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Living Education eMagazine A magazine that discusses education in our everyday lives Vol: XX

Congratulations to the class of 2018

Dr. Avis Williams eCommencement Address Violent Public Housing Projects Contribute to the Violent Behavior of Black Male Students Dorothy C. Handfield, Ph.D.

Global Efforts to Build Leadership Skills in K-12 Education Phyl Macomber

How Parents Can Prevent Summer Learning Loss Rebecca Coda, NBCT Addressing the Need for Sex Education in Public Schools and at Home Charles Brown, Ph.D.

Marianne P. Zape eConvocation Address


Class of 2018


Spark into Flame Marianne P. Zape @mariannezape 2018 E-Convocation Address Congratulations, Class of 2018! You did it! This is the culmination of your relentless dedication and hard work. The sleepless nights in front of a computer screen, the neverending cups of coffee and tea, the days you spent poring over books and reviewing papers, all the times you looked up from your work and realized that you forgot to eat lunch and dinner—it has all led up to this moment. I hope that you feel, even with all the ups and downs, that it has been worth it. While there is so much to celebrate, and you should certainly take the time to reflect on all your efforts, you and I both know that this is just the beginning. There is so much more ahead of you, so much more to do and accomplish. My hope is that you walk away from this moment with a spark in your heart. Perhaps you have identified your calling or social mission. Maybe you now have greater clarity about your passions and a better understanding of your personal and professional goals. Whatever it may be for you, I encourage you to nurture that spark. Tend to it so that it transforms into a bright and enduring flame. Turn all of the lessons you have learned, the skills you have developed, and the experience you have obtained into meaningful action. You might be asking yourself, as I frequently do, “How do we turn spark into flame?”. Even in the most ordinary of circumstances, converting thoughts and ideas into action is neither a speedy nor a straightforward task. Now, in the troubled times in which we currently live, it is even more difficult to do so. The fires that drive us are even more fragile, more prone to burning out, more easily extinguished. Indeed, in this era of fake news, bad news, and everything in between, it is so easy to become discouraged and disillusioned—and for good reason. For many of us, it feels as though we are yelling into the abyss. Every day, we ask ourselves “what is it now?” We bear witness to injustice after injustice, tragedy after tragedy. We have and continue to hear countless excuses rationalizing inaction amid flurries of thoughts and prayers, despite our calls for reforms. We brace ourselves for the next controversy. We close our eyes at night dreaming for something better, but the reality we wake to remains the same. Injustice. Tragedy. Inaction. These are difficult times. It is understandable to feel unsettled, uncertain, and angry. I know that these moments can seem so incredibly dark and daunting; that it can feel nearly impossible to be an “agent of change” when you are just trying to survive and your soul aches—for yourself, your family, and your community. However, it is now more than ever that the world needs your warmth, light, and energy. We cannot afford to have our fires go out. You—we—must learn how to express the fire in our hearts in ways that will not burn out quickly. Yes, we need to take action, but we must do so thoughtfully, with care, and with awareness of our own well-being, emotions, and limitations. I see this tension unfold in my own life, personally and professionally, every day. As a firstgeneration immigrant to the United States myself, I have never felt so much frustration, deep sadness, and resignation than I do at this political moment. However, as a researcher interested in the experiences of immigrant families, communities, and individuals, I feel a


sense of urgency to provide counter-narratives to negative discourses and a greater motivation to keep working. Too much of the former and I begin to lose hope and focus on my purpose. Too much of the latter, and I become exhausted. I’ve only just begun to realize that if I push or pull too hard in either direction, I am unable to contribute fruitfully to my cause. If there is one thing you take away from what I have said, let it be this: strive for balance and wholeness as you move forward. Creating momentum for action and change is a longwinded process. Your cause, whatever it may be, will need you to be fully present throughout. Know when to take a step back from your work. Recognize when you need rest to replenish your spirit. Take the time to reflect and surround yourself with love and light. Return when you are prepared to give it your all. Through your educational pursuits, you have demonstrated discipline, resilience, thoughtfulness, and a desire to expand your mind to new horizons. You have expressed an interest in learning about and understanding different perspectives. You have strengthened your resolve to address deep-seated social problems. You have shown your desire and commitment to making things better, more just, and more equitable for future generations. The only thing left to do, is to do something, and to do it well.


Congratulations to the class of 2018 Live Education Everyday


The Journey Avis Williams, Ph.D.

@DrAvisW

Congratulations graduates! Your journey has led you to this day! Commencement. Often described as both the beginning and the end and ALWAYS filled with an abundance of advice. By now many of you have received more advice and well wishes than you can even imagine processing. What more can be said? Plenty! As you embark on this next phase of your life I encourage you to do so with these ideas in mind: Be Grateful, Be Bold and most importantly, Be You. Be Grateful. You made it to this day. It doesn’t matter if it took you three years, six years or more. You made it! Be grateful for the journey and the lessons learned. Think back to when you first walked through the doors. How many of you were a little afraid? How many of you were scared as hell?! Fear can be a great motivator. Be grateful for it. Along your journey to get to this day, did you ever consider giving up? Fear and doubt can cause even the strongest among us to waver in our commitment. It can and did cause some of your peers to give in and give up. Not everybody who started this journey with you are here today. There was something inside of each one of you that did not allow those seeds of doubt to be planted or to bloom. Be grateful for that. It is likely that you all met some incredible people along your journey to this day. Years ago, I was a Mary Kay beauty consultant. In our leadership training, I learned that there are two types of people in our lives: basement people and Balcony People. As you can imagine, those basement people will do or say just about anything to bring you down. Some may call them “haters”. These are people who secretly, or maybe even openly, are rather pleased when you fail or struggle. They are not usually happy people themselves and therefore tend to relish in others’ unhappiness. Balcony People, on the other hand, are your biggest cheerleaders and supporters. Through good and bad times, they push you and lift you up. They encourage you and make you forget about the basement people. Over the years, I have encountered many basement and Balcony People. As a young elementary school principal, I learned to tune out the basement and focus on the Balcony. I developed a support circle and we lifted each other up and became not only a support system but, we are great friends to this day. Be grateful for those basement people because they allow you to treasure your Balcony People that much more. Be grateful for every adversity and every celebration that led you to this day. Next graduates, I urge you to Be Bold. Comedienne, Amy Poehler once said, “You never know what is around the corner unless you peek…Take your risks now.” Be bold enough to take risks as you navigate through the next phase of this thing called life. Now, let me be clear. Being bold and taking risks means different things to different people. A risk to you might be a day in the park to the person sitting next to you. You determine your boldness. Here are a few pointers. No man or woman is an island and we cannot successfully make this journey alone. Be bold enough to seek guidance. Find a mentor and be a mentor. You can learn from others and you learn even more by teaching others. Be bold enough to work hard and dream big. Set your sights on your goal and be ready to plan your work and work your plan. Be bold enough to celebrate your greatness and forgive your shortcomings. You have all it takes to be successful. God made you that way. Be bold enough to believe that and believe in yourself. Be bold enough to know that God doesn’t make junk! Be bold enough to know that God did not give us a spirit of fear but one of power and love and self-control!


Finally, I need you to Be Bold enough to Be You! Who are you? Steve Jobs said, “Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinion drown out your inner voice.” Be you and learn to listen to your inner voice. That voice that speaks to you when you take the time to be still and be quiet. You must figure out how to do this and no great advice from another can do this for you. I’m a runner and my inner voice is most present when I’m on a long run and I allow my mind to relax and I allow myself to listen. For you it might during prayer or meditation. Be you and don’t be afraid to reinvent yourself! As you embark on the next phase of your journey, it’s an ideal time to redefine or reclaim who you truly are. This is your life and you get one shot to make it great. Remember, no one can be you but YOU. Be grateful for that and Be Bold enough to embrace your strengths and learn how you can continue to grow and shine. Tyra Banks said, “Never dull your shine for somebody else.” Don’t let basement people define who you are. Embrace your Balcony People. Or better yet BE a Balcony Person! Your journey has just begun. Congratulations graduates and enjoy the ride!


Contents: Addressing the Need for Sex Education in Public Schools and at Home Charles Brown, Ph.D., M.Ed. p.12 How Important is Your Health? Brenda T. Bradley Ph.D., p.14 From Traditional to Job-Embedded Professional Development and Tips for Implementation LaConti S. Bryant, Ed.D., p.20 Constructivism Methods Behaviorism Methods Beverly A. Ebo, Ed.D., p.24 A Call for Principals as Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) Aaron J. Griffen, Ph.D., p.27 Have Patience, Increase Your Emotional Intelligence, and Don't Eat the Marshmallow! Dan Blanchard, p.32 Weddings and Non-Traditional Styles Can Say “I do!” But Think First! Kim Moss, p.36 A Model For Male Success Ivy Tech Community College – Indianapolis Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program Dr. Darrell Cain • John C. Turner • Anthony Conley Rolando Calhoun • David Kendrick • Michael Jenkins, p.31 Global Efforts to Build Leadership Skills in K-12 Education Phyl Macomber, p.45 What Can Parents Do to Prevent Summer Learning Loss? Rebecca Coda, NBCT, p.52 Creating a School Culture that Values Independent Reading Evan Robb, p.57 Violent Public Housing Projects Contribute to the Violent Behavior of Black Male Students Dorothy C. Handfield, Ph.D., p.65


Addressing the Need for Sex Education in Public Schools and at Home Charles Brown, Ph.D. @CharlesBrownPhD School-based sex education has the potential to prevent sexually transmitted infections, avoid unintended pregnancies, and promote healthy sexuality among youth (Constantine, 2008). Sex education is defined as "the provision of information about bodily development, sex, sexuality, and relationships, along with skillsbuilding to help young people communicate about and make informed decisions regarding sex and their sexual health" (Bridges & Hauser, 2014). To date, less than half of the states in the United States have decided to offer sex education in public schools. A recent report on state policies involving sex education in schools revealed that 24 states require public schools to teach sex

education (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2016a). All other states have pending, or failed bills related to requiring sex education in public schools. Within these states, the delay and failed attempts to pass the sex education bill in public schools is concerning, especially since youth are engaging in sex and suffering its harmful consequences (Whitehead, 1994). For instance, in the United States, teenage mothers are less likely to finish high school and are more likely than their peers to live in poverty, depend on public assistance, and be in poor health (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2016b). Even more alarming, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention survey findings from sexually active high school students in 2015, 43%


students did not use a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). A large body of evidence supports the implementation of comprehensive sex education as one solution to this problem (American Public Health Association, 2014). Comprehensive sex education seeks to provide accurate information about contraception, pregnancy, childbirth, sexual abuse, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, and more (National Guidelines Task Force, 2004). With this in mind, Chin et al. (2012) studied the role of comprehensive sex education played in reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs. In their research, they examined 66 studies of comprehensive sex education and discovered that comprehensive sex education is an effective strategy to reduce adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and STIs (Chin et al., 2012). Although research supports the benefits of comprehensive sex education, there are many critics who do not favor the comprehensive sex education approach in public schools. For example, the Bush Administration preferred an abstinence-only education approach in public schools which

urges youth to refrain from sex until marriage. Also, many parents do not prefer the comprehensive sex education approach due to fear that presenting basic sex information to youth is the same as giving them permission to be promiscuous (Gordon, 2008). Nonetheless, despite the views in favor of an abstinence-only education approach, there is overwhelming evidence indicating that abstinence-only education does not delay the initiation of sexual activity or reduce teen pregnancy rates (Stanger-Hall & Hall, 2011). I agree with Stanger-Hall and Hall (2011) that comprehensive sex education must be taught in public schools. Although comprehensive sex education will not offset all of the innumerable factors affecting young people sexual behavior, it is a good start (Kirby, 1995). I believe public schools should provide both abstinence and comprehensive sex education to students. Furthermore, as noted by Knowles (2012), I agree that parents must take the opportunity to involve themselves in their child's sex education. Some parents may feel Continue on page 35


How Important is Your Health? Brenda T. Bradley, Ph.D. @drbrendabradley Certified Health Coach

There are millions of people that are suffering and dying much earlier and are losing their lives to illnesses such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer and obesity. Most of these diseases are the expected outcome when we don’t fuel our bodies with the right foods. Sadly, we spend lots of money on our hair, clothes, shoes, makeup, cars and homes; yet, we will turn around and put all types of foods in our mouths without any concern for the impact on our health. I talk to people all the time and what I hear is, “eating healthy is too expensive!” I must agree there was a time when it was considered very expensive to eat healthy, but times have changed as more and more stores have taken noticed and are offering healthier options.


A dear friend of mine had major heart surgery and his chances to live were very slim. After making it through surgery, his doctor sent him to see a nutritionist. The nutritionist immediately changed his diet by putting him on a vegetarian diet. One of the reasons why is because a plantbased diet is healthy and very safe. My number one goal is to educate and assist people in removing toxic, dangerous foods and replacing with healthful, living foods. Through research, there are several foods that should be replaced and eliminated from our diets. These are the foods that can cause severe damage to our bodies. Although the effects may not be immediate, it has been proven that these foods cause considerable degradation and consequently a weakened immune system that is set up to develop a disease. Let’s briefly examine a few: (1) animal products; ;(2) sugar; (3) dairy; (4) white flour; and (5) caffeine.

90%; you reduce the risk of cancer almost completely; you reduce the probability of adult-onset diabetes to nearly zero, and you reduce the risk of acid stomach problems by almost 100%. Sugar Sugar is found in almost every manufactured food product. It contributes to obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and emotional problems. According to research, ingestion of sugar results in reduced white blood cells for up to 5 hours. The white blood cells are the immune system’s first line of defense against foreign invaders. Some of the effects of sugar are: (1) it depresses the immune system; (2) contributes to hyperactivity, depression, and crankiness in children; (3) increases the risk of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; and (4) causes mental problems.

Animal Products

Dairy Products

Animal products are the cause of up to 90 percent of all physical problems experienced by people. According to Dr. Neal Barnard, “It promotes intolerable suffering and disease – not only among animals, but also for many Americans by raising their risk of heart disease, diabetes, breast cancer, and early death. If you eliminate animal products, you eliminate the risk of

Look at nature! How many animals drink the milk of another species? The answer is zero. Why can't we humans make the connection.... that putting another animal's custom fuel-blend into our bodies or our children's precious bodies may be the cause of the physical problems we currently experience? All dairy products – including cheese, ice cream, milk,


and yogurt can add significant amounts of cholesterol and saturated fat to the diet, which leads to serious heart problems. Consumption of such products has been linked to various cancers, especially cancers of the reproductive system, prostate, and breast cancer. White Flour White flour is nothing more than refined carbohydrates and can contribute to obesity. The reason why this flour is considered bad is because of the way it is made. The first thing they do with a natural grain of wheat is to strip off the outer shell; then, they remove the wheat germ, which contains all the nutrients. What’s left after all the processing is something called endosperm, which they grind into a fine powder and then bleach it so that it is white. Now you have a fine white bleached substance with no nutritional value. Caffeine When you consume caffeine, your body will make every effort to reject it as quickly as possible. Your blood vessels constrict, making your heart beat faster, which causes your adrenaline to pour into your system to deal with this stimulant. Continuous consumption of caffeine can cause nervousness, irritability, insomnia, and depression. Caffeine is considered a toxic poison that can damage the lining to your stomach and cause damage to your liver and kidneys. Any food that is not considered real food is treated as a toxic poison by the body. Your body will try to rid itself of the poison, but if it is unable to do so, it will store it somewhere in the body. If you desire to have a healthy body and experience good health, I encourage you to make a lifestyle change or explore and experience the health benefits of a plant-based diet. One of the safest way to eliminate or trim excess weight, prevent diabetes, lower blood pressure, reduce cancer risks is by adopting a plant-based diet which includes fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and legumes. I welcome your questions or comments.

References: Thorogood M, Mann J, Appleby P, McPherson K. Risk of death from cancer and ischemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. Br Med J. 1994; 308:16671670. Barnard ND, Nicholson A, Howard JL. The medical costs attributable to meat consumption. Prev Med. 1995;24:646-655. Warensjo E, Jansson JH, Berglund L, et al. Estimated intake of milk fat is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk factors and does not increase the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:635–642. Qin L, Xu J, Wang P, Tong J, Hoshi K. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16:467–476. Song Y, Chavarro JE, Cao Y, et al. Whole milk intake is associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality among U.S. male physicians. J Nutr. 2013;143:189196. https://www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/u cm350570.htm http://drcarolyndean.com/articles_scary_truth_about_s ugar.html https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutritionand-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art20045678?reDate=01022018 Malkmus, George Hallelujah Diet


Class of 2018 Congratulations Live Education Everyday


Living Education Everyday


HOW CAN PARENTS HELP CHILDREN ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN GOOD MENTAL HEALTH? Dr. Shanelle R. Benson Reid Dr. Charles Barrett Dr. Marva Robinson Dr. April Lisbon-Peoples Dr. Telvis M. Rich Dr Nekeshia Hammond Dr. Katrina Sparks Dr. Sarah Wayland Ava Profota, LCSW-S, CSAT-S, CGP


From Traditional to Job-Embedded Professional Development and Tips for Implementation LaConti S. Bryant, Ed.D. @LaContiBryant


Professional development is a comprehensive, continuous, and rigorous approach to improving educator effectiveness to impact student achievement (Learning Forward, 2013). Effective professional learning is embedded into the educator workday and aligned to state standards and school improvement goals (DarlingHammond, Wei, Andree, Richardson, & Orphanos, 2009; Learning Forward, 2013; National Institute for Excellence in Teaching, 2012). Effective administrators facilitate professional learning communities several times per week by implementing a coherent, continuous, and research-based process that will improve teacher instructional practices and impact student achievement through collaboration (Learning Forward, 2013). The goal of education is to initiate the change process in an individual because “The quality of an educational system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers” (Barber & Mourshed, 2007, p. 8). Learning is a constructive process that is an interactive continuum that initiates, and effects change in an individual’s life by building upon learning experiences. Teachers serve as change agents who develop and present learning that promotes the transformational change of volition, habits, attitude, and knowledge (Hord, 2009). Teacher development is a developmental and social process. Teachers are active learners through activities such as collaborating because it provides a needed avenue to share best instructional practices, examine student work, and reflect on their specific practices. As teachers draw on the skills and knowledge of their colleagues, learning is deepened causing a shift from depending on outside consultants to practitioners from within the school community that has built their instructional capacity. Collaboration Collaboration is not a new concept. It involves constructive conversations focused specifically on teacher development and student needs. Collaboration serves a central and necessary component of professional learning that forces a culture shift from isolated practices to a culture of cooperation (Eaker & Keating, 2008; Gajda & Koliba, 2008; Hord, 2009; Schmoker, 2004).

Collaboration is an instructional best practice that allow teachers the opportunity to share their experiences and expertise about instructional strategies implemented in the classroom. Professional learning communities provide a medium for reflective collaboration in order to identify practices that promote or hinder instructional practices. Additionally, teachers are provided with the opportunity to take ownership of their instructional practices while challenging the isolated practices of teaching that has transcended many decades (Hord, 2009; Hord, Bradley, & Roy, 2013). To build a process for collaboration, certain structures have to be in place to ensure equitable, collaborative practice. Specific supports include: (a) administrative support, (b) facilitation of professional development by teacher leaders, (c) explicit protocols that guide professional learning, and (d) time to engage in problem solving (DarlingHammond et al., 2009; DuFour & Eaker, 1998). Collaboration is the crucial component of effective and collective inquiry that positively effects change in instructional practices. Collective inquiry provides an avenue for educators to build positive relationships with peers through collaboration and build instructional capacity. Working collaboratively is a transformational experience for educators because it provides an opportunity for educators to experience teaching and learning from various perspectives. It focuses on the group’s ability to collaboratively and effectively learn together through problem solving and reflection because the learning community focuses on a shared and mutual purpose (Hord, 2009). What is Embedded Professional Development? Embedded professional development challenges the traditional framework of professional development, “set and get” modality. It is a constructive process in which educators actively construct knowledge. Professional development is neither an autonomic process nor a workshop or lecture. As predetermined and specified by NCLB, professional learning must be an integral part on the educators’ day and centered around instructional practices that positively and immediately impact instructional practices and student achievement (USDOE, 2009). Professional learning that is job-embedded, along with collaboration, specifically targets teacher


content knowledge and allows teachers the opportunity to learn new instructional strategies and implement them into the classroom setting (DarlingHammond et al., 2009). Teachers are expected to be active participants in constructing knowledge and transferring that learning into the classroom setting. Effective professional development adheres to constructive practices if teachers are to transfer knowledge obtained into the classroom environment. The process of professional learning has to be consistent and connected to daily, instructional practices (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Killion & Hirsh, 2013; NIET, 2012). Professional learning is a developmental, engaging, and continuous process. A clear instructional framework will move the vision into reality (Killion & Hirsh, 2013). The instructional framework consists of setting clear and obtainable expectations, alignment of professional learning based on student data, and supporting educator assessments (Killion & Hirsh, 2013). Having a vivid, positive projection of future successes can make the journey of the professional learning community cohesive and collaborative in nature. As job-embedded professional development and learning are implemented for sustainability, goals and expectations are constantly revisited for the purposes of realignment for continuous improvement (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Hirsh, 2012; Learning Forward, 2013; Hord & Tobia, 2012). As teachers’ instructional practices evolve with student learning, continuous improvement ensures that the initiatives of the school and district will continue to be carried out by teachers through professional learning (DuFour & Eaker, 1998; Hord, 2009; Learning Forward, 2013; NIET, 2012). There are various modalities of professional development that are incorporated into the educator workday. Modalities such as learning teams, action research, case discussions, and study groups are used. Professional learning should be meaningful and transformational for professional growth to emerge. Teachers continue to engage in the learning process and become “Co-learners as they engage in professional dialogue with one another” (Cornu, 2005, p. 358). Tips for Implementation of Job-Embedded Professional Development

Tip #1-Student data is the driving force of professional development. Student data informs what students know and don’t know, as well as, informs teacher instructional practices. One cannot exist without the other. Tip #2-It is not necessary to always spend money on professional development programs. Instead, use the programs and resources that are available to implement and sustain the process. Use resources and time that is allotted to make the process workable. Tip #3-Differentiate between collaboration, discussion, and directives. Simply because teachers engage in a discussion does not mean that collaboration has occurred. Collaboration is an exchange of ideas for implementation in the classroom setting. Research clearly states that collaboration is the number one indicator that has a direct impact on instructional practices. Tip #4-Understand that implementing jobembedded professional development is a marathon and not a sprint. Implementation can take weeks, months, or even years depending on the needs of students and teachers. Having these foundational pieces in place will guide professional learning communities and the work to promote student learning and improving instructional practices. The vision, mission, and values delineate the purpose of the organization as well as serve as a guide for educator and student achievement, learning, and collaboration. Through a shared vision, mission, and values professional learning communities collectively define their purposes for professional learning (DuFour & Eaker, 1998; Hord, 2009; Killion & Hirsh, 2013). References Barber, M. & Mourshed, M. (2007). How the world’s best performing school systems come out on top. London: McKinsey & Company. Accessed 1 July 2012. http://mckinseyonsociety.com/downloads/reports/Educa tion/Worlds_School_Systems_Final.pdf. Cornu, L. (2005). Peer mentoring: Engaging pre-service teachers in mentoring one another. Mentoring and Tutoring, 13(3), 355-366 Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Teacher learning: What matters? Educational Leadership, 46-53. Continue on page 34


Living Education Everyday


Constructivism

Methods

or Beverly A. Ebo, Ed.D. @BeverlyAEbo

Behaviorism Methods


Abstract This article will examine the best method(s) to teach pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, elementary and secondary students with special needs. Some educators may use constructivism methods and others may use behaviorism methods to teach students with special needs. Others are unsure what methods to use and decide it may be best to integrate the two. Introduction Many states and districts are changing their style of teaching and the materials they use with special needs students, trading in traditional text-heavy materials for those created with the “universal design for learning” philosophy (CAST, 2011). Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a set of principles for curriculum development that gives all individuals equal opportunities to learn. It provides a blueprint for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone--not a single, onesize-fits-all solution but rather flexible approaches that can be customized and adjusted for individual needs (CAST, 2011). At the heart of every effective classroom is a devoted teacher, embracing the opportunity to educate the world’s next generation of citizens. Hence, teachers have a moral obligation—by virtue of achievement for all students— to develop and nurture their lifelong learning. The topic of this article is important for educators, school administrators, parents, and policymakers to evaluate as the education reform movement strives to engage and prepare special needs students for a technologically-advanced and globallyimpacted society. There are many methods of delivery that special education teachers can use to reach their students. I propose that special needs students learn best under a constructivism paradigm. However, this article will examine the constructivism (which focuses on how individuals learn) and behaviorism (which is a worldview that assumes a learner is passive, responding to environmental stimuli) paradigms to determine which model is more effective in the learning process of special needs students. Therefore, the guiding question for this article is: Constructivism or behaviorism, which is the best approach to use to teach special needs students? Constructivism Defined According to Thirteen, (n.d.) constructivism is a theory based on observation and scientific study about how

people learn. In other words, people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When an individual encounter something new, he/she must reconcile it with previous ideas and experiences. Sometimes, an individual may change his/her beliefs or maybe he/she will discard the new information as not important. A person has to ask questions, explore, and assess what he/she knows, hence; the individual is an active creator of his/her own knowledge. Von Glasersfeld describes constructivism as “a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy, psychology, and cybernetics” (Glaserfeld, 1989). Constructivism has implications for the theory of instruction. Discovery, hands-on, experiential, collaborative, project-based, and task-based learning are several applications that base teaching and learning on constructivism. Behaviorism Defined The focus of Behaviorism is on the conditioning of observable human behavior. J. B. Watson, the father of Behaviorism, defined learning as a sequence of stimulus and response actions in observable cause and effect relationships (learning-theories, n.d). Cherry (n.d.) suggests that behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. This school of thought suggests that only observable behaviors should be studied. There are two major types of conditioning: 1. Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. 2. Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior (Cherry, n.d.).


Special needs students are often the most challenging to teach yet also the most neglected by politicians and government educational policymakers. The number of students in special education has skyrocketed since the 1980s and stabilized in the last few years. During the 2008-2009 academic school year, about 6.5 million students aged 3 through 21 were enrolled in special education programs for students with disabilities in the United States (Snyder & Dillow, 2010). Looking at techniques used by teachers in the late 20th century, Orkwis and McLane (1998) describe the potential of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to help all students meet high standards: In terms of learning, Universal Design means the design of instructional materials and activities that allow the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember. Universal Design for Learning is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with disparities in abilities and backgrounds (Orkwis & McLane, 1998, p.). Hallowell and Ratey (2010), specialists on adolescents with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) at Hallowell’s Center in Massachusetts, emphasize structure as the key to effective teaching students with ADD. They stress the importance of creating strict guidelines for students with ADD in the classroom. For example, they believe students should have constant reminders about classroom rules and direction for assignments. Additionally, Hallowell and Ratey (2010) believe that setting limits on children is “soothing” to them, rather than constraining. They also emphasize the importance of play time and creativity for students, since many of them may become frustrated or bored with monotonous, structured work. Moreover, Hallowell and Ratey (2010) advocate fitting playtime and creative intellectual work within the boundaries of strict guidelines and disciplinary measures for students with ADD. was, she received bad grades because of the lack of structure in class (Mookerji, 2011). Another approach to teaching special needs students is differentiating instruction. Hammeken (2007) defines differentiating instruction as the process of teachers proactively planning to teach students at their current levels of ability, rather than taking a standardized approach to teaching. With differentiated instruction, classroom teachers plan what the student will need to

learn, how they will learn it and how they will demonstrate what they have learned. Hammeken articulates that one of the most popular terms when referring to differentiating instruction is that “one size does not fit all” and it is a wonderful tool for special needs students. According to Special Education News (n.d.) special education teachers use various techniques to promote learning. Depending on the disability, teaching methods can include individualized instruction, problem-solving assignments, and small group work. Other techniques special education teachers can use include remedial instruction such as repeating the information and devoting more time to working on skills. When teaching special education classes, Teaching Special Education (n.d.) suggests that educators use diagrams, graphics and pictures to augment what they are saying in words; this strategy benefits the visual and auditory learners simultaneously. If the child loses his/her place while reading or uses his/her finger to point to the words, the teacher can place a colorful piece of plastic under the line to assist the student’s eyes to return to the right place when he/she loses focus. Swanson (1999) not only agrees with the techniques that of Teaching Special Education (n.d.), the researcher also suggests that teachers break learning into small steps, administer probes, and engage students in directed response/questioning. Grobecker (1999) concurs that breaking down tasks into small, manageable segments is a strategy that is associated with the structured approach to teaching special needs students. Kagohara, Sigafoos, Achmadi, O’Reilly and Lancioni (2012) focused on the learning that of autism, but from a technology perspective. The researchers conducted research that was designed to teach two students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to check the spelling of words using the spell-check function on common word processor programs. During baseline, the participants performed less than 40% of the task-analyzed steps correctly. When the video modeling intervention was introduced via an iPad®, both participants reached the 76–100% correct level on the task analysis and became more successful in using the word processor programs to check the spelling of words. Follow-up data showed 100% correct performance by both participants. The results suggest that the video modeling intervention, delivered via an iPad®, was effective in teaching two adolescents with ASD to check the spelling of words using common word processing programs (p. 304). Continue on page 34


Aaron J. Griffen, Ph.D. @DrAaronJGriffen

A Call for Principals as Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) Introduction To be Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs), principals must invest in the primal attribute that all CRILs possess. That is critical dispositions, critical minds, critical eyes, and critical critiques of criticisms of culturally contrived conceptions of leadership. Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) constantly contradict any status quo. How CRILs are defined, the CRIL’s theories, leadership, and decision-making styles provide guides to thinking and actions relative to African American, Urban-defined and suburban learners, and their communities. The development of CRILs is one of many steps towards narrowing the Opportunities Gap and promising that students of color and poverty reach their fullest potential. Defining the Culturally Responsive Instructional Leader (CRIL) Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) are situational leaders, situationally posited against marginalizing paradigms. As groups seek to maintain the status quo regarding power, enterprise, acquisition, access, and stature in education, the Democratic ideology of Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness remain unfinished. The pluralistic mantra, Out of Many One, is counterintuitive and contradictory to the meritocratic myth - Free Enterprise. CRILs

challenge these notions through educational practice that encompasses multiple philosophies within and outside educational typology and pragmatic dichotomy.

exists differently for some and is not a civil right for all (see 10th Amendment of U.S. Constitution) education is merely conceptual.

Principals who are Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) are also transformative, transitional, and/or transactional leaders. CRILs adapt to any environment and adjust to the conspicuously, everchanging educational concept. Make no mistake. So long as education

The dogmatic denial of equitable education for all to ensure exclusive education for few calls Urban-defined principals to be Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs). The premier educative style of Urbandefined leadership is found in CRILs ability to challenge knowledge construction through critical cultural consciousness and to reform and restructure


curriculum through the additive, contributive, transformative and sociative methods (Banks, 2004). He described those methods as an essential framework for Multicultural Education development. CRILs facilitate culturally responsive management practices which recognize the precocious style of children of color and poverty population learners as representative of their community, cultural patterns and learning capital. Gay & Howard (2000) informs readers that the ability to engage in a Critical Cultural Consciousness is necessary when analyzing one’s own ethnic heritages; when challenging the assumptions and beliefs one holds about other ethnic groups and cultures; and when comparing assumptions about cultural diversity with other groups’ version of knowledge, truth, and reality. Therefore, principals who are CRILs are in constant dialogue with their mind, body and spirit: 1) How do I see me; 2) How do others see me; 3) How do I see me in relation to other’s 3) How do I see others in relation to

me; 4) How am I defined by others; 5) How do I define others; 6) How do I define others in relation to me. Without a Critical Cultural Consciousness, no principal can be a CRIL. It is an all or nothing purpose driven mission against the status quo. Culturally Responsive Instructional Leadership is Un-American Challenging knowledge construction is no easy feat. Challenging what counts as knowledge; who is responsible for the dissemination of knowledge; and who receives knowledge (Young, 2008) is unAmerican. Acceptance that some exist for the greater good of the nation and for an economic benefit of their menial labor, is to accept the naturally ordered description of marginalized groups as lazy, dishonest, greedy, unreliable, stupid, deceitful and immoral. A study of African American educational lobbyists shares that group positioning theories should be considered when questioning the motivation of affluent groups in relation to marginalized others. (Griffen, 2015). Others are those who do

not represent what is defined as American – interests that laws and policies are designed against. Berry (1978) & Blumer (1958) studied the sudden mobilization of groups of power when their perceived status is endangered and/or challenged by the upward mobility of others. As groups of power position themselves in opposition to growth and prosperity, those threatening the group in power’s preconceived proprietary claims, critical cultural consciousness is necessitated to combat ever emergent program acquisitions and legislative lobbying narratives that blame the victims. This Deficit Model exemplifies behaviors that promote a gracious attitude towards marginalization because the marginalized group accepts the definition they have been provided about themselves. The resulting Hegemony ensures the self- defeating, self-fulfilling prophecy of failure due to the lack of oppositional representation“We are not; therefore, we cannot”. The mission of the CRIL is to stand

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Book Review

Breakaway Learners Linda Van Doren I have spent most of my career in education working with adult learners as they return to school to learn English, get their high school equivalency, or earn a certificate and industry licensure to help them meet their professional and academic goals. I am the chief academic officer of a public technical college that is the postsecondary arm of our state’s largest school district. Our students come from over 100 countries and speak 76 languages. Many of our students have had interrupted formal education due to family commitments, need to work, incarceration, or uprooting and moving internationally due to refugee status. Dr. Karen Gross (2017) would say that I work with breakaway learners; nontraditional and oftentimes marginalized students for whom our K-20 system wasn’t designed to support. What I see at my school, and increasingly is becoming the norm throughout higher education, is what Gross asserts in Breakaway Learners: Strategies for PostSecondary Success with At-Risk Students; nontraditional students are here, and most postsecondary institutions aren’t equipped to support them or meet them where they are. In the spring of 2017, postsecondary enrollment nationwide decreased 1.5% from the previous year (NSCRC, 2017). In addition, the demographics of

students entering postsecondary programs are changing. From the fall of 1976 to the fall of 2014, the percentage of students who are Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, and American Indian/Alaskan Native increased, and the percentage of students who are White fell from 84% to 58% (National Center for Education Statistics, 2017). National trends show that minority high school students will become the majority by 2030 (Bransberger, 2016). States in the Northeast and the Midwest are losing high school graduates, and in Southern and Western states, the number of Hispanic students is rising (Bransberger, 2016). What does this mean for postsecondary institutions? institutions of higher education specifically prepared to support the racial and ethnic diversity, student success, and programming for these shifting student populations? These are key questions addressed in Gross’s 2017 Breakaway Learners: Strategies for Postsecondary Success with At-Risk Students. Beyond just asking questions, Gross proposes that monumental shifts are necessary in our country’s educational systems, and calls for a


kind of engagement as schools respond to the need to adapt to serve today’s students. Her book offers a concrete approach on how to address the systemic and institutional inequities that exist and focus on the success of the students themselves. Drawing on her own experiences as President of Southern Vermont College, which is a majority Pelleligible student serving institution, as well as her own experiences as a breakaway learner, Gross goes beyond providing strategies by providing a unique perspective on the lived experience of these students as they move through the education system.

of breakaway students and the needed and oftabsent or unrecognized capacities of the institutions that serve them” (Gross, 2017). Lasticity isn’t grit, resilience, or growth mindset. “These traits presuppose a deficiency in our students that can be remedied; sort of an add and stir approach” (Gross, 2017, p. 15). Instead, lasticity is a broader term that focuses on students’ successes not deficiencies, meets them where they are, and demands that institutions do more to better understand and respond to students. Lasticity is the basis for a relationship between learners and educators. It’s a way to examine practices, build relationships, and support success.

Who Are Breakaway Learners? Gross coined the term breakaway learners to move away from the more common, yet deficit terms vulnerable and at-risk which don’t adequately address the strengths that today’s students bring. Gross describes breakaway learners as students from both high and low socioeconomic status backgrounds who have faced innumerable barriers to entering post-secondary systems of learning including inadequate K-12 educations, dysfunctional or absent families, and chronic stress and trauma. Gross asserts that the current education system isn’t prepared to recognize and embrace the experiences and creative problemsolving abilities that breakaway learners bring. As Gross reports in the introduction of the book, fewer than 40% of Pell-eligible students complete a bachelor’s degree within 6 years. Success for Pelleligible students in 2-year and certificate programs is even lower than that; however, Gross reminds us not to homogenize who the Pell-eligible student is. Not all are 18-24; many are older. Some have served in the military. Not all are attending 4-year residential colleges. Understanding and approaching students as individuals lies at the heart of what Gross proposes as the only way to ensure the success of breakaway learners. When educators build relationships and trust through a reciprocal focus on both the institutions that serve breakaway learners, and on the learners themselves, success happens. At the core of this relationship is developing the components of what Gross has termed lasticity. Lasticity Lasticity is a “rich concept and process and descriptor that explains the remarkable capacities

At my school, a commuter technical college in downtown Denver, we serve majority Pell-eligible students and we strive for lasticity in all we do. Classes are in a cohort model and students form meaningful relationships with each other as well as with their instructors. This provides a support system to students within their classes and impacts our programs’ completion rates which are currently at 88% across the school. We don’t offer any student loans, so all students graduate from our programs debt-free. When life events happen that get in the way of our students’ abilities to get to campus, attend classes, or meet their immediate needs, we have resources available at the school for students to access. Our school’s foundation maintains emergency 360-degree funds that are available to any student. To access these funds, students don’t fill out cumbersome financial aid applications, they merely state their need and are able to immediately access gift cards of up to $100, which can help pay for drop-in child care, transportation, or even a parking ticket. By listening to students and supporting them with their immediate challenges, they’re able to persist and complete their education, allowing them to propel into careers of their choices. We see that what we’re doing is working. In addition to high completion rates, 82% of our students find jobs within their fields upon graduation. Throughout the book, in a style that is told from the first-person narrative and contains anecdotes supported by research, Gross outlines concrete strategies for institutions to develop and foster lasticity. She provides roadmaps to develop policies and processes which are foundational at institutions prepared to understand and tap into


often ignored strengths that breakaway students bring. Additionally, Gross describes in detail how schools can work with breakaway learners to develop, in tandem, the reciprocal foundations needed to support these processes.

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/57f269e19de4bb 8a69b470ae/t/583e2ac3b8a79bc809c37437/14804691 93143/Knocking2016FINALFORWEB.pdf

I support Gross’s premise that institutions must fundamentally change in order to better support and incorporate strengths of breakaway students. I also believe that many practitioners may find the common sense how-to approach of her book helpful, if they’re on board with the aforementioned premise. While not a new idea, Gross presents it today when it feels new, perhaps as a result of shifting demographics and recognized failures of the education system which include equity and achievement gaps, crippling student loan debt, and lack of employable middle-skills workers (National Skills Coalition, 2017). For too long, the industrial machine of postsecondary and higher education has worked to play its part in maintaining the hierarchical status quo. That is no longer an option if the system is to continue.

Gross, K. (2017). Breakaway learners: Strategies for post-secondary success with at-risk students. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

At the heart of what Gross proposes is a different way of approaching how we work with and care for others, whether it’s students or fellow employees at the institution that serves students. Lasticity includes many components necessary to support this approach. In some ways, Breakaway Learners echoes the powerful message carried forward by Nel Noddings (1992) decades ago, most notably in her work A Challenge to Care in Schools. With that perspective, answering the question of where the responsibility of student success lies becomes easier. It’s on all of us; institutions and students themselves. It is long-past time to change the system to be more inclusive and effective. Doing so, from my perspective and as Gross describes, isn’t difficult, but it takes intention, thoughtfulness, and practice. Absent from Breakaway Learners are concrete approaches beyond relational that include policies, funding, and systemic change up and down the P-20 pipeline. Included however, is a good roadmap for supporting breakaway learners and those which is, by all accounts, a good place to start. References Bransberger, P. &. (2016). Knocking at the college door: Projections of high school graduates. Boulder:

Gross, K. (2017). What is lasticity? Retrieved from Breakaway Learners: http://breakawaylearners.com/what-is-lasticity/ National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). Retrieved from IES NCES Fast Facts: https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=98 National Skills Coalition (2017). Middle-skill job fact sheets. Washington D.C. Retrieved from: https://www.nationalskillscoalition.org/state-policy/factsheets Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to ducation. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. NSCRC. (2017). Term enrollment estimates: Spring 2017. National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/currenttermenrollmentest imate-spring2017/


Congratulations to the Class of 2018 Live Education Everyday


Have Patience, Increase Your Emotional Intelligence, and Don't Eat the Marshmallow! Dan Blanchard @dan007blanchard “Don't eat that! Don't eat that!” I say. Have you ever had anyone say that to you before? I have. I'm sure most of us at one point or another have heard that we shouldn't eat something. If you don't mind me taking a trip down memory lane... I can remember a time when I was still a teen and working at a gas station. One night an older mechanic walked past me when I was eating some food that I had just ordered from the pizza place across the street. He stopped. Looked at me sternly and said, “How many times do I have to tell you that if it smells good, and taste good, then you shouldn't eat it because it can't be good for you!” Well, I'm not asking you to go that far into privations that supposedly build character and slims your waistline. However, we all can probably agree that the sweet things that tempt us in this world are not always the best things for us, like that pepperoni grinder with extra pepperoni and extra cheese. However, I'm going to ask something of you. Ready? Here it is: Please do not eat the marshmallow. Why the marshmallow? Well, many years ago a group of researchers did a study on a group of young kids. They told the kids that the adults had to leave for a little while, but not to worry because they would be back soon. In addition, they also

told the kids that they all could eat a marshmallow if they wished to. However, if the kids could manage to wait until the adults returned then the kids would be able to have two marshmallows instead of one. You can probably see where this is going, huh? The whole delayed gratification thing that today's youth is constantly accused of lacking, right? Well, as you can imagine, some of the kids didn't have the willpower, or emotional intelligence to pass up the instant gratification of the one marshmallow right now for the bigger prize later of two marshmallows. These kids dove right in and got theirs while the getting was good! Another group of the kids waited, and then waited some more, but then they too gave in and settled for the one marshmallow. Thus, they too also passed up the larger later prize of two marshmallows. The last group waited patiently and for the most part, didn't seem bothered by the wait. Eventually, the adults returned and gave this group the larger prize of two marshmallows. Now comes the interesting part. The researchers followed these kids for the next twenty years tracking their successes and happiness. And in every category the researchers could think of in assessing


happiness and success, the children that had previously passed up the marshmallow, or instant gratification and had the patience and emotional intelligence to wait for the bigger prize of two marshmallows scored higher in every category than those children that hadn't waited! Imagine that... Predicting one's future success and happiness from a simple marshmallow test‌ Now teens, go learn, lead, and lay the way to a better world for all of us. Please have patience and work on your emotional intelligence through self-control. Slowly work toward the bigger prize. Don't be tempted to eat the marshmallow! And once again, thanks in advance for all that you do, and all that you will do...

Killion, J. & Hirsh, S. (2013). Investments in professional learning must change: The goals are ambitious; the stakes are high-and resources are the key. The Journal of Staff Development, 34(4). Learning Forward. (2013). NSDC's standards for staff development. Retrieved from http://www.nsdc. org/index.cfm National Institute for Excellence in Teaching. (2012). How to ensure professional development gets good results. Retrieved from: Schmoker, M. (2006). Results now. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. United States Department of Education. (2009). Race to the top program. Retrieved from http://www.2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/legislation.html

From Traditional to Job-Embedded Professional Development and Tips continued from page 22 Constructivism or Behaviorism continued from page 26

Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession a status report on teacher development in the U.S. and abroad: Technical report. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council. Dufour, R. and Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Education Services. Eaker, R., & Keating, J. (2008). A shift in school culture: Collective commitments focus on change that benefits student learning. Journal of Staff Development, 29(3), 14- 17. Gajda, R., & Koliba, C. J. (2008). Evaluating and improving the quality of teacher collaboration: A fieldtested framework for secondary school leaders. NASSP Bulletin, 92(2), 133-153. Hirsh, S. (2012). Student outcomes are the driving force behind professional learning decisions. Journal of Staff Development, 33(5), 72. Hord, S. (2009). Professional learning communities. Journal of Staff Development. 30 (1), 40-43. Hord, S., Bradley, J., & Roy, P. (2013). Deep impact: A learning forward academy graduate inspires her district. Learning Forward, 34(2), 55-57. Hord, S. & Tobia, E. (2012). Reclaiming our teaching profession: The power of educators learning in community, New York: Teachers College Press.

Conclusion A literature review presented numerous methods of presenting instructional content to special needs students. Going into this study the hypothesis was that special needs students learn better under a constructivism paradigm After a careful review of the literature and case studies, it is evident that special needs students learn best when components from both the constructivism and behaviorism approaches are integrated. It is more effective to make instructional and curricular decisions based on the individual child, task, and the setting than to use strategies representing one theory. Moreover, the integration of components from both approaches could help special and general education teachers work more effectively as a team to teach children with learning disabilities (Steele, 2005). However, further research in this area is recommended. References CAST (2011). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA: Author. Cherry, K. (n.d.). What is behaviorism? Retrieved on June 18, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behavio rism.htm. Glasersfeld, E.von (1989) Cognition, Construction of Knowledge, and Teaching Grobecker, B. (1999). Mathematics reform and learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22, 43-58.


Hallowell, E. and Ratey, J. ((2010). “50 Tips on the classroom management of ADD”. Available form: http://www.healthyplace.com/adhd/wild-child/50-tips-on-theclassroom-management-of-add/menu-id-53/. Hammeken, P.A. (2007). The teacher’s guide to inclusive education: 750 strategies for success! Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Kagohara, D., Sigafoos, D., Achmadi, M., O’Reilly, F. and Lancioni, G. (2012). Teaching children with autism spectrum disorders to check the spelling of words, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6 (2012), pp. 304–310. Learning Theories (n.d.). Behaviorism. Retrieved from https://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html. Mookerji, T. (2011). Latest methods for educating specialneeds students. The Triple Helix Online. Retrieved from hhtp:triplehelixblog.com/2011/o8/methods-foreducatingspecial-needs-students. Orkwis, R., & McLane, K. (1998). A curriculum every student can use: Design principles for student access. ERIC/OSEP Topical Brief. Reston, VA: ERIC/OSEP Special Project. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED423654). Retrieved June 17, 2013, from http://www.cec.sped.org/osep/udesign.html. Snyder, T. and Dillow, S. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Available from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf. Special Education News (n.d.) Educating Children with special needs. Retrieved from http://www.specialednews.com/educating-children-withspecial-needs.htm Steele, M. (2005, April 30). Teaching students with learning disabilities: Constructivism or behaviorism? Current Issues in Education [On-line], 8(10). Available: http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume8/number10/ Swanson, H. (1999) Instructional components that predict treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: support for a combined strategy and direct instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 14(3), 129-140. Teaching Special Education (n.d.) Retrieved June 10, 2013, from http://www.understanding-learningdisabilities.com/teaching-special-education.html. Thirteen, (n.d.) What is constructivism? Retrieved June 19, 2013 from http: www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism.

Addressing the Need for Sex Education in Public Schools continued from page 13

uncomfortable about discussing topics such as condoms and contraceptives use for the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; however, it is critical for helping youth to practice healthy sexual behavior and prevent negative consequences. Parental involvement will also ensure that youth are being introduced to sex education, regardless of whether it's offered in public schools. Wherever sex education is taught, as noted in Kirby (1995), effective sex education must provide a clear message that is appropriate to the age and experiences of youth, which might include the following: 1. For younger, sexually inexperienced youth, an effective message is: "wait until you are older to have sexual intercourse." 2. For older kids: "avoid unprotected intercourse--the best way to do this is abstinence; if you have sex, always use protection." 3. For high-risk youth, most of whom are having intercourse, a compelling message is: "always use condoms; otherwise, you might get AIDS." There are several ways that parents and public schools can begin the process of addressing sex education among youth. The message that I received consistently in my home was that it is imperative to be safe when having sexual intercourse and use protection during sexual intercourse to avoid negative consequences such as unintended pregnancy. In contrast, I did not receive any sex education information while attending public schools. Fortunately, most recently, the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services has identified 28 evidencebased curricula that have been effective in schools working to decrease sexual activity, sexually transmitted infections, and increase contraceptive use (Knowles, 2012). Sex education must be a priority of public schools and parents. If the topic of sex education is not discussed at home, there is a possibility that many youths will not receive proper sex education at school or not at all.

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Weddings and Non-traditional Styles Can Say “I do!� But Think First! Kim Moss @kimmiem


Planning a wedding can be a very stressful time, everything seems to be a big to-do and whether it’s your first time down the aisle or an encore visit, there are many traditions connected to the big day. But what if you are one of those brides that want to do something non-traditional? I get it, as a planner I am trained to make sure you have the best day ever and that means following some traditions connected with weddings. As the bride, you get to decide if those traditions “work for you”. Currently, I have a friend getting married on Labor Day weekend and she constantly says that everything will be non-traditional (I have a hard time telling her that its nothing new) and the way she and her fiancée want it to be. First, it’s the first party that you and your new spouse will be hosting, so it should reflect your styles. Second, it’s your money, so whether its traditional or not isn’t really a factor. However, that said, there are some etiquette rules regardless of what your wedding day looks like, that absolutely should be adhered to. Trust me, I’m the pro who has done these many times and wouldn’t steer you wrong. Food & Beverage – here’s where things can get sticky. You’re hosting a mid-afternoon reception and want to keep things light. You’re looking at your budget and say that you’ll feed them, but they must pony up to the bar and pay. Lesson #1 – you are the host, you pay for the liquor and the food. Back in the 20 th century, a wedding invitation would say “the pleasure of your company is requested” which essentially meant, we want you to come and eat, drink and be merry with us. If you bought a gift, which of course was up to you, then great. Cash bar: no, not ever. I don’t care if you’re being non-traditional, its poor etiquette. gift to the bride or planned by the couple as a gift to themselves. Stick to registries for the house – Home Depot, Lowes, Target, Tiffany, Macy’s – you get the idea. The items on your registry can be non-traditional and not overpriced items you would never buy or use for that matter, but things that you would use regularly and love to have. If you’re a couple that entertains a lot, then getting barware, serving dishes, and other entertaining items are perfect on the registry. There’s no hard and fast rule about how many places you register, it’s a lot of fun and for the guests who may not be able to attend your wedding or that you send an announcement to if you eloped, it’s a great way for them to shower you with love. Bridal attire – okay, so you may have said “yes to the dress,” but your wallet said, “are you kidding me?” Be smart about your wedding dress. If you want all the bells and whistles, and can afford to spend upward of $1000, make sure it’s the right style for the time of day you plan to get married. What does that mean? If you’re getting married at 6pm, it’s a formal affair – bells and whistles are required, you’re going to need to be red-carpet ready and so will your guests. If you’re getting married in the morning or before 4pm, you can select something that you might wear to a business meeting to a summer evening out. Whatever you select, think about how you look in the dress in pictures, does it flatter you and make you look your best? Is it a tried and true favorite that you wore to someone else’s wedding or other special event? Pick something else. You want the dress you get married in to be special and not just another dress. This is where the line must be drawn for non-traditional here, sorry. Invitations – I heard this from my niece, “Auntie, who has time to write out invitations, can’t I just send an evite?” Although auntie was horrified, I understood. It’s nice to send an evite save the date, but for the Continue on page 37


A MODEL FOR MALE SUCCESS IVY TECH COMMUNITY COLLEGE – INDIANAPOLIS MALE EMPOWERMENT SUMMER BRIDGE PROGRAM Dr. Darrell Cain • John C. Turner • Anthony Conley Rolando Calhoun • David Kendrick • Michael Jenkins Summer bridge programs are increasingly popular in higher education as a strategy for helping students prepare for college, yet empirical studies in this area have remained largely descriptive and in short supply (Strayhorn, pg. 142). Aimed at providing an alternative to traditional developmental education, these programs provide accelerated and focused learning opportunities in order to help students acquire the knowledge and skills needed for college success (Barnett et al., pg. 2). Prior research has stressed the importance of academic preparation for postsecondary education, especially among students who are at risk of dropping out of college (Strayhorn, pg. 359). The research on community college student retention consists of two distinct streams of scholarly inquiry. The first focuses on the success of community college students from the point of entry to associate’s degree

attainment (Strayhorn, pg. 363). The second stream of scholarship on community college student retention is characterized by studies that focus on the transfer function of two-year community colleges (Strayhorn, pg. 363). At Ivy Tech Community College – Central Indiana, the largest campus of the Community College system of Indiana, it has been a mission of the College to assist with the retention, graduation, and success of Male students in the State of Indiana. In the Winter of 2016, Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs at Ivy Tech Community College – Central Indiana’s Campus, Dr. Darrell Cain, set out a call to the Student Affairs staff to create a Male Summer Bridge Program that would help with this Mission of Male success and give students helpful information that would assist them in progressing into their Collegiate Careers. This article will look at the implementation of the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program at Ivy Tech Community College – Central Indiana over the last two years. The article will provide information


progression of the Program, how students were immersed in learning about several different Ivy Tech Community College departments, how the students were connected to Mentors, and finally how the Program in their own words through collected pre and post assessment data affected and changed their knowledge about what College is to them. Ivy Tech Community College – Central Indiana set out to create a Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program that encompassed a Mission of Mentorship, Campus Connecting, and Student Success as a Model for helping Male students get a better opportunity at success in College. This 4-day Intensive Program would provide information about Ivy Tech Community College services, departments, and organizations that would better prepare them for their collegiate lives. The marketing and promotion of the Program were created to reach out to graduating High School Senior Male students and even allowing current Ivy Tech Male students an opportunity to learn more about the campus climate and culture of Ivy Tech Community College. From the created Pre and Post Assessment data sheets which were created, the Creators of the Program sought out information from the Male students pertaining to several areas about what they knew prior to the program about College services and what they gained in knowledge after the Program concluded. These areas were selected as measuring points due to the Creators collaborating on what main focused points should be examined when creating a Program to help Male students succeed at Ivy Tech Community College. These measuring areas were a great foundation into creating the Program Agenda and template on what departments and resources would be appealing to have as part of the Program to have the Male students better prepared for the rigors of college life. These individual sessions which were placed in the schedule provided distinct information across an array of different Student Affairs services that truly assisted the students in knowing more about certain areas of College such as Financial Aid, College Transfer and Advising, even English and Math Tutor services. Specially scheduled sessions such as the Workforce Development - “How to be prepared for a Competitive Workforce” and Real Talk Circle Discussion provided real experiences from Faculty and Staff about their collegiate experiences, what they learned as Professionals, and providing encouraging and motivational dialogue to the Male students

about how they can be most successful in life and in their future careers after college. A Final component of the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program was to connect each student with a Faculty/Staff Mentor. These Mentor/Mentee Agreements were signed on the final day of the Program and the students had time to talk with and exchange contact information with their Mentor before leaving the Program for the final time. The Mentees have a personal connection on Ivy Tech Community College’s campus that they could talk to about any life or college challenges that they may face. These Mentors also reached out to their Mentees throughout the semester to check in with them on their Academics and with any needs they may have.


sections of IVYT 120 F.O.C.U.S. Course for AfricanAmerican/Black Males (Which was converted into a 1 credit hour course Fall 2016 called IVYT 111) and establishing student organizations such as “Project Voice” and Collegiate Chapter of 100 Black Men. The Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program builds upon these efforts by engaging prospective Male students in college preparation and by assisting them to persist in college. Through a combination of workshops, plenary sessions, and informal dialogue, the bridge program will provide students with critical information on the rigors and expectations of college while strengthening relationships between Ivy Tech—Central Indiana and the Male community it serves. Summer Bridge Program Objectives/Outcomes At the end of the summer bridge program, the following objectives will be met: • •

Proposal: Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program Purpose of Event In continuing with the College’s efforts to improve rates of academic preparedness, retention, and completion among Males in Central Indiana, the Office of Student Affairs and Dr. Darrell Cain, Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs, with his committee proposes a Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program for Males. Background/Statement of Need As an Achieving the Dream Institution, Ivy Tech Community College has made a public commitment to the success of underrepresented students. Ivy Tech is the chief provider of higher education for Males in Indiana. However, the retention and graduation rates for minority males such as African American are disproportionately lower than for other demographic groups. The Central Indiana region has taken the initiative to address these inequities by offering affinity

Focus on College Adjustments for students with college preparation and retention strategies Career Readiness and Preparation for connecting students with resources and individuals which will provide information about careers and the job market Academic Performance and Assessment which will connect students with Academic testing and readiness tool to prepare them for their college student experience Ivy Tech faculty and staff will raise awareness of the College’s role and responsibility to the Male community.

RESULTS Ivy Tech Community College Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program - Pre Assessment [Table 1] (Summer 2016) (9 Students) RATING SCALE: Very Little Little N/A Some Knowledge Very Knowledgeable Financial Aid: 20% 0% 10% 70% 0% Student Life:

0%

15%

25%

60%

0%

Career Development:

7.5%

25%

25%

25%

7.5%

Major Selection/Choices: 10%

10%

10%

50%

20%

College Transferring:

25%

35%

7.5%

7.5%

Student/Faculty Interactions: 7.5% 25% 35%

25%

7.5%

Mentoring/Support Services: 25% 25% 35%

15%

0%

Tutoring Services:

25%

20%

20%

40%

20%

0%

Library/Testing Services: 30% 25% 30%

15%

0%


How did you hear about The Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program? - Mom Told Me About The Program - I received an email from a success coach - Whitney Harden - Teacher - Ivy Tech Scholarship - Through Instructors at J. Everett Light - Bowen Scholars - I heard it from my Teacher - Talking to David

Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program Participants – (9 Students) Fall 2016 to Spring 2017 Registration Retention Rate – 100% Fall 2016 to Fall 2017 Registration Retention Rate – 88% *Statistics Via Ivy Tech Community College Starfish Program* In your own words, please discuss your overall experience participating in the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program?

What specific needs do you need assistance with as a Male Student at Ivy Tech Community College to help you be successful? - More of what the campus has to offer - I’m trying to build a strong “support-system” and this program first into that category, so I figured I’d go for it. - Transfer, Student Life, Tutoring, Career Development - Information on all possible options - Time Management and Math tutoring - Note Taking Skills and study tips/advice - I need to know everything how college works - Everything

Ivy Tech Community College Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program - Post Assessment [Table 2] (Summer 2016) RATING SCALE: Very Little Little N/A Some Knowledge Very Knowledgeable Financial Aid:

0%

0% 0%

40%

60%

Student Life:

0%

0%

0%

20%

80%

Career Development: 0%

0%

0%

15%

85%

Major Selection/Choices: 0%

0%

0%

10%

90%

College Transferring: 0%

0%

0%

15%

85%

Student/Faculty Interactions: 0% 0% 10%

10%

80%

Mentoring/Support Services: 0% 0% 10%

30%

60%

Tutoring Services:

0%

0% 0%

15%

85%

Library/Testing Services: 0%

0% 10%

15%

75%

- I learned a lot of the past couple weeks about financial aid, student life and what Ivy Tech has to offer - They took the things that I don’t know much about and made them very clear and more understanding - I feel this was a very beneficial and informative program - Very Cool. Real Life - Overall it was a great experience knowing all the resources available on campus, and being able to chat with the many staff - I feel as though I learned more than I expected - I loved it. Hands down it was a great experience and I loved just connecting with the guys/mentors - Very enlightening it brought more meaning to my educational career in regard to more to it than just an associate - It was a real experience for all the student to get prepared for college What were the best moments for you participating in the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program? - Taking the Gallup assessment was my favorite part of the program - Listening to people’s backgrounds and what their struggled with in school and life - The “Keeping It Real” sessions - Meeting with each other - We were all able to talk to each other and hear of everyone’s personal challenges in life and how they overcame - The strengths assessment - Networking - Hearing the stories, being made aware of resources things to look out for - To when I did introduce myself to everyone and I said why I am here


What should be improved to you in the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program for future students?

Ivy Tech word of mouth, Flyer, Advising, Career Services, during the application process, signage, Ivy Tech poster in the hall, Excel Center Flyer

- I would encourage others to be a part of the program next year to get more info - Offering the program more through the week so people can get into more depth about what they do for the school - I can’t think of anything right now. Very good program for incoming males (students) - I believe the program was great, I see where no specific improvement is needed - Time - I think it’d be great to have us back next summer to talk to future males - Just maybe encourage some note taking or video recording to be able to go back and review and remember - Should be that everyone has to give their part for other students to come

What specific needs do you need assistance with as a Male Student at Ivy Tech Community College to help you be successful?

Ivy Tech Community College Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program - Pre Assessment [Table 3] (Summer 2017) (13 Students) RATING SCALE: Financial Aid:

Very Little Little N/A Some Knowledge Very Knowledgeable 15%

23% 0%

62%

0%

Scholarships or funding, Life skills, student life in college, career development, time management and organizational skills, Money management, transferring and mentoring.

Ivy Tech Community College Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program - Post Assessment [Table 4] (Summer 2017) Since Completing the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program how much do you know about? RATING SCALE:

Very Little Little

N/A Some Knowledge Very Knowledgeable

Financial Aid:

0%

0%

0%

46%

54%

Student Life:

0%

0%

0%

54%

46%

Career Development:

0%

0%

7%

31%

62%

Major Selection/Choices:

0%

0%

0%

38%

62%

College Transferring:

0%

0%

0%

23%

77%

Student/Faculty Interactions: 0%

0%

0%

15%

85%

Student Life:

23.25% 46.25% 7.25% 23.25%

0%

Mentoring/Support Services: 0%

0%

0%

31%

69%

Career Development:

23%

0%

Tutoring Services:

0%

0%

0%

23%

77%

Library/Testing Services:

0%

7.25%

7.25%

31.25%

54.25%

54% 0%

Major Selection/Choices: 15.25% 23.25% 0% College Transferring:

23% 54.25%

7.25%

31.25% 15.25% 15.25% 38.25%

0%

Student/Faculty Interactions: 38.50% 38.50% 7.50% 15.50%

0%

Mentoring/Support Services: 31%

0%

38% 0%

31%

Tutoring Services:

31.40% 15.40% 7.40% 38.40%

7.40%

Library/Testing Services:

23.20% 31.20% 15.20% 23.20%

7.20%

How did you hear about The Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program?

In your own words, please discuss your overall experience participating in the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program? “Awesome!”, very helpful, good experience, best experience at Ivy Tech, glad I signed, I got a lot, I would recommend to everybody, fun to meet new friends and old with new staff, very positive, gave me confidence, boosted my encouragement” What were the best moments to you participating in the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program? Guest speaker’s life stories, talk and ask questions with answers, Carey Boss talk, real talk session, learning about financial aid, transfer and other resources, bonding with others, success skills in college.


What should be improved to you in the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program for future students? Nothing, more student activities and interaction, more engaging, ESL staff story on how to overcome speaking English better. A female version of Summer Bridge. Follow-Up: If you a willing to participate in a short interview in person or online, please provide your name, phone number, and email address below. A total of 9 of 13 students requested follow-up for a percentage of continued engagement potential or request of 69%. Results Overview Over the course of two years, the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program at Ivy Tech Community College has provided life, college, and career changing opportunities and information to its Male students that gave them a great starting path into their Fall 2016 and 2017 semesters. Students were engaged in several different Program sessions which allowed them to get exposed to college campus areas that many times can be misunderstood or underutilized by students, in turn, making them miss out on valuable opportunities that could help with their collegiate success. From the data collected in both years of the Ivy Tech Community College – Central Indiana Summer Bridge Program from the Pre-Assessments, we saw that Mentoring, College Transferring, and Tutoring Services were a few of the highest areas students wants to know about coming into the Program. In turn, when it came down to their Post Assessment Results that they completed after the 4-day Intensive Sessions, College Transferring and Tutoring Services became two of the highest measures that they learned most about after the Program’s completion. As Members of the Male Initiatives team, it was important to make sure to provide Program sessions that would meet the Male student’s needs and get their perspectives on what could be done better. We wanted to know what they liked more about the Program to help future Male students who might be part of the Program. Students learned about the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program in many ways such as from our flyers, their Success Coaches, to Community places such as J. Everett Light and The Excel Center in the City of Indianapolis.

Students stated in the Post Assessment questions how much they enjoyed the “Real Talk Sessions”. Participants enjoyed hearing the stories of the Faculty & Staff from Ivy Tech Community College. As they shared how they made it through their college journeys. This resulted in an opportunity to connect with other Male college students like them in the Program. Future Implications for better Programs in the future from our Summer Bridge participants included more activities and interactions during the Program and encouragement for other Male students to be involved with the Program as well. We at Ivy Tech Community College want to continue to assist our Male students to be their very best in the classroom, in their careers, and in our communities. It’s important that a Program such as the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program, we continue to connect with our Male students to see what they need and to establish resources and practices that will provide them with opportunities for success in their lives. Changing Live and Making Indiana Great are mantras we stand on here at Ivy Tech Community College and we want to help our students be their absolute best in all that they do in their lives. References Barnett, E. A., Bork, R. H., Mayer, A. K., Pretlow, J., Wathington, H. D., & Weiss, M. J. (2012). Bridging the Gap: An Impact Study of Eight Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Texas. National Center for Postsecondary Research. Strayhorn, T. L. (2011). Bridging the pipeline: Increasing underrepresented students’ preparation for college through a summer bridge program. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(2), 142-159.

Strayhorn, Terrell L. (2012) Satisfaction and Retention Among African American Men at Two-Year Community Colleges, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 36:5, 358-375.


The State of Maryland Take Steps Towards Free Community College Dr. Dawn Lindsay @AACC_DrLindsay

President of Anne Arundel Community College of Maryland Discusses What this Means for the State of Maryland and its Community Colleges


Congratulations Class of 2018 Live Education Everyday


Global Efforts to Build Leadership Skills in K12 Education Phyl Macomber, M.S. @ALLAboutTHEPACT

Empowering Youth in Six Leadership Principles -

Leadership can be taught at any age, from preschool to adulthood. As an author and education specialist in the field of education for 30 years, I see firsthand how important it is to teach leadership skills to our youth – including those children with disabilities. Regardless of where you live in the world, children need to be explicitly taught how to establish a clear vision and then share that vision with others as it relates to social responsibility, global awareness, and global citizenship. Specific to teaching our youth around the world to be empowered, studies show that teachers are one of the most powerful influencers for children, all the way from their first day of school through their high

school years. This is why teaching leadership training in K-12 education – as part of the school day or offered in after-school programs – is so essential. It is also very important to offer formats of learning outside of the school building, such as through podcasts, “call-to-action” videos on the Internet, and engaging television programs. I am involved in multiple leadership initiatives for children of all ages and abilities - both in the United States and outside of North America - that are explicitly teaching a wide spectrum of leadership skills, ranging from self-advocacy to personal responsibility. Regardless of geographic location, the foundation of these skills is social and emotional learning.


research-based teaching methodology of “Learn About, Read About, Write About, and Talk About” modules in their empowering leadership curriculum methodically teaching each of these six principles in skill-building lessons in a “connect-the-dots” manner in various geographic locations. These empowerment lessons are an integral part of LNGB’s first free web-based program titled, The Mighty Warrior Workshop, which, in less than 9 months, is being used in Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, South Africa, Pakistan, and the United States. This program is designed for children of both genders. It can be completed independently by children ages 11 years and older and can also be used with a facilitator or teacher present to supervise the program for younger children.

Love, Strength, Courage, Unity, Freedom, and Equality

Make A Difference, Inc., using T.H.E. P.A.C.T., the educational initiative and teaching framework that I have authored has partnered with Leave No Girl Behind International (LNGB), a nonprofit empowerment organization for girls, based in South Africa. Through collaboration, we are committed to changing the lives of young girls around the globe by developing systematic social and emotional leadership curriculum. Leave No Girl Behind co-founders and sisters, Haseena Patel and Shameema Patel, get to the heart of what young girls need: identifying their own unique voice, developing strength of character, and knowing how to advocate for themselves and others. LNGB’s comprehensive programs result in giving young girls a practical and powerful skill set for leadership. The organization’s programs and teachings are based on six principles: Love, Strength, Courage, Unity, Freedom, and Equality. LNGB is incorporating principles of T.H.E. P.A.C.T.’s

Free Web-Based Leadership Workshop at LeaveNoGirlBehind.org

The Mighty Warrior Workshop teaches children – both girls and boys – the following: •

• • • • • •

How to develop the six bedrock LNGB leadership principles - Love, Strength, Courage, Unity, Freedom, and Equality - and how to immediately apply them to daily living How to learn the concept of friendship and cooperation, despite our differences How to embrace who they are, as well as their individuality How to view themselves, others, and life in a positive light How to interact in a group setting How to embrace those who seem different at school and in social situations How they, as one single individual, can make a difference in the world


For example, at the core of teaching leadership and social and emotional learning to children is the principle of strength. In my mind, strength is not just a physical attribute; it is also an emotional quality necessary to have power in your life to make a difference in this world. Such strength not only helps you deal with situations and events that can be controversial, distressing, or difficult, but is also critical in unlocking one’s leadership potential. “Strength of character” is described by LNGB as “what determines who you become and allows you to walk unbowed and be in alignment with your personal sense of what is right.” I could not agree more. From my own individual perspective, strength of character consists of having the qualities that allow you to master yourself, achieve emotional regulation, and increase your persuasive power. These are essential leadership qualities to teach our youth, and most significantly, model for them. When we explicitly teach strength of character to children, we are teaching them to “indict the status quo.” We must model for our youth how to do this and stand together around the globe to advocate for global citizenship. Strength of character inspires us to have the courage to challenge the existing state of affairs when the current model is not working. An essential part of global citizenship is not only empowering oneself, but also empowering others. For example, Energime University - an online platform that includes courses, meetings, webinars and educational programs - has started a global conversation about how to take care of our planet. Their mission is to get children and adults around the world to recognize that we all need to work together to achieve planet-wide sustainability. Founder and CEO of Energime, Bill Sosinsky, shares, “Through our new educational programs, we are empowering children globally to stand shoulder-to-shoulder to learn that, as individuals, they are a real part of an extended family as it relates to the saving the environment.” I serve as an Ambassador for Energime University and have come to know Bill Sosinsky quite well: he is the “real McCoy” because his heart is in it for real. His vision of empowering children

environmentally, socially, and politically comes at such a critical time – quite similar to the mission of Leave No Girl Behind International. One of Energime University’s new projects is Mission Earth Solutions, a global youth initiative that will be a regular program teaching “call-to-action” leadership to children around the world related to a sustainable planet. I serve as Education Co-Producer for this program, consulting on the show’s curriculum content by incorporating the research-based strategies of T.H.E. P.A.C.T. into the program format. Mission Earth Solutions will be an inclusive educational program for children of all abilities around the globe – gifted to special needs, and every child in between. Every child will have a voice. Every child will have the opportunity to be a leader.

Creating a Global Youth Leadership Network for a Sustainable Planet

It is all connected: training children in social and emotional leadership and educating our youth to stand up for the environment in order to ensure that the human race is, “Here today – here tomorrow.” We need to train children how to have the strength to advocate for what is right in the name of social responsibility. As mentors, we must show the younger generation how to be vocal in a productive manner when calling into question things that are broken, flawed, to begin with, or simply flat-out wrong. Strength of character allows us to have conviction in our core beliefs and know how to respectfully disagree to facilitate change. It also prepares us to embrace failure as a form of growth. In addition, this critical leadership quality expands our ability to listen without judging and to accept diversity. It is essential to teach our youth how to


display tolerance, love, and respect for others. Leadership training in the area of strength of character heightens awareness of behaving consciously to effect positive change in our world. Leadership training needs to start at a very young age. My parents empowered me as a little girl to not only attempt to make a positive change in this world but also, to BELIEVE that I had the power and inner strength to do so. When we teach children about leadership, we are teaching them that every contribution counts – no matter how big or small. The greatest thing we all can learn is that it is ALL ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTION. Simply put, our moral compass should always point us in the direction of making a difference. Addressing the Need for Sex Education in Public Schools continued from page 35

References American Public Health Association. (2014). Sexuality Education as Part of a Comprehensive Health Education Program in K to 12 Schools. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from https://www. apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policystatements/policy-database /2015/01/23/09/37/sexuality-education-as-part-of-acomprehensive-health-education-program-in-k-to-12schools Bridges, E., & Hauser, D. (2014). FoSE | Youth Health and Rights in Sex Education. Retrieved October 4, 2017, from http://www.futureofsexed.org/youthhealthrights.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, August 4). Sexual Behaviors | Adolescent and School Health | CDC. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/ sexualbehaviors/ Chin, H. B., Sipe, T. A., Elder, R., Mercer, S. L., Chattopadhyay, S. K., Jacob, V., … Santelli, J. (2012). The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually

American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 272–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006 Constantine, N. A. (2008). Converging Evidence Leaves Policy Behind: Sex Education in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(4), 324–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.01.004 Gordon, S. (2008). Why Sex Education Also Belongs in the Home. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/166?task=view Kirby, D. (1995). Sex Miseducation. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from http://www.motherjones.com/ politics/1995/01/sex-miseducation/ Knowles, J. (2012). Sex Education in the United States. Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/files/3713/9611/7930/ Sex_Ed_in_ the_US.pdf National Conference of State Legislatures. (2016a). State Policies on Sex Education in Schools. Retrieved October 3, 2017, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/statepolicies-on-sex-education-in-schools.aspx National Conference of State Legislatures. (2016b). Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Retrieved October 4, 2017, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/teen-pregnancyprevention.aspx National Guidelines Task Force. (2004). Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education — Kindergarten–12th Grade. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. Retrieved from www.siecus.org/_data/global/images/guidelines.pdf Stanger-Hall, K. F., & Hall, D. W. (2011). Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e24658. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024658 Whitehead, B. (1994). The Failure of Sex Education 94.10. Retrieved October 4, 2017, from https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/politics/family/failur e.htm


Weddings and Non-traditional Styles continued from page 37

actual wedding, it’s nice to send an actual paper invitation. They aren’t as expensive as you may think and for 100 you can easily spend less than $200 (including postage!). You may even have a talented friend like I did who did the calligraphy addressing of my invitations as my wedding gift. If you opt to go the “non-traditional route” of online invitations, be sure you double check the spelling, the date, time and location just as you would a printed invite. Many online wedding websites have spell check and reminders for you before you hit send to double check everything. Location – So you don’t want a church wedding – okay, not a big deal. You’re entitled to host your wedding ceremony and reception anywhere. A few key factors to keep in mind if you’re going this route. Be sure the location is “right” for a ceremony. What do I mean? The wedding ceremony is technically a religious one and should be regarded as such, the reception is a party to celebrate the marriage. Hosting your ceremony at the restaurant where you’re hosting your reception – I don’t recommend it. Hosting your ceremony on the beach in the Caribbean? Make sure it’s not next to the nude beach. (I’m not kidding, its happened!) Do site visits, ask questions, go to the locations at different times of year BEFORE you sign on the dotted line and plunk down a deposit. It’s your wedding, yes, yours but I don’t think you want to have people you don’t know eating, making noise, kids crying, a waitress or waiter dropping a tray, you get the drift. Basic advice for the non-traditional bride and groom? Yes, you can do it “your way” but think about how to do it in a way that is memorable in a good way, doesn’t cost you money you can’t afford and is the best day ever. Can you hire a planner to help? Absolutely! I highly recommend that you do, even if it’s only for the day of the wedding. Remember you can’t run the wedding and get married. No, seriously, you can’t. Ask any bride who didn’t employ a day-of coordinator, if she’s honest, she’ll say she wishes she had found someone to make sure the day went smoothly. Most planners will do day-of-coordination, they will begin working about 6 weeks before the wedding to talk with all the vendors you have booked. Their job is to ensure everyone does what you have paid them to do and planned. The planner will not suddenly undo what you have already agreed to do with the vendor. Make sure you are clear in your expectations on what the

planner’s role is for that day and what leeway you are authorizing the planner. Whether you decide to be an old school bride and groom or a non-traditional one, I hope you have a fabulous wedding day!


Living Education Everyday


What Can Parents Do to Prevent Summer Learning Loss? Rebecca Coda, NBCT @RebeccaCoda


Even before our little ones’ wave goodbye to another successful year, as parents, we already have a sound bite looping in our heads asking, “What can I do this summer, so my child starts next school year on target ready to go?” No matter your parenting type, socioeconomic status or background, in the end, we all just want our kids to live a good life Sometimes, however, we approach things a little differently as parents and it looks and sounds different

from family to family. Humor me for a minute while we look at a few extreme parenting types: Helicopter parents already have the summer mapped out with museums, playdates and summer movie passes ready to ensure they are in control of every perfect learning experience. They are occupied with worry about reading levels, hiring tutors and fussing over unmastered math facts. Mostly they are

obsessed with everything being on point and on queue ready to go for the upcoming year with a master plan that is mapped out and color coded. A noble intent. Lawnmower parents take “Helicopter parenting” to a new level by not only planning things out but also smoothing the way and eliminating every possible obstacle so that their child path and learning doesn’t encounter adversity or failure. Every step is calculated and recalculated to the point of micromanaging little humans. The future success of this child is solely dependent on the path that is smoothed over by the parent. Again, noble intentions. And at the other end of the spectrum there’s…. Cool cat parents, who undermanage their children altogether because their goal in life is to prevent stress, anxiety, and fear altogether. Their children are set free for the summer to unwind and explore with no set agenda. The only agenda item is to just “be”. They want to raise happy children that are just as cool as they are with only fond memories. Again, the noblest of intentions are here and at play. At the end of the day, no matter the parenting type, we all want our kids to be developmentally and academically on target and ready to succeed, and what better opportunity than summer?

As an educational leader and mom, I believe there are several things we can do to promote a growth mindset and emotionally thriving kids that love life. First, we must understand that every child is neuro”diverse” and packaged with his or her own unique DNA. This means that every child passes through developmental continuums socially, emotionally, and academically. Children pass through these stages at varying rates with a myriad of talents, personalities and interests. Regardless of your child’s chronological age, social age, emotional age or academic level, we can all learn a little from each other and support the whole child. Strategies to Prevent Summer Slide … that Stimulate Social Growth

Plan an Event: From a water day to a movie night sleepover, or even just a simple play date, have your child plan an event from beginning to end. There will be a few key elements at play here that you will want to be sure to plan for like creating and designing invitations (art), advertising (entrepreneurship), and writing out to do lists and items needed (functional writing). Since the focus is also on social growth, you will want to visit with your child ahead of time and plan on how to show courtesy and demonstrate manners, from shaking hands and greeting to watching out for quiet guests sitting alone. The social goal of the event is to create an atmosphere of inclusion. As host(ess) the job is to manage


the social dynamics of the room and ensure that the energy is safe, positive and everyone is having fun! You may even want to role-play scenarios of adversity in case fear, jealousy or sadness come into play by any of the guests. After the event, consider a debrief and reflect on the social dynamics of the event and give your event a Yelp review rating! The key to stimulating social growth is asking questions and letting their interests take the lead and drive the event. Role Play & Role Reverse: Sometimes you can flip the coin without them even knowing. Cozy up to your child’s interest. If they love their stuffed animals, grab a blanket a book and several stuffed animals and have an indoor or outdoor imaginary reading picnic. If they love gardening walk up to your child and say something like, “Can we please go outside and do gardening, dad please?” This will cue them of the role reversal. When your child follows you out of curiosity,

start talking to them as if you are the child and see if they assume the parent role as “pretend”. If your child automatically assumes the parent role playing pretend then great, if not you can simply say, I’m the kid and you are the parent and continue talking as the child. You can begin acting selfishly by telling the stuffed animals that it is “mine” or “you can’t play with me” to see how your child will step into the parent role. Then keep asking them “why” a lot. It is fun to act out in the child role to see how they will redirect the challenging behavior you offer up in your pretend role. After you clean up (or pretend to refuse to want to clean up) and switch back into your normal real roles it is important to identify the choices that were made, how different choices produce different outcomes, and how to socially interact in the future when these behaviors arise. That Encourage Emotional Growth

Teach Failure as An Option: Brainstorm some goals or things that your child would like to learn. From guitar lessons to baking new recipes, swimming, learning a new language or football. Generate a list of things that your child has never tried before that they would like to learn. Read about people in history that have failed, persevered and ultimately were resilient. (e.g. JK Rowling, Henry Ford, Walt Disney, Katy Perry, Thomas Edison etc.) Next, narrow down one new activity or learning on the list and commit to trying something new. Identify and express emotions that they may have but ultimately, encourage failure as a path to triumph. Throughout the learning process, when you see the productive struggle happening, commend and give positive encouragement for the willingness to fail.

Teach Mindfulness: In the simplest of terms, mindfulness is really the ability to notice one’s own thoughts, feelings, and current surroundings. There are many mindfulness practices that you can implement such as a focus on listening to specific sounds, breathing exercises, practice gratitude, try yoga or kid relaxation meditation. Most of all you will want to keep it simple, light and fun. Through purposeful conversation about emotions it is important to identify times when mindfulness practices are most helpful. If you find yourself in a tense or stressful situation, you can simply whisper and ask your child, “Do you think this is a good time for a mindfulness activity, and which one should we do together?” Self-regulation of emotions begins with practice. Identifying opportunities that are


appropriate for implementation will help your child become more aware of thoughts, feelings, and surroundings. ‌that Boost Academical Growth Integrate Technology for Individualization: There are many free sites that will customize learning continuums in multiple content areas. MobyMax.com is a K-8 curriculum that offers fluency practice in math, math concept practice, science, reading comprehension & English grammar. It is free and only takes a few minutes to set up. Once you set up the account you will have your child take prodigy online assessments that will place them in their level by content. It is easy to use, motivating to students as they earn badges all throughout their experience. Another free site that is easy to get started is Code.org. Even if you have never done coding a day in your life, this is the easiest entry level coding site that is 100% student driven. Kids can practice critical thinking, problem solving, and pattern thinking as they learn to code with high interesting and motivating characters that they relate to. Participate in Your Local Library or Scholastic Summer Reading Challenge: The theme this year is a magical summer of reading. If you are looking for a motivation for offline book reading, then Scholastic.com is your summer answer. You will need to register online and track the title of books read over 18 weeks. If your school is not already registered and partnered, check with your local

public library to participate. Prizes will be awarded at the end of the summer. Take a Virtual Field Trip: If you are limited on summer travel, consider virtual field trips. You can view the natural wonders of the world, check out the planets in the solar system or even visit a farm. The number of virtual field trips are endless. You can begin your initial search by accessing this link. Create questions based on the location and then create a brochure or digital presentation answering those questions.

The continuous cycle of learning and thriving as humans should be so interconnected that they are synonymous with joy and purpose. As parents we have the ability to connect our children to learning through playful thriving relationships. Whether you are a helicopter parent, lawnmower parent, cool cat parent or none of the above, intentional conversations, role playing, reading aloud, listening and creating opportunities to learn and grow together is the best summer gift you can off your child this summer!


Living Education Everyone


Creating a School Culture that Values Independent Reading

By Evan Robb @ERobbPrincipal

Changing your staff’s attitudes toward educational practices takes time, but it’s something that you can accomplish through continual communication. Staying in touch with staff means attending all meetings; sending them short articles that build their educational knowledge base; providing positive feedback after walkthroughs and meeting with staff oneon-one or in small groups to have meaningful conversations about best practices in literacy instruction and the power of independent reading. The tips that follow can be used to develop a school culture in which independent reading is a central part of your school curriculum. Share the research

Before asking teachers to weave independent reading into their teaching schedule, invite them to read and discuss articles on the power of independent reading from self-selected books. Without the practice that independent reading provides, students’ progress in reading and their ability to comprehend complex texts will be limited. Moreover, when students regularly read self-selected books at school, they develop a love of reading that lasts a lifetime! Here are four texts you can share with your faculty: o "The Six Ts of Effective Elementary Literacy Instruction" (Richard Allington)


o "The Class Library and Effective Independent Reading by Challenging Students" (Jeani Fullard, Lisa Neveitt, and Jennifer Schaffer) o "10 Questions About Independent Reading" (Dana Truby interview with Jennifer Serravallo) o "Every Child, Every Day" (Richard Allington and Rachael E. Gabriel)

Speak at faculty meetings and to individual teachers Extol the benefits of independent reading— students enlarge their vocabulary, build background knowledge, practice applying strategies teachers model, and find pleasure in reading about people and places from the past, present, and future. To expand teachers’ knowledge of the benefits of independent reading, purchase The Book Whisperer by Donalyn Miller (Jossey-Bass, 2009), and invite teachers to read and discuss the book with colleagues. Set aside funds for books

Have students share books on the school’s morning broadcast Invite teachers to choose students to share a great read with the entire school. Peer-to-peer advertising of terrific books is a top-notch way to interest other students in reading. Drop into classes during independent reading Catch students reading and loving it! Praise students and show them a book you’re reading. If you have time, join the class and read for 10 to 15 minutes. Designate a weekly independent reading time for the entire school This shows students and teachers how serious you are about reading self-selected books. Encourage teachers to read while students read When teachers model that they have and enjoy a personal reading life, they inspire their students to emulate them.

Each year offer teachers funds for building their classroom libraries. Access to books can bring students into the reading life. Encourage the PTA to do one or two annual fundraisers for classroom libraries.

Invite teachers to share success stories of student independent reading

Encourage students to self-select books

Track reading scores

Explain to teachers that permitting students to choose their independent reading books means students invest in their reading. (The Scholastic Kids & Family Reading Report found that 91% of kids ages 6–17 say “my favorite books are the ones that I have picked out myself.”)

Do this over two to three years to show that when students have a rich, independent reading life, their scores in vocabulary and comprehension improve. Share data with teachers so they see how the changes and adjustments they’ve made are supporting students’ progress.

Read aloud to students

Feature a student’s recommendation for independent reading in the school newsletter

Make appointments to read aloud each week to a different class.

They can do this during full faculty meetings and at department or team meetings.

This lets parents know how much you, teachers, and students value independent reading.

Become a role model Commend teachers and students in writing Discuss a book you love at assembly or during a school-wide broadcast.

Don’t overdo written notes, but when you see independent reading flourishing in a class, write a note to the teacher and his or her students.


Noticing positive reading practices inspires teachers and students to read even more. Keep parents informed On back-to-school night, let parents know the benefits of independent reading so they can foster it at home. As a principal, you can shape teachers' theories of education by being an instructional leader who brings best practices to your school. The journey can be slow with setbacks, but when teachers help students develop personal reading lives, they prepare their students for life, college, and career. There's nothing better than being part of that outcome! ``

Living Education Everyday


A Call for Principals as Culturally Responsive continued from page 28

against all promotions of disenfranchisement and marginalization, especially educational policy and practice – no matter how American it appears. The Role of Culturally Responsive Instructional Leadership Armed with acknowledgement that knowledge is socially constructed, perpetuated by cultures of power, stipulated by powerful entities, and transmitted by agents of power to the powerless, the principal’s role as a Culturally Responsive Instructional Leader (CRIL) in multicultural multiethnic curriculum development is to ensure that marginalized groups such as Black and Brown children, find cultural representation throughout texts, in all learning programs, and throughout the school environment. CRILs accomplish this through the development of Culturally Responsive Classrooms (CRCs), Culturally Responsive Instructional (CRI) programs, and through previously stated conceptual frameworks for knowledge

construction in Multicultural Education. CRILs and the Opportunities Gap Milner (2007) addresses the Opportunities Gap that exists between groups based on equity and access. When a CRIL is at the helm of a resource deficient school, Milner (2013) describes how thinking and actions towards students, about students’ abilities, and about students’ established knowledge and possibilities are critical to teaching and learning that occur in every situation and/or context. Through staff development, CRILs ensure Culturally Responsive Classroom Management practices (CRCM) are in place. Beginning with an understanding of the self, the other and the context of learning in relation to one another. CRCs, CRCM and CRIs are also valuable for the identification, inclusion and support of African American children in Gifted and Talented programs (Ford, 2010).

CRILs and Culturally Responsive Classroom Management The Culturally Responsive Instructional Leader (CRIL) embeds Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (CRCM) policies and knows, first, that all are cultural beings, with our own beliefs, biases, and assumptions about human behavior (Wienstien, Curan, & Tomlinson-Clarke, 2003). CRILs, therefore, acknowledge the cultural, racial, ethnic, and class differences that exist among all students in classrooms, in the community, and in all learning programs. CRILs develop culturally responsive schools. They allow for the dismantling of ways the larger society designs schools for reflection and perpetuation of discriminatory practices – “Sit straight; Stop talking and Talk right”. CRILs, along with culturally responsive teachers, recognize that African American school children’s behavior is culturally influenced and is defined by Boykins (1983) as having nine dimensions of African American


culture: spirituality, harmony, movement, affect, individual expressionism, communalism, social time, perspective, oral tradition, and verve. As a result, CRILs maintain communal relationships and reciprocate partnerships with and among the faculty and staff, students, parents, and the community to normalize cultural attributes. Parents and community members are important participants when building and maintaining an educative environment. Cultural experiences of African American learners and that of other marginalized groups become experiential and celebrated norms rather than seasonal inconveniences. Recommendations for Aspiring Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) To achieve success as a Culturally Responsive Instructional Leader (CRIL), Critical Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Approaches are needed. Through a CCRP approach, principals empower the teacher to design and implementation of relevant,

complex and caring curriculums. WebbJohnson (2003) shares that teachers must discover, support, value, and hone the strengths that African American learners bring to the classroom. Teachers must be encouraged to invest in their own self-discovery. Otherwise, principals only perpetuate what is designed to bring harm, maintain the status quo and ensure the marginalization of staff. Since the primary paradigm function of a principal is as instructional leader, principals should lead and model for staff a repertoire of culturally responsive instructional strategies that include, but are not limited to, complex questioning strategies, by providing timely feedback, and analyzing all instructional materials for equity, relevance and inclusiveness (Jackson, 1994). This repertoire of instructional strategies enables a focus on knowledge acquisition and learning over off task behaviors that are often misinterpreted as disruptive, disrespectful or rude – “Miss you trippin�.

Conclusion Allowing students and teachers to openly communicate with peers and to express what they do not know through safe dialogue and discussion, CRILs facilitate freeflowing social change discourse. As CRILs, principals establish safe culturally responsive environments where all community cultural patterns are recognized and appreciated. These learning environments celebrate and promote the precocious style that children of color and poverty population learners display as representative of their community, cultural patterns and learning capital. Consideration for Cultural Competency practices toward the development of school leaders during Principalship training is critical. Failure to embed cultural competence as a curricular mandate is a failure for anyone who claims to promote equity. One cannot promote equity with a status quo conscience. To answer the call as a Culturally Responsive Instructional Leader (CRILs) is


References Banks, J. A. (2004). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J.A. Banks and C. A. McGee Banks (Eds.) Handbook of research on multicultural education, (pp. 3-29). San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass. Berry, J. M. (1978). On the origins of public interest groups: A test of two theories. Polity, 10 3), pp. 379-397.

Gay, G. and Howard, T.C. (2000). Multicultural teacher education for the 21st century, The Teacher Education, 36 (1), pp. 116. Griffen, Aaron J. (2015). Hearing the voices of African American educational lobbyists and their role in lobbying for education. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Retrieved from http: / /hdl .handle .ne t /1969 .1 /156268.

Blumer, H. (1958). Race prejudice as a sense of group position. The Pacific Sociological Review, 1(1), pp. 3-7.

Jackson, F. R. (1994). Seven strategies to support a culturally responsive pedagogy. Journal of reading, 37(4), pp. 298-303.

Boykin, A. W. (1983). The academic performance of Afro-American children. In J. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives (pp. 324-337). San Francisco: Freeman

Milner, H. R. (2013). Start where you are, but don’t stay there: Understanding diversity, opportunity gaps, and teaching in today’s classrooms. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Education Press.

Ford, D. Y. (2010). Culturally responsive classrooms: Affirming culturally different gifted students. Gifted Child Today, 33(1), pp. 50-53.

Milner, H. R. (2007). African American males in urban schools: No excuses-teach and empower. Theory in Practice, 46(3), 239-246.

Webb-Johnson, G. (2003). Behaving while Black: A hazardous reality for African American earners. Beyond Behavior, pp. 3-7. Weinstein, C., Curran, M., & Tomlinson-Clarke, S.T., (2003). Culturally responsive curriculum management: Awareness into action. Theory Into Practice, 42(4), pp. 269276. Young, M. (2008). From constructivism to realism in the sociology of the curriculum. In G. J. Kelly, L. Luke, & J. Greed (Eds.), Review of research in education: What counts as knowledge in educational settings: disciplinary knowledge, assessment, and curriculum, Vol. 32, (pp.1-28). DOI: 10.3102/0091732X073089 6.


Archive•Arcihive

Living Education eFocus News Dr. Rosalind Osgood Broward County School Board Member How Can Schools Keep Students Safe in the Wake of the Parkland School Shootings?


Firearms and Learning Educators and Parents Share Their Thoughts About Arming Teachers Karen Gross, Esq. @KarenGrossEdu Dr. Michael Woods @MichaelWoodsDBA Mr. and Mrs. J @MrMrsJ Dr. James Croft @JFLCroft Le'Jon :+? @metalalien Dr. Marcus Jackson @DrMarcusJackson Susann Williams Dr. Stephen Peters @stephengpeters Ann Kelly, Esq. Ayize Sabater @AyizeS Dr. Noelle Chaddock @BlackDeanMagic Walter Duncan @4_teachers Ada Lopez @adalynnelopez Alexander Jackson, LCSW Chandra Peay @Educator_P Dr. Cynthia A. Tyson @drmstyson Victor Kwansa @vakwansa Dr. Michael Hart @drmichaelhart


Violent Public Housing Projects Contribute to the Violent Behavior of Black Male Students Dr. Dorothy C. Handfield @consultingDCH Flashback to almost twenty-two years ago, I was 26 years old and returned to school, so I could earn a teaching certificate. Part of my training included a semester of student teaching at a school assigned to me by the university. I specifically requested an assignment at an urban school. Like all students, I was eager to learn about my placement. When I met with my professor, she opened our conversation with an apology. “Dorothy, we are so sorry. We worked extremely hard to find you an adequate placement. The other schools did not have any additional vacancies. You have to report to the elementary school that was assigned to you in order to receive a grade for the semester.” I was puzzled because I could not understand my professor’s comments or need to apologize to me until I arrived at the school. My student teacher assignment was at an elementary school that educated students from three different public housing projects and, all three public housing projects were known throughout the city for its violence. Despite my professor’s reaction to my placement, I was excited because I saw it as a challenge to teach students whose socioeconomic and racial backgrounds were similar to mine. Nonetheless, I was concerned. I questioned if I had the skill sets to be a successful educator in that environment. From the Marcy Projects in Brooklyn, Cabrini Green in Chicago, Jordon Downs in Los Angeles to Magnolia Projects in New Orleans, public housing projects riddle urban cities. The federal government built public housing projects to provide subsidized housing for low-income families, especially low-income families of color. Over the years, these aforementioned public housing projects along with others across the county have become notorious for its violent crime, which involves astronomical murder rates, around-the-clock drug distribution and trafficking, and never-ending gang activity. Unfortunately, violent public housing projects are saturated with low-income families that include Black male school-aged students, who reenact similar aggressive, violent behavior while attending school. The exposure to violence can negatively influence the educational career of Black male students. Collins et al. (2010) concluded that adolescents who reside in poor urban areas are more likely to be exposed to community violence, such as violent crimes in their neighborhoods and/or schools, gang and drug activity, victimization, death of a family member, and family violence and maltreatment. Repeated exposure to community violence cause adolescents to experience a complex set of psychological problems that occur before, during, and after the traumatic event(s) (Collins et al. 2010). Adolescent males who are exposed to community violence show aggressive behavior while in school (Busby, Lambert, & Ialongo, 2013). This combative behavior mediates the association between the exposure to community violence and poor academic performance (Busby et al. 2013). Exposure to specific trauma causes adolescents to experience negative effects in one or


more of their intelligence quotient (IQ) factors (perceptual reasoning, working memory, verbal comprehension and/or processing speed) (Kira, Lewandowski, Somers, Yoon, & Chiodo, 2012). Adolescent males are at an increased risk to develop insecure or disorganized attachments to teachers, not attend school and may have a negative student-teacher connection due to their exposure to community violence (Voisin, Neilands & Hunnicutt, 2011). As a result of exposure to community violence, classroom management is vital in urban school settings. In-school violent behavior is undoubtedly one of the top issues that urban educators must tackle on a daily basis. Urban educators are charged with teaching the curriculum and increasing dismissal state assessment scores in addition to maintaining order. Classrooms must be places conducive for learning, where students are focused and engaged otherwise instruction is in vain. Nonetheless, when urban classrooms are located near high-crime public housing projects, these classrooms maybe inundated with constant violent disruptions from Black male students from the start of the school day until dismissal. Thus, the question remains what urban educators can do to decrease the violent behavior of our Black male students, who are exposed to the violence that exists within public housing projects. First, urban educators must create a positive climate and culture with the classrooms. Educators should not use language that perpetuates the notion that Black male students are only capable of demonstrating violent behavior. Black male students should not hear constant threats of incarceration or death due to murder as a means to change their negative behavior. Educators must create classroom rules and policies that are equitable. Black male students should feel supported due to the implementation of restorative practices and/or proactive programs that address their social and emotional needs. Yet, the students should understand that educators would not tolerate inschool violent behavior and such behavior may be subject to consequences. Second, urban educators must focus on training Black male students on the importance of self-control and selfregulation. Black male students need to learn coping strategies. The students can develop a checklist of brief, concrete steps of what they can do during the instructional day to avoid violent behavior and/or how to de-escalate violent behavior when it occurs. The males should have the opportunity to participate in role-playing activities prior to dealing with actual violent incidents that may take place during the school day. The students should be educated on the importance of self-identity, self-pride, and self-respect. The students should have the opportunity to speak in groups with Black males from their community, so they can connect and identify with other Black males who lead positive lives despite exposure to community violence. During these sessions, the students can understand that their lack of knowledge of self directly correlates to their in-school violent behavior. Third, urban educators must increase the motivation of Black male students. The students should comprehend how negative feelings about yourself correlates with your motivation to improve your behavior. Students should have the chance to express their feelings and/or emotions while in school. Educators should ask students open-ended questions regarding their violent behavior with the expectation that students freely express their true feelings behind their negative reactions to situations. Consequently, students recognize how negative emotions affect their motivation to control and regulate violent behavior. Educators should also teach Black male students how to set and achieve SMART goals to increase motivation. SMART goals are specific, measurable, achievable, results-focused, and time-bound goals. While working through the SMART goals, the students can self-assess their abilities to reach their stated goals and learn how their violent behavior may prohibit them from reaching their stated goals. Each SMART goal should have milestones. Educators should celebrate each obtained milestone(s) and goal(s) with tangible and/or intangible rewards, so the Black male students continue to improve their behavior. In conclusion, Black male students who reside in violent public housing projects may exhibit violent behavior while in school. Hence, the urban educators who serve these students must be able to create a positive climate and culture within the classrooms and build the students’ knowledge of self and motivation to improve their behavior. As educators, we are aware that we cannot control the violence that occurs within our school’s community.


On the contrary, we can help control violence what occurs within our classrooms. References Busby, D.R., Lambert, S.F. & Ialongo N.S. (2013). Psychological symptoms linking exposure to community violence and academic functioning in African American adolescents. Journal Youth Adolescence, 42, 250-262. Collins, K., Conners, K., Donohue, A., Gardner, S., Goldblatt, E., Hayward, A., Kiser, L., Stieder, F. & Thompson, F. (2010). Understanding the impact of trauma and urban poverty on family systems: risks, resilience and interventions. Baltimore, MD: Family Informed Trauma Treatment Center. Kira, I., Lewandowski, L., Somers, C.L., Yoon, J.S. & Chiodo, L. (2012). The effects of trauma types, cumulative trauma, and PTSD on IQ in two highly traumatized adolescent groups. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 128-139. Voisin, D.R., Neilands, T.B. & Hunnicutt, S. (2011). Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among African American adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(1), 61-71.

Living Education Everyday


Living Academic Research

Dr. Dorothy C. Handfield @consultingDCH In-School Violent Behavior Impacts Future Goals for Low Socioeconomic Status Black Male Students who were Exposed to Community Violence


eWriters Bios. eConvocation Spark into Flame, p.5 Marianne Zape is a doctoral student in the Community Research and Action program in the Department of Human and Organizational Development at Vanderbilt University. Her research is centered around the intersections of migration, health, and education. More specifically, she is interested in how programmatic educational supports across multiple contexts (school, family, community) affect the physical and psychological health outcomes of immigrants and refugees. Prior to coming to Peabody, Marianne graduated with honors from the University of California, San Diego with a B.A. in International Studies – Political Science and a minor in Education Studies. There, she worked with Dr. Philip Roeder on research related to nationalist movements and secession and with Dr. Luz Chung on an independent study about Pre-K students’ transition and preparation for kindergarten in the context of increased accountability standards Currently, Marianne works with her primary advisor, Dr. Anjali Forber-Pratt on issues of disability identity and development and with Dr. Maury Nation on a study of youth well-being in safety in Nashville schools and neighborhoods. eCommencement The Journey, p12 Avis Williams, Ph.D. is the superintendent of Selma City Schools. Dr. Avis Williams is a native of Salisbury, NC. She has served in leadership positions in the US Army, as an entrepreneur and as an education administrator. She is passionate about empowering people to reach their personal best. A researcher and a scholar, she is certified to teach English, Physical Education and as a P-12 Principal and Superintendent. She earned her doctorate from the University of Alabama and is a proud graduate of Leadership Huntsville/Madison County Connect and the University of Alabama's Superintendents Academy. Dr. Avis has served as an elementary, middle and high school principal giving her a wide-range of knowledge and practical experiences. She currently serves as the Executive Director of Secondary Curriculum and Instruction for Guilford County Schools, the third largest school district in North Carolina. Dr. Avis has presented dozens of professional presentations and seminars at conferences and workshops throughout the U.S.


Contributors Addressing the Need for Sex Education in Public Schools and at Home Charles Brown, Ph.D., M.Ed., p.12 Charles Brown, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Health, Health Administration, and Health Sciences at Tennessee State University. His work has involved designing, implementing, and evaluating projects in the areas of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention, alcohol and drug addiction treatment, and mental health services. He has worked collaboratively with local school systems, after-school programs, higher education institutions, government agencies, churches, community-based behavioral healthcare organizations, primary care clinics, and the army national guard to conduct research and grant activities. Dr. Brown’s most recent work has been funded by the Tennessee Department of Mental Health & Substance Abuse and the Centerstone Research Institute. How Important is Your Health? Brenda T. Bradley, Ph.D., p.14 Brenda T. Bradley, Ph.D. has had a remarkable career and life that has taken many twists and turns. From being a US service member in the Air Force to be a Certified Health coach, the one common denominator has been a desire to serve others and make the world around her a better—healthier— place to live in. After struggling with her own health goals and learning about the body and what it needs to perform optimally, she made the switch to a plant-based diet. This diet she credits for helping her not only improve her weight, but improve her immunity, mood, and overall health. In 2016 she developed “The 21-Day Vegan Challenge.” This challenge is a vegan-only program that has been designed for anyone desiring to make a lifestyle change or to explore and experience the healthy benefits of a vegan diet. She is a trusted Certified Health Coach that gets results. As a speaker she captivates, inspires, and educates her audience through compelling stories that will move her audience. She has helped countless individuals lose weight and to adopt a plant-based lifestyle. Her goal is to inspire others to lead the charge for healthy eating and exercise. Dr. Bradley leads workshops on nutrition and offers individual health coaching.


From Traditional to Job-Embedded Professional Development and Tips for Implementation LaConti S. Bryant, Ed.D., p.24 LaConti Bryant, Ed.D. earned her Ed.D. in Educational Leadership from Liberty University in 2017. Her research is specifically focused on the areas of instructional coaching/mentoring, collaboration, and job-embedded professional development. Dr. Bryant has worked with teachers and administrators with creating professional learning communities that are conducive to positive results in student achievement and teacher development. In addition, Dr. Bryant has over 10 years of classroom experience as a classroom teacher and instructional coach. Prior to entering public education, Dr. Bryant served in the United States Army as a paralegal for 5 years stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, Bamberg, Germany, and Fort Hood, Texas. Constructivism Methods Behaviorism Methods Beverly A. Ebo, Ed.D., p.20 Beverly A. Ebo, Ed.D. was born and raised in Tuskegee, Alabama to parents who did not finish high school. However, her parents made sure that Beverly and her brother received an education. Dr. Ebo received a BS in Management Science (Tuskegee Institute), a Master of Education in Educational Personnel Administration (Tuskegee University) and a Doctor of Education degree in Higher Education Administration (Northeastern University). Dr. Ebo is the proud parent of Samuel and Elizabeth, who were educated in the public schools in Macon County. Her son Samuel has autism and that is what inspired her to write her doctoral thesis on “Understanding the Experiences of College Students with a Learning Disability. Have Patience, Increase Your Emotional Intelligence, and Don't Eat the Marshmallow! Dan Blanchard, p.32 Dan Blanchard the Award-Winning Author, Speaker, Educator, two-time Junior Olympian Wrestler, and two-time Junior Olympian Wrestling Coach grew up as a student-athlete. However, Dan admits that as a youth he was more of an athlete than a student. Dan has now successfully completed fourteen years of college and has earned seven degrees. He teaches Special Education in Connecticut’s largest inner-city high school where he was chosen by the AFT-CT as the face and voice of educational reform and s was chosen by the AFT-CT as the face and voice of educational reform and


now on the speaking circuit for them. Dan was with the team that put forth Connecticut’s new Social Studies Frameworks and is also a member of the Special Education Advisory Board to the Connecticut State Department of Education. In addition, Dan is a Teacher Consultant for the University of Connecticut’s Writing Project. Finally, Dan is a double veteran of the Army and the Air Force. As an educator, coach, tutor, author, speaker, life coach, columnist, blogger and parent Dan feels that it is his duty to positively influence our youth every chance that he gets! He lives with his wife, Jennifer, their five children, and family dog in Connecticut. Weddings and Non-Traditional Styles Can Say “I do!” But Think First! Kim Moss, p.36 You dream it - we book it! At Black Bag Travel, our resources include Apple Vacations to Pleasant Holidays Competitive airfares through our consolidators for group, economy, business and first class travel Dreaming of a land far, far away or just want to get away for the weekend? Girlfriend getaways, Group Travel, Spa Vacations, Cruises, Vegas, Villa rentals, we make it happen. Our ebrochure rack has options from budget friendly to no limit! Don't see what you're looking for? No problem, send us an email and we'll find it for you. Weddings, Honeymoons, Babymoons, Vow Renewals? No problem, we have it all! We are certified Destination Wedding Specialists, a charter member of the Destination Wedding and Honeymoon Specialists Association and have an American Academy of Wedding ProfessionalsTM Certified Wedding Planner on staff. Take your time and dream while looking at the ebrochures then call us to book your trip. http://kimmoss.brandyourself.com/ A Model For Male Success Ivy Tech Community College – Indianapolis Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program John Turner, M.S., p.31 John C. Turner, M.S. aka “The Professor JT” is a native of and current resident in Indianapolis, Indiana. John is an alum of Indiana State University (Terre Haute, IN), where he received his B.S. in Electronics Technology (2005) and M.S. in Student Affairs and Higher Education (2007). John currently works as an Assistant Director of Academic Advising and Adjunct Professor at Ivy Tech Community College, Indianapolis campus where he is the coordinator of the Male Empowerment Summer Bridge Program, Lead Instructor of the IVYT F.O.C.U.S. Course for Black Males, and the Announcing Game Day Voice of the Men's & Women's College Basketball Teams. John is currently pursuing his PhD in Urban Education at IUPUI in the City of Indianapolis, IN, where his research focus will examine the retention and success of the Minority Males and Male College Students.


The following are co-authors Dr. Darrell Cain • Anthony Conley Rolando Calhoun • David Kendrick • Michael Jenkins Global Efforts to Build Leadership Skills in K-12 Education Phyl Macomber, p.45 Phyl Macomber has become an award-winning national speaker, author, inclusion specialist, and curriculum strategist. As President of Make A Difference, Inc., Phyl has consulted with and trained thousands of teaching staff and is a passionate catalyst for systems change in education. Phyl was featured in the international best seller, Common Threads Trilogy book series, in 2015 as one of the top 100 empowering women from around the globe and has been a guest on numerous radio shows to discuss simplifying instruction for students of all abilities. In 2016, Phyl was appointed the first ambassador of the educational affairs organization, I AM L.E.E. (I AM Living Education Everyday), whose goal is to expand conversations on educational issues and challenges impacting families and communities. In 2017, Phyl was offered an Ambassadorship at Energime University to help support their mission in educating both children and adults around the world. In this role, Phyl is the educational producer of the University’s Global Youth Podcast Show Series. Her partnership with Leave No Girl Behind International is training young people in key leadership principles globally. Phyl has created a 4-step simple system for how to teach anything to anyone – in a way that students of any ability learn faster and deeper – and, teachers succeed in reaching and teaching ALL students while meeting the standards. Her research-based teaching strategies have been published in several articles featured in clinical publications in education since 2009 and are being successfully used across North America, and in parts of Australia, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Italy. This systems-based instruction, called T.H.E. P.A.C.T., is outlined in Phyl's first book, The Power of T.H.E. P.A.C.T., and is being referred to as "the simple, evidence-based solution for differentiated instruction and meaningful inclusion." Creating a School Culture that Values Independent Reading By Evan Robb, p.57 Evan Robb is Principal of Johnson-Williams Middle School in Berryville, Virginia. Prior to this, he was an English teacher, department chair, assistant principal and a junior high school principal. Evan has been recognized as a recipient of the Horace Mann Educator of the Year Award. In addition, Evan was selected to serve as a commission member on the N.C.T.E. National Commission for Reading. Evan leads sustainable change initiatives that transform school culture, increase achievement and prepares


students for their future. In addition, being a full-time principal, Evan speaks across the country on leadership, how to improve literacy in schools, the digital principal, social media, how to involve all staff in goal setting, how to organize effective work teams, and the impact of culture and positivity on work. His first book titled, “The Principal’s Leadership Sourcebook, Practices, Tools and Strategies for Building a Thriving School Community” was published by Scholastic in the fall of 2007. Presently, Evan is writing a book for Corwin titled, The Ten-Minute Principal. Please explore The Robb Review Blog and Scholastic EDU for more of his thoughts on teaching, learning, and leadership. The Robb Review Blog is focused on looking ahead, not looking back. Evan also has a podcast, The Robb Review Podcast. Violent Public Housing Projects Contribute to the Violent Behavior of Black Male Students Dorothy C. Handfield, Ph.D., p.65 Dorothy C. Handfield, Ph.D. is a Principal within the Newark Public Schools. Dr. Handfield has 20 years of experience in urban education, where she served 13 of those years as a school administrator. As a toddler, Dr. Handfield and her family immigrated to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from the Bahamas in search of a better life. As result, she earned a Bachelor of Business Administration Degree from Temple University, a Master of Arts - Educational Media Specialization from Kean University, and a Master of Educational Administration from Caldwell University. In addition, Dr. Handfield will formally receive a Doctorate in Education from the University of Southern California in May 2018. Dr. Handfield is the CEO of DCH Consulting Service, LLC and Executive Director of The Reading Experience for Young Men, Inc. Her areas of study are the impact of community violence exposure on youth and traumatized youth. Principals as a Culturally Responsive Instructional Leaders (CRILs) Aaron J. Griffen, Ph.D., p.27 Aaron J. Griffen, Ed.D. is the Principal of Sierra High School, located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He earned his Ph.D. from Texas A&M University, College Station in Curriculum and Instruction with an emphasis in Urban Education, where he was the recipient of the Urban Education Teaching Award. Dr. Griffen serves as the Co-Chair for School and Community Partnerships for the American Educational Research (AERA) Special Interest Group (SIG) – Critical Examination of Race Gender Ethnicity and Class and


on the programing committee for the Educating Children of Color Summit of Colorado Springs. He is a national presenter, guest lecturer and panelist. Dr. Griffen’s research area are in Urban education research, policy analysis, instruction, and professional development, specifically Culturally Competent Pedagogy. What Can Parents Do to Prevent Summer Learning Loss? Rebecca Coda, Med, NBCT, p.52 Rebecca Coda, Med, NBCT is currently a K-6 Director of Curriculum & Instruction in Cabot, Arkansas. She is the founder of Digital Native Network, co-founder of Pushing Boundaries Educational Consulting, and Co-author of Let Them Speak: How Student Voice Can Transform Your School & Escaping the School Leader's Dunk Tank with Dr. Rick Jetter. Rebecca is primarily a social justice warrior and advocate of student voice and equity. She is the mother of three children of trauma adopted from the foster system. Rebecca strives to learn and grow to understand and unravel the mysteries that lie within each student so that ultimately every child will live a good life. She is a national speaker with over ten years’ experience facilitating professional development in all content areas grades K-8 for district administrators, principals, instructional coaches, educators & parents. She has served as a classroom teacher, instructional coach, district level ELA curriculum specialist, and district-wide technology Integration specialist. Her true passion is learning and growing from everyone around her to support the academic success of all students. She leads with impact and will settle for nothing less than making a difference for every child……. because our kids are counting on US! You can learn more about her work at www.rebeccacoda.com


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Living Education eMagazine 2018 Summer Edition (Vol. XX ) ?  

?In an effort to bolster and expand the dialogue about the role education plays in the lives of all Americans, we created Living Education e...

Living Education eMagazine 2018 Summer Edition (Vol. XX ) ?  

?In an effort to bolster and expand the dialogue about the role education plays in the lives of all Americans, we created Living Education e...

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