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Living Education eMagazine A Magazine That Discusses Education in Our Everyday Lives Education - Housing - Research Edition IX

Spring 2014

A Study of the Impact of Teacher Beliefs on Curriculum and From Program Consumer to Implementation


A Great Teacher is a Great Artist

Understanding The 1968 Fair Housing Act

Your Child Restored: The Path from Suffering to Success

Engaging a New Generation Through Intentionality Mentoring a Top Strategy for African American High School Students


Alberto Carvalho Miami-Dade County Public Schools

AASA 2014 National Superintendent of the Year


2014 National

He has been selected as Florida’s 2014 Superintendent of the Year as well as the 2014 National Superintendent of the Year. In addition, he has been named by Scholastic Administrator as one of “The Fantastic Five” educators making a difference in America. A versatile leader, Carvalho is also the selfappointed principal of two award-winning schools—the Primary Learning Center and the iPrep Academy, and has served as President of the Association of Latino Administrators and Superintendents. He has received the Hispanic Heritage Education Award and the 2013 National Child Labor Committee Ron H. Brown Award; he has been acknowledged as Visionary Leader of the Year by the Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce and South Florida’s Ultimate CEO; and he has been recognized for Leadership in Government by the Miami Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. He is a member of Florida’s Council of 100 and the Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels. He has been honored by the President of Portugal with the “Ordem de Mérito Civil” and by Mexico with the “Othli Award,” the highest award for a civilian living outside of Mexico. Mr. Carvalho has been featured on CNN, NBC, and ABC and in publications such as The New York Times, District Administration Magazine, and The Christian Science Monitor.

Superintendent of the Year

Alberto Carvalho became Superintendent of the nation’s fourth largest school system in September 2008. He is a nationally recognized expert on school reform and finance who successfully transformed his district’s business operations and financial systems with the implementation of a streamlined Strategic Framework focused on a singular goal of student achievement. Miami-Dade County Public Schools is now widely considered the nation’s highest-performing urban school system, and was named as the 2014 College Board Advanced Placement Equity and Excellence District of the Year as well as the 2012 winner of the Broad Prize for Urban Education. On November 6, 2012, following four years of extraordinary District performance, Miami-Dade County voters confirmed their faith in their public schools and their Superintendent by passing a $1.2 Billion Bond Referendum for school construction.

Organizations Since M2M began, we have served more than 400 middle and high school boys in Prince’s George’s County. Though their life experiences are varied, they all join the program exhibiting only a fraction of their potential. Our mission at M2M is to sow the seeds of greatness and nurture the potential to develop men of excellence.

First Focus is a bipartisan advocacy organization dedicated to making children and families the priority in federal policy and budget decisions. First Focus leads a comprehensive advocacy strategy, with its hands-on experience with federal policymaking and a commitment to seeking policy solutions.

You Need To Know

The vision of the National Summer Learning Association is for every child to be safe, healthy, and engaged in learning during the summer. To realize that vision, our mission is to connect and equip schools, providers, communities, and families to deliver high-quality summer learning opportunities to our nation’s youth to help close the achievement gap and support healthy development.

The National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) improves the lives of all people with learning difficulties and disabilities by empowering parents, enabling young adults, transforming schools, and creating policy and advocacy impact. Our Vision: We envision a society in which every individual possesses the academic, social and emotional skills needed to succeed in school, at work and in life. Our History: Founded in 1977 by Pete and Carrie Rozelle as the Foundation for Children with Learning Disabilities, the organization provided leadership, public awareness and grants to support research and innovative practices in learning disabilities. In 1989 the organization changed its name to the National Center for Learning Disabilities and expanded its mission and scope of work. Anne Ford assumed the role of Chairman of the Board at the time and led the organization for 12 years. In 2001, John G. Gantz, Jr., past president of Argonaut Insurance Company, succeeded Mrs. Ford. In 2004 the leadership of NCLD was passed to Fred Poses, former chairman and chief executive officer of Trane Inc.

Publisher’s Notes Moving Forward… Discussion to Implementation! I am always interested in reading, listening and or participating in conversations on educational topics. I enjoy the exchange of ideas that insightful educators, parents and community leaders have regarding our educational systems. In my opinion, the exchange of educational information is at its best when there is less debate and more conversation. The dialogue has the power to drive change and bring about needed reform when there are less sound bites and more food for thought from a cross section of all stakeholders. But while there seems to be an endless supply of conversations on how to fix the educational landscape there seems to be less rolling sleeves up and doing the work of improving the lives and academic success of students. Please don’t miss understand me, I have and will always support individuals and community organizations that have been on the ground, in the classroom and in the homes working to make a difference in the academic success of students. For many of them this has been their life’s work and the fruit of their labor has been countless individuals’ lives changed for the better. In the almost six years of the work we do at Forest Of The Rain Productions we have had the honor of meeting those wonderful individuals who without fanfare tirelessly work in the schools and communities to improve their part of the educational landscape. I know these individuals will continue to do the heavy lifting of taking on the various challenges that impede the academic success and achievement of students in communities across this country. I will also note there is not a community in this country rich or poor that does not struggle with challenges that influence the obtainment of knowledge in the classroom. I want to just remind myself to keep my focus on those who give so tirelessly to our schools and communities. I want my words to mirror my work and I want to continue to find avenues to connect with others who feel as I do that the task of ensuring the academic success of students is too enormous for just a few. We all have to roll up our sleeves and report for duty to those teachers, parents and community leaders with the intention to lend a hand, rather than just an opinion. I want to understand value and support all the wonderful minds that we at Forest Of The Rain Productions have spotlighted through the years by taking their experiences gained from working on the frontlines and implement their knowledge in my children’s school and my community. To do this effectively, I just need to remember when to transfer my actions, no matter how large or small from discussion to implementation. If I can remember this then I will know I have done my best to address the challenges in my part of the educational landscape.

Michel S. Davis Robinson

Contributors Dr. Barbara A. Copenhaver Bailey Dr. Barbara A. Copenhaver Bailey has worked in Student Affairs at WVU for over 20 years most recently serving as the Assistant Vice President for Student Success. In this role, Barbara has supervised a number of Student Affairs units and programs that have included Assessment, Student Family Resources, The Daily Athenaeum student newspaper, Development, Experience WVU (sophomore/junior year programs & senior year programs), Grants Administration, Greek Life, Mountaineer Adventure Program (outdoor experiential program), Office of Student Success and Retention Programs, Student Government Association, Student Organization Services, Student Support Services/TRIO, Upward Bound/TRIO, and U-92 student radio station. In addition to her administrative responsibilities, Barbara is active on campus in LGBTQ issues as well as Women’s issues. She works closely with students on leadership, ethics and civility awareness and development Barbara is a past president of the West Virginia state TRIO professional association, WVAEOPP, and the Davis College Alumni Association. Barbara is a past president of the West Virginia state TRIO professional association, WVAEOPP, and the Davis College Alumni Association. Article: Let’s Bring Civility Back to the College Campus (p.21)

Victoria Bell Victoria Bell is a Gemologist with more than 15 years of experience in researching and buying gems. She has used her knowledge and love of gems to create beautiful handmade jewelry. Victoria designs are made with all natural gemstones combined with metals such as stainless and plated steel. Article: From Consumer to Creating (p.76)

Contributors Dr. Susan Gardner Susan Gardner has more than 17 years of higher education experience in academic and student affairs. She has taught at the graduate and undergraduate levels in the areas of communications, social science, and leadership. Past experiences include serving as a community college vice president where she oversaw student affairs and enrollment. Prior to her community college experience, Gardner served as assistant dean of students at the University of Charleston (UC). Recently she returned to UC and its School of Pharmacy where she is as an assistant professor and assistant dean for professional and student affairs. Gardner has published more than 100 articles related to enrollment, student success, and residence life. She earned her BA from Oakland University, MA from Central Michigan University, and PhD from Capella University. She lives in Charleston, WV with her husband and two daughters. Article: Combatting Childhood Hunger in America—One Possible Approach (p.54)

Dr. Ray Glasser Dr. Ray Gasser serves as the Senior Associate Director for Residence Education and Housing Services at Michigan State University. His current level of responsibilities includes oversight of 27 residence halls and 2 apartment complex facilities, safety & security, summer conferences, and housing assignments. Ray has previously worked at the University of Idaho, University of Arizona, Indiana State University, Colorado State University, and Florida State University. Ray’s 18 years of experience in supervision has included staff from the para-professional level to Associate Directors for his department. Ray received his B.A. from the University of Washington in Mass Communications, his M.S. from Colorado State University in Student Affairs, and his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona in Higher Education Administration. Ray’s doctoral work focused on studying the factors contributing to first-year undecided student retention. Article: Engaging a New Generation Through Intentionality (p.47)

Contributors Dr. Michael Hart Dr. Michael Hart is an accomplished educational consultant and business development professional with over 25 years of success in different professional environments. He started his career as a psychologist with an expertise in learning problems and ADD/ADHD. After attending The Wharton School, he transferred his skills and assumed roles in business development and leadership in mostly early stage startups. Over time, Dr. Hart developed a strong ability to understand future trends and communicate that vision in ways that motivates others and creates value. In tune with the explosion of online learning, Dr. Hart is now developing webinars for parents of children with learning problems (dyslexia and AD/HD) as well as professional development courses for teachers and administrators. HIs initial focus is simplifying neuroscience and explaining its impact on literacy development. Article: Your Child Restored: The Path from Suffering to Success (p.32)

Dr. Stephen Jones Dr. Jones is the President of SAJ Publishing, and a Distinguished Toast Master, he is an in-demand speaker who has regular appearances on Blog Talk Radio. He also serves as Associate Dean of Student & Strategic Programs in the College of Engineering at Villanova University. Previously, Dr. Jones served as the Director of the SUCCESS/ACT101 Program at Drexel University. He has received recognition for his dedication to students including the National Society of Black Engineers Award and Drexel University’s named Dr. Stephen Jones Award for Academic Excellence, presented annually to an undergraduate student exhibiting outstanding achievement. Dr. Jones is a Philadelphia public school authored the Seven Secrets of How to Study series, including "Mapping Your Strategy for Better Grades", the "Parent’s Ultimate Education Guide" and the "Ultimate Scholarship Guide." He holds Ph.D. and B.S. degrees from Widener University, a Master of Education from Howard University, and a Master of Business Administration from Philadelphia University. Article: Mentoring a Top Strategy for African American High School Students (p.17)

Contributors Dr. Debra A. Mahone

Joe Marino

Dr. Debra A. Mahone is the Director of State and Federal Programs, Title I and School Improvement Offices with Prince George’s County Public Schools. Dr. Mahone is a highly skilled executive leader with experience in strategic planning, leadership development, performance management & organizational protocols. She has knowledge in school improvement reform, school administration and supervision. Article: A Study of the Impact of Teacher Beliefs on Curriculum and Program Implementation (p.70)

Joe Marino is an Assistant Editor for @BillsDraft USA Today Sports Media. Joe has covered the #NFLDraft & Buffalo #Bills. Joe is a lifelong follower of the Buffalo Bills and NFL Draft. He has been evaluating draft prospects since 2001. He has created his own draft boards ever since. Previously the Bills team columnist for, Marino resides in Charlotte, N.C. Article: 2014 NFL Mock Draft (p.49)

Dr. Reginald N. Nichols Reginald (Reggie) N. Nichols has been a higher education professional for 18 years as an admissions officer and academic counselor. His previous careers have been in human services and banking. Reggie has dedicated his career to helping at risk, first generation and multicultural students map out their educational, career and financial paths. He is a proud graduate of West Roxbury High School and was a member of the first Boston Public High School to win a state championship in football. Reggie has an Associate’s degree in Criminal Justice from Bunker Hill Community College, Bachelor’s degree in Political Science from the University of Massachusetts at Boston and Master of Education in Integrated Studies (Education & Counseling Psychology) from Cambridge College. Reggie resides in the Boston area with his wife and daughter. Article: Community Colleges Offer Solutions (p.36)

Contributors Dr. Hilderbrand Pelzer III Hilderbrand Pelzer III is a national award-winning educator with more than twenty years of experience in the field. He has served as a teacher, assistant principal and elementary and high school principal, as well as an assistant regional superintendent. Hilderbrand has also been an adjunct faculty member teaching graduate-level courses to aspiring principals in school resources management and current issues in education and preparing them for the challenges of educational leadership. Hilderbrand has led major efforts that have resulted in the academic reorganization and improvement of various types of public schools with challenging learning environments. These efforts have included his dynamic leadership at Pennypack House School, a Philadelphia public school that operates within the Philadelphia Prison System. Hildebrand Pelzer III holds a Bachelor of Science in physical education from Hampton University, a Master of Education in educational administration from Cheyney University. Article: Are Today’s High-School Graduates Better Prepared for College and Careers Than I Was? (p.25)

Tara L. Rose Tara has taught in Maryland public schools for 18 years. Tara graduated from Frostburg State University with a BS in Education and began her teaching career teaching PreK. Since then, she has gained experiences in Kindergarten, First grade and currently Tara is teaching second grade. Nine years ago Tara was seeking a challenge for herself and her career and completed her National Board Certification. Tara is currently renewing that certification in Literacy. Tara brings enthusiasm and active engagement into the classroom. If you were to walk into her classroom, you would see students who are choosing to read and write because they love it. You would also see students who love to engage in cooperative groups and love to talk to their peers about their learning. In creating a classroom for our diverse learners, all of these are crucial to making them lifelong learners. Article: A Great Teacher is a Great Artist (p.66)

Contributors Debra Rub Debra Ruh is a Global Disability Inclusion Strategist. Her expertise includes United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), US Rehabilitation Act of 1973 – Sections 508, 503 and 504 and the American’s with Disabilities Act (ADA). She is a seasoned entrepreneur founding three firms including Ruh Global, TecAccess and Strategic Performance Solutions. She is a published author of “Finding Your Voice by Using Social Media” and her second book Uncovering Hidden Human Capital: How leading corporations leverage multiple abilities in their workforce will be published by G3ict in the 1st Quarter of 2014. Debra is a Thought Leader on ICT Accessibility, Marketing and Disability Inclusion on social media channels with over 120k direct followers. Her social media mediums include Twitter, Linked-In, Facebook, Pinterest, Tumblr, G+ and other platforms. Article: A Global Story About Disability Inclusion (p.59)

Dr. Christopher Wooleyhand Christopher Wooleyhand, Ph.D., is an elementary principal in Glen Burnie, Maryland. He is also an adjunct lecturer at McDaniel College focusing on the connection between teacher leadership and school performance. Dr. Wooleyhand’s blog, Common Sense School Leadership highlights the need for practical solutions to the challenges of modern school reform. A former Peace Corps volunteer in the West Indies, Wooleyhand has written extensively about the achievement gap and the need for equitable practices in education. He has been published in Educational Leadership and Principal magazine. Dr. Wooleyhand has served as a prospectus reviewer for Corwin Press and is currently an editorial advisor for Principal magazine. He is co-founder and co-moderator of Maryland Elementary School Chat (#mdeschat) which meets every Thursday evening at 9:00 p.m. on Twitter. Article: Differentiating Staff Development to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners (p.29)

Contributors Dr. Linda Wynn Linda T. Wynn is assistant director for state program at the Tennessee Historical Commission and a member of Fisk University’s faculty where she teaches in the department of history and political science. She earned her B.S. and M. S. degrees in history and a Masters in Public Administration from Tennessee State University. Appointed by Mayor Karl Dean and confirmed by the Metropolitan Council, she serves on the Metropolitan Historical Commission and is a member of its Markers Committee, as well as its Civil War Sesquicentennial Committee. Mrs. Wynn is the editor of Journey to Our Past: A Guide to African-American Markers in Tennessee. A contributor to the African American National Biography published by Oxford University Press, she prepared several biographies and served as a consultant for the Encyclopedia of African American Business and Notable Black American Men, Book II, edited by Dr. Jessie C. Smith. The author of the African American Almanac’s chapter on “Civil Rights,” she is also a contributor to Tennessee Women: Their Lives and Times, edited by Sarah L. Wilkerson Freeman and Beverly G. Bond and published by the University of Georgia Press. She is also a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Article: The Protracted Path to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (p.64)

Lavar Young LaVar is the President & CEO of Newark Now in Newark, NJ, and a member of Prior to becoming President of Newark Now, LaVar served as Director of Fathers Now at the Newark Comprehensive Center for Fathers. Participants are men who have lost their jobs and homes, or who are re-entering the workforce following incarceration and seek to assume greater responsibility for and contribute to the lives of their children. Article: Children Pay the Price, When Adults Can’t Figure it Out! (p.51)

Executive Perspective

Why I Still Take the For-Profit Colleges Seriously‌ So Should Community Colleges Michael A. Robinson , Ed.D


I have studied for-profit higher education for the past 10 years. My doctoral research examined the potential competition between community colleges and the for-profit sector. The findings revealed an awareness of the operational practices of for-profit sector by community colleges, but an unwillingness to admit the for-profit sector was a competitive threat. Community college participants in my study affirmed they monitored the actions and practices of nearby for-profit schools; nevertheless believed their programs were inferior to those they offered and therefore treated the for-profit sector as nothing more than another pathway for students who would not have otherwise attended any postsecondary institution. I fundamentally disagreed with the position presented by the community college participants and the review of my data discovered while community colleges spoke despairingly of the for-profit sector they emulated many of its student services approaches; to include a more customer service perspective. The community colleges in my study appeared to have an unofficial official opinion that the for-profit sector warranted their attention, but not their public acknowledgment of their existence as nothing more than a revised model of their fly-by-night ancestors who marketed their services on matchboxes. However, I would caution community colleges, not to discount the for-profit colleges and not simply rely on government intervention to hold the ubiquitous for-profits/career colleges at the gate. The for-profit sector has throughout the past several decades been the fastest growing sector of higher education (Hentschke, 2004; Tierney & Hentschke, 2007, Wilson, 2010, Deming, Goldin & Katz, 2011). According to Bhatia and Shagets (2009), enrollment growth in the for-profit sector had the potential to capture as much as 14% of the student market within 10 years. In 2009, the for-profit sector had 9% of the student market or about 1.5 million of the over 18 million students enrolled in postsecondary education (Bennett, Lucchesi, & Vedder, 2010). Deming, et. al (2011) study discovered that from 1970 to 2009, the for-profit sector accounted for the majority of post-secondary enrollment in non-degree granting post-secondary schools. Enrollment in non-degree schools or programs traditionally an area of enrollment dominance for the continuing education and non-credit departments of community colleges is now grounds for competition. The finding of Deming, et. al proposes community colleges have competition for the non-credit and non-degree seeking student. Deming, et. al (2011) using Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) data from 2004-2009 indicated for-profit postsecondary institutions educate a larger percentage of minority, at-risk disadvantaged, and older students. They went on to state, the for-profit sector has shown a greater level of success in the areas of student retention and completion of certificates and even Associates degrees. Their ability show signs of growth through a tough regulatory landscape would suggest the for-profit sector is gearing up for another crack at the lucrative postsecondary student market. Community colleges would be well advised to officially take for-profit colleges seriously.

Mentoring a Top Strategy for African American High School Students Dr. Stephen Jones @DrStephenJones The race to save African American high school students is affected by a variety of circumstances. Too many students go to school with no clear vision or purpose. Often there is no career plan that inspires them to excel in the classroom. Students need to know why they are studying and what career options they will have after completing high school. Mentoring is one thing that can be done to raise a student’s enthusiasm for learning. In fact one way to increase the graduation rate is finding adult professionals who will invest their time in mentoring a student. Some professionals are just waiting for someone to ask how they can get involved. Some high school students feel like no one really cares whether they graduate or not. They may be very smart but they feel isolated because there are not enough students who have goals like they do. It seems like it is easier to give up than to show their peers that they want more for their life. Young people have a strong desire to have a sense of purpose for the grades that they are achieving. Knowing that better grades can open the door to college is not enough. Students want to know what they can do with a post-secondary education. In other words they need to know that education is worth it. Finding a mentor can be difficult for a student. One way that a high school can identify mentors is by establishing an alumni group. If you have never done it before start one now. You can create an annual ceremony where you induct all seniors into the society and give them a certificate or a lapel pin. It's important to tell them that the purpose of the group is so that they can give back. They need to know that they will be mentors to future generations of graduates. You can actually have alumni officers who schedule the activities of the group. The alumni are a great group that can help to raise enthusiasm throughout the school. If you search your city you will find out that your school has graduates that are functioning in all aspects of society. They can be found in city and state government, hospitals, small businesses, schools and corporations. Many of them may already serve as volunteers for other organizations. They will be excited to find a way to give

A mentor can help a mentee to assess where they are now and where they want to be. A mentee can be full of all types of surprises that the mentor can uncover just by having a conversation. If you remain a mentor for any period of time you will uncover that you are learning a lot too. Dr. Stephen Jones is the author of the Secrets of How to Study, the Parents Ultimate Education Guide and the Ultimate Scholarship guide at 610-842-3843.

Ubiquitous Technologies: Life-long Learning and Information Literacy The article is an excerpt taken from a presentation entitled “Ubiquity at the Crossroads: Using Anywhere, Anytime Presentation Software” given at the MidAmerica Association of Law Libraries’ annual meeting in St. Louis on October 12, 2012. back to their high school. You can have some of your current students to give them a call to invite them to speak or to become a mentor. The traditional way of mentoring is giving in to some of the new technology. Mentors are having conversations over their cell phones. Some cell phones allow you to see the other person. A student and a mentor can also go on Skpe on the internet to see the mentor that they are talking to. Other mentors will send text by way of their cell phone. This technology does not replace face to face mentoring but it does increase the chances for students to have a conversation with their mentor. Mentoring is a fantastic way to inspire a student. As a teenager is developing there are many questions that need to be answer. All they need is some in their corner environment to help them to stay focused. You can help a student to clarify their goals. It's important to have conversation that keeps a student on the right path. You let them know that life is a journey that’s worth living. The mentee should get up and make the best of their day. effort when you save one student from dropping out. Each student has potential and they may become something great.

Web 2.0 technologies, i.e. cloud technologies and immersive (virtual) environments have made it possible for the teaching and learning process to become ubiquitous. This is great for teachers and learners alike. For teachers/trainers ubiquitous technologies allow you to extend the reach of your classroom by giving wellplanned and instructionally sound learning objects, which should make your teaching more effective. For students, the aforementioned technologies provide a means for them to become skilled at autonomous learning the benchmark for realization of the life-long learner. Also these technologies can have a dramatic effect on information literacy skill development and meaningful learning. As learners become more autonomous both by desire and necessity; cloud technologies, play an important part in today's learning environment. Ingah Davis-Crawford is a distance educator and specializes in instructional design and educational theory. Yael Davis is a distance educator and an instructional designer. She has expertise in government information materials for instruction outreach.

Class of 2014

The Gift The graduating class of 2014 will be expecting to enter the next stage of their life with some high tech electronic gear. Living Education eMagazine asked parent are they planning to purchase the latest in technology in celebration of their child’s remarkable accomplishment. Here is what parents had to say: 1. Are you planning to purchase a Tech gift for your 2014 graduate? a. Yes (50%) b. No c. Unsure (33%) d. Other (17%) e. Comments i. I would love to but the cost of a high school senior and attending college will prevent me from doing so. Now if I could afford to, I would buy her a computer/laptop and printer. ii. Cash gifts will be used for this. 2. Please identify the type of Tech gift you intend to purchase for your 2014 graduate. a. Digital Camera b. Digital Camcorder c. Desktop Computer d. Laptop (42%) e. Printer (17%) f. Tablet (17%) g. iPhone h. Kindle (7%) i. Television j. High Tech speakers k. Ear Phones l. Video Game System m. Other (17%)

Living Education Everyday

Let’s Bring Civility Back to the College Campus Barbara Copenhaver Bailey, Ed.D. @BarbieGirlWVU Polite, reasonable, and respectful behavior; that is what MerriamWebster Dictionary says about civility. Who wouldn’t want that kind of an environment in which to work and learn? So isn’t it time? Isn’t it time to bring civility back to our college campuses? I think it is. In the 4th annual survey conducted by Weber Shandwick and Powell Tate public relations firms along with KRC Research on Civility in America, 70 percent of Americans indicated they felt incivility is at a crisis level in society. This, of course, directly relates to the lack of civility on our college campuses. Judy Rookstool notes in her book, Fostering Civility on Campus2, “Education, which includes the teaching of norms and values such as civility, is the means by which society recreates itself.” (p.19) This very clearly places education squarely at the forefront of effecting change in society. It is time we take that responsibility serious and make it a priority. There has been some movement since the mid-90’s to bring teaching of civility to college of virtue.”

The weakness of these programs is the relatively small audiences they reach as well as the limit emphasis place on the programs across campus. Just in the past year, some campuses have come out with serious statements on the direction their campus will be taking towards a more civil society. On February 7, 2014, UConn Today reported that UConn President Susan Herbst announced the immediate designation of an office that will work with students who have been victims of crimes such as sexual violence, harassment, intimidation, bullying, incivility, and other behaviors that are detrimental to students and the UConn community as a whole.3 Another campus, George Mason University in Virginia, added a course last fall called Professionalism and Civility. In February 2014, Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Richard Wells, held a two-day workshop called Civility In Everyday Life”. 4 These are all examples of ways that some institutions are taking steps towards trying to create environments on campuses that are fueled by respect and trust. As professionals in higher education, we must take a serious look at the responsibility we have to contribute to the civility of our society. College campuses have long been known for cultivating civil discourse. Historically, it is the place that young people solidified their character and beliefs. It is through civil discourse in the classroom and on campus that students should learn how to have a respectful exchange of ideas. Unfortunately, this is not necessarily where we are today. The breakdown of respectful exchange of ideas can be seen in several examples in our society such as political debates, road rage, respect for elders and general politeness. We have either forgotten how to or we just don’t care. Either way, it

is evident the breakdown is in full swing. It has become acceptable to be rude and impolite at all levels of our society. The question then becomes, what can we, as professionals in higher education, do to support the move back toward a more civil society? I would suggest there are two ways; individually and campus-wide programs. College and University Presidents have to make this a priority around which everything else on campus must revolve. I believe a true “civility campaign” must permeate every corner of the campus in order for it to be successful. It must be seen by students, faculty, staff and visitors where ever they turn. This can only happen once it is declared a priority from the President’s Office. This priority must be reflected in the Institution’s vision, mission and strategic plan. It must be seen on webpages, newspapers, syllabi, recruitment materials, letterhead, business cards, logo, programs, and newsletters. It must be reflected in policy and procedure and the curriculum. Orientation programs for students and employees must include discussion and expectations for civil behavior. It must be seen in the residence halls, student union and athletic events. Everyone must be a part of the solution to incivility, or they are part of the problem.

Rights and Constitution. However, as the founder of the 1997 Hopkins Civility Project, P.M. Forni notes, “there is educational value in behaving as persons of integrity, compassion, and empathy, not because we are compelled by a written statement, but because we believe that is the right thing to do, and it’s freely chosen.”5 (p.15). Make no mistake, this is a cultural change and those don’t come easy. However, we must believe it is possible and worth it to create a more Loving and compassionate campus and thus creating a shift towards civility in our society. We are already making small strides towards creating more civil campuses. It is just not enough. To create a cultural shift you need to have a full-blown commitment by administration starting with the President, a well-thought out plan, and consistent action across campus. That is where institutions need to be if they are serious about cultural change. With or without a campus-wide campaign implemented through the President’s Office, each of us can show our commitment towards a change in campus environment by first creating a civil climate in our own offices, units, and classrooms. We can make clear our expectation for respectful and polite behavior from the staff and students with whom we work and teach. Civility can be integrated into classroom lessons, staff meetings, and student programs. And lastly, we can display Loving

There are a couple of issues that oftentimes arise when discussing civility in the classroom and on campuses. First, there is some concern on how people should be disciplined who do not meet the civility standards set forth by an institution. There must be some consequence for unacceptable behavior or that behavior will never change. I don’t have a universal answer for this question. It must be decided upon by each campus individually. No matter what the consequence may be, it is most important that there must be one. It must fit the offense. It must be consistent, and it must be known and understood across campus. Secondly, the “control” of civil behavior is sometimes seen as a violation of the first amendment's guaranteed freedom of speech. Creating a civil climate on campus should in no way violate and core right of our Bill of Continue on page 41

Living Education Everyday


Debunking the Middle-Class Myth: Why Diverse Schools Are Good for All Kids By Eileen Kugler @embracediversiT is changing the dialogue about diversity. Required reading in schools, universities, and community gatherings, it earned two national Book of the Year awards – from The National Association for Multicultural Education and from Delta Kappa Gamma International, the women educators’ honor society active in 14 countries.

Are Today’s High-School Graduates Better Prepared for College and Careers Than I Was? By Hilderbrand Pelzer III Author of Unlocking Potential @unlkpotential

“By working hard every single day, every single night, you are making the best investment there is in your future. And we want to make sure you’ve got everything—all the tools you need to succeed.” President Obama told the students of Coral Reef High School in Miami. He was discussing his plan to provide all young Americans with the education they need to compete in the 21st-century economy, including the opportunity to afford, attend, and graduate from college. But is this enough to prepare high-school graduates with the ability to select a suitable college and to succeed there? Having graduated from high school thirty years ago, I remember how confused I was about the career path that I would pursue, which had a tremendous impact on my performance during my first two years of college. This confusion also exposed my high school’s inability to prepare me for the next steps in my life: college and a career. Throughout my first three years of high school, for instance, I rarely thought about what I aspired to

be professionally. Most of my peers and I did discuss attending college and what type of college we would like to attend, but we did not discuss career choices. We attended generic college fairs. Some of us even went on college tours. By the time I reached my senior year of high school, however, I knew the day of reckoning was near. My father had always reiterated to me that there would be no idle lingering around our house after high school. I had to make the decision to go to college, join the military, or get a job with a living wage. But whatever I decided, I had to get out of the house and make a difference in the world. Deep down in my soul, I knew I would choose to attend college after high school. My mother and father, as well as my brother, all attended college and graduated. However, during my senior year I felt pressured. What major and academic program was I going to pursue in college that would lead to a successful academic performance and a substantial career? During my senior year of high school I changed my mind about my career choice so often that I still regret to this day that I didn’t

consider a career choice while in high school is very important. It helps students to focus on the type of college that they should attend to get the best education and prepare for a particular career. Throughout my first three years of high school, I wanted to become a civil engineer. In my senior year of high school, however, I was set on becoming an ophthalmologist. But upon graduating, I changed my mind again—I decided I wanted to pursue a career as a podiatrist. And by the time I set foot on my new college campus, I was sure I wanted to pursue physical therapy. But wait a minute— the college I had chosen to attend did not even have a physical therapy education program! Even so, I decided to stay. My new pursuit was (what else?) a career in physical education. While I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in physical education, I still wasn’t convinced that becoming a physical educator was my destiny. Maybe a recreation administrator? Maybe sports medicine? Maybe sports management? I was confused! As you can see, my college selection had nothing to do with my aspirations for a major and academic program. Today, I am an award-winning educator, the author of a book, and a twenty-five-year veteran of the education profession. Having served as a teacher, an assistant principal, a principal, and an assistant regional superintendent, I am still very concerned that high schools are not doing a good

job of focusing on the standards that provide a consistent, clear understanding of not only the skills our young people need for success in college and a career, but also, most importantly, the strategies for making a good college selection that will lead to both academic success and career success. Schools are following the president’s lead and putting the focus on affording, attending, and graduating from college, and there is nothing wrong with this focus. But are today’s high-school graduates better prepared than I was? While I was confused about my career aspirations, I knew my path through life would include higher education. My parents weren’t going to have it any other way. This begs the question: was I properly prepared in high school to deeply consider career choices that were in line with my career aspirations and then choose a suitable college? Even more importantly, are high schools investing in the right types of resources in college- and careerreadiness programs, and what happens to high-school students who are confused about what comes next in life? In a survey of 470 dropouts throughout the country, nearly 50 percent said that they left school because their classes were boring and not relevant to their lives or career aspirations. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commissioned a survey entitled “The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts.” While many people have achieved success in life without obtaining a college degree, college is an extraordinary opportunity for improving an individual’s life. High schools should put a greater emphasis on becoming more Continue on page 60

Education Talk Continues

Allison Brown, host of Know It All: ABCs of Education Ashley Hill, host of the Ashley Hill Show Dr. Danita Applewhite host of Student2Teacher Mary Dolan and Melissa Rizio, host of the Mary and Melissa Show Neil Haley, host of the Total Education News Show Peter Richardson, host of S.O.A.R Radio Sia Knight, host of College Savvy Radio Dr. Mike Robinson, host of Parent Talk Live

Living Education eMagazine Internet Radio


Researchers hypothesize that meeting children’s basic housing needs is a critical part of school readiness and academic success. Cunningham and MacDonald May 2012

April is fair housing month Fair Housing is your Right. Use It!

Differentiating Staff Development to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners By Christopher Wooleyhand, Ph.D. @principal64 The National Staff Development Council’s Standards for Staff Development provide guidance to school leaders focused on fostering high-quality professional learning communities. Principals who are willing to utilize the standards will find that they enable them to address the varied needs of teachers, which, in turn, enhances the learning of an increasingly diverse student population. School leaders should consider using a differentiated staff development model aligned with the pedagogical practices they expect of their teachers. For professional development to be successful, teachers must be asked for their input (Morrow, 2003). This collective intelligence approach reinforces the value that administrators place on their educators. By offering differentiated staff development, school leaders acknowledge that their teachers have unique, individual abilities and needs. Staff members should be given opportunities that are worthwhile and meaningful (Hannon, 2003). The NSDCs context, process and content standards offer a structure that promotes the development of school-based staff development programs capable of creating enduring educational

change. A brief examination of the standards yields thought provoking insight regarding how school leaders might differentiate their school-based staff development. Context Standards Organizing adults into learning communities does not happen magically. School leaders must provide the structure and

time needed for teachers to collaborate with their peers. A culture of learning needs to be built in order for teacher capacity to increase (Rutherford, 2006). While the goals of the learning community should be aligned with district goals, they should be specific to the needs of the local school. Teachers need time to discuss strategies for getting students to achieve, share their teaching practices, improve their techniques, and set communal student achievement goals (Sawchuk, 2007). This requires strong leadership and the ability to obtain the required resources. Principals can share their leadership without risking a loss of control. In fact, by sharing leadership, they empower their teachers to become partners in the school improvement process. Process Standards The end result of all staff development must be improved student performance. Teachers will support staff development efforts when they can make the connection between what they are asked to do and how it will lead to improved student performance. Educators in the 21st century are being asked to do more with data than ever. Formative and summative assessments can assist teachers in making informed instructional decisions. It is the building principal’s responsibility to structure the school day so that teachers have the time and materials to disaggregate data. Teachers play a critical role in educational reform and need opportunities to engage in highquality professional development (Goodnough, 2005). Data-driven decisions can be made by teachers only when they have the time and support to analyze and interpret data.

Canned, one-size-fits-all programs, have to be shown the door.

Given the time to work with data, teachers are highly capable of analyzing assessment results to identify appropriate instructional strategies. With guidance, they will be able to modify their teaching to address the specific strengths and challenges of the individual student. Content Standards Staff development efforts should ensure equity, quality teaching and family involvement. In the pursuit of educational excellence, we cannot ignore the social and emotional needs of our students and community. We are still responsible for educating the whole-child. The reliance on quantitative data should not preclude schools from actively collecting qualitative data to support their efforts in providing safe, orderly and supportive learning environments. Teachers, guidance counselors, school psychologists and support staff play a vital role in establishing schools that meet the affective needs of all learners. Their role can easily be extended to staff development directed at encouraging family involvement, equity and school safety. Meaningful formal and informal staff development should be tailored to the specific needs of the school. Through these opportunities, teachers become intimately and effectively involved in their communities (Gabriel, 2005). Differentiated Staff Development and Collective Intelligence School leaders with an understanding of the NSDC standards are charged with determining how they will develop effective school-based practices. The answer is simple and complex. The simple answer is that principals must adopt approaches that celebrate a collective intelligence model. They need to differentiate staff development with the same enthusiasm they ask of their teachers. The complex part is motivating a school toward becoming a professional learning community through adult differentiation. On the part of the principal, it takes imagination, creativity, and a willingness to share leadership.

While whole-group staff development opportunities will continue to have a place (hopefully, a small one), schools will have to provide a variety of staff development offerings. School district leaders can assist principals by valuing and supporting the specific needs of schools and by limiting the number of mandatory staff development offerings. Principals plan for their school year over the summer and it can be extremely challenging when teachers are required to be out of their buildings for extended periods of time. When time is freed up for principals and teachers, they are better able to systematically plan their staff development. Principals have to be systematic and pragmatic in their planning. Consideration must be given to the staff development needs of teachers. This can be done through survey, observation and teacher report. The school improvement process can also provide direction for staff development needs. Formative and summative school performance data should be analyzed for trends in student learning. Finally, in determining the focus of staff development, principals should look to the greater community and its needs. Once the needs have been determined, it falls to the principal to formulate a workable plan that will effectively meet the needs of the adult learners without wearing them down over the course of an arduous school year. What Does Differentiated Schoolbased Staff Development Look Like? Differentiation for the adult learner parallels differentiation in the Continue on page 68

Do something healthy for your child. Get to know her teacher today.

Your Child Restored: The Path from Suffering to Success By Michael Hart, Ph.D. @drmichaelhart Your Child Restored: The Path from Suffering to Success Effective Advocacy for Your Child with Learning Issues. Discovering that your child has a learning problem can be very confusing, frustrating and often overwhelming. Many of us, even bright, highly functioning people really struggle with figuring out what to do. Oftentimes, our first reaction is to reach out to the school for help and support. For a myriad of reasons, we may find that teachers and their colleagues are ill prepared to provide all the help we need. In addition to the lack of training and support for the teachers, our education system is often a messy, slow-moving bureaucracy. In the meantime, our children suffer needlessly…Sometimes for years. Just last week, while meeting with a group of parents, I was struck again by the pain and agony we feel when we assume that our children’s school officials have the know-how or resources to adequately support our students’ special learning needs only to find out that they don’t. I’ve been experiencing this pain and agony since I started practicing 25 years ago. That is TRULY needless suffering and we’ve got to change this. To be clear, I am a huge advocate for teachers. The vast majority of educators are seriously committed to their profession and want to do their best. A lack of proper educational opportunities, inadequate professional development and limited resources frequently stands in the way of their ability to function effectively. The primary example I use is this: Facts about Dyslexia and Teacher Preparation Programs 

Research indicates that approximately 10% to 20% of our students struggle to some degree with dyslexia–a language processing-based difficulty with reading, spelling and writing. t%20dyslexia%20ea And yet, three out of four elementary teacher preparation programs still are not teaching the

methods of reading instruction that could substantially lower the number of children who never become proficient readers. w_2013_Report Virtually no secondary school preparation programs include curricula about reading and written language instruction in spite of the fact that dyslexia is a life-long issue. Report

The majority of our students who struggle with learning struggle due to issues with language-based processing weaknesses. So, first and foremost, how can you expect a teacher or educational team to help your child in this area when they aren’t given the education, training and experience to do so? The short answer is that they can’t. We need to change that reality but it’s going to take decades. So I’ve come to realize that the path from suffering to success is found by changing our assumptions, expanding our focus and taking better care of our heart and soul RIGHT NOW. Your Child Restored: The Path From Suffering to Success Over the course of 25 years of working with kids and their families, I’ve created and refined a 5-Part Program where parents and guardians have to think much more creatively about their kids who have learning challenges starting at the very beginning of awareness of the problem. The core belief behind my program can be obvious but also quite provocative and nerve wracking for the child’s caregivers. I very directly challenge the assumption that the experts lie outside the family. Parents must go way beyond contacting the school for help and understanding. In a nutshell, PARENTS OR PRIMARY CAREGIVERS are always going to be the most powerful and effective advocate for THEIR child. NO ONE...Not your child’s teacher, or guidance counselor, or principal or therapist will be more effective than YOU. You may not feel that way in the beginning but you can get there. It’s important to remember that this is a process...a marathon not a sprint. But you’ll get there...and so will your child. This is not to say that there is not a role for educational consultants. We can be very helpful but in the

long run we often come and go over the years. We are most effective serving as anchors or guides during the critical moments when you need us. And we are most effective when we guide your self-directed education. It’s the old “Teach a man to fish and he eats forever” model. My program, Your Child Restored: From Suffering to Success is based on five key steps that a parent or caretaker needs to take. Here is a very brief synopsis of each of those key steps. Part One: Fully accept and embrace the role of your child’s advocate Many of us feel overwhelmed by the prospect of advocating for our child when we think we don’t know a thing about their challenges. Moreover, aren’t the teachers the experts? Far too often Continue on page 38

Book List

By Salome Thomas-EL @Principal_EL With over twenty years of experience helping hundreds of troubled children excel academically and personally, Salome ThomasEL has an action plan that all of us--educators, businesspeople, volunteers, relatives, and everyday folks--can use to reach out to the young people in our lives. By identifying the most important areas in which mentors can affect the lives of young people, Thomas-EL shows how you can be of influence in ways you may not expect. Whether you decide to provide a professional influence by exposing youth to the dynamics of the workplace, or a healthy influence by modeling participation in sports and showing how to make healthful food choices, or an influence in good character through interactions that demonstrate respect, friendship, and discipline, you'll find that the immortality of influence is achievable in every arena of life. Anything is possible when kids are given our time, taught to care for themselves and others, and led by our example--not only at home, but in the community at large. For any caring adult, this book is an essential guide to making a difference--not just for today, but forever.

Living Education Everyday

Community Colleges Offer Solutions By Reginald N. Nichols, M.Ed. @RegNichols

make up 57% of the community college population, compared to men at 43% (Colleges 2014). The Ethnicity of today’s community college student is 51% white, 19% Hispanic, 14 % Black, 6% Asian/Pacific Islander, 1% Native American and 8% Other/Unknown. When we compare community college students among the entire undergraduate population, we discovered community colleges make up 45% of the entire population, 42 % are first time freshman, 59% are Native American, 56% are Hispanic, 48% Black and 44% are Asian/Pacific Islander (Colleges, 2014). Other important facts about community college students and institutional demographics: 36% of community college students are the first in their family to attend college, 4% are veterans, 17% are single parents, 12% have a documented disability, 21% of full time students working full time, 40% of the part time students are working full time, 58% of students receive some form of financial aid.

Community colleges have a long history in the United States. The growth of the community college system exploded during the 1960s. Community colleges have served as the gateway to a formal education. They have served as the roots of opportunity for one to further their education. In addition, community colleges have allowed people to reinvent themselves for new job opportunities. The American Association of Community Colleges 2014 Community College Fact Sheet provides interesting statistics by which to get a sense of the community college landscape. According to Colleges (2014) the student population is 60% part time, 40% full time and their average age is 28. Women

The average cost of a public 2 year in district community college is $3,260 compared to an average cost of $8,890 to attend a 4-year public in state college (Colleges, 2014). The role of community colleges have expanded to assisting K-12 schools with pre-college and college programming, training the business community and development of noncredit enrichment courses for working professionals. Community Colleges offer free or low cost programs. Continue on page 41

Do something healthy for your child. Get to know his teacher today.

Your Child Restored continued from page 33

that is not the case. When we offer our children up to the educational bureaucracy, months and months or even years can go by before a proper remediation plan is put in place.

your database of knowledge quickly. It is not rocket science. Even understanding the underlying neurobiology is doable. Just slow down and you will learn the specific terminology.

It behooves us to emotionally accept that we are not only able to take on the role but can be effective. And, as I will mention in Part 3, it creates a mindset where you much more rapidly begin to take a look at all of your options both in school and out. Remember that early intervention is key and that you cannot take the “let’s wait and see” approach.

One key issue will be your awareness of your rights in negotiating for services within the school district. Know them well.

Part Two: Educate yourself relentlessly so that you can make informed decisions One of the wonderful aspects of the digital revolution has obviously been our ability to access information that previously was locked up far and away from lay people. There are mountains of content out there that you will find helpful in both understanding what you’re dealing with as well as what to do about it. Initially, it will take time, like all new things, but you will grow

Over time, your need for certain types of information will change. The demands of middle school are different than the demands of high school and college. How your child’s or loved one’s brain is wired will likely not change but how they use their brains to meet the environmental challenges will shift over time. Information regarding how to manage those transitions is available to you. Part Three: Evaluate all of your options for supporting your child–both in your community and within your school district The cliché that “It takes a village to raise a child” is a cliché because it is true. In most cases you will find that you will need community and

home-based resources above and beyond what the school is offering for remediation and skill building. This may take the form of perhaps private school placement, extra tutoring, special classes (both to help with the dyslexia and classes that give your child or loved one pleasure), counseling and consulting, etc. Fortunately, educational technology has become one of the most powerful tools for remediation, training and education. The software and applications available today are completely transforming how we work with our children. This is especially so for people with dyslexia. It is a “specific revolution” within the overall educational technology revolution. Part Four: Advocate fiercely along the way. Be calm, be ready, be fearless and never give up. By advocating “fiercely,” I do not mean that you should act like a bull in the china shop. A true warrior is calm, wellprepared and fearless. . “Never give up” of course is the mantra for many struggles in our lives. In this case, it is a great gift to your loved one. Dyslexia does not go away. Continue on page 41

Book List

Author Hal Ross The Deadliest Game weaves a horrifying and unthinkable tale of a terrorist plot against U.S. consumers using a toy company and the owner as the key to the plot's success. Blair Mulligan - divorced and still obsessing about it - is a thirtyfive-year-old executive in the toy industry who wants nothing more than to achieve success with a brand new electronic gaming system that has the potential to revolutionize his business. However, a sinister force is at play, a force that threatens to wreak havoc across the United States. Blair's six-year-old daughter is used as a pawn, and Blair must make the one decision no father should ever have to make - to save his daughter or the lives of several thousand other children.

Living Education Everyday

Your Child Restored continued from page 38

Henry Winkler, The Fonz from Happy Days, is well known for quoting the following, “You don’t grow out of dyslexia, you just learn to negotiate with it.” So you have to keep at it and work to avoid giving up. Again, having electronic access to information and having access to a community of others through digital media and local groups is so critical and at the very least you or your loved one will learn that he or she is not “broken” and you or your loved one are not alone. Part Five: Take care of your heart and soul as well as your child’s heart and soul. I am not sure that I can possibly emphasize Part Five enough. It’s often the missing ingredient

for families who really struggle with learning issues like dyslexia. For your child or loved one it is so important to help them pursue what they love to do and what they do well. Six or seven hours a day, five days a week, nine months out of the year our children are in a setting that screams failure for them. They need your guidance and support to heal their heart and soul by doing what they love.

done, what is most important in life? For more information: In January of 2014, I released a series of podcasts that address the five steps you need to take in greater depth. These podcasts really represent the beginning of a conversation that could be helpful for many years to come. I urge you to sign up and join the discussion at

And the same goes for you. So many parents or caretakers get so focused on the difficulties and challenges that they miss the value of replenishing their spirit. Really, when all is said and

Let’s Bring Civility Back to the College Campus continued from page 22

actions in our own behavior. We must be able to demonstrate open dialogue, and successful debate of differing ideas if we expect it of others. If any of this article rang true to you and you believe our society is in need of a burst of civility, you can start today. Let’s get out there and take care of each other. Remember, we’re all in this together. lity-in-america-2013-incivility-has-reached-crisislevels 2 Rookstool, J (2007). Fostering Civility on Campus. Community College Press, Washington, DC. 3 3 /2011-04-26-college-campus-civility.htm 5 Rookstool, J (2007). Fostering Civility on Campus. Community College Press, Washington, DC.

Community Colleges continued from page 36

When we look at the definition of community, it states, “A group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society” (Merriam-Webster, 2014). Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary perfectly describes our community colleges. They are institutions of higher learning where dedicated faculty, staff and administrators provide students with a high quality of education. Their commitment to providing open and affordable access to higher education have provided millions of people chance to obtain a part of the American Dream. I have spent the last 18 years in education, principally in higher education. I have recruited students, provided information on financing;; discussed career option and transferring opportunities. I have worked with all types of students throughout my career. I have found the most rewarding experiences have been with community college students. The community

college student balances the needs to uplift themselves through education, while at the same time addressing the challenges of life. I'm a son of working class parents; I remember my path to higher education well. It was a community college that started my

As a lifelong learner, I have continued my never ending journey for new knowledge and skill building. I have embraced today’s technological society and develop my skills as an end user of technology and social media. I have adopted both locally and nationally tech mentors to further my tech

journey to discovery. Going to a community college provided me with the foundation I needed in order to focus myself. I also was able to develop a network of faculty, staff and administrators that help me become a professional. The community college is the pathway for many of today’s students to further pursue higher education or head directly into their career. According to a February 2011 Harvard Graduate School of Education Report entitled,” Pathways to Prosperity”, nearly 14 million jobs over the next century will only require associates degree or postsecondary credentials. These jobs will allow students to obtain careers in the area they called “middle-skill’ professions. These opportunities will help students seeking to start their professional careers in a short period of time (Education, Feburary 2011). We are nearly 15 years into the 21th century. The traditional manufacturing jobs are few in the United States. Today’s jobs require workers to have multiple layers of knowledge, skills and flexibility in order to be upwardly mobile. A community college provides a low cost and effective way to develop needed new skills.

education and to share that knowledge with friends , family and colleagues. I truly believe in the importance of spreading and connecting people to information that can serve their needs. My role as an academic counselor at a community college allows me the privilege to assist students with their goals and future aspirations. Learning is an ongoing journey. Continue on page 44

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Community Colleges continued from page 42

In one of my recent MOOC classes through Coursea via Duke University entitled, “History and Future of (Mostly) Higher Education, Professor Cathy Davison used the quote from Alvin Toffler as the theme of our class, “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” (University, 2014). I would like to leave you with my top ten tips for continuing to be a lifelong learner: 1. Attend your local community college to develop new skills that will prepare you for today’s jobs. 2. Embrace technology. Become a digital literate citizen. Free and low cost classes are available at community colleges, libraries and adult education centers. 3. Develop a network of mentors and advocates to assist you in your lifelong learning journey. 4. Laugh, Laugh a lot. It's good for the mind, body and soul. 5. Ask questions, engage in healthy debate and disagree respectfully. 6. Everyone is a teacher. You can learn from everyone. 7. Get plenty of sleep. You do your best thinking after a good night of sleep. 8. Be mindful of people’s circumstances and view the world through their eyes. 9. Organize your work and life. Spontaneity is great, but have a list too! 10. You can learn from positive and negative experiences. Colleges, A. A. (2014, 3 6). 2014 Fact Sheet. Retrieved 3 6, 2014, from American Association of Community College: factsfactsheet.aspx Education, H. G. (Feburary 2011). Pathways to Prosperity. New York: Pearson Foundation

Community. Retrieved 3 9, 2014, from Merriam-Webster: University, C.-D. (2014, January 27). History and Future of (Mostly) Higher Education. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from

New Leaders

Dr. Tuajuanda Jordan President

St. Mary’s College of Maryland

Living Education Everyday

Engaging a New Generation Through Intentionality By Ray Gasser, Ph.D. @DrRayGasser

Some alarming trends have continued to surface in higher education over the past fifteen years. The cost of attending college continues to outpace inflation dramatically. This reality has made it more difficult for families with lesser means to attend college. Next, state institutions have gone from state supported to state tolerated with diminishing fiscal investment. This trend has created a cyclic process

in that institutions look to recover lost dollars directly from the consumers of higher education, the student. As a response to these trends, leadership in higher education has created new trends. First, college and universities continue to try to grow to bring in additional dollars. Unfortunately, this has not necessarily added additional staff and faculty resources; it often times just puts greater pressure on the universities human resources making it harder for students to be successful. Second, for profit institutions have begun growing rapidly as an offshoot of the realities occurring in higher education. Not to diminish the outcomes of for-profit institutions but they clearly look to provide education with a business strategy

and that can’t in all cases be beneficial for students. And third, many institutions have begun to look overseas to grow their student base. Institutions like Michigan State University have seen significant increases in students attending from China, India, and South Korea among others in the last several years. This trend looks to get full tuition paying students to help to subsidize an already strained budget while not necessarily growing staff resources across the campus. In an ever-changing higher education landscape, the academe is being judged more and more on

outcomes. Politicians and consumers are expecting more from our institutions. As a result, many institutions have tried to find quick fixes to boost retention rates and graduation results. Without changing the input (the students), we should not expect any quick fixes because student success is much more complicated to control for. The sheer number of variables is overwhelming and many of them are challenging to manage without some fundamental changes. Many schools have invested in

assessment tools like MAP Works, a tool originally developed at Ball State University used to measure precollege characteristics with a student’s self-described behaviors to determine the likelihood of their success at the institution. While the tool is powerful and can yield some positive results, I would caution any institution from putting all of their proverbial eggs into one basket. MAP Works can be a useful tool in conjunction with other tactics at an institutional level focusing on good practices in and out of the classroom. Today, institutions have looked at student success much like individuals look at weight loss. What is the easiest way I can achieve my goal with the least amount of effort. Unfortunately, this will not yield real positive results. Institutions must build multi-faceted approaches and recognize that decades of retention research show that one approach, even if it is multi-faceted, won’t necessarily work for all students. We have to begin to meet students part way and realize the complexity of our challenge. This will require patience by administrators along with fiscal and human resources. Critically important is to assess results so that modifications can be made along the way. There is nothing more wasteful than to continue down a course when it fails to show any sort of positive results. During assessment, institutions need to be careful about drawing quick conclusions because seldom are results with student success shown to be actually causal. In 1984, one of the most seminal pieces of research was written by Alexander Astin through the Study Group on Conditions of Excellence in Higher Education. Astin found that excellent learning environments depended upon three conditions: student involvement, high expectations, and assessment & feedback. Astin argued that involvement is the foundation of the findings because setting high expectations and providing feedback are the means for enhancing student involvement. Simply, learning evolves from student involvement. Administrators today seem to have lost the importance of this work. By catering to today’s student who is more electronically engaged often times than socially engaged, we miss the opportunity to truly engage students and motivate their involvement. As pressures mount on higher education to perform, we must expect just as much from our students in the environment that Astin described, through high .

expectations and feedback, students must be engaged in the university through active involvement. Administrators today seem to have lost the importance of this work. By catering to today’s student who is more electronically engaged often times than socially engaged, we miss the opportunity to truly engage students and motivate their involvement. As pressures mount on higher education to perform, we must expect just as much from our students in the environment that Astin described, through high expectations and feedback, students must be engaged in the university through active involvement. At Michigan State University, we have found positive outcomes from first-year students living in engaged living learning communities versus all other first-year students. Michigan State strives to make the institution more manageable for students by providing support in a “neighborhood” approach. By approaching student success through multiple avenues, institutions can help to foster student success one person at a time. Student success is a critical measure for institutions hoping to survive the changing landscape in higher education. Institutions have a responsibility to cater their programs to each student through a variety of resources and students have the responsibility to engage themselves within their campus. If we don’t hold both the student and the institution accountable to the equation, success won’t be achievable in the future.

2014 NFL Mock Draft: Joe Marino @TheJoeMarino

With the Senior Bowl and other major all-star games in the books, draft boards are beginning to take shape before the 2014 NFL Scouting Combine is held in February. While predicting draft picks and presenting scenarios is interesting, this mock draft is not about that. I am putting on my general manager hat and selecting the player I would take at this point in time if given the opportunity.

1. Houston Texans – Teddy Bridgewater, QB, Louisville: The most important position to get right in the NFL is quarterback. Bridgewater is the No. 1 player on the board and he fills a desperate need. Perfect fit. 2. St. Louis Rams – Jake Matthews, OT, Texas A&M: Sammy Watkins is a possibility, but I wouldn’t want to draft a receiver in the top 10 in consecutive years. Matthews is a complete prospect who could solidify the Rams offensive line for a decade. 3. Jacksonville Jaguars – Derek Carr, QB, Fresno State: The Jaguars have to get the quarterback position figured out. While Carr is a bit of a reach as the No. 3 overall pick, he is Jacksonville’s best opportunity to solidify the most important position in the game. 4. Cleveland Browns – Blake Bortles, QB, Central Florida: The Browns have talent, draft picks and cap space. It’s time for them to get a franchise quarterback to build around, and Bortles is the best option among the signal-callers available.

5. Oakland Raiders – Jadeveon Clowney, DE, South Carolina: After passing up on great defensive linemen like Star Lotulelei and Sheldon Richardson to select cornerback D.J. Hayden last season, the Raiders shouldn’t make that mistake again. Oakland should be elated if Clowney, who could help the entire defense, falls to the No. 5 overall pick. 6. Atlanta Falcons – Greg Robinson, OT, Auburn: The Falcons had an atrocious offensive line and the NFL’s worst rushing offense in 2013. Robinson, one of the best run-blocking offensive lineman I have ever seen, can improve Atlanta is both of those areas, so he is too good to pass up in this scenario. 7. Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Sammy Watkins, WR, Clemson: The Buccaneers had the worst passing offense in the NFL in 2013, but second-year quarterback Mike Glennon gives them a chance to improve. Surrounding him with weapons is a must, and Watkins is the top wide receiver in the draft. 8. Minnesota Vikings – Khalil Mack, OLB, Buffalo: The Minnesota Vikings gave up the NFL’s most points in 2013, so taking the highest-rated defensive player on the board is an easy decision. Although Mack might not be an obvious scheme fit, head coach Mike Zimmer has been known to find positions for playmakers to make plays. 9. Buffalo Bills – Eric Ebron, TE, North Carolina: The Bills should do everything possible to surround EJ Manuel with talent, and providing him with an explosive, playmaking weapon like Ebron does just that. 10.Detroit Lions – Justin Gilbert, CB, Oklahoma State: The Lions need to add pieces to the back end of their defense that complement their stout defensive front seven. Gilbert is the top cornerback in this year’s draft. 11.Tennessee Titans – Anthony Barr, LB, UCLA: While Barr is an extremely talent, he is an explosive athlete with dangerous edge-rushing ability, and newly hired defensive coordinator Ray Horton can help maximize his potential. 12.New York Giants – C.J. Mosley, LB, Alabama: The Giants should be looking for a new face of their defense. Mosley is a complete linebacker who has long-term starting potential. 13.St. Louis Rams – Mike Evans, WR, Texas A&M: Evans could give the Rams offense another playmaker, and give Sam Bradford every opportunity to prove what he can do next season or provide an exciting surrounding cast for St. Louis’ next quarterback. 14.Chicago Bears – Louis Nix, DT, Notre Dame: The Bears’ rushing defense gave up 5.3 yards per carry in 2013, in part due to poor defensive tackle on the board, so this Continue on page 58

Children Pay the Price, When Adults Can’t Figure it Out! By LaVar Young @LaVarYoung

As I write, millions of children across the country attend schools that rank below average on the global stage. In the simplest terms, our schools are failing at an alarming rate, particularly in our nation’s most impoverished and needy areas. The U.S. ranks 15th in reading, 17th in science and 25th in math, according to the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment, behind South Korea, Finland and Singapore. While some are fortunate enough to be able to move to a good school district to ensure their children receive the best education possible, most are not. Is it okay that a quality public education, is not a given right in this country and is available only to those who can afford it? In Newark, NJ the most recent education reform plan; One Newark has ignited parents and community leaders to question the new initiative. One Newark calls for Newark Public Schools and Charter schools to partner on a Universal enrollment plan.2 Under the plan, there would be one application, one timeline and one central clearing space for information about all city schools. Essentially the plan would eliminate the need for parents to go from school to school filling out applications and participating in different lotteries in hopes of getting their children enrolled in school. The plan also calls for charter schools to occupy 4 buildings that were traditional public schools. If the plan were successfully implemented by the 2014-15 school year 11 former public schools would be charter schools. Newark Public School officials say the steady decline in enrollment leaves them no choice but to close the schools and turn them over to charter schools. Currently there are less than 40,000 students enrolled in Newark Public Schools compared to more than 80,000 at its height in the mid 1970’s. Newark’s charter schools have an enrollment of 9,600 students with hundreds of families on waiting list. Public schools officials say they are simply trying to meet the demand for better education and working with charter schools is the best way to do it. Thus far over 6,000 families have registered for the One Newark Plan. Parents, Community leaders, Teachers, and some Principals say not so fast! Opponents argue that parents and community leaders were not engaged in the process of creating the plan and were not given opportunities to discuss the plan before it was made public. Some parents say additional school closings will force their children to travel long distances to different neighborhoods by public transportation to get to school in a city plagued by violence. Educators argue their schools are making progress with

improved test scores and overall results. Union officials argue that school closings are a front to eliminate teachers and hundreds of support staff. Recently Newark Public School officials have said as many as 1,000 teaching positions could be eliminated over the next 3 years under the plan. Superintendent Cami Anderson has asked the NJ Department of Education to bypass tenure laws. This would allow Anderson to eliminate teachers based on classroom effectiveness as opposed to seniority, which has been the traditional method. Union officials have said they will file a court injunction barring such a move. The back and forth has gone on for months with each side upping the ante in their battle against the other. Principals have been suspended or re-signed for voicing their displeasure with the plan. Recently a Parent Leader was barred from entering a school. The Principals and the Parent Leader have filed a federal lawsuit arguing the district violated their civil rights to free speech. Superintendent Anderson has refused to attend any more community meetings after a parent questioned if Anderson who is white, felt the same way about her brown baby, as Newark parents feel about their brown babies. Anderson has a bi-racial son with an AfricanAmerican father. Both Newark Mayoral candidates; current South Ward Council Men,

and Central High School Principal Ras Baraka and former School Board President Shavar Jefferies have argued that the State controlled district has by-passed community input and argue the district should be returned to local control. Unfortunately, the battle going on in Newark is nothing new to Newark or America. This

storyline is old, dating back at least 20 years, similar battles have been fought in Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Chicago and most recently New York where new Mayor Bill de Blasio back tracked after NYC Schools Chancellor Carmen Farina told reporters 3 “They’re charter schools. They’re on their own.” That comment was followed by a quickly created, million dollar media campaign backed by charter school’s blasting Mayor de Blasio’s plan to separate from Charter Schools. Nearly four years ago, immediately following Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg’s historic donation of $100 million dollars to Newark Public Schools. The Partnership’s for Education in Newark (PENewark) was created to engage as many stake holders as possible in creating the future direction of Newark Public Schools. An unprecedented citywide plan was created that called for hundreds of canvassers to knock on 91,000 doors surveying parents and residents, 10 large town hall meetings, and 30 coffee klatches were held to gain parent and community input. Newark had studied the past and was going to show America how to get Education Reform done in a big City. Four years later and millions of dollars spent we find ourselves in the same battle. When does it end? When will we realize that the useless fighting; the endless back and forth, the union vs. nonunion, charter vs. public school, State vs. Municipality fighting does not get us anywhere. When does it end? From my vantage point no one is winning, but there is a clear loser. Our children! While the battle is being fought we are losing thousands of young people every day. As a country, we are losing valuable time in preparing the next generation for the world that awaits their arrival as adults. Continue on page 60

Living Education Everyday

Combatting Childhood Hunger in America—One Possible Approach By Susan M. Gardner, Ph.D. @PhDSus

My home state recently experienced a crisis unlike anything I have ever witnessed. In January 2014, a chemical company with holding tanks on a riverbank in Charleston, West Virginia (WV) leaked an estimated 10,000 gallons of 4-methycyclohexane methanol (or MCHM) into the Elk River less than a mile upstream from the water intake facility for the West Virginia American Water Company. For over a week, residents in nine counties were told not to drink, cook, bathe or wash with the water. Over 300,000 people were impacted. When the ban was lifted, many residents (including myself) chose to continue drinking bottled water. The chemical leak crisis in WV also affected the school children in those nine counties. Schools were closed in some counties for two full weeks. And, because the crisis was concurrent with a frigid polar vortex, many were closed for an even longer period. In my home county, public schools were closed a total of 14 days in January and February 2014. Parents, teachers and community members were up in

arms about the loss of instructional time during this period. Concerns began to swirl about what it would do to school calendars. On days school was closed due to winter weather and sub-zero temperatures, there were complaints via media outlets including radio, TV and social media. Everyone seemed to be chanting: “Bundle them up and send those kids to school!”

parents reluctantly sent children with directions not to drink the water. Some didn’t send children to school at all. Fears about the water were made worse when several schools tested positive for MCHM weeks after the ban was lifted. The National Guard delivered water to area schools. Cooks chose to prepare food with bottled water. Water fountains were blocked off from use.

When school was in session,

This is not a commentary about

the chemical leak, although there is much to say about legislators beholden to corporate lobbyists, the economy and culture of a state so reliant on the coal industry and the lack of concern for our environment. However, I will save that conversation for a later time. Additionally, this is not a commentary about what public schools should or should not do to make up snow days. This is a commentary about childhood poverty and hunger.

Although the loss of instructional days is certainly a concern, what should also concern us is that as a result of a chemical crisis and unusual winter weather, thousands of WV children went hungry. In addition, many of these children do not own hats, gloves and boots—all things needed to brave a light dusting of snow and most certainly a polar vortex. Like many of our nation’s children, kids in WV are cold and hungry. According to Kids Count data, over 9% of WV

children live with at least one unemployed parent. Twenty percent of WV residents receive SNAP benefits—40% are children. According to the WV Office of Child Nutrition, 60% of the state’s children qualify for free or reduced-price lunch. The widespread poverty in my home state was further emphasized in January 2014 when the Associated Press reported a jobless rate increase in all 55 WV counties (bringing the jobless

Continue on page 60

New Leaders

Dr. Chuck Staben President

University Idaho

Living Education Everyday

Mock Draft continued from page 50

selection is a no-brainer. 15. Pittsburgh Steelers – Taylor Lewan, OT, Michigan: The Steelers have played musical chairs with their offensive tackles for several years. It’s time to make another attempt to solidify the position. Lewan fits the Steelers well. 16. Baltimore Ravens – David Yankey, G, Stanford: The Ravens ranked last in the NFL with 3.1 rushing yards per carry last season. Yankey generates significant movement as a run blocker and can allow the Baltimore rushing offense to re-emerge in 2014. 17. Dallas Cowboys – Ra’Shede Hageman, DT, Minnesota: Dallas’ struggles on defense in 2013 were welldocumented. The unit has to be rebuilt, and that effort starts up front. Hageman is the top defensive lineman on the board in this scenario. 18. New York Jets – Odell Beckham Jr., WR, LSU: The Jets have to provide weapons on offense for quarterback Geno Smith, and Beckham has incredible talent. He has dynamic receiving and return skills, so he can elevate New York’s playmaking

ability on both offense and special teams. 19. Miami Dolphins – Zack Martin, OT, Notre Dame: The Dolphins gave up the most sacks in the NFL in 2013, so they have to do a better job protecting the quarterback. Martin has shown success against some of the nation’s top pass rushers, including in last week’s Senior Bowl. 20. Arizona Cardinals – Cyrus Kouandjio, OT, Alabama: Kouandjio has tremendous raw ability as a blocker. The Cardinals, who Pro Football Focus rated as the NFL’s worst pass-blocking team in 2013, need to be able to protect Carson Palmer due to his lack of mobility. 21. Green Bay Packers – Calvin Pryor, S, Louisville: The Packers have a major need at free safety and Pryor is the best player at his position in this year’s draft. 22. Philadelphia Eagles – Darqueze Dennard, CB, Michigan State: The Eagles had the NFL’s worst passing defense in 2013. Dennard is a shutdown corner who can also make them better in run support. Continue on page 62

A Global Story About Disability Inclusion By Debra Ruh @debraruh

Do you believe you were born for a purpose? I believe we all have many things to accomplish in our lives. Our precious first born baby Sara Renee Ruh was born on Easter Sunday in 1987. She was born about 3 weeks sooner than expected. I remember holding and looking at my precious baby girl about an hour after she was born. A thought quietly floated through my mind, "My baby looks like she has Down syndrome." I immediately rejected that quiet whisper! I had never known anyone with Down syndrome and had no idea what those babies looked like; plus, wouldn't the doctors know? I did not mention that whisper to anyone. We brought our Sara Renee Ruh home and fell madly in love with her. She was the best thing that had ever happened to our family. We loved being parents and Sara was a happy baby. We threw ourselves into parenthood. A male friend asked me one day, "Can you believe how deeply you have fallen in love with her?” I understood what he meant. The depth of our love for her was surprising. I knew that I would love her but was surprised at the intensity. I now understood how someone would give anything for someone, even your life. I took her in faithfully for all her shots and regular checkups. During her 4 month checkup, one of the doctors became concerned because she was not gaining weight. He ordered some test and after he got the results called us into his office to discuss the results. The doctor told us that Sara had a

chromosomal syndrome called Down syndrome. “Don’t worry, the doctor said, she will be easier to raise than a child with ADHD.” We were stunned. What would this mean for our lives and for our beautiful daughter? According to a World Health Organization (WHO) 2011 Study, 1 in 7 people in the world have a disability. The National Organization on Disabilities (NOD) says 1 in 3 American Households are impacted, and this community is the largest minority community after women. Our family was now one of those American households impacted. Life’s Wheel Life moved on, when Sara was 15 months old her brother Kevin was born. We moved from Florida to Virginia a few years later. When Sara entered the 6th grade she was barely reading or writing. We met with a transition team to plan out Sara's future and last years of school. We also discussed future employment options. We understood that if Sara could not read she has few employment options. Someone on the team suggested a job bringing in shopping carts at a grocery store. I was shocked. Seriously? That is our goal for her last years of school? Those words haunted me and propelled me to create an IT firm that understood the value of employing people with disabilities. During this time, we taught Sara to read and she won the Hanover County Raby Award for most improved Special Education Student. A Global Message Sara Ruh speaks in Doha, Qatar Sara has taught me many life messages and touched the lives of people in powerful ways. Several of her childhood friends became Special Education Teachers; her brother devotes his life to helping people understand individuals with disabilities can add great value to society. Sara

speeches have touched people all over the world. When we visited Egypt and Kenya in 2013, many people wanted to pose with Sara in photos. People with Disabilities are still often kept at home in many countries. It is rare to see a selfcomposed, professional young woman with Down syndrome speaking at large venues. We were stopped on the street, in the airport and at the hotel. People were impressed with Sara's poise, confidence, sense of humor and intelligence. We need to embrace the lessons that we are taught by our abilities and disabilities. I have had the honor and privilege to meet parents of children with disabilities in Spain, Singapore, Egypt, Qatar, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Costa Rica, Kenya, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, Ireland, India, England, Russia, China, Singapore, Thailand and all over the United States. Without exception these families desire for their family members with disabilities to have opportunities. They also need the resources to meet their goals, follow their passions and have their dreams come true. The time has come for people with disabilities to find our voices. Let’s use social media to be heard and to help others be heard. We can change the lives of billions of people by including those with disabilities in every aspect of society. Children Pay the Price continued from page 52

America cannot and should not continue to refer to itself as a leader in the free world when basic rights such as free quality education are difficult for a select segment of the population to obtain. Common ground from both sides must be the uniting factor. The common ground seems to be the children; if in fact this is the truth we must make this the priority for both sides. 2 rict_and_charter_sc.html 3 ncellor-says-she-regrets-remarks-about-a-harlemcharter-school.html?_r=0 4 _to_launch_relentless_ou.html

Are Today’s High-School Graduates Better continued from page 26

competitive by increasing the base of high-school graduates who are prepared to select a college and then succeed in their chosen career. I propose the following as a path for connecting high-school classrooms with the readiness and preparation for college and careers:  

Encourage high-school students to start planning for their future in the ninth grade in order to be well prepared for college. Improve curriculum development and implementation support for college and career services delivered to high-school students before they reach their senior year Ensure that school guidance counselors are aware of each student’s college and career plan so they are capable of helping them to set goals for their college and career pathways. Allow high-school students to speak about their high-school academic experiences, the importance of education, and its purpose and benefits for what comes next in their lives.

Nowadays, perhaps like never before, high-school graduates have to be very specific about their college and career choices. Today’s world is very competitive. The career opportunities are abundant and global. The high school years should help to fuel aspirations. High schools that implement my proposal will be equipping their students with the education and resources they need to take the next step in life and helping them choose the best college-to-career pathways. Combatting Childhood Hunger continued from page

rate as high as 13% in some counties—almost double what the jobless rate is nationwide). West Virginia has its share of problems when it comes to poverty. However, if you look to your own home state, childhood poverty and hunger are likely more prevalent than first suspected. Several years ago, I served as the editor for a school nutrition publication. I learned quickly that the federal school lunch program was originally started not by the United States Department of

Agriculture (where it resides now) but by the U.S. Department of Defense. When free and reducedprice lunches began in our nation’s schools the government was making an effort to feed future soldiers. Today, school lunch programs feed our hungry children. And in America, there are far too many children going hungry. West Virginia, it seems, is only a snapshot of a more pervasive problem. Nearly 16 million children in the U.S. live in families with incomes below the federal poverty level ($23,550 per year for a family of four). According to the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University, most of these children have parents who work, but low wages and unstable employment leave their families struggling to make ends meet. Research indicates that along with being hungry, children in poverty are:    

Five times more likely to have children outside of marriage Twice as likely to be arrested Three times as likely to have severe health problems End up earning 50% less than their counterparts

In addition, poverty during early childhood has a greater impact on certain outcomes, such as cognitive ability and high school completion than poverty in later childhood and adolescence. According to Tavis Smiley and Cornell West in their 2012 book, “The Rich and the Rest of Us,” we can no longer afford as a nation to ignore the fact that so many people are hungry. The assumption that “No one goes hungry in America” is a myth. Over 50 million people in America go to bed hungry and have no idea when their next meal will come from. Visits to food banks have risen 30 percent since the beginning of the recession. Food pantries are cropping up on college and University campuses nationwide where students are able to pay for schooling with grants and financial aid but have no money left for food. This is especially prevalent on our nation’s community college campuses where many students are at or below the federal poverty level. But rather than focus on the problem, let’s talk about one small step that might help address it. And, although it might surprise many, that solution is happening right here in my home state

of WV. This “something” that WV is doing right could also be implemented in other states as one important way to address childhood hunger. In 2013, the WV legislature passed the West Virginia Feed to Achieve Act (SB 633) in effort to address childhood poverty and hunger in WV. The Feed to Achieve Act aims to provide free, nutritious breakfast and lunch for all public school students by the fall of 2015. As of fall 2013, 21 of the state's 55 counties have already started implementing some sort of alternative breakfast strategy in all of their schools. The goal for the new meal plan is not only to combat childhood hunger in the state, but to improve student attendance, attentiveness and overall achievement. This legislative initiative is being funded by donations and supplemental funds. In fact, the bill’s language specifically indicates a requirement for the WV Department of Education and each county board of education to establish a fund that is restricted solely for the receipt and expenditure of gifts, grants and bequests for the purpose of providing additional or supplemental funds to increase participation in the nutrition programs outlined in the Feed to Achieve initiative. Additionally, the state DOE and county boards are charged with forming or expanding partnerships with the federal and state departments of agriculture and health, local master gardeners, county extension agents or other experts in the field of agriculture or gardening. These collaborations may assist in the development of community gardens, farm to school programs and other programs that teach students how to grow, produce and provide healthy food. I believe that every state should consider adopting this progressive approach to combating hunger and maximizing opportunities for student learning. As a nation we spend far too much time thinking of poverty as “someone else’s problem.” Childhood hunger and poverty are everyone’s problem. Today we need healthy children who are able to learn, develop and grow into active citizens—not just as soldiers but as tomorrow’s brain trust. During WV’s recent chemical spill, shelves at food banks were empty. When children returned to Continue to page 73

Mock Draft continued from page 58

23. Kansas City Chiefs – Jordan Matthews, WR, Vanderbilt:

Kansas City needs a big-bodied, physical receiver to play opposite Dwayne Bowe. Matthews adds firepower to a passing offense that needs it. 24.Cincinnati Bengals – Trent Murphy, DE, Stanford: Inevitably, the Bengals cannot keep all of their talented defensive lineman, so they should continue to replenish the talent. Murphy is a playmaker on the edge as both a run-stopper and pass-rusher. 25.San Diego Chargers – Kyle Van Noy, LB, BYU: A versatile, playmaking linebacker like Van Noy is a welcome addition to a defense that could use more talent at all three levels. 26.Cleveland Browns (from Indianapolis Colts) – Davante Adams, WR, Fresno State: With a new quarterback in tow, the Browns should be in the market for another playmaker on the receiving end. Adams was college football’s most productive receiver in 2013 with 131 catches for 1,719 yards and 24 touchdowns. 27.New Orleans Saints – Jeremiah Attaochu, OLB, Georgia Tech: The Saints should want another dynamic edge player to make plays in Rob Ryan’s defense. Attaochu is arguably the best pure pass-rusher in the draft. 28.Carolina Panthers – Kelvin Benjamin, WR, Florida State: With Steve Smith aging, the Panthers need another target for Cam Newton. With terrific size and the ability to win jump-ball situations, Benjamin has No. 1 receiver upside 29.New England Patriots – Jace Amaro, TE, Texas Tech: Rob Gronkowski’s injury concerns are mounting, and Patriots quarterback Tom Brady loves throwing to tight ends. Amaro has a chance to be the next Gronkowski or give New England a dynamic two-tight end offense once again. 30.San Francisco 49ers – Marqise Lee, WR, USC: One thing the 49ers are missing on offense is a dynamic slot player who can create big plays after the catch. Lee has shown the ability to do that in three years at USC. 31.Denver Broncos – Bradley Roby, CB, Ohio State: The Broncos have an aging secondary, and despite struggles in his redshirt junior season, Roby has top-10 talent. He is an elite athlete with proven playmaking ability. 32.Seattle Seahawks – Antonio Richardson, OT, Tennessee: Russell Wilson faced far too much pressure this season, and Richardson has been a solid pass-blocking offensive tackle throughout his career at Tennessee. He could be an upgrade at right tackle and form a strong pair at the position with Russell Okung.

New Leaders

Dr. Monty Sullivan Chancellor

Delgado Community College

The Protracted Path to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 By Linda T. Wynn @Pubhistorian Stony the road we trod, bitter the chastening rod, felt in the day that hope unborn had died; yet with a steady beat, have not our weary feet, come to the place on witch our fathers sighed? We have come over a way that with tears has been watered, we have come, treading our path through the blood of the slaughtered, out from the gloomy past, till now we stand at last where the white gleam of our star is cast. Lift Every Voice and Sing James Weldon Johnson This year marks the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. When contemplating this civil rights milestone of the modern struggle for freedom, equality, and justice, the words of James Weldon Johnson’s poem Lift Every Voice and Sing came to mind. Written more than one-hundred years ago, it resonates with not only the protracted journey to the 1964 Civil Rights Act but it also echoes the “hope of the present” and the tenaciousness to “march on until victory is won.” Penned by James Weldon Johnson in 1900, Johnson’s brother, John Rosamond Johnson set it to music. By 1920 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) proclaimed the song the "Negro National Anthem." Lift Every Voice and Sing epitomizes the protracted struggle that American Blacks experienced in their quest for freedom, equality, and justice. A mythical narrative of the civil rights movement became

embedded and solidified at the turn of the 21st century to serve political and economic needs. Critical to the framework of this idea was that the civil rights movement illustrated the resiliency and redemptive capacity of America’s democratic system. In this prevailing narrative, racism was imparted as a stain on American democracy rather than a constitutive building block constructed by the framers of its Constitution. However, the pervasive feeling was that once the fullness of its adverse holistic impact was witnessed and fully comprehended, racism would be eliminated. Yet, over the last two decades scholarly work has amply illustrated that power conceded nothing without demand, as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. noted “freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed."2 Almost any gain American Blacks made on their journey to freedom, equality, and justice was

fraught with both direct and indirect measures that caused the power structure to take action that brought them closer to first-class citizenship. The Declaration of Independence written by slave-holding Thomas Jefferson did not extend “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” to millions of blacks in America, indentured servants, or women. Actually, the first twelve of the first eighteen American presidents owned slaves. Until the ratification and subsequent adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 6, 1865, freedom for American Blacks was disavowed for ninety years. "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."3

The original Constitution protected slavery in two articles and three sections.4 Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, of the original U.S. Constitution contained the three-fifths clause. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other Persons Article I, Section 9, Clause 1, of the original U.S. Constitution prohibited Congress from ending the slave trade before 1808. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding $10 for each person. Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, of the original U.S. Constitution contained the fugitive-slave clause. It is no longer in effect:

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due. The protracted battle fought by American Blacks was grounded in their endeavor to be included in “We the People,” as put forth in the Preamble of the United States Constitution. Notwithstanding the war that the nation waged against itself and the abolition of slavery, American Blacks were persistently excluded from “We the People” and regarded as second-class citizens. Under the United States mandated system of racial exclusion, they were relegated to an existence of draconian justice. After the Civil War, American Blacks experienced a brief period of seemingly inclusion in American society as the country sought to reconstruct itself. During the Reconstruction era, formerly enslaved persons of African descent not only gained their freedom through the Thirteenth Amendment, they also were accorded citizenship through the Fourteenth Amendment, adopted on July 9, 1868, and American Black males gained the right to vote through the

Fifteenth Amendment, adopted on March 30, 1870. The year following the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment, the United States Congress passed the nation’s first Civil Rights Act in 1866. This act stated, “any citizen has the same right as a white citizen to make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property. The act guaranteed all citizens the "full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens, and ... like punishment, pains, and penalties..." Persons who denied these rights on account of race or previous enslavement were guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction faced a fine not exceeding $1,000, or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both. Using language very similar to that of the Equal Protection Clause in the newly proposed Fourteenth Amendment, the Act discussed the need to provide "reasonable protection to all persons in their constitutional rights of equality before the law.” Five years later, the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 (Ch. 22, 17 Stat. 13 [codified as amended at 18 U.S.C.A. § 241, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 1983, 1985(3), and 1988]), also called the Civil Rights Act of 1871 or the Force Act of 1871. This act was intended to protect American Blacks from violence perpetrated by the Ku Klux Klan, a white supremacist Continue on page 72

A Great Teacher is a Great Artist By Tara L. Rose “I have come to believe that a great teacher is a great artist and that there are as few as there are any other great artists. Teaching might even be the greatest of the arts since the medium is the human mind and spirit.� John Steinbeck Teaching is definitely an artwork that takes years and years of learning. When I went to college to become a teacher, things were so different. Our Google was a set of encyclopedias. We did a lot more talking face to face, not texting. Even though times have changed, my role as a teacher really has not. My goal was the same as it is now, find the best way for each child to be successful. This alone has the power to create a future of lifelong learners. I have been teaching for 18 years now and I will be the first to admit that things have changed drastically in my profession. I began as a Pre-Kindergarten teacher where my primary focus was learning and having fun. I remember finger painting daily, singing

songs and learning how to make friends. It was so inspiring to get up each morning and go to school with the intent to make sure my students were learning and having fun. After a few years of teaching Pre-K, I decided it was time for a new adventure. I set my sights on moving to Kindergarten. Kindergarten was really not that much different. There were more learning objectives to meet but I did it in the same way, fun and engaging. Students loved to dance around my class to the music and we continued to paint and learn. Teaching Kindergarten was the best years of my life. It took one special group of kids to help me realize that it didn’t matter what grade I taught, as long as I was making a difference. I was approached by my principal with an idea that since I had made such a connection to this class, it was time for me to take them to first grade. This was my best year of teaching! Those children and I had such a connection that they were able to reach their highest potential. They are now in High School and I am sure they are doing great things. I think of them often and reflect on how teaching has changed for me. I now teach second grade. Things are so different. There is no more fingers.

painting and only the occasional sound of music coming from my class. I still work hard each day to make learning fun. I try and make sure each lesson is a performance that they will never forget. The question I keep asking myself is -why is it so hard to be a teacher now? I have loved this for 18 years. Why do I feel like the demands of being a teacher, a good teacher, are so high? I work more than 12 hours a day. I go to school at 6:15 in the morning and normally come home and work for hours before I go to bed. My passion is learning- for my students and myself. I can’t imagine how a new aspiring teacher does this. With new programs and standards in place, you have to be knowledgeable in so many areas. Will new teachers make it? Will they want to come back each year? I hope so. Our future depends on it. “A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” Henry Adams

Differentiating Staff Development continued from page 30

classroom. Principals who expect their teachers to meet the needs of all learners must model effective differentiation practices. School leaders, who value the unique abilities of their teachers, and plan staff development with that in mind, send a message of empowerment to their teachers. Differentiated staff development builds teacher leadership capacity. It means utilizing staff members in the decision-making, planning and implementation phases of school-based staff development. A differentiated approach operates from, and builds on, teacher strengths. It includes, but is not limited to the use of study groups, action research, collaborative planning, vertical teaming, school developed minisessions, and district-wide initiatives. Study Groups There are ample resources available for school leaders to use study groups as an effective differentiation tool. The key is to include teachers in the selection of the topics and texts they will study. In planning for a school year, administrators will need to schedule time for teachers to both read and discuss material. Principals should select study group facilitators they trust will follow through with their groups. They will also have to require an end-product from the teachers. The discussion that takes place in study groups is critical, yet, ultimately, teachers must be asked to share out what they have learned with their peers. Study groups should also operate under shortterm parameters. Depending on the volume of material covered, study groups should last no longer than half of the school year. Ideally, study groups that conclude by the middle of the year allow teachers to use the second half of the year to integrate what they have learned. Action Research School leaders who have successfully used study groups may want to extend their staff development program by using action research. School districts are collecting more data than ever and teachers should be given the opportunity to use that data at the building level. research has the potential to answer questions

that teachers have about their students and their school. The most exciting aspect of action research is that it allows schools to take a focused look at their school-specific concerns. As with study groups, there are numerous webbased resources to assist principals in fostering action research. Principals, again, must schedule action research into their school year for it to happen. Teachers will need time to collect, analyze and interpret data. For schools, action research should be defined in broader terms than those used by the social sciences. School leaders should support the collection of anecdotal, qualitative data, which often provides insight into student performance that cannot be gleaned from quantitative data. When schools identify a question, develop a plan of action, collect data, analyze data and draw conclusions, they exponentially increase their ability to improve student performance. Collaborative Planning & Vertical Teaming Quality, school-based, staff development programs incorporate opportunities for both collaborative planning and vertical teaming. Teachers require common planning with their grade level peers. They also need to interact with teachers in other grade levels, including special area teachers. It must, again, be stressed that this requires scheduling by the school administrator. As motivated as teachers are, they need to be given the time to meaningfully collaborate. School districts must support vertical teaming among elementary, middle and high schools. While this can be complicated, it allows teachers to stay current on what skills their students need to be successful at the next level. Principals will have to balance the individual planning needs of teachers, while also engaging them in the valueladen process of collaborative planning and vertical teaming. School-based Mini-Sessions Staff members often have skills or training in areas that might not fit in neatly with schoolContinue on page 79

Continue on page 79

Vanessa Bell Armstrong William Mcdowell William Becton and Friends Shirely Caesar Richard Smallwood Rev> Maceo Woods Patti Labelle Marvin Sapp Pastor Charles Jenkins and Fellowship Chicago Worship and Inspiration to start you week Mary Mary listen no further Mahalia Jackson Living Education eMagazine Leontyne Price Internet Radio LaShell Griffin Every Sunday for the best in Joshua Rogers gospel and inspirational music James Fortune and Frya from yesterday and today’s artist. Jason Nelson Isreal Houghton Issac Carree Hezakiah Walker Fred Hammond Kirk Franklin Earnest Pugh Donnie McCluKin Ashmont Hill ‌and so many more.

The Protracted Path continued from page 65

The Protracted Path civil provisions, or § 1985(3), remained generally unused until the 1971 U.S. Supreme Court decision Griffin v. Breckenridge, 403 U.S. 88, 91 S. Ct. 1790, 29 L. Ed. 2d 338. In Griffin, the Court reaffirmed the original intention of § 1985(3) and ruled that the statute may allow a civil remedy for certain private conspiracies. The Griffin case concerned a 1966 incident in Mississippi in which a group of white men stopped a car out of suspicion that one of its three African– American occupants was a civil rights worker. The whites proceeded to beat and threaten the African Americans. The Court upheld one victim's claim that, under § 1985(3), the whites had engaged in a conspiracy to deny him the equal protection of the laws of the United States and Mississippi. Four years after the passage of the 1871 Civil Rights Act, the Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (18 Stat. 335-337), also known as the Enforcement Act or Force Act, a federal law enacted during Reconstruction. This act guaranteed American Blacks equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited exclusion from jury service. The Supreme Court of the United States declared the act unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases (1883.)5 The nation’s highest tribunal held the Equal Protection Clause within the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits discrimination by the state, but does not give the federal government the power to prohibit discrimination by private individuals. The Court also held that the Thirteenth Amendment was meant to eliminate "the badge of slavery," but not to prohibit racial discrimination in public accommodations.6 The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the last civil rights bill signed into law in the United States until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Two years later Reconstruction ended as the South redeemed itself. American Blacks entered the nadir as southern state after southern state instituted laws that restricted their civil rights and northern states practiced de facto racial segregation. To completely

and relegate American Blacks to their second-class status, in 1896 the United States Supreme Court enunciated its separate and [un]equal doctrine in the Plessy v. Ferguson decision. This decision would remain enforce for almost two generations until the Supreme Court reverse the Plessy decision with the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision that desegregated public schools. As Frederick Douglass stated, “Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.”7 A year after the U. S. Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision, the Montgomery Bus Boycott signaled a shift from litigating in the courts to a grassroots movement involving everyday ordinary citizens performing extraordinary actions of protests. The protracted journey to the 1964 Civil Rights Acts was becoming shorter, albeit as inimical as previous decades. Through the years, American Blacks formed organizations and movements to promote equal rights. Those organizations and movements included but were not limited to the Colored Convention Movement, the AfroAmerican League, the National Council of Negro Women, the Niagara Movement, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was in the forefront struggling for freedom, equality, and justice when the work was plentiful and the labors were few. In the modern era, organizations such as the National Urban League, and the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee fought for equal rights. The names of America’s greatest advocates of social justice included but were not limited to are Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, A. Phillip Randolph, Thurgood Marshall, Constance Baker Motley, James Foreman, Rosa Parks, Bayard Rustin, Medgar Evers, Martin Luther King, Jr., Daisy Bates, John Lewis, Diane Nash, Ella Baker, Fanny Lou Hamer, Septima Clark, and the many unsung participants whose names are unknown, the struggle for civil rights reached a milestone, when one of three major civil rights acts were passed by the United States Congress.

After years of litigating through the courts, mounting boycotts, staging protesting marches, economic withdrawals, marching on Washington, voter registration drives, and all other manifestations of protest by American Blacks, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed the United States Congress on July 2, 1964.8 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the act into law on the same day.9 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the country’s hallmark civil rights legislation. The act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Its passage terminated the application of "Jim Crow" laws upheld by the Supreme Court in the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson, which held that racial segregation purported to be "separate but equal" was constitutional. While the legislation was directed specifically at removing barriers to equal access and opportunity that affected American Blacks, it greatly extended the reach of federal protection. It led to a major restructuring of the nation’s sense of justice and expanded legal protections to other minority groups. Beneficiaries of the American black struggle for freedom included women, the disabled, gays and lesbians, the elderly, and others who experienced discrimination. Eventually the Congress expanded the 1964 Civil Rights Act to strengthen enforcement of these fundamental civil rights. The1964 Civil Rights Act paved the way for future anti-discrimination legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 better known as the Fair Housing Act. Although Lift Every Voice and Sing does not explicitly reference American Blacks, given the period in which James Weldon Johnson wrote the poem and his brother J. Rosamond Johnson composed the melody, it adequately depicts the long protracted struggle of American Blacks to gain liberty, equality, and justice through the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

Don Cusic. James Weldon Johnson─Songwriter. Nashville: Brackish Publishing, 2013. P.25 2 Martin Luther King, Jr. Letter from a Birmingham Jail, 1963. 3 The United States Constitution: Thirteenth Amendment; 4John Hope Franklin and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans, Ninth Edition. New York: McGaw Hill, 2011. Pp.100-101. 5 wiki100k/docs/Civil_Rights_Cases.html accessed January 20, 2014 6 Ibid. 7 The Significance of Emancipation in the West Indies." Speech, Canandaigua, New York, August 3, 1857, In The Frederick Douglass Papers. Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. Volume 3: 1855-63. Edited by John W. Blassingame. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 204. 8 ory/CivilRightsAct.cfm accessed January 20, 2014. Linda T. Wynn. “Civil Rights Act of 1964,” in Freedom Facts and Firsts: 400 Years of the African American Civil Rights Experience, Jessie Carney Smith and Linda T. Wynn. Canton, MI. Visible Ink Press, 2009. Pp.168-170. 9 Ibid. Combatting Childhood Hunger continued from page 60

parents were thankful not only for bottled, clean water but for healthy meals for their children. As an educator, parent and active citizen, I rested much easier knowing that students, who needed meals, would receive them during what was already a very stressful and taxing time for our community. As a result of the chemical spill here in WV, I’ve seen placards everywhere that read: “Water is a human right.” I would argue that healthy food is as well. We should be fighting for both for our nation’s children. And, we need more legislation like West Virginia’s Feed to Achieve Act. To quote Smiley and West: “No one, especially children, should go hungry in America.”

New Leaders

Dr. Elmira Mangum President

The Florida A&M University (FAMU)

From Consumer to Creating

Victoria Bell an entrepreneur who found herself downsized after 18 years in corporate America. Mrs. Bell decided to grasp this moment to move from “Consumer to Creating” LEeM: Thank you for participating in our ongoing series the Business of Education. In this series we explore have individuals combine their educational experiences with their desire to become entrepreneurs in order to achieve their dreams of owning their own business. Victoria Bell: Thank you for including me and I hope to be able to inspire others to pursue their entrepreneurial passion. LEeM: What is your Educational Background? Victoria Bell: My educational background consists of only a high school diploma. However, I have taken college courses, workshops and other trainings over the years to enhance my productivity in the various positions I have held throughout my professional career. My most recent course, which relates to my current and future business direction, was an Upholstery class. It has always been important for me to seek educational opportunities which provided a means to increase my skills and knowledge related to my positions in the organization. I used that same approach as I began to think about becoming an entrepreneur. For example, my fiancé` and I enrolled in a Business Administration course at Howard University. I wanted to understand all I could about the aspect of managing a business. LEeM: However, before you actually took the course at Howard University, you realized you wanted to become an entrepreneur. Why become a business owner? Victoria Bell: It is a family affair to an extent. My two daughters are both

entrepreneurs. Secondly, I had been working for people all my life and I knew even during those years I had it in me to be an entrepreneur. I just needed someone to give me a push and pull to get started. Basically, to point me in the right direction and it was what I needed to continue my growth as a person. I was working for Comcast and as they began to downsize their workforce; I was presented with an opportunity to leave the organization with a package that would allow me the opening to move ahead with a dream of being my own boss. LEeM: What aspect of being an entrepreneur do you appreciate the most?

who aspire to become entrepreneur? Victoria Bell: Keep the faith! You have to believe. I prayed on it every day. Whatever it was I wanted, I was specific, I was loyal. I paid my tithes and did the things expected of me so that Jesus could answer my prayers. What works for me might not work for the next person. However, it is important to figure out what it is you like and what you want to do. Just know that for some of us it may take 30, 40 or 50 years to figure out what we want to do. I had no idea that Jewelry would be in my life or my path to freedom.

Victoria Bell: I love the freedom! I love being my own boss! Doing something I enjoy on my terms! There is flexibility in being your own boss. There’s freedom to come in the office whenever I want to come in the office. I can go on vacation when I want to take time off. LEeM: What question should aspiring entrepreneur ask of themselves? Victoria Bell: What is it that I like; that I enjoy that can make me happy; because God wants us all to be happy. It took me a long time to figure out that with all the gifts he has given me; what actually makes me happy. When I finally found out what makes me happy; what my passion was, I knew where to put my drive to move forward. I am a very driven person. Once I get my mind set on something I go for it! I actually charge at it like a bull. LEeM: When did you know that you were destined to be your own boss? Victoria Bell: It should have happen years ago, but after getting comfortable with my job of 18 years with Comcast, it was not as much of a focus it should have been. I was just comfortable with the organization. I started to recognize that you have to make it on your own. Big companies do not look out for you. In that environment, I simply decided it was time for me to get out there and become my own boss. I was not in this alone; I have several friends who have their own businesses. So for years, I watched those around me do it; I began to say to myself I can do it also. I took the posture that if they can do it, I can do it. LEeM: What words of advice would you give those Continue on page 83

Differentiating Staff Development continued from page 68

wide initiatives. It is important to give these staff members a forum for sharing their knowledge. Technology, classroom management, school climate, teacher morale and an array of other topics can be covered by offering mini-sessions throughout the school year. By actively seeking out teachers and by understanding their strengths, school leaders can “recruit� more staff members into the collective intelligence of their school. Mini-sessions can be offered before and after the school day. As optional, or alternative staff development, they give the teachers choice in the scope and depth of their involvement. District-wide Initiatives Most school leaders understand that district-wide initiatives often come with mandatory staff development for their teachers. School leaders need to stay current on what is coming from the district level to avoid overloading the staff development plates of teachers. That means sometimes they will have to balance the needs of their school with the needs of the district. However, circumstances may also provide opportunities for schools to combine their staff development efforts with the district. Changes in curriculum can be great opportunities for action research and study groups. Schools can use action research and study groups to examine the efficacy of new instructional programs. Embracing district level change and connecting it to school-based initiatives is a positive approach to improving student performance.

meaningful interaction and engagement on the part of teachers. Differentiating school-based staff development serves as a catalyst in that effort. References Gabriel, J. G. (2005). How to thrive as a teacher leader. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Goodnough, K. (2005). Fostering teacher learning through collaborative inquiry. The ClearingHouse, 79 (2), 88-92. Hannon, S. M. (2003). Building a better staff. School Library Journal, 49 (2), 4-5. Morrow, L. M. (2003). Make professional development a priority. Reading Today, 21 (1), 6-7. Rutherford, P. (2006). Leading the learning. Leadership, 36 (1), 22-26. Sawchuk, S. (2007). Groups endorse peer driven, job embedded development. Education Daily, 40 (196), 2. A Study of the Impact of Teacher Beliefs on Curriculum continued from page 70

Conclusion The NSDC standards provide a structure that school leaders can use to meet the diverse needs of their teachers. School-based staff development in the 21st century requires nontraditional thinking. Administrators who utilize the collective intelligence of their teachers and differentiate their staff development, place their schools on the cutting edge of instructional reform. While this requires organization and planning, it is ultimately worthwhile, productive and empowering. The development of a professional learning community requires Continue on page 82

Understanding the 1968 Fair Housing Act April is Fair Housing Month. This year’s theme is Fair Housing Its Your Right! Use It! Unfortunately for millions of Americans access to quality housing remains the primary barrier to their ability to secure employment, send their children to decent schools and improve their overall health and economic well-being. In 1968, shortly after the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. the United States Congress passed the Fair Housing Act. While the act is in its 46th year as a federal law, few Americans know about or understand the last and most significant civil rights legislation of the 1960s. The staff of Living Education eMagazine met with members of Baltimore Neighborhood Inc. (BNI) one of the oldest fair housing organizations in the country to discuss the importance of the 1968 Fair Housing Act and what it means for all Americans. Since 1959, nearly a decade before the first civil rights legislation, BNI has been fighting for justice in housing and they continue to provide services for residents seeking opportunities to live where they chose in the state of Maryland. LEeM: Thank you for agreeing to discuss the 1968 Fair Housing Act during Fair Housing Month. BNI: Thank you for providing this opportunity. This year BNI is celebrating its 55th Anniversary. We were founded in 1959, nearly a decade before the passage of the Fair Housing Act. BNI is one of the oldest nonprofit fair housing agencies in the nation. We are the only Maryland based fair housing and tenant/landlord agency operating statewide in Maryland.

Housing Act (of 1968). The enactment of the federal Fair Housing Act on April 11, 1968 came only after a long and difficult journey. From 1966-1967, Congress regularly considered the fair housing bill, but failed to garner a strong enough majority for its passage. However, when the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson utilized this national tragedy to urge for the bill's speedy Congressional approval. Since the 1966 open housing marches in Chicago, Dr. King's name had been closely associated with the fair housing legislation. President Johnson viewed the Act as a fitting memorial to the man's life work, and wished to have the Act passed prior to Dr. King's funeral. LEeM: What is the Fair Housing Act of 1968 and what is its purpose?

LEeM: Why is April Fair Housing Month? BNI: On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The 1968 act expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status. Title VIII of the Act is also known as the Fair

BNI: The Fair Housing Act aims to eliminate discrimination in any housing related activities. The belief is that every person has the right to buy, rent or obtain a mortgage without being discriminated against because of their background. LEeM: What is housing discrimination as defined by the Fair Housing Act of 1968? Continue on page 84

Study of the Impact of Teacher Beliefs on Curriculum continued from page 79

From Consumer to Creating continued from page 78

Victoria Bell: There’s a 100% difference. I am blessed that I do not have to report to anyone other than Jesus! In the corporate world you have to report to someone. There is typically someone standing over the top of you, watching what you are doing and what you are saying. Frankly, that is the big business world. That is what you have to do and go through when you’re in the world of big business. Working for Comcast had me in a 24 hour and seven day a week mindset. They were pretty much all I thought about. My phone was always on and I would receive calls in the middle of the night. Now, that I am out of the big business world, I feel freedom. I have flexibility. Conversely, I am no longer stressed or under stress, because I have to meet the demands and expectations of others. Another difference is I am happier than I have ever been in my life. LEeM: As a business person, the one in charge you are responsible for everything; does that come with a unique form of stress? Victoria Bell: There is no stress. I am operating on a business plan which has been blessed by God. I am operating with little to no stress, because of many factors. One factor, I do not have debt as it relates to this business. I addressed fiscal matters prior to opening. I was blessed, I worked at Comcast and my work there allowed me to save money. Those savings served as my cushion. The money is there to support me when I encounter challenges. I did not start with a loan from a bank or relative. I used my own money. I was advised by family, friends, and financial managers to borrow the money. I was told it was unwise to use my money but it made better business sense to use the money of others. I did not want to do that. I believed that if you have the money, why not use it. I did not want to get a loan, because you have to pay that money back and that is stress. When it came to making purchases, I chose to buy new not used. It resulted in quality services to my customers and less stress for me. There is no strees!

1968 Fair Housing Act

BNI: Housing discrimination is any attempt to prohibit or limit free and fair housing choice. A person or entity who has violated a fair housing statute has committed housing discrimination.

owners o sell or rent (blockbusting) or Deny anyone access to or membership in a facility or

LEeM: Does the Fair Housing Act protect all Americans, how does it ensure citizens are not discriminated against?

service (such as a multiple listing service) related to the sale or rental of housing. In Mortgage Lending: No one may take any of the following actions based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status or handicap (disability): Refuse to make a mortgage loan Impose different terms or conditions on a loan, such as different interest rates, points, or fees

BNI: Yes, the Fair Housing Act protection extends to all. The Fair Housing Act is enforced by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), state and local governments, and nonprofit organizations like BNI.

LEeM: What does the Fair Housing Act prohibit with regards to housing that protects an individual?

   

 

Refuse to rent or sell housing Refuse to negotiate for housing Make housing unavailable Deny a dwelling Set different terms, conditions or privileges for sale or rental of a dwelling Provide different housing services or Facilities Falsely deny that housing is available for inspection, sale, or rental For profit, persuade

Additional Protection if You Have a Disability 

BNI: The Fair Housing Act prohibits the following: In the Sale and Rental of Housing: No one may take any of the following actions based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status or handicap: 

national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or handicap. This prohibition against discriminatory advertising applies to single-family and owneroccupied housing that is otherwise exempt from the Fair Housing Act.

Have a physical or mental disability (including hearing, mobility and visual impairments, chronic alcoholism, chronic mental illness, AIDS, AIDS Related Complex and mental retardation) that substantially limits one or more major life activities Have a record of such a disability or Are regarded as having such a disability

Your landlord may not 

  

Discriminate in appraising property Refuse to purchase a loan or Set different terms or conditions for purchasing a loan. In

 Addition: It is illegal for anyone to: 

Threaten, coerce, intimidate or interfere with anyone exercising a fair housing right or assisting others who exercise that right Advertise or make any statement that indicates a limitation or preference based on race, color,

Refuse to let you make reasonable modifications to your dwelling or common use areas, at your expense, if necessary for the disabled person to use the housing. (Where reasonable, the landlord may permit changes only if you agree to restore the property to its original condition when you move.) Refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices or services if necessary for the disabled person to use Continue on page 86

Educational Views Educational Views are a compilation of perspectives, opinions and thoughts from parents, educators, researchers and community leaders. These brief commentaries are intended to drive larger discussions on issues and challenges facing education. We welcome your view. If you have an interest in sharing your opinions, please contact Forest Of The Rain Productions at

1968 Fair Housing Act continued from page 84

discriminated against in their search for housing who should they contact? BNI: BNI can be reached at 410-2434468. Our Fair Housing direct line is 410-243-4400. Our tenant/landlord hotline is 410-243-4468. We can be reached on the web at LEeM: Can you discuss trends in the housing industry that in your organizational opinion has the potential or has begun to limit access to housing for minorities and other members of the protected classes you outlined earlier?


the housing

LEeM: The Fair Housing Act addresses the protection of specific groups from fair housing discrimination who are those groups? BNI: The Act protects individuals or what is commonly known as protected class individuals if they are member of a specific group of people. Currently, there are seven federally protected classes. They are: Race, Color, National Origin, Sex (Gender), Religion, Familial Status, and Disability. LEeM: What is the most common form of housing discrimination and what is being done to address housing discrimination? BNI: Disability discrimination is the most common basis for filing a complaint, followed by familial status and race. Discrimination is often more subtle than overt and is addressed by a combination of enforcement and education, both of which are part of what BNI does to promote justice in housing. LEeM: How does BNI actually fight for justice in housing? BNI: BNI conducts dozens of workshops annually throughout Maryland, educating consumers, housing providers, government and other stakeholders about the history and current state of fair housing. We receive and investigate complaints from individuals and government agencies, and we “mystery shop� or test housing providers to identify any fair housing violations. LEeM: If an individual or a family believes they have been

BNI: BNI is seeing persistent and systemic discrimination stemming from housing policies that restrict (or direct) the quantity and location of affordable housing. The lack of affordable housing impacts minorities and other protected classes and is very much a fair hour housing issue. LEeM: If individuals, foundations or corporations wanted to support the work of BNI, how can they do that? BNI: BNI welcomes support from individuals, foundations and others interested in housing justice. Such support is vital to enable BNI to continue to do the work it does. Tax deductible contributions may be made at, or by check sent to our offices at 2530 North Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218.

LIVING FAIR HOUSING The Important Conversations About Fair Housing

Aracely Paname単o Director, Latino Affairs with the Center for Responsible Lending

The Impact of Foreclosures on Communities and Schools

James Perry Executive Director, Greater New Orleans Fair Housing Action Center

What is Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing?

Michael P. Marsh President and CEO, Toledo Fair Housing Center

Understanding Reasonable Accommodations

Rose Mayes Executive Director Fair Housing Council of Riverside County, Inc. (FHCRC)

Fair Housing Impact on Education

We welcome your comments: Visit our website: Email us at: Or follow us on twitter @anaturalbridge or on Facebook

We are Forest Of The Rain Productions An Educational Affairs Organization

Living Education eMagazine Spring Edition 2014 Vol. IX  

An education magazine. Living Education eMagazine looks at education holistically and discusses how education impacts our everyday lives

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