to create an external overlap which recognises the journey to public space as an extension of the home.


2017

Problem

Design method

New Design method

Future direction

Final Thesis Design

Developed Design

Developed Design

Research

Research

Research

͙Materiality ͙Windows ͙Light

͙Circulation ͙Behaviour ͙Layout

͙Spaciousness ͙liveability ͙Size

Developed Design method

Developed Design method


Perceptual Architecture Define, Implement, Resolve

Primary zone

ht sig of ine gl din ten Ex

Perceived size

rm

Perceived spaciousness

Fo

Ex pa nd ing pe rce pti on

Optimization of space

Light

Secondary zone

Materiality

Thesis Presentation  

Presented at Victoria University on the 14th of November 2017 to external architectural examiners.

Thesis Presentation  

Presented at Victoria University on the 14th of November 2017 to external architectural examiners.

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