O L I V I A WA LT E R S
Brand Marketing Audit
DYLAN BROSNAN- SS/16.
CONTENTS 1.0 Executive Summary 2.0 Introduction
6.0 Competitor analysis with brand positioning map 18
6.1 Brands Current Competition 6.1.2 Product Offer 6.1.3 Brand Personalities 6.1.4 USP 6.2 Brand Positioning map
2.1 Brief Brand Timeline 2.2 Brand Origin 2.3 Brands Founding Year 2.4 Founding Designer Background 2.5 Initial Product Offer 2.6 Brand Extensions
3.0 Brand Equity & Visual Identity 3.1 Aakers Framework 3.1.1 Brand Personality/ Essence 3.1.2 Brand Values 3.1.3 Product Offer 3.1.4 Packaging and Display 3.1.5 Advertising and Promotion 3.2 Repositioning
4.0 Marketing Mix 4.1 Product 4.1.1 BCG Matrix 4.2 Place 4.3 Price 4.4 Promotion 4.4.1 AIDA Model
5.0 Consumer Segmentation
7.0 Micro & Macro-economic factor analysis 21 8
7.1 PESTEL Framework 7.1.1 Political 7.1.2 Legal 7.1.3 Economic 7.1.4 Social 7.1.5 Technology 7.1.6 Environmental 7.2 Porters Five Forces 7.2.1 Threats of New Entrants 7.2.2 Threats of Substitution 7.2.3 Buyer Power 7.2.4 Supplier Power 7.2.5 Competitive Rivalry
8.0 SWOT Analysis
5.1 Consumer Behaviour 5.1.2 Demographics and Psychographics 5.2 How has the brand met the needs of the consumer? 5.3 How has the brands consumer changed over the decades? 5.4 Maslowâ€™s Hierarchy of Needs 5.5 Visual Customer Profile 5.6 Visual Emerging Customer Profile
8.1 Strengths 8.2 Weaknesses 8.3 Opportunities 8.4 Threats
9.0 Recommendations 10.0 Bibliography
E XECUTIVE S UMMARY 4
This report aims to evaluate market research in order to explore the fashion brand, Burberry. A series of brand recommendations will be suggested which will communicate the brands visual identity, quality, and values. Looking at similar luxury brand competitors will also be an important part of this audit in order to dissect Burberryâ€™s marketing skills and what makes them different.
FALL 2017 READY-TO-WEAR, VOGUE.
Founded in 1856 by Thomas Burberry, the luxury brand has become a distinctive name and design in the market. Born in 1835 and once an apprentice draper, he built and established the brand’s name at just aged 21. With the success of the brand, the company was able to move to its first store in 1891 at 30 Haymarket, London, which later created more brand awareness. Initially, the brand offered and specialised in outdoor clothing that soon led to the revolutionary invention of Gabardine in 1979 (O’Neill, 2017). Invented by Burberry himself, the innovative fabric changed rainwear completely from being heavy and uncomfortable, to breathable and waterproof. Designs of outwear soon progressed to the iconic trench coat that was developed in 1912 to serve the needs of the military in the early 20th century. Originally used in the trenches to keep soldiers warm, to a classic fashion statement. Burberry was also the brand of choice for several polar explorers in 1914, due to the lightweight and protective qualities of the fabric which was suited to cope with inhospitable conditions (History, 2017).
The 1920s was a big era for Burberry. Not only was it made a publicly quoted company for the first time but it was the era where the iconic check trademark was created. This continued the legacy of the brand to which we immediately recognise today. The brand was listed on the London stock exchange in 2002 and later launched its first transactional website in the US, following the UK in 2006. This was one of the main successful decisions the company made for its brand, due to how heavily it relies on technology today. The company went global, opening its first store in India (Deli) in the City Walk in 2013. Creating new opportunities, this gave the brand the chance to expand to women’s and children’s wear which led to the description of an ‘old young company’ by Christopher Bailey (D’Ammassa (M, Crew. T.& Angolini, G. 2014). Today the brand includes a variety of segments which encompasses womenswear, menswear, children’s wear, accessories, fragrance and, beauty.
B U R B E R R Y. A global luxury brand with a distinctive British Identitychanging the approach to product, communication and the customer experience.
BELLA YENTOB, SS/16.
B RAND E QUITY
The brand values itself in supporting diversity and equal opportunities. They also thrive on improving working conditions within manufacturing sites and employment practices. Striving to ensure that process of promoting and hiring employees within diversity is fair, Burberry became a corporate member of OUTstanding in 2015 (Culture & Values, 2017). Burberry’s core product, the trench coat, is vital to their success, as the key differentiator of the brand. The personality of the original trench coat evokes the days where Burberry was worn by the military- a hero piece of apparel. All products within the
brand are at a high quality and premium price. The packaging and display of the brand promotes a very luxurious and timeless feel to the consumer. Keeping it clean and simple, Burberry tends to leave their packaging very basic to create that sense of anticipation and thrill when you realise it’s their brand. Using embossed details within the writing, and high standards of quality material, it instantly creates a huge brand impact for the consumers. When it comes to advertising and promotion, Burberry is ahead of the game. Keeping the tone, lighting, feel and typography consistent across all marketing tools, you immediately feel the luxurious and the success of the brand. The company focuses on technology to drive its advertising. This includes maximising their social media platforms, streaming content and collaborating with other companies. Their advertisements feature iconic British backdrops, young British models, and typical British weather. Although the brand has kept a very consistent feel throughout the decades, they did reach a setback in the early 2000s, where they had to reposition their brand altogether. Burberry became
increasingly popular with the British middle class casual. As a result, it became synonymous with ‘chav culture’ and football hooliganism which was due to overexposure to the brand and high levels of counterfeit goods, damaging the reputation. The actress Danielle Westbrook had an adverse impact with over wearing the iconic check and her personal drug problems. To solve this, Burberry hired a new CEO, Angela Ahrendts in 2006, and in 2008 set up the Burberry Foundation which created a feel of exclusivity with the consumers. The brand also created the ‘Art of the Trench’ which developed customers participation. Burberry used its advertisements to reinforce its luxury, classic British image.
V ISUAL I D ENT ITY
Whilst Burberry stands for functional luxury, it also sells sexy attire. When you wear the apparel, you receive an emotional benefit to the brand, feeling appealing and associating it with romance. One personality trait that is consistent across the brand is their uniqueness. They are a wellknown English brand. The fact that the company started the waterproof material gabardine, gives the brand a personality of being in control. Being a luxury brand, Burberry is seen as very sophisticated and upper class since this is the niche market that the brand made for itself.
M ARKETING M IX
Product Burberryâ€™s products are immediately associated with the distinctive checked pattern and the trench coat. As part of the Brit Collection, Burberry now offers a range of less conservative urban products focused on young adults. In recent years, the number of annual collections has increased from two to eight to strengthen competitive advantages (Burberry, 2017).
Question Marks Cash Cows
Licensed products: The luxury watch market has seen a slowdown in growth due to economic recession and 45% of the market is dominated by specialists Swatch Group, Richmond and Rolex (Megevand, J 2014). Burberry licenses their watch business to the Fossil Group and has a low market share in this segment (Fossil, n.d).
Hard accessories e.g. handbags. Accessories make up the luxury market at 38% (Results and Reports, n.d). Selling in the same price bracket as the iconic trench coats does not help with the relatively small market share (Kingdom, B. U. 2017). The handbags are also competing against lower-priced brands like Michael Kors (Burberry & Mulberry's market raspberry, 2014).
Place Burberry has a total of 498 stores in close to 50 countries. Being located in some of the most popular areas guarantees to attract high sales (Burberry, n.d). In 2017, Burberry operates 200 concessions worldwide (statistics, n.d). Digital innovation is an integral part of the brand and ensures they connect with consumers globally. Burberry launched Facebook messenger chatbot, which is a combination of human and artificial assistance, for customers to ask questions and purchase. Since September 2016, the brand created the ‘see now buy now’ scheme, where it gives the opportunity to buy some of the products from the collections from the runway (Brand, 2017).
The brand focuses tremendously on its marketing activities as it is the most important part of the industry. Using all types of promotion techniques such as online advertisements, print, and social media, Burberry creates an insistent brand awareness. Investment in digital marketing helped Burberry communicate their brand easily to customers. The brand also relies heavily on celebrity endorsement, for example, Emma Watson.
Price Using a premium pricing strategy and being a luxury brand, Burberry does not need to compete with competitors directly on price but rather on product design. Price is not a major factor in success and remains stable and if lowered, the brand could lose customers.
Trench Coats. Burberry’s original trench coat still commands a large market share today. 60% of Burberry’s brand is apparel, with half being outwear (Burberry, n.d). It only requires small investments to maintain its market share.
Stars Soft accessories like the scarf continue to be Burberry’s fastest growing segment (Burberry, n.d). Accessories are not affected as much by seasonal pressures as apparel, which must be changed within a four-month period. The brand’s recent digital approach also gives new customers the opportunity to purchase accessories. This creates high growth.
AIDA Model Attention: Burberry grabs consumer attention mostly with the iconic tartan pattern. In the S/S17 advertisement, it focused on a man and women selling the idea of romance. It shows both sexes wearing the same trench coat prompting a unisex appeal. Using Cara Deleveline also attracts and highlights the LGBT community. Interest: Celebrity endorsement e.g. Emma Watson and Romeo Beckham, is one of the brands most used techniques to gain consumers interest. At campaigns and events, such as the launch of the Beijing store in 2011, Burberry held a runway show with live music from Keane. It featured a visual experience, enhanced by holographic technology (Hall, J. 2011). This mingled the virtual with the actual, raising satisfaction and interest.
Desire: Burberry offered the runway ‘made-to-order’ with a personalised nameplate inside accessories. This exclusivity is attractive to customers who are able to purchase these products. The brand also developed ‘Burberry Prosum’ with a high price range that was limited and made for well-off customers. Action: After the previous stages, customers feel like they want to buy before losing out on the exclusivity. They can take this action through the website, runways, and apps.
C ONSUMER S EGMENTATION
Burberry is apart of the lifestyle and retail sector. In a premium segment, it is an elite fashion for people who appreciate the smart timeless style. The psychographics includes a high social status, being politically involved, and well educated. Looking at demographics, most of the adults are White British aged 25 to 35+, with more men buying than women (S. 2011, March). Burberry meets the consumer’s needs by constantly innovating and connecting with them across multiple social media platforms and channels. They also offer an eCommerce experience and effortless web browsing site to use (Luxury Brand Marketing, 2016). The consumer target market initially started with military men in the world war, then attracting celebrities and politicians when the tartan pattern came about in 1920. In the early 2000s, the consumer was dominated by working class ‘chavs’. After the change in Chief Executer and the repositioning of the brand, the consumer is now again appealing to people of upper social classes.
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, people buy luxury goods to demonstrate their social status, get recognition from their peers and to achieve high levels of self-esteem (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Marketing, n.d). Consumers choose Burberry for the elite psychology. Burberry launched a campaign for personalised products which made full use of the unique psychology of customers. This launch was about British traditional craft and personal custom services and lasted one month in the flagship stores.
VISUAL CUSTOMER PROFILE
Burberry is in the current position where they could reinvent themselves into a super luxury brand (like Dior and Gucci who have higher profit margins (Wood, Z. & Kollewe, J. 2017). I personally think the brand has a perfect gap in the market to target the younger generation, who are wealthy enough to afford the premium price. The kind of people who live in luxury London penthouses, and have Oxford qualifications. Burberry needs something new, something fresh. Young people donâ€™t want to be wearing the same pieces that their parents and grandparents wore.
B RA N D P O S I T I O N I NG M AP
Burberry has positioned itself as a staple for both luxury and functionality. To achieve this, the brand has been consistent throughout the years. The brand aspired to be in-between labels such as Polo Ralph Lauren and Giorgio Armani in the premium apparel region. Both of these brands have a similar target consumer and personalities, offering the best service for the luxury segment. All three have a distinctive quality of the brand, their trademarks, which make them unique and different in the market. For example, Ralphâ€™s horse logo that is imprinted on all the apparel, positions the brand as a lifestyle brand, although its prices are lower than Burberry. Burberry is also competing with Gucci who captured 12% of the accessory market share and is the highest priced brand for accessories (Statistics, n.d). Therefore this causes a threat to Burberry who also rely heavily on the accessory segment. Looking at the brands USP, the trench coat, Barbour could be seen as a close competitor who also specialises in outwear coats. After positioning the brands on the map, it was found that Armani
also focuses on apparel but in recent years branched out to accessories, fragrances, and cosmetics which also means more competition for Burberry. The brand offers three main segments; womenswear, menswear, and accessories. With so many products offered in each collection, Burberry has been able to widen its opportunities. â€˜Brand Positioning is dependent on the relationship that is created in the mind of the consumerâ€™ stated Macmillan (Okonkwo, U 2007). This is evident in the map, as all similar luxury brands are very close in their quality and price.
P ESTEL A NALYSIS VOGUE.
Political When promoting and sourcing items outside Europe, Burberry needs to consider the trade regulation, tax assessment arrangement, and government stabilities. The brand sources 60% of its materials from Europe which makes them strongly affected by Chinese imports. This impacts the foreign dollar (Performance, 2017).
Social Social factors include different demographics and lifestyles. People from different places and of different ages will prefer different products. Therefore, Burberry has to consider this when distributing their products. One of the strategies Burberry has taken is to focus on both developed and emerging markets (Brand Story, n.d).
Legal To continue its success, Burberry must abide by legal laws that are set in the countries that the brand operates with. Unfavourable regulations can compromise the brand’s profitability. Gasparini (2017) states, the main legal laws that influence the activities of the brand are labour and employment laws. Patenting its products is also important to maintain the companies exclusive rights to sell and produce their products. However, this does not solve the problem of imitations but minimises their volumes.
Technology Technology factors can include new developments, discoveries, and the speed of technology transfer that brand has to offer. Burberry was the first luxury fashion brand that streamed a fashion show in 3D and created the ‘see now, buy now scheme’ which revolutionised the pace of luxury fashion. They have also introduced social media sites into their marketing techniques. Burberry Bespoke online enables customers to personalise their purchases and give them power and control (Rawi, M. 2010, February 24).
Economic Economic factors include inflation, interest rates, and unemployment. Economic decoration in the UK started in 2008 and had an impacted effect on Burberry. The stock fell to £1.60 and pressurised the creative director to cut costs by £50 m and staff by 10% (Wilson, A, 2009). Burberry is still in recovery, as in 2006 they suffered a 3% underlying decline (Burberry Group plc, 2006).
Environmental Burberry’s environmental policy, states their materials come from the ‘highest welfare standards’ (Policy, 2017). Environmental factors such as natural causes and terrorism can affect Burberrys activities. A natural catastrophe is hard to predict and can disrupt global stores and supply chains of the company, resulting in huge losses. Due to increasing attacks in the world, Burberry does not want to risk investing in attack prone places.
EDIE CAMPBELL FOR BURBERRY AW/16 CAMPAIGN.
P ORTERâ€™S 5 F ORCES
Threats of new entrants are low. Burberry is a wellestablished brand name with a high capital of investment. It is very expensive to compete with international trades.
Buyer power is also low to medium with most of the luxury segment customers being insensitive to price.
Competitive rivalry is extremely high. This sector is very intense for the company with it being so competitive in the luxury market.
Threats of substitution are low to medium as the brand is very well known globally. However, with the increase of counterfeit in the industry, it can impact the brandâ€™s integrity and therefore accessible goods may take a big hit during economic downfalls.
Supplier power is very low. This is due to Burberry being able to use a variety of suppliers and being able to change suppliers when they want. For example, their long partnership with Peru provides them the unique cotton yarn used to make the trench coat (Burberry PLC, 2017).
CARA DELEVINGNE, VOGUE. PHOTOGRAPHER: ALASDAIR MCLELLAN
S WOT A NALYSIS Strengths Having 155 years in the industry, Burberry still remains synonymous with British fashion which is a very impressive profile. The brand itself is known for providing high quality long lasting garments. Burberry understands that integrating with consumers is vital for them to be relevant to their target audience. The success of this strategy is evident in the brands 20 social media platforms, with 17,367,649 likes currently on Facebook (Burberry, n.d). Burberry continues capitalising on social environments through technical developments, evident in research stating 50.7% of luxury consumers research and buy online (Mediazone, 2017).
In addition, the brand has received two royal warrants highlighting that royalty use and believe in Burberry (Burberry Limited, n.d). The wide Chinese market has positively impacted the companies revenue with increased sales and as a result, the brand is widely influenced by the aspirations and tastes of the Chinese market. The brand continues to maintain its luxury status and does not need to advertise through mass media. Burberry is promoted on fashion websites and magazines such as Elle and Vogue, where they can target high earners such as celebrities. Celebrity endorsements keep the brand fresh and appealing.
Weaknesses Although Burberryâ€™s premium price reflects quality and desirability, it is only reachable to a few consumers. The luxury price of the products limits them from appealing to customers who are unable to afford the products (Reporter, D. M. 2013). The brand is limited to a few product lines, particularly the childrenâ€™s wear (History, 2017). Whereas, most companies in the same luxury segment, are more diversified, offering homeware and furniture. Low inventory turnover is a big weakness (Gurufocus, 2017).
Demands of customers keep increasing whilst lifestyles are changing throughout the world. Since the demand for premium products keep expanding, it will result in the future market widening with the opportunity of global expansion. Entering into new potential markets such as Thailand, Turkey, and Egypt will benefit the company greatly as developed companies are high in competition. Burberry also has the opportunity to expand their product lines. Not only will it differentiate the brand from luxury competitors, it will open a new set of opportunities for the brand. An increase in demand for premium products has also occurred. 92% South Africans are willing to pay an above average price for products that deliver high quality (J. 2017, May 20).
Threats Competition from other major luxury brands like Gucci, Louis Vuitton, is a serious threat to Burberry and therefore the brand must ensure its products are high quality to satisfy customers needs (Kulik, Metx March 2017). With fake replicas increasing every day this could affect the brand equity, trademark, reputation and competitiveness in the market. Counterfeit goods can damage the Burberry brand image and profits as customers doubt whether products are legitimate (Pithers, June 2017). With the increased global production, Burberry is also facing criticism of its â€˜audacity to trade on its pride in Britishness when most of its clothes are made abroadâ€™ (Cadwalladr, C, 2012).
EMMA WATSON, A/W09.
R ECOMMENDATIONS 28
1. Expanding its existing line of Children-wear. Within the emerging markets, there is a trend for the ‘new rich’. Looking at Asian emerging markets, in particular, they are facing decline with birth rates which encourages a willingness to spend more on their children for premium products. This reason for this is having fewer children in the family, the older generation, such as the grandparents, feel obliged and motivated to spend more on each child Financial Expectations, 2007). According to Kate Abnett, editor of Business of Fashion, ‘growth in children’s wear has overtaken that of both menswear and womenswear’ (Abnett, K. 2016, June 21). In 2015, Asia Pacific, the children-wear market was worth $44.1 billion and is predicted to reach $65.1 billion in 2020. In 2017, Burberry children had a 5% underlying revenue growth (Burberry, 2017).
2. Enhancing brand image- Technology is one of the most important parts of Burberry and has become its DNA. They could continue to innovate this in order to remain the digital leader of the luxury segment. Burberry needs to make sure they continue to engage their consumers and avoid the risk of social media fatigue (Hoong, C.M 2017). 3. Create specific products for countries- Chinese consumers of Burberry within and outside the country are vital for the brand. China is expected to become one of the worlds largest luxury goods markets by 2020 (Burkitt, L. 2011, April 14). A suggestion for Burberry could be to launch a limited edited product for the flagship stores in China, adding value to its customers.
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Market Analysis of Burberry.