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Immersive Zoo Design to Build a More Sustainable Zoo Expansive Zoo Design for Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo By: Lindley Harmon

LA 404: Landscape Architecture Department Ball State University Spring Semester 2010


Abstract

This project researched the advantages and disadvantages of immersive zoo design and how it can be applied effectively within an expansion masterplan. It examined the intricacies of zoo design and how they can be used to make the visitor feel as if they are within an animal’s habitat, not viewing an animal’s habitat. Some of these intricacies include educational programs, views for the user, and landscape design techniques that cause the space to look much larger and more natural than thought possible. The research for this project also examined the application of sustainable techniques into a zoo design, and how they can be effective as an educational tool. Using this research, people could collect and apply any positive data collected from the zoo design to be applied to natural world situations. This could allow us to create more stable habitats for animals in order to help revitalize endangered species in a zoo setting and in the natural setting. This type of design can also be used to educate and create connections between the urban world and the natural world through the emotional side of the brain.


Section 1 - Introductory Materials.............................................................1-12 Introduction..............................................................................................................3

Problem Statement................................................................................................5-6 Hypothesis................................................................................................................7 Delimitations.............................................................................................................8 Definitions.................................................................................................................9 Assumptions............................................................................................................10 Significance..............................................................................................................11

Section 2 - Literature Review...................................................................13-28

Educating the Public: Using Design and Programs to Promote Environmental Education........................................15-18 Sustainable Practices: Materials and Programs to Promote Ecological and Animal Health.........................................................19-22 Creating Views: Creating Human and Animal Interaction Through Illusions.............................................................................23-24 Methodology......................................................................................................25-26 Works Cited.............................................................................................................27

Section 3 - Design....................................................................................29-84

Site Summary..........................................................................................................31 Site Map.................................................................................................................32 Current Zoo Layout............................................................................................33-34 Project Goals and Objectives.............................................................................35-36 Design Considerations.............................................................................................37 Design Concerns......................................................................................................38 Program.............................................................................................................39-40 Inventory............................................................................................................41-42 Analysis..............................................................................................................43-48 Concept...................................................................................................................49 Spatial Environment Diagram..................................................................................50 Master Plan.......................................................................................................51-52 Indonesia Expansion..........................................................................................53-64 Javan Rhino Habitat.............................................................................55-58 Zipline and Forest Trail.........................................................................59-62 Butterfly House And Monster Flower..................................................63-64 Congo Expansion...............................................................................................65-72 Gorilla Grove.......................................................................................67-70 Interactive Jungle Tree........................................................................71-72 African Expansion..............................................................................................73-80 African Elephant..................................................................................75-78 Savannah Safari...................................................................................79-80 Spatial Environments.........................................................................................81-82 Materials............................................................................................................83-84


Table Of Contents Section 4 - Appendices............................................................................85-96

Bibliography.............................................................................................................87 List of Figures..........................................................................................................88 Site Photos.........................................................................................................89-90 Interviews..........................................................................................................91-96


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Section 1 Introductory Materials

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Introduction

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“It’s really a global cooperative effort. The idea is to preserve the species, display them in a lot of zoos and educate the public.” Dan Cassidy

This project took place in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The project specifically is an expansion master plan of the Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo. The zoo is located on the outskirts of Fort Wayne, surrounded by residential houses and wooded area. This provided plenty of room for expansion, especially to the northwest into a large amount of wooded area. As of now the Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo has three major animal destinations, the Indonesian Rainforest, the African Journey and the Australian Adventure. All of these destinations include many exhibits of different animals native to the respective area. This project proposed the addition of three more groupings, done in three stages. It also proposed the renovation of the three existing destinations. With this project, a design was found that incorporated sustainable practices and programs, immersive zoo design, and educational programs all together into one master plan. In doing this an emotional connection can be made between the visitor and the animal through immersive design. This can then provoke the visitor to want to learn more about the animal and then the educational programs will come into play. Sustainable practices incorporated into the zoo and the programs will then educate visitors about sustainability and how important is it to the animal as well.

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“

Our task must be to free ourselves...

by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and

�

the whole of nature and its beauty. Albert Einstein

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Problem Statement

One of the major challenges that landscape architects who design zoos are faced with is how to properly design a particular landscape, keeping in mind that the plants and materials used, the construction during the building process, and even the overall design can affect the quality of life for the animals that will call the space home. It is necessary for a designer to address environmentalism, defined here as the practice of keeping a focus on the sensitivity of the surroundings in relation to plants and animals using the space. Creating a zoo that is enjoyable for both the animal and the user is quite a challenge, and is accompanied by many obstacles such as views for the user in combination with animal comfortability in the space, ways to incorporate sustainable practices, and ways to keep the visitors’ interest while educating them. This research examined how to properly incorporate user views, animal comfortability, and education into a sustainable zoo design expansion of the already existing Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo.

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Subproblems

How can environmental education be used to keep a focus on the sensitivity of the surroundings in relation to plants and animals and the zoo’s programs while also being effective?

What sustainable practices can be implemented in order to create a better, more ecologically friendly zoo; also, what materials are appropriate for animal health that are also sustainable? How should these practices and materials be used in a zoo setting and why are they appropriate?

How can a space be created that will emulate the animal’s natural habitat, allowing the animal to feel comfortable in the space, but also allow the user to see and experience the animal without obstruction of view?

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Hypothesis I believe that this research will discover immersive design to be the most efficient and conservationally productive design strategy to implement within a zoo setting.

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Delimitations This project did not address:

1.

Complete animal diet

2.

A thorough look at individualistic animal needs

3.

Surveyed input from surrounding environment

4.

Existing underground power, septic, and water lines

5.

Conservation program specifics

6.

Interior building layout

7.

Complete building design or faรงade design

8.

A very thorough look at exact plant species.

9.

A detailed look at all proposed exhibits.

10.

Site drainage design.

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Definitions

1.

Environmentalism: the practice of keeping a focus on the sensitivity of the surroundings in relation to plants and animals using the space.

2.

Animal comfortability: the manner in which the space addresses an animal’s need for private space versus open space.

3.

Ecologically friendly: your genera having a smaller impact on the world ecology in a negative manner as a whole.

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Assumptions

1.

There is a large enough user base to support the project.

2.

The funds are available to support the project.

3.

The residential land in the proposed expansion area will be bought without difficulty.

4.

The zoo will have the staff, or hire the staff needed, that is knowledgeable about all new technologies proposed.

5.

The Fort Wayne Zoo wants to continue its zoo design in the form of immersive habitats.

6.

The Fort Wayne Zoo wants to become a more sustainable site and use alternative forms of energy and material or program treatments.

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Significance

Being able to address environmentalism in zoo design is important because animals are a crucial, and arguably the most important, part of the ecology of the earth. If as designers, we don’t address the needs of a species, we could effectively be aiding in the destruction of an ecological biome. Relating this to zoos, with zoos we can examine different techniques, designs, and plants on a particular species or group of species in a confined area, then apply the positive data to natural world situations. Also we can effectively help to revitalize endangered species by observing then creating a stable habitat for the species to thrive in. All the while, zoos will help educate the public on the importance of the animals and biomes as well as provide a form of recreation for all types of people.

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Section 2 Literature Review

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Educating The Public Using Design and Programs to Promote Environmental Education

Immersive zoo design is becoming more prominent as years go on, and will continue to be the most important form of zoo design in future years. Landscape immersion is a term defined by Jones, Coe, Hancocks, and Paulson while they were in the process of designing an exhibit for gorillas. In their words, “landscape immersion seeks to place the zoo visitor within the animals’ habitat, which is designed, as closely as the process of miniaturization will allow, to resemble the animals’ natural habitat” (Powell 83). The difficulty with this type of design is creating a habitat that will be a comfortable and enriching space for the animal yet will be an immersive and emotional experience for the user with good views of the animal in its habitat. Creating this space that accommodates both the needs of the animal and the user is a challenge in itself, and presents many other challenges as well, such as; giving the animal a space in which it can feel hidden, making the animal as viewable to visitors as possible as much of the times as possible, and making the space seem like a natural habitat to both the animal and the visitor. Although this type of immersive design is sometimes difficult to accomplish, it is important and there have been many who have been able to accomplish this type of design in a beautiful and usable manner. The importance of immersive design is the ability to put the user into the animals’ habitat rather than seeing the animal in a human habitat. By doing this an emotional connection can be created and therefore the significance and importance of the animal is then comprehended in a better way by the viewer or user of the zoo. In this way visitors process conservation education in a mental and emotional, and also subtle, way rather than having the visitor merely read a plaque and hope that they understand the importance. This immersive type design also allows for a much more natural habitat for the animal. Powell explains the importance of immersive design as this; “ By enabling us to observe these animals going about their lives much as they would in the wild, it is reinforcing the understanding that wild animals and wild habitats are inseparable, that preserving endangered species means preserving the habitats in which these species live” (Powell 80). This further strengthens the idea that landscape immersion helps to provide an emotional connection between the user and the animal. This is a very important connection to accomplish because this will prove the setting that has been designed has been created to be as natural as possible. Possibly the most 15


important aspect of this part of immersive design is this “Only the emotional side, in the end, has the power to generate changes in behavior” (Powell 83). In order to cause people to change their opinions, knowledge, and outlook on animal conservation, an emotional connection needs to be created between the human and the animal. In immersive design, the designer is trying to create an environment in which the user will feel as though they are walking within the animal’s natural habitat, this in turn causes the designer to create an environment which replicates, as precisely as possible, a miniature version of the animal’s natural habitat. Anne Powell wrote an article titled “Gardens of Eden” that focused on immersive design principles. In order to create this landscape immersion experience, a variety of techniques need to be addressed and incorporated. In earlier years there was a major shift in zoo design. The traditional philosophy of organizing a zoo was the “homocentric view – the zoo as a display of human power over nature – to the biocentric view – the zoo as an educational medium that strives to explain the interrelationships between animals and the natural world” (Powell 83). Carl Hagenbeck, a German designer, was the first to design a zoo “biocentrically”, meaning he grouped animals by continent and habitat type rather than by taxonomy (Powell 84). This type of organization in combination with ecological theme design where animals are designed by ecological themes are the leading design programs for zoos now and will continue to be in the future. In this manner multi-species habitats can be created which allow the animals to interact with others as they would naturally in the wild and also allows the viewer to experience these interactions closer than they have ever been able to before. Within the zoo setting there can be interactive exhibits that will help to promote education as well. By involving the visitor with the animal first-hand, the emotional connection can be strengthened and better understood by the user. Also breeding programs within the zoo setting are important. It is obvious that baby animals are viewed as being innocent, helpless, and adorable. Having these characteristics make baby animals prime ambassadors for breeding and educational programs. When Knut the baby polar bear was born, his birth in combination with proper advertising and programs, created a half a million more visitors per season for that zoo (Drecker 62). Utilizing this important emotional 16


Educating The Public

connection that the human mind makes can be very important and very rewarding for all parties involved. Straying away from design to look at conservation education, we can begin to look at passive ways to educate the public on the environment and conservation of the animals in a zoo. Many zoos now have television shows known as “docu-soaps” on a regional station. In this way a typical zoo visitor can now also spend more time during the hours not spent at the zoo still learning about the importance of animal conservation. This type of education is a very important side program that can allow someone who found that emotional connection at the zoo and wants to continue his or her interest while at home. These docu-soaps typically display stories about animal births, baby animals, and conservation. Also in these shows, sometimes animals can take roles. For example people will associate a polar bear with global warming after watching an episode on how global climate change is affecting the ice caps. This is especially useful for kids, by being able to create mascots in which the kids will associate a specific mascot with a specific conservation idea. The media is a great way to continue environmental and conservation education outside of the zoo setting. Many zoos also have websites with links that allow a visitor the chance to pay to “adopt” a zoo animal, or have links to many outside conservation sites. Making the best use of the wide variety of media structures that are available is an important part of education and zoo funding. Immersion zoo design seems to be the best solution to zoo planning because of the way the viewer sees the habitat as natural and the animal within its habitat acting naturally. Vidersaid it best when she said that the greatest impact is created when they [the visitor] “are moved by the beauty of the landscape and the beauty of the animal in the landscape. They are emotionally, then, predisposed to learn about the animal and to do something to protect the animal” (Vider 47). This is exactly what landscape immersion design in a zoo setting is all about. Creating that emotional connection that will lead the visitor to understand and help the animal. This in combination with zoo educational programs and the media sources can help to create a more significant global change in conservation of all species for the betterment of zoo design as a whole. 17


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“Only the emotional side, in the end, has the power to generate changes in behavior.� Jon Coe

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Sustainable Practices Materials and Programs to Promote Ecological and Animal Health A common design practice in today’s world is to implement sustainable design programs and strategies to help make the place ecologically friendly and healthy. These sustainable design practices can be implemented into a zoo design in a way to upgrade the overall zoo health as well as the health of the animals. Addressing the construction materials, food management, animal waste treatment, storm water management, recycling programs, and energy sources can provide the opportunity to recreate those programs to be sustainable in the zoo setting. Storm water management onsite can be tricky, but there has been a unique way found to store the storm water on site and use it in the exhibits. Woodland Park Zoo has a wetland exhibit that is used simultaneously as a retention pond for all storm water on site. The storm water runs through the pipes and is emptied into the wetland exhibit where the plants naturally filter the water. (Powell 94) The traditional ways of storm water management can also be used, such as bio-retention ponds, and bio-swales. Smaller ways of management would be runnels that carry water to planting beds or retention ponds. Also plant filters in guttering systems along the sides of the roads may be appropriate. In any case, the plants should be the primary filtering system, in order to be a successfully sustainable storm water management plan. Construction materials that are used in exhibits and on site should be healthy for the animals, as well as the environment. There are many appropriate types of materials, but the ones discussed will be the most common used within the project. When addressing building materials, the most common use is going to be a recycled brick or a locally mined stone. When using wood, a rot resistant hardwood should be used, such as Ipe. Bamboo is commonly used in small constructions such as railings, details and small shading elements because it is a rapidly replenished source of wood and when harvested correctly, will not be depleted from the earth (Blond). In place of wood for small outdoor details such as benches and platforms, recyclable plastic lumber should be used. This will eliminate more need for real wood in construction. Paving materials must be sustainable. One of the two major types of paving should be a permeable recycled concrete paver, which would allow run off water to percolate to the ground supply, 19


helping with storm water management. The other should be a natural resin-bound aggregate paving instead of asphalt. This material uses tree resin instead of petroleum-based substances as a binding agent, and cures through hydration instead of chemical means, which reduces the amount of toxic chemicals released into the atmosphere (Blond). In some animal exhibits, with animals that have hoofs or claws that require natural abrasion, it has been found that if a tinted concrete area is put in areas of high traffic that this will naturally grind down the animals hooves or claws while still blending in with the surrounding environment (Drecker 64). It is a much more sustainable practice to grow as much of the animal diet on site as possible. This is all around cheaper for the zoo and more educational to the public, as well as a sustainable practice. One idea for this is the addition of a botanical garden to the zoo. These gardens frequently house plants from all over the world, and therefore can provide food for animals from all over the world that live within the zoo. The problem with this is space. To be able to grow enough food to be efficient, far too many acres of land would be required to be free for plant growth. Paignton Zoo has come up with a solution of a vertical garden, where trays of greens are grown on vertical shelves in greenhouses. “Using this system, a 120 square meter greenhouse grows three times the 3000 plants that would be expected on a conventional system� (Frediani 14) This system is very successful, although hard to hide. The best option is to find a way to incorporate this system fluidly into the design of the zoo. Recycling programs should be implemented into all parts of the zoo, from the public areas to the private, employee only areas. There is the implementation of the obvious forms of recycling programs for waste management such as separate bins for trash, but what about the not so obvious ones? Take for example, animal waste management. The pachyderms alone in the Rosamond Gifford Zoo produce over 1,000 pounds of waste daily (Baker). Zoos have found two ways of dealing with all of this waste. The most common is composting. All leftover food materials and animal waste is composted and turned to fertilizer, which in turn is used on the plants grown in the zoo landscape or garden. While composting works well, sometimes there is much more waste than needed to fertilize the plants in the area. This extra waste can go to work in a new way. Zoos are now looking at 20


Sustainable Practices

new technology to use the waste as an energy source, Rosamond Gifford Zoo being one of the first. Depending on the process, the zoo animal waste could be used to produce methane or hydrogen for powering a fuel cell or generator (Baker). This would cut down on energy costs for the zoo, and cut down on the costs to dispose of the extra waste they would normally not use. In general other energy sources can be used. There are solar energy opportunities at zoos, as well as maximizing daylighting in buildings to cut down on electricity costs. Larger windows and skylights can be put in because the “more daylight inside a building means less electricity used to light the building� (Blond). Greenroofs are becoming a more common occurrence in today’s design, and can be used to cut down on heating and cooling costs, as well as provide more area for plant growth. Also, during the construction process, any felled trees or moved rocks can be used and relocated into exhibits that are created and need those types of environmental elements (Blond).

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Creating Views Creating Human and Animal Interaction Through Illusions The most common problem with zoo design is how to create an environment in which the animal will feel unthreatened and comfortable, but the viewer will have the maximum allotted viewing potential that is available. Most animals like to have shelter from view, and this causes problems when the visitors arrive at the exhibit and the animal is hidden. The best solution to this problem is to create views for the visitor to the animal, which allows the animal to feel hidden when in actuality it isn’t. This is done through design and passive recreation techniques. There are many ways to make a space look much larger than it actually is. In doing this, a comfortably sized space for the animal can be created, and the animals range of movement can be limited or controlled, but the viewer can still feel like the exhibit isn’t an exhibit at all, but the animals natural habitat. The book Zoo Design: The Reality of Wild Illusions focuses its exhibit view design around the idea of illusion. In this they describe ways in which to make the viewer believe that the exhibit is larger than it is, and ways to make the animal more easily seen. This can be done through layout, texture, color, or overall design. It’s also important to remember that these views of the animals can also be used to tell the animals story. Polakowski says that “The nature of the animal exhibit permits controlled movement of the animal as well as the visitor, providing multiple opportunities, through designed sequence of movement and views to tell a memorable story” (Polakowski). In order to create this story, a series of actions must take place. First, the person must be present at a well-designed viewing area. The viewing area must not seem like a viewing area to the visitor, but should be designed to make the visitor want to stop and look at the animal. Then, the illusion must take place. This illusion can be done through many different techniques. Wundt states that the laws of retinal image and eye movements are responsible for illusions and not due to a deception or error of judgment (Luckiesh). For example, A vertical distance appears greater than an equal horizontal distance because the expenditure of energy is greater in raising the eye than in turning it through an equal angle in a horizontal plane (Luckiesh). Using this knowledge, there are a variety of techniques that can be employed to make an exhibit appear larger. The first of these techniques is the effects of the location in the visual field. This optical 23


illusion affirms that the size of an object appears larger when it is vertically placed rather than horizontally placed. This is the technique that was used as an example earlier. The next of these illusions is the illusion of the interrupted extent which when summarized says that a parallel line to the eye in an enclosed area will make the area appear smaller, while a perpendicular line will make it seem longer. Another important optical illusion to take note of is the illusions of contour. This illusion says that an area with loosely defined edges will appear much larger than one with defined borders. This can be used when wanting to make an exhibit appear larger. By blurring the edges of the exhibit with plantings, open segments, and lighting; the exhibit may appear larger (Polakowski). In addition to illusions that are particularly for making a small exhibit appear grand, there are illusions that can be used that will allow the animal to be seen more clearly within its habitat. An example is the illusion of brightness contrast. This states that a dark object or area will appear darker in general as the brightness of its environment increases, or that a light object surrounded by a dark environment will appear brighter as the latter is brightened (Polakowski). This can be used in order to make animals more apparent. If the exhibit is being designed for a lightly colored animal, then a darker colored envrionment should be designed for that animal, and likewise for the opposite. Also in this same sense, the illusion of simultaneous contrast in color can be used. This illusion states that vivid and bright colors, appear brighter when paired with their opposite colors. In this sense, a vivid orange bird will appear much brighter among bright green foliage (Polakowski). These illusions can help to create an exhibit that is successful in the means of seeming like it’s the animals natural habitat, and by making the animal more easily seen within this habitat. The knowledge of the manner in which the eye and brain function together is an important one in design, and knowing these tricks can help make a design much simpler and easier to create. Its important to remember that in design, these illusions can be used to a designers advantage, making a design much more successful than was possible without them.

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Methodologies The methodology of this proposal was used to research the benefits of educational programs, the positive effects of sustainable methods in a zoo setting, and the techniques of immersive design. It examined how all of these elements will related to the existing Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo for the proposed expansion. Primary and secondary research methods were used. To find the benefits of educational programs in a zoo setting, secondary research methods were applied. The review of journal articles and case studies for existing projects aided in the development of the research for this subproblem. The journal articles were found in magazines at the architecture library at Ball State University. Anne Powell’s article “Gardens of Eden” was the most important source of information for this topic. It discusses the importance of animal conservation and the influence a zoo visitor can have on an animals’ conservation if an emotional connection is achieved. Elise Vider’s article “Environmental Theater…The New Zoo” was a large source of information as well. The positive effects of sustainable practices in a zoo setting were found by primary and secondary research methods. Journal articles and case studies from the architecture library at Ball State University were reviewed and contributed to the development of the information and proposal. Woodland Park Zoo’s wetland from Powell’s article “Gardens of Eden” was examined for this subproblem. Also, the Asia Trail Salamander Exhibit was looked at, and many sustainable methods from that particular project were applied to this proposal. The subject of using animal waste for energy was also examined through Anne Bakers article in “Manure Manager”. The information found on illusions of the eye was found by a secondary source in the book Zoo Design: The Reality of Wild Illusions by Kenneth Polakowski. This book from Ball State University’s Bracken Library contributed the largest part of information to this subproblem. Also Matthew Luckiesh’s book Visual Illusions: Their Causes, Characteristics, and Applications contributed to the information gathered for this subproblem. 25


Information about the existing site and zoo mission and goals was gathered through a primary source. An interview was done with the zoo director, Jim Anderson, of Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo and any relevant information was used throughout the proposal. He was reached by a visit to the Fort Wayne Zoo and by email at Jim@kidszoo.org. Also the primary source of Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo’s website Kidszoo.org was utilized for various pieces of information spread throughout the project proposal. Another interview with the super intendent of the parks system, Steve McDaniel was conducted. He was reached by phone at 260-427-6407 and email at Steve.McDaniel@ci.ft-wayne.in.us. The last interview was conducted through email with Rai Duffy at rcduffy3@yahoo.com.

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Works Cited

Baker, Anne. Manure Manager. Interview. Web. 1 Nov 2010. Blond, Kara. “Asia Trail Salamander Exhibit.” ZooLex. Zoolex.org, 14Dec2007. Web. 1 Nov 2010. Drecker, Peter. “Landscape For Explorers.” Topos. 62 (2008): 58-64. Print. Frediani, Kevin. “Feeding Time at the Zoo.” The Horticulturalist. April (2010): 12-15. Print. Luckiesh, Matthew. Visual Illusions: Their Causes, Characteristics, and Applications. New York, NY, 1965. Print. Polakowski, Kenneth. Zoo Design: The Reality of Wild Illusions. North Manchester, IN, 1992. Print. Powell, Anne. “Gardens of Eden.” Landscape Architecture. 87.4 (1997): 78-87, 9299. Print. Vider, Elise. “Environmental Theater...The New Zoo.” Metropolis. 9.6 (1990): 44-49. Print.

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Section 3 Design 29


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Site Summary

The site is located in Fort Wayne, Indiana in Allen County. The whole site owned by the parks department is about 295 acres, some already developed as the Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo. The area undeveloped is wooded area with a large lake on site. The whole area is Franke Park, and the zoo is within the park. I chose the highlighted area, which includes the zoo, to work on and expand into. In 1952, 54 acres were added to Fort Wayne’s Franke Park to establish a nature preserve. Animal displays included four monkeys, a black bear, three wildcats, deer, mountain goats, raccoons, foxes, porcupines, pheasants, ducks, swans, and an American eagle (Kids Zoo). The nature preserve was so popular that they decided to turn it into a zoo. The zoo grew quickly through the 1990’s, adding one exhibit every year, into what it is today. To the south is the Diehm Taxonomy Museum, receiving less than 600 visitors a year. Also to the south is a juvenile center. The area surrounding the site is mostly residential with some commercial. Franke Park will be an asset to the zoo, providing people a place to go before or after the zoo, as well as a place to have lunch. Franke Park has hiking trails, bridle trails, a BMX track, a playground, and several pavillions. There is also a small outdoor theater called Follenger Theater that hosts concerts during the summer. Shoaff Lake is a great backdrop to some of the exhibits and the topography on the site is fairly flat, but the natural drainage of the site runs towards the lake.

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Site Map

West Coliseum Blvd

d oa aR Lim N. Wells St

Sherman Blvd

en

sh

Go

Franke Park

Shoaff Lake

e

Av

Site

Juvenile Center Diehm Museum

Figure 3-1

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Current Zoo Layout

Figure 3-2

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Figure 3-3 Figure 3-4

Figure 3-5

Figure 3-6

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Project Goals Mission The mission of this project was to create a cohesive designed environment which allowed for the comfortability of the animal, the excitement of the visitor, and the education of the community. This project analyzed immersive design, sustainable techniques, and educational programs and applied the findings to the overall design and program of the proposed expansion. Immersive design allowed the visitor to feel as a part of the animals environment and gave a better opportunity for an emotional connection between the visitor and the animal.

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1.

Goal: To create a cohesive design in which all elements flow together.

o o o

2.

Create comfortable habitats for animals. Create a fluid environment that appeals to all visitors of the zoo and the animals as well. Use immersive design to flow habitats together.

Goal: Create an emotional connection between the visitor and the animal through design.

o o o

Create the illusion that the animal is in its natural habitat with no boundaries or limits. Give the visitor the emotional experience of feeling as though they are in the animal’s natural environment, not just a viewer. Use immersive design as the connecting link between human and animal.

3.

Goal: To provide educational opportunities around animals, conservation, and sustainability.

o o o o o

Allow immersive design to give the viewer the desire to learn. Create an educational and entertaining experience for the visitor. To provide educational programs and promote conservation. To promote sustainability through programs and initiatives. Use sustainable design to help create a sustainable zoo.

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Considerations

1.

Impact on surrounding neighborhoods.

2.

Impact on surrounding environment.

3.

ADA wheelchair accessibility.

4.

Programs with wildlife museum and surrounding parks.

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Concerns

1.

Making all elements ADA accessible.

2.

A large lake takes up a large portion of the site and could be a design obstacle.

3.

Creating appropriate and comfortable habitats for all animals.

4.

Preserving Franke Park and all of its trails.

5.

Circulation of the zoo around the immersive habitats.

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Program Connecting Kids and Animals, Strengthening Families, and Inspiring Growth Education There wil be educational programs taught in the former Diehm Museum. There will be a daycamp hosted during the summer and on going programs for schools and individuals during the year. These programs will teach about animals with a focus on animal conservation, and why sustainability is so important to animal conservation. There will also be educational plaques at animal exhibits and special interactive elements within the expansions.

Sustainable Practices Sustainable practices will come in a variety of methods. Animal waste will be recycled by an outside company. Some animal food is grown in exhibit, or on site in service buildings. There will be a thorough recycling program instilled in the zoo, and in its restaurants. All new materials used in the expansions and in future expansions will be made of recycled materials if available/appropriate.

Media There are already media programs implemented in the current zoo’s program, and these will be expounded upon. Media methods such as webcasts already exist. This program will be furthered into podcasts, published books, magazines, and TV shows. There is also an on exhibit yard where there will be an animal of the month temporarily placed. This animal will be borrowed from another zoo or elsewhere, and it will be advertised as a new exhibit to draw attraction to recurring visitors.

Planting All planting is native to indiana, with the exception of a few exotic species. These species have been specifically chosen to be able to stay planted in pots and moved into the rainforest biodome during winter months. Those species are noted in the planting pallettes and planting plans for each expansion.

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Inventory 0

400

800

0

Vet Restaurant

Restaurant

Restaurant

Pedestrian Tunnel Private Party Access

Africa

Figure 3-7

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Zoo Boundries

Water

Australia

Roads

Buildings

Central Zoo

Pedestrian Paths

Vegetation

Family Farm

Points of Interest

Indonesia

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Circulation 0

400

800

Figure 3-8

Pedestrian Paths Service Paths Ride Paths Proposed Pedestrian Proposed Service Proposed Rides

All existing circulation on site is sampled from Disney Theme Park. It is a wheel with spokes concept. In the zoo, as long as a visitor chooses to go to the right when given an option (which is the most common choice for americans) then the visitor will see all exhibits. This has continued in the proposed paths. 42


Analysis 0

400

800

Already Obtained and used for Animal Storage

Possible Indonesia Expansion

Possible Australia Expansion

Possible Africa Expansion

Africa

Figure 3-9

43

Zoo Boundries

Water

Australia

Roads

Buildings

Central Zoo

Pedestrian Paths

Possible Expansion Areas

Family Farm Indonesia


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Figure 3-10

The actual site is dominated by Wallkill series soils and Morley series soils. The Wallkill series is depicted in yellow hues. It is a poorley drained silty loam soil. The Morley series is a moderately well drained silty soil. Both soils are found on very slight slopes. The steepest slope on the site runs from east to west going towards the pond. It runs at a varied 6% - 12% slope. All other natural slopes on site are less than 3%. 44

780


Analysis 0

400

Immersive Experiences 800

Butterfly House Zipline Monster Flower Tamarin Tube

Figure 3-11

Elephant Safari Interactive Tree Savannah Bird Aviary

Proposed locations of immersive experiences.

Pre-existing locations of immersive experiences. 45


Vegetation 0

400

800

Figure 3-12

Zoo Boundries Water Vegetation 46


Analysis Animal Locations NTS

African Exhibits

Indonesian Exhibits

Australian Exhibits

Indiana Family Farm Exhibits Proposed Exhibits

47


Figure 3-13

This diagram depicts the current and proposed animal exhibit locations. If the animal is outlined in a thicker line, then it is a single animal exhibit. If the animal is outlined in a thinner line, then it shares a multispecies exhibit with the animal adjacent to it, also outlined in a thinner line. 48


Concept 0

400

800

Service areas (proposed and existing)

Expansion Areas Rides

Indonesia Expansion

Trail to the North Africa Expansion

Entrance

Congo

Expansion Areas Rides Figure 3-14

The concepts for this design focus around immersion and circulation. The proposed expansions occur to the east, expanding a congo exhibit and furthering the africa exhibit. More expansions happen to the north, expanding the indonesia exhibit, and creating a trail to the north exhibit. The circulation in each expansion samples from the existing circulation, meaning if given an option, and the visitor chooses to go right, then they will see all exhibits.

49


Spatial Environment 0

Proposed Spacial Environment

400

800

Figure 3-15

Existing Spacial Environment

This diagram shows the spatial environment and feel along the pedestrian paths. Smaller, more closely spaced lines show a tightness of environment, or the feeling of being enclosed in an area. This is accomplished by vegetation, overhead planes, or surrounding landscape features such as rocks and water. Larger, more openly spaced lines show a broadening of space, or a feeling of openess of environment. This is accomplished by broadening spaces and extended sight lines to give the illusion of a large opening. At points in which the spatial environments change abruptly create a sense of discovery in the area.

50


Masterplan Figure 3-16

Zipline

Areas that are highlighted with color are proposed expansion areas.

51

Butterfly House Javan Rhino Service Panda Restaurant Tamarin Takin


Sunbear African Elephant Manatee Hippo Gorilla Interactive Tree Okapi

52


Indonesia Expansion Figure 3-17

NTS

Zipline Start

Butterfly House Jungle Path

Sunbear Jungle Marsh

Javan Rhino Giant Lily

Monster Flower

Tiger

Service Building

The Indonesian expansion is focused primarily around the flora and fauna of the Indonesian rainforest. There are many immersive elements in this expansion, due to the large size of the expansion, and the immense variety in species types of Indonesia. The overall quality is that of a densley covered rainforest, with a wet marsh in the middle of the jungle and many tropical palms and plants scattered throughout the expansion. 53


Common Reed Phragmites americanus

Grass Jelly Plant Mesona chinensis

Vegetable Fern Diplazium esculentum

Common Pawpaw Asimina triloba

Bengal Bamboo Bambusa tulda

Jambul Tree Syzygium cumini

Bromeliad Bromeliad spp.

Pink Lotus Nelumbo nucifera

Cacao Tree Theobroma cacao

Butterfly Ginger Hedychium coronarium

Giant Lily Amorphophallus titanum

King Palm Archontophoenix Cunninghamiana

Purple Barleria Barleria Repens

Monster Flower Rafflesia arnoldii

Plant Pallette

Figure 3-18

54


Exhibit Environments

55


Javan Rhino Habitat

Figure 3-19

56


Exhibit Environments The Javan Rhino exhibit was placed at the lowest point of the expansion, nearest to the lake, to imitate their natural, lowland habitat. They stick to lower elevations, in marshy areas, and in this fashion the visitor realizes the are heading to a lower point, and this is where the rhinos live. Because the Javan Rhino does not dig its own wallows, the mud wallow is created for them within the habitat. It is backed by a wall to prevent the muddy water from leaking into the adjacent lake. Javan Rhinos require additional salt in their diet, so salt licks are needed. In place of traditional salt blocks, several groupings of textured rock with a salt rub put on them daily will be strategically placed at the front of the exhibit to encourage the rhinos to move to the front, because Javan Rhinos tend to congregate at salt licks. This is overall a wetland type habitat with many wetland plants. All plants in this exhibit are native pre-existing, or native replacements for tropical versions of indonesian plants unless otherwise stated in the planting list below. This exhibit has a platform that users can walk out on to view the rhinos up close. This platform is also connected to the zipline. AT - Asimina triloba (Common Pawpaw) Cold tolerant version of the tropical pawpaw. Produces fruit loved by the Javan Rhino. Has the habit of a medium to large shrub. BT - Bambusa tulda (Bengal Bamboo) Bamboo species that grows in patches. Grows in wet or moist soil and prevents soil erosion. Can get up to 40’ in height, trimming of this plant to prevent visual blockage would be important. PA - Phragmites americanus (Common Reed) Common reed native to North America. Can be found in wetlands throughout the United States. Is the native version of the tropical reed found in indonesia. Habit is much the same as the tropical cousin. SC - Syzygium cumini (Jambul) Evergreen tropical tree. Produces fruit loved by the Javan Rhino. Species is not cold tolerant and it would be necessary to move the species indoors during the winter months. Figure 3-20

57


Javan Rhino Habitat NTS

Pre-existing native plants AT Salt Lick Rocks Grass and Dirt BT

BT Water Line AT SC PA

Figure 3-21

58


Immersive and Interactive Elements The zipline and forest trail are immersive elements in the Indonesia expansion. The zipline runs overhead, while the raised boardwalk jungle trail runs below. The jungle trail is completely recreation only, but the zipline runs to platforms where the user can overlook an exhibit.

Figure 3-17

59


Zipline and Forest Trail Figure 3-22

60


Immersive and Interactive Elements Zipline Entrance

Figure 3-23

Vegetative Buffer

Marsh

Mud

Grass

Path

Jungle Vegetation

Figure 3-24

Intermediate Ages 12 and up Speeds between 25 and 50 MPH

Easy Ages 3 and up Speeds between 15 and 30 MPH

61


n

Zipline and Forest Trail Zipline Exit

Jungle Vegetation

Path

Sunbear Habitat

The zipline is designed to appeal to a variety of ages and skill levels. There are two skill levels, beginning and intermediate, and 3 seperate ziplines. The idea is that a person can start from any platform and zipline south from platform to platform until they reach the end or would like to get off the ride. At each platform they will be allowed to walk out over an animal exhibit and view the animal from above, at a place where the animal cannot hide from view. Two of these platforms have ramps running from the main path so that they can be ADA accessible. All speeds are dependent on rider weight, use of handbreak, and rope tension. The jungle path is located in the void below the zipline that will be created when trees are removed for zipline construction. The jungle path is an elevated boardwalk through the center of the forest. Because this will be an outdoor version of the indoor rainforest walk the zoo already has, the palms and tropical shrubs along the boardwalk would be potted and put inside during the winter months in one of the many added storage facilities on site. 62


Immersive and Interactive Elements Butterfly House

Figure 3-25

The Butterfly House is a tropical indoor environment with glass walls. It is an environment designed to attract and sustain a butterfly community. Each season butterflys will be imported and put into the Butterfly House. The main visual attraction here is going to be the immense amount of bright colors due to the plants and butterflies.

63


Monster Flower

Figure 3-26

The Monster Flower is a variety of parasitic flower in Indonesia. They are the largest flower in the world, and the created version on site will be life size. This version will be made of a thick rubber material with a reinforced center. This will allow the flower to bend and feel like the real thing. There will be a couple of these, some of them being of the variety Amorphophallus titanum, located just off the main path in the Indonesia expansion. Along with each flower there will be an informational plaque nearby.

64


Congo Expansion NTS

Interactive Jungle Tree

Congo Wetland

Manatee Hippo

Western Lowland Gorilla

Okapi

Figure 3-27

The Congo Expansion has a wide variety of animals found in the Congo rainforests. When entering the expansion, the visitor is first greeted by a large interactive jungle tree, with animals carved into the trunk. this tree can be played on and climbed on. Then the pass an Okapi exhibit and enter into the forest, passing by a wetland. The gorilla exhibit is the highlight of the area, centered in the expansion. This expansion leads into the African Safari expansion to the east.

65


Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor

Common Mango African Mahogany Ironwood Mangifera indica Khaya Carpinus anthotheca caroliniana

Papyrus Sedge Cyperus papyrus

Kapok Tree Ceiba pentandra

Bear’s Breech Acanthus montanus

Chenille Plant Acalypha hispida

Giant Palm Raphia australis

Bromeliad Bromeliad spp.

Hippo Grass Echinochloa stagnina

Plant Pallette

Figure 3-28

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Exhibit Environments

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Gorilla Grove

Figure 3-29

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Exhibit Environments The Gorilla Grove exhibit is inhabitated by Western Lowland Gorillas from the Congo regions of Africa. It is an indoor exhibit, in order to host the tropical plants that Gorillas from this region live in and love. There are two windows on the exhibit, one from outside the building and one from inside. The inside of the building for the exhibit is designed in a fashion to make the visitor feel as if they are deep within the forests of the congo with buttress trees and mossy walls, and vines on the walls and ceilings. There is one large fake tree in the center of the exhibit that is used as a central climbing area for the gorillas. Several plants in the indoor exhibit produce fruits that the gorillas love to eat. The outside edges of the exhibit that do not house windows, are screened by native vegetation, and moss will be planted on the wall. AM - Acanthus montanus (Bear’s Breech) A species of thistle that grows in almost any situation. Found on the shady forest floors of the Congo. Blooms pale pink flowers.

CC - Carpinus caroliniana (Ironwood) Cold tolerant version of the tropical growing ironwood. Has a very similar leaf and growth habit. It is a small tree with fruit.

KA - Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany) Large evergreen tree. Can grow up to 100’ in a garden environment. Has buttressed roots. Common tree in the Congo. It is not cold tolerant, there will be one located in the exhibit and it will be fake, used as a climbing area for the gorillas. MI - Mangifera indica (Common Mango) Evergreen tropical tree producing large fruits which are loved by the Western Lowland Gorilla.

RA - Raphia australis (Giant Palm) Common large palm in the Congo. Has the largest leaves of any palm tree species. Produce fruits, not coconuts, that are eaten by the Western Lowland Gorilla. Figure 3-30

69


Gorilla Grove

Native Vegetation

NTS

CC MI

CC AM

Exhibit Building

RA

AM Wood Logs KA AM MI CC Rock/Cave Native Vegetation

Figure 3-31

70


Immersive and Interactive Elements The Jungle Tree is an immersive element designed to engage the user physically and mentally. It is designed for the use of adults and children, and is designed to look like a natural tree within the envrionment, although it will be purely man made. It has carvings of animals in it, using Disney’s Animal Kingdom Tree of Life as a precedent. It will be located in the Congo Expansion.

71


Interactive Jungle Tree

Figure 3-32

72


African Expansion NTS

African Elephant

Safari Car Drop off Baobab Tree African Aviary Service Building

73

Figure 3-33


Little Bluestem Andropogon scoparius

Indian Grass Sorghastrum nutans

Sand Dropseed Sporobolus cryptandrus

Baobab Adansonia digitata Senegal Acacia Acacia senegal Umbrella Thorn Acacia Acacia tortillis

Red Oat Grass Themeda australis White Prairie Clover Dalea candida Burning Bush Euonymus alata

Prairie Brome Bromus kalmii

Prairie Dropseed Sporobolus heterolepis

Canada Wild Rye Elymus canadensis

Bottlebrush Grass Hystrix patula

Plant Pallette

The African expansion starts with a ride or walk through an African bird aviary in a forested area. Then the view opens up into an expanse of wide savannah grassland. The center of this area is a large, fake Boabab Tree, the icon of savannah Africa. The path makes a turn to follow the edge of the African Elephant exhibit. It then turns back through a different part of the aviary and back out to the Congo region.

Figure 3-34

74


Exhibit Environments

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African Elephant Safari

Figure 3-35

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Exhibit Environments The elephant exhibit is viewed while coming out of a heavily forested Congo aviary. The viewer breaks out of this tight forested area into a wide expanse of savannah Africa. The grasses within and outside of the exhibit are the same, all a seed mix of various native prairie grasses that look similar to grasses in the savannah biomes of Africa. Many of the grasses in this mix attract birds and butterflys. In the back of the exhibit there is a large watering hole with a waterfall and a large hill with acacia trees on top of it. A fence runs the perimeter of the exhibit, but towards the front of the exhibit the fence will be shorter, and a large ditch will be used as the barrier between the exhibit and the viewing area. all fencing in the front will be screened by prairie grasses. Acacia trees and Burning Bush are scattered throughout the exhibit. This is a multispecies exhibit, shared with two African Cranes, the Stanley Crane and the Crowned Crane. PG - Andropogon scoparius (Little Bluestem) Species included in the overall prairie grass (PG) mix. Looks similar to some savannah grasses but is cold tolerant. It is a warm season grass. Good in full sun and dry conditions. PG - Sporobolus heterolepis (Prairie Dropseed) Species included in the overall prairie grass (PG) mix. Looks similar to savannah grasses but is cold tolerant. It is a warm season grass. Good in full sun and dry conditions. Has a fine, wispy texture. EA - Euonymus alatus (Burning Bush) Large shrub. Green leaves that turn to red and orange in late summer/early fall.

AS - Acacia senegal (Senegal Acacia) Large drought tolerant tree. Native to savannah Africa. Acacias within this exhibit will be fake, only there to better represent the savannah. Acacias are icons of Savannah Africa. AT - Acacia tortillis (Umbrella Thorn Acacia) Large drought tolerant tree. Native to savannah Africa. Acacias within this exhibit will be fake, only there to better represent the savannah. Acacias are icons of Savannah Africa. Figure 3-36

77


African Elephant Safari

AT EA

NTS

Rock EA AS

Hill Water

PG Mix

Fencing Path DItch Barrier AT

AT AS

EA

EA

Figure 3-37

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Immersive and Interactive Elements

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Savannah Safari Figure 3-38

This immersive element comes in the form of a safari car ride through savannah Africa. The ride starts in the congo, rides through an African forested aviary, and then breaks out into a wide expanse of savannah grassland. The ride follows a loop and makes a stop off at the main Elephant exhibit, where people can get out and take pictures or admire the animals.

80


Spatial Environments Open Concept of Spatial Environment Used in open habitat environments such as Savannah, Outback, and Grasslands

Visual Screen

Vegetation screen

Roped Fence

Exhibit Area

Figure 3-39

The idea of the open concept is to direct the users attention toward the exhibit, while still making them feel as if they are in a wide and open habitat. The sidewalk width is increased, and tall, thick vegetation is placed on the side opposite of the exhibit. On the exhibit side there is a roped fence with a line of vegetation in front of it to hide it. Behind the roped fence is the exhibit, which is usually separated by a taller exhibit fence, or by a large ditch depending on the species. 81


Enclosed Concept of Spatial Environment Used in close quartered habitat environments such as Rainforest and Congo

Vegetation screen

Roped Fence

Figure 3-40

The enclosed concept is primarily used in spaces that do not have exhibits on either side, such as the Jungle Path. This concept has a strong overhead canopy and a much slimmer sidewalk width, and makes the user feel closed in. This concept also has a roped fence with a vegetation screen in front to hide the fencing, except in the boardwalk area, where the boardwalk is purposely seen and not hidden. In areas in which an exhibit is seen, the vegetation around the sides of the exhibit will be very heavy, and only the front of the exhibit will be visible. 82


Materials Area Typical Path

Jungle Path

Butterfly House

Javan Rhino

Congo Gorilla

African Elephant

Figure 3-41

83

Plants

Plants

Paving


Textures

Visual

Details

Lighting

84


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Section 3 Appendices

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Bibliography Bakar, Nurazlina Abu. “Landscape Immersion Exhibits in Zoo Design.” 30 Dec 2008. Online Posting to Land 8 Lounge. Web. 12 Dec 2010. Baker, Anne. Manure Manager. Interview. Web. 1 Nov 2010. Blond, Kara. “Asia Trail Salamander Exhibit.” ZooLex. Zoolex.org, 14Dec2007. Web. 1 Nov 2010. Drecker, Peter. “Landscape For Explorers.” Topos. 62 (2008): 58-64. Print. Fiby, Monica. “Trends in Zoo Design - Changing Needs in Keeping Wild Animals for a Visiting Audience .” Zoolex. New Zoo, Nov 2008. Web. 12 Dec 2010. Frediani, Kevin. “Feeding Time at the Zoo.” The Horticulturalist. April (2010): 12- 15. Print. Luckiesh, Matthew. Visual Illusions: Their Causes, Characteristics, and Applications. New York, NY, 1965. Print. Polakowski, Kenneth. Zoo Design: The Reality of Wild Illusions. North Manchester, IN, 1992. Print. Powell, Anne. “Gardens of Eden.” Landscape Architecture. 87.4 (1997): 78-87, 92- 99. Print. Tarpley, Stacey. “The Next Zoo Design Revolution?.” Designing Zoos. Word Press, 15 Jul 2008. Web. 12 Dec 2010. Vider, Elise. “Environmental Theater...The New Zoo.” Metropolis. 9.6 (1990): 44-49. Print. “Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo History.” Kids Zoo. FWCZ, Jan2008. Web. 22 Nov 2010. “Building a Sustainable New Zoo.” New Zoo. New Zoo, n.d. Web. 12 Dec 2010. “How to Build a Zipline.” Zipline Rider. Zipline Rider, n.d. Web. 10 Apr 2011. 87


List of Figures 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-20 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24 3-25 3-26 3-27 3-28 3-29 3-30 3-31 3-32 3-33 3-34 3-35 3-36 3-37 3-38 3-39 3-40 3-41

Site Map.....................................................................................................32 Zoo Map.....................................................................................................33 Site Photo...................................................................................................34 Site Photo...................................................................................................34 Site Photo...................................................................................................34 Site Photo...................................................................................................34 Inventory Diagram......................................................................................41 Circulation Diagram....................................................................................42 Analysis Diagram........................................................................................43 GIS Soils and Topography Map...................................................................44 Immersive Experiences Diagram.................................................................45 Vegetation Diagram....................................................................................46 Animal Location Diagram............................................................................47 Concept Diagram........................................................................................49 Spatial Environment Diagram.....................................................................50 Zoo Expansion Masterplan..........................................................................51 Indonesia Expansion Site Plan....................................................................53 Indonesia Expansion Planting Pallette........................................................54 Javan Rhino Perspective..............................................................................55 Javan Rhino Exhibit Planting Pallette..........................................................57 Javan Rhino Exhibit Planting Plan...............................................................58 Zipline and Forest Trail Perspective............................................................59 Zipline Section.............................................................................................61 Zipline Plan.................................................................................................61 Butterfly House Perspective........................................................................63 Monster Flower Perspective.......................................................................64 Congo Expansion Site Plan.........................................................................65 Congo Expansion Planting Pallette.............................................................66 Gorilla Grove Perspective...........................................................................67 Gorilla Grove Planting Pallette....................................................................69 Gorilla Grove Planting Plan.........................................................................70 Interactive Jungle Tree Perspective.............................................................71 African Expansion Site Plan........................................................................73 African Expansion Planting Pallette............................................................74 African Elephant Exhibit Perspective..........................................................75 African Elephant Exhibit Planting Pallette...................................................77 African Elephant Exhibit Planting Plan.......................................................78 Savannah Safari Perspective.......................................................................79 Open Spatial Concept Section.....................................................................81 Enclosed Spatial Concept Section...............................................................82 Materials Matrix.........................................................................................83 88


Site Photos

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90


Interviews 1.

Who designed the zoo?

McFadden and Everly designed the original 7 acre zoo in 1965 Earl Wells helped design parts of it shortly after that After Earl Wells and to today Basset and Associates has been the designer of the zoo with the aid of the zoo staff.

2.

Is there an overall motto or theme to the zoo?

Connect Kids and Animals Strengthen Families Inspire growth

3.

What sustainable features or programs do you currently have?

Manure is composted off site for free

4.

Do you know anything about Franke Park or its features? How often are certain features used such as the bmx track or Foellinger Theater?

BMX track is useless. Foellinger Theater is a poor man’s Verizon Diehm Museum needs to be sold.

5.

What educational programs does the zoo currently have intact?

Education Packet

6.

91

Are there any certain types of exhibits the zoo has a calling for or would like to see in the future? Are there already plans for expansions? There are several ideas for expansions but no set plans. We hope to keep the zoo compact so people aren’t required to walk far, specially kids. We have thought about a Congo expansion, there is an expansion for our African Village in the works. I would like to see a butterfly exhibit, a good hippo exhibit, maybe rhinos (lots of mud), there are plans for a sting ray petting exhibit in Australia. Also a cool idea would be a drive through safari where you can drive through a huge elephant exhibit. We have thought about Arctic exhibits to keep the zoo open year round, but they usually fail because of attendance to the zoo in the winter. If we were to have one it would have heated paths.


Jim Anderson 7.

Are there any other people that would be helpful for me to contact?

Bill Conway – How to exhibit a bullfrog – article. Laura Kukelhan – Basset and Associates

8.

Any other comments?

No dolphins Special access for donors such as sky boxes Remember operant conditioning I would like to see a place for food with a view. Keep the paths small and intimate Journey, discovery The zoo works as a right prejudiced design. If you go right at every option you will see the entire zoo. Its sampled from Disney, Wheel with spokes. Very Immersive designed habitats Sound, smell, touch….design for all senses. Anything that allows a kid to touch an animal is a homerun Use hotwire/hotgrass to push animals to the fronts of exhibits, hoof stock will walk through them though. Don’t forget restrooms, food service, and retail.

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Interviews 1.

Is Franke Park a popular park? Is there a strong public adoration for the park?

Yes , It’s one of our best and more popular parks in the park system.

2.

Is the zoo part of Franke Park or what is the relationship between the two, if any?

The zoo is within Franke Park. It is a part of the parks system, and the parks department owns all of the buildings and structures within the zoo. The zoological society owns the exhibits and the staff.

3.

If the zoo were to expand, where do you think the best place to expand it would be?

The best places for the zoo to expand would be north of shoeff Lake, currently north of the Indonesia Exhibit. Also To the south there is a parking lot that could be expanded into. The zoo has also purchased some land on Welsh St., to put their giraffe exhibit in.

4.

Is the taxidermy museum popular?

Not really, The diem museum is currently being investigated to determine whether its worth keeping or not. Last year it only had about 600 visitors total.

5.

Do you know anything about Franke Park or its features? How often are certain features used such as the bmx track or Foellinger Theater? Are there features that are never used?

There are 3 Pavillions, 2 of which are the parks system’s most rented pavillions. Those are Franke 1 pavillion and the Pond Pavillion. Franke Park has one of the bigger playgrounds in the parks system and it’s day camp is in it’s 56th year.

93


Steve McDaniel 6.

Does Franke Park have any educational programs?

The day camp is the only educational program Franke Park has currently.

7.

Are there any other people that would be helpful for me to contact?

Between Jim Anderson and I we should be the best people for you to talk to and we will be able to answer most any question you need.

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Interviews 1.

What do you like about Franke Park?

The calm outdoor space, relative location to the zoo, and summer concert activities.

2.

What do you not like?

I think it’s too big for how low attendance is to the area (at least when I’ve been there).

3.

Do you know if any of Franke Parks features are frequently used?

Playground, Pavilions, Foellinger Theatre, maybe the trails but that would be by neighborhood residents (which I am not)

4.

How popular would you say Franke Park is?

I would say that it was of average popularity. Most of the people going to the park live in the neighborhoods nearby, are there for a specific event, or are stopping in to each a sack lunch instead of buying zoo food.

5.

What is your favorite feature? My favorite is the playground because I’m just a big kid at heart.

6.

How often have you been?

10-15 times

7.

What do you think about the zoo? Are there some improvements you think should be made to the zoo?

I enjoy the zoo a lot. I would go more if I had the money to. I like the exhibits I just think it’s hard to keep the adult crowd interested since there are rarely exhibit changes. If there was a way to have at least one section that changed or had some sort of peak interest every season that would be amazing.

95


Rai Duffy 8.

Is there anything that you think really works with the zoo?

I think that location and layout really work for the zoo except for parking. During the summer it seems there’s never enough parking but during the winter there is way too much.

9.

Any other comments?

I think cutting into Franke park for more zoo space would be fine since the park is so large. The trick would be to find a way to increase seasonal parking without subtracting from the overall experience.

Also just as a note for you: •The Diehm Wildlife Museum is the creepy taxonomy museum. •N Wells is the road most traveled (in my opinion) in the area so Franke Park Dr and N Wells St is an important gateway. I say that because it’s a great connector street to the mall, which is very large and successful. •One challenge of that gateway is that coming from the south you pass the Juvenille Jail so you drive by a jail and then go have fun at the zoo.

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Lindley Harmon Final Thesis 2011