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ELISABET GIRONA LIMBERG BA HONS GRAPHIC COMMUNICATION


DIFFERENT ELEMENTS TO DONSIDER A GOOD PACKAGING


Glass Paper Carton Plastic Metall

Colour Shape Typography Picture Language


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Definition by Oxford Dictionaries Pronunciation: /ˈpakɪdʒɪŋ/ Noun [mass noun] Materials used to wrap or protect goods: all the ingredients and packaging are biodegradable

. The business or process of packing goods: they specialized in food packaging

 the presentation of a person or thing in an advantageous way: diplomatic packaging of the key provisions will make a confrontation unlikely

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The main packaging idea is almost as older as human civilization. Time ago humanity had the need of storaging, transporting and protecting food from external factors such as rain, dust or wind. First trace of packaging is found over 1885 when William Lever wanted to pack the soap he made with the name of Sunlight. From there on, over 1920 was usual to find the half of the products packed. One decade later, thanks to the improvement of the printing techniques, it was possible to print easily one illustration several times. With the ending of the Second World War it started the concept of self-service, which the customer choose the product he want to buy by himself. In consequence, the packaging became more important. In the shops traditionally, was the salesman who gave the product to the customer but since that time was the customer who catch the product with his own hands, having a direct contact with this product or, in other words, the package which contained the product. Edward Denison [1] described that the main functionalities of packaging became in: Containing the product protecting it to keep ir in perfect conditions when it is bought by the customer (bruisers, compression, temperatures, etc.). Another factor is the preservation of the product, because the product needs to be preserved during certain time after it is bought. The product also needs an attractive presentation. It must attract the consumer attention seducing him. The information transmission of the product is also needed to inform the consumer about the usage, transportation, recycling, etc. And finally the convenience of the product, adding the convenience of distribution, manipulation, exhibition, selling, opening and closing.

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Nowadays, the packaging is the direct contact between the product and the consumer. This give information about the product characteristics, as the conservation specifications, product proprieties, among others. Taking this brief study of the packaging evolution in the history, the consumer society where we live in the present, the competitiveness of prices and the large number of brands for the same product, the packaging leaves behind its original purpose of containing the product and showing its information. Nowadays, the packaging has became a way to visually inform about the product quality. From this point of view, what is a good packaging? Which factors are necessary to take into account in the design process? Which materials are better for each product? With the constant innovations in the packaging market, where is this going to? Thus, have the packaging targets the need of change and attract the attention to sell more products than the competitor leaving as a secondary aim the storage of the product?

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The production of a new packaging is a very complex task because the number of decisive factors involved. Firstly, it is relevant that designers get familiarized with the product before starting the packaging creative process. The designer’s job is very elaborated due to the fact that it is influenced by the present market demands. In other words, it has to consider the consumer, the product and the storage taking into account a key point, the competition. First step to achieve the success is to perform an analysis and define a design. To establish which are main goals with a briefing where the main esthetical and technical attributes are studied. There is a wide set of steps to cover since the point of graphical design. It is necessary to perform a creativity effort to create a prominent packaging. In the process of creation for a new packaging there are a lot of factors involved: colour, shapes, typography, photography and language.

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The first element is that we focus on material. When a company have the need to create a new packaging for its product to throw it on the market, what is needed, is choose the material which will be developed.

Figure 1. Example, the glass is a material that is easy to deform.

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Even so, a lot of companyies think that the material of a packaging is superficial, and they don’t see the need to invest. Where as in my opinion, it should be the other way around, because the material gives the product body. Then, from this point of view, should there be a change in the way of thinking? Should there be more thought put into the selection of the material and it is possibilities to make the body of the product more attractive to consumers? Is this converted into the main function of the packaging? Or, should we maintain the importance of the product’s protection, when the packaging is just an add-on? Should we look at the product as an individual element, or should we start to look at the packaging as part of the product? This is something that has to be looked at more and more, as in my opinion, today, the number of people who choose products because of their packaging is rising. This is one of the main discussion points when creating a packaging, the main function as protection or as attraction.

need of creating a new packaging for its product to release it, it has to choose the material the product will be made in firstly. Hence it is necessary to perform a previous study of the materials to make the selection correctly. There is a large diversity of possible materials to use in the packaging we want to create, with different features. Ones are stiff; others are malleable allowing the creation of creative shapes. For example, the glass is a material that is easy to deform, making different shapes. (Figure1). This allows the designer to be more creative with the shape of the packaging. On the other side, with the sense of touch we can feel affinity to a product or not. For instance, the feeling of touching well-finished aluminium is really different to touching wood. Both suggest many different things, ones positive and others negative. Thus, we have to proceed to start a materials study, which are their main features, which is the normal use and the influence of the sense of touch.

If we take attention the time to chosee the material to give a different image, when a company has the

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materials The beginning of the materials To study the used materials in packaging, first we need to focus in the past and see the evolution since today. From the beginning, once the human beings had the need of storage and transports food, they started to use containers of the same Nature such as leafs and shells. Posteriorly, they recollected materials from the Nature and they started to manipulate them. For example, they treated logs to storage their resources inside.

After that, with the society evolution and the technologic development, it appeared new materials such as metal, glass, plastic, among others. (Figure 2.) These new materials changed radically the way to create packaging. They contributed in new possibilities of shapes, printing in materials and innovation in the market.

We can split the materials in two different groups: flexible and stiff. The flexible materials are tissue or paper. The packaging made with these materials has less quantity of materials than the rest. Hence, the final packaging has a lightweight. (Figure 3). The stiff materials are bottles of glass, cans and metals. In general, materials that contain the product and keep it in its place. Once this previous material study is performed, it is necessary to focus in each on and its features.

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Figure 3. The flexible materials are tissue or paper.

Figure 2. New materials such as metal, glass, plastic, among others.

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I was easy to produce and its resistance is really high. However its cost is high as well.

When the glass started being used in packaging, it became in one of the most used materials.

Some of the main features of the glass are: it is inert when touching the food or other products. There is no oxidation; it is impermeable to gases and temperature insulator. In addition is a reusable material and it is recycled in a high percentage. In the elaboration process the glass is very malleable. For that reason is easy to find glass packages with different shapes. Next pictures shows an example of different possibilities for this material.

However it is the most weighted material and increases the weight of the product considerably. When the consumer gets touch with the glass made packaging, the caused feelings varies depending o the thickness of the glass. For example a product packaging with a thin glass give the feeling of fragility, easy to break. On the other hand, a packaging performed in thick glass emits sensation of power and safety, increasing the feeling of robustness. However, it is not true that packaging with thin glass gives feeling of poor quality. For example, most of the perfumes are made in thin glass that allows original and fantastic shapes. These increase the product category considerably because they have a notable visual attractive.

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While these qualities of glass as a material for packaging, what we needs to be ask from my point of view, it is necessary to let the product be seen without any difficulty to the buyer? (Figure 4).We should ask ourselves whether it is good for stop selling the product to be seen with all or if on the other hand, a product on its packaging is opaque, and the product is completely inside, without being seen. Here the question of whether it is better to let the imagination fly client simply giving an image as a reference, or sometimes not even that, or if a woman make a positive visual appearance that the product is displayed with all.

Figure 4. Let the product be seen without any difficulty

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Another material used in packaging is paper. It is one of the most used materials in this field. However, recently plastic is playing an equal or superior leading role because every time more people has conscience for the environment and paper is the main reason of deforestation. [4]

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From this point of view, should reduce the use of paper in packaging, for the sake of the environment. Or maybe you should establish some sort of legislation faces its use? For example, the use of paper as packaging of a product can only be 50% of the total packaging. Since those who control good for the environment and recycling should establish standards for the environment faces? Since the paper is the culprit it is open to Tallinn tans, but maybe you could find a replacement the total packaging. According it the plastic you are taking a long stage, but even so, the amount of paper after having served the function of packaging, goes directly to trash. Maybe we should get together more aware of everything.

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There are different types of paper used in packaging: Kraft paper: high resistance, used for bags. Parchment paper: resistant to humidity, used for fresh meat and fish. Glassine paper: resistant to grease and oils, used for fast food and printing inks. Wrapping tissue paper: used to protect electronic products. Wet strength paper: resistant to liquids and steam, used for pastry making, freeze food and how meals.

Depending on the type of paper used for packaging, these will give a different sensation to the consumer. For example, if we change the paper of the packaging of a product we are used to it, it will change our feelings about this product. Probably these feelings would be positive because it would be something new, breaking and different and it would attract the consumer attention. For instance, we are used to buy bread with a parchment paper. If that type of paper was changed and, in addition, the packaging shape modified, that bread would highlight among the rest. In addition, paper is easy to be printed. This makes it compatible with a large variety of inks which allow the designer be more creative.

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Carton is a derivative of paper. It is obtained with different layers of paper achieving a stiffness that paper does not. It is considered as a paper until 65gr/m2 and since there it is considered carton.

With this diversity of combinations we can create packaging with different shapes. In addition, carton is a low cost material. This feature has to be taken into account for massive productions. Carton is combined in different mays with other layers of carton. (Figure 5). The more layers it has the more resistant it is. An example of different types of carton is as follows:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 5. Carton is combined in different mays with other layers of carton.

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Simple carton Simple wall carton Double wall carton Triple wall carton


Although we are right there to leave the place, the board is also an element against the environment. So also ought to reduce the use? Although many times it makes the board a second use. Perhaps in the case of cardboard, should go for the path of reuse? Since it is a very good packaging, and paper and be more difficult to find a substitute. In fact, in general, very few items that are not bad for the environment, but if they look at this a double feature, for example, be used after it you can use the same packaging as the product llampara or useful things, then we are not doing as misuse of the material. And the material itself used for the packaging of the product will not go direct to the trash. From my point of view, should start looking to give a second life to material, packaging, or rather, perhaps, even more stressed with recycling.

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Printing over carton has good results but it is necessary to finish the material perfectly. If it is not performed the print maybe will not be as our idea because of the surface. Carton is a material that can seem rude. A product packaged in carton seems not accurate. To avoid these feeling it is usual to play with graphics and colour. For example, a simple white carton box becomes the packaging in an elegant and attractive one. Usually, colour in carton connotes recycling and environmental conscience. However, we can find examples like the firm of laptops Apple. This carton packaging with white colours makes the product elegant and attractive. (Figure 6).

Figure 6. This carton packaging with white colours makes the product elegant and attractive.

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On the other hand, this second example shows an egg’s brand where the colour of the carton is visible. This makes us to think in recycling when we see it.

Figure 7. Egg’s brand where the colour of the carton is visible.

Although it is a cheap material its resistance is limited. If it gets wet it lose its stiffness.

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(Figure 8). Direct visual contact with the consumer.

Plastic is one of the widely used materials at the present, even winning paper. In the last few years a large variety of plastics have been developed. We can find different type of plastics: Polyethylene: it is the most produced, there is in low and high density. Polystyrene: it is translucent and resistant to low temperatures and impacts. Cellophane: flexible and transparent, widely used to pack products.

Plastic is one of the most used materials and it is performed in a large variety of shapes. Printing over plastic, such as paper, it is quite simple because it is possible to apply different types of ink depending in the desired finishing. Its weight is reasonable and the final packaging weight is not affected for that. On the other hand, plastic, such as glass, is one of the unique materials that without leaving behind its priority functions (preserve the product) allow the possibility of direct visual contact with the consumer. (Figure 8).

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Next image shows a beans packaging which we are not used to see directly because they are commonly in metallic cans. (Figure 9). Then we have the same doubt it the glass: good face on the product packaging of this product without any longer see the difficulty?

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The metal element is another widely used today for packaging. The origin [7], goes back to 1809, when General Napoleon Bonaparte offered 12,000 francs to anyone who could preserve food for his army. Nicholas Appert, a Parisian chef, found that food sealed in metal containers as tin and after sterilized, could be stored for long periods.

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When talking about metal can speak of two types: the flexible and rigid. [6] The flexible is sensitive to touch, widely used wrapper. The hard, much harder to deform, such as cans. Some of the properties that are, among others, its resistance to water and gases, the compatibility of different food products and protects the product at high and low temperatures, and low cost.

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After selected the material, we need to focus the following elements: colour, shapes, typography, photography and language.

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Colour in packaging is one of the most influencing elements to the perception of the product.

The main colour functions are: to present the product in an attractive way, making it different of the competition products and it has to attract attention. It needs to cause visual impact, and keep the attention the maximum time as possible. Many times consumers recognize a product for its colour instead of the brand.

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Figure 10. Levels of colours.

The visual stimulation levels of colours, from more to less, are (Figure 10): According Ducan, when these colors are combined with each other, the power of the contrast change the level of stimulus [8] (Figure 11): But according to Karl Borggrafe study, it says that if we want a correct reading from the distance, the order of stimuli is the following [8] (Figure 12):

Figure 11. Ducan.

H H H H H H H

Figure 12. Karl Borggrafe

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Any of these lists are absolutely right. There is not any magic formula to choose a colour but it is necessary to consider which is the target consumer of the product and the product itself. Sometime a colour can modify the desired message, thus a product with a determinate packaging colour can't attract consumers from different cultures in the same way. Because colours have different connotations around the world.

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Chromatic connotations: From a very long time the colour has been used as an element that causes psychological effects. It exist certain relationship between ideas and colours in the human brain.

White: Associated to light, a sunny day. Implies purity and simplicity. It also can have refreshing connotations. Black: Symbolizes death and evil. However it implies elegancy and wealth. Red: The colour of the emotions. Implies energy, live, masculinity and dynamism. It is a warm, burning and alive colour. Blue: It expresses maturity and it is the female colour. It has connotations of water, sea, fresh, clean and purity. Yellow: Connotations of light, warm, cheerful and full of energy. Products packed with this colour seem bigger than they really are. Green: Colour of the Nature and it implies peace and quiet. Orange: Colour with connotations of warm, alive and light. Purple: It is the colour of excellence, royalty. It is powerful and sign of dignity.

In conclusion, the colour in the packaging creation process is a key step and its election important for the final design.

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But we have to question, is all valid for attract attention? The combination of complementary colors attract attention due to the bad combination? The designer can go over the rules of color to draw the most attention getting? Or should be able to get to know the same to find a good combination? Is really free the designer to choose the color scheme? So, have been a striking design and will achieve the purpose: to attract attention. Then, anything goes to achieve the desired objective? In this case, the consumer's attention.

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The shape of the packaging is really important because it has to be able to contain some necessary information for the consumer. For instance, in a food packaging it would have appeared the brand, storage information, expiration date, nutritional information, consumer instructions, elaboration process, etc. The basic visual shape is the line and its shape and length determines its significance in the visual syntax. A set of lines create shapes, hence it is necessary to study the lines and its connotations. [9][10][11]

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Straight line: connotations of calm, serenity and robustness. It is also related to masculinity. Curved line: feeling of instability, sweetness and happiness. Such as the straight line is related to the masculinity, the curve connotes femininity. Thin line: connotations of niceness, fragility, softness and attention. Thick line: it expresses a feeling of energy and strength. Long line: feeling of time, duration and long life. Horizontal line: connotations of repose and stability. Vertical line: leads the look to the top. High price products seem to be in relationship with vertical straight lines that express a feeling of robustness and strength. On the other hand, cheaper products are associated with horizontal straight lines, circles, curves, curved edges and asymmetric compositions that connote insecurity and weakness.

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The typographic [12][13]content in a packaging is the maximum responsible in the fact that the visual message reaches the consumer in an easy and right way. Hence, as we have seen with the colour, an inadequate typography may impede the message to be delivered to the consumer. We can find cases where text means something and the typography expresses the opposite. Some typography stiles are related to eras or places, therefore the font choice is related to the message we want to transmit. One clear example is found in the beers where a typography-era association is done. They use gothic typographies because the origin is in that period.

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One more time, the designer has to do well its job choosing the most adequate font for the message is expected to give. In addition he needs skills for analysing, exploring and recognizing conceptual, formal, historical and technical features. There also are some typography families that have their own features. The designer should avoid using common typographies or the widely used ones. He needs to create a clear difference between his product and the rest. Thus, the product obtains an innovative image and that makes it different. To obtain a good typographic composition there are three things to have in consideration: readability, size and colour. Referred to readability, capital letters are harder to read than lower case letters. This is emphasised in long text. It is also a good resource to attract the receptor attention. For instance, an interesting case is to combine upper and lower case letters in the same sentence. This makes the sentence harder to read but the fact that the consumer needs more time to understand the word it is probable that he will keep it in mind more time.

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When we have to highlight something in a product it is important to be in bold type. (Figure 13). Bold letters attracts easily the attention of the consumer. If an extra emphasis is needed it can also be used the

italic.

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Font size has to be determined taking into account the relevance of the text and its disposition, and the distance from it will be read. For example, in a bottle of wine of a well-known brand is the brand name what is needed to emphasise giving it a bigger size than the rest. On the other hand, we can find a known product that is released in a new line. Then, that new line should be in a bigger size.

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Text colour can improve the readability of the text giving it a better visual weight. A right contrast also improves the readability. Since we are used to read in black over white, a good contrast between the typography and the background colour makes the reading comfortable. Contrast of warm and cold, light and dark or alive and dull colours can be used.

When the background or typography colour is set the readability is modified as well. Therefore, the designer must choose the best option to keep the product as more readable as possible. For example, the word "Nature" would be usually in green colour, but if the background colour has no contrast the designer must change one of both colours to increase that contrast.

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The picture helps the consumer to create an idea of the product. Through the picture we can emit the texture and colour of the product to create the desire of the consumer to buy it.

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Trough the pass of time, the picture has become artificial, representing the product with an ideal image. In the past the picture try to reproduce the product as most accurate as possible but, with the evolution of the packaging, the picture tries to improve the product representing it in a perfect way. In some part, the consumer is cheated because the picture creates expectative of the product that not are real. The manipulation of the product picture tries to make it desirable for the consumers.


So, what should we do with the packaging is also mislead consumers? Should mislead the consumer through images that do justice to the product?

Is it better that reveals the product as with glass and plastic? We begin to see the most commercial, or the designer with the tools should do their best to make it attractive as a packaging without having to resort to cheating? Today the market we have two cases. But what is the correct way to act by the designer? Or both are correct, and mislead the consumers is one more a tool for the designer?

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The language is an element that needs to be taken in consideration because nowadays most of the products are sell around the world. When the designer creates a new packaging should take care about the adaptability of the design in different languages. One option is to sell the same packaging everywhere, with different languages in the same package or to translate the packaging depending on the country it is sold. In the first case it is important to reserve some space in the packaging to allow the different languages required for its commercialization.

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On the other hand, if all the text of the product needs to be translated an extra effort will be needed for the designer. He will have to adapt the whole design for each desired language. Multinational companies usually release products in different languages. Hence the product is customized depending on the country and it is nearer to the people of that country. One example would be the Coca-Cola Company. On the contrary, smaller companies with less production resources, release the same product in all the countries with the information in different languages.

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In conclusion it is necessary to considerer a lot of elements by the designer. Once performed a previous study of aims and describe the strategy of the product he has to combine all the necessary graphical resources to create a good packaging for that product. The designer must know that a wrong typography or colour could make the product to fail. In addition he has the job to give it an added value, creativity and innovation to make it different of the competitors.

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I have done a survey in witch there are different questions relacionated on the packaging to know the influences of the product container on the consumer. To realize this survey I took a representative sample of different ages people with different economic and social levels. The conclusions of the survey are the next ones:

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When the consumers feel the necessity to buy a product, what they use to do is to compare the quality between the products. But there is also a lot of people who give more importance at the price of the product instead of the quality of it is one. This fact comes for the economic situation of nowadays. Anyway, nobody has recognized to look just the packaging of the product.

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But if you make them try between some product without packaging and the same one with it, most of them, with a 83’4%, choose the product with the packaging. That means that people prefer the packaging to make the product be safer during his transport. To make this result more understandable, it is better to carry some eggs inside a box that protect them of being broken than bring the eggs inside of a plastic bag without any kind of support that make them keep still and being sure that they won’t be broken.

Even that nobody have recognize to look just the product in the first question, here, 66’7% of the questioned people recognize have bought a product for it is packaging. That means that the fact that make them buy a product instead of another one have been the packaging, because this packaging make them pay more attention at this product, giving them the desire of buying it just for aesthetic reasons of the packaging and it is singularity. So, we can ensure that the packaging of a product can determine it is purchase.

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When people are asked if they think that a good packaging guarantees the quality of a product, most of them with a 66’7% have said that no. But what we can say is that a good packaging don’t guarantee the quality of the product, but when it is compared with the others packaging, this one give us more confidence than the others products with a worst elaborated packagings. So we can say that the image of a product isn’t always the determinant factor for it is sale, but it is true that a good packaging makes easier to sale the product, and sometimes it can finish being the determinant factor that makes people buy it.

Figure 14. Option A

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Figure 15. Option B.


In one of the questions I gave them two options. The booth options that talk about the same product, a headphones. In the option A (Figure 14) they are a Panasonic headphones and they have a cost of 8,45£. In the option B (Figure 15) they are a Sony headphone and they have a cost of 6,95£. Booth of them are recognized brands, the only different thing between them is the packaging. The option A have a best packaging than the option B.

The result have been that 66’7 of the people have choose the option B. With this result we confirm that there is an important amount of people that give more importance at the price of the product rather than the same product. But there is still a part of people that buys a product because of it is packaging without giving importance at the difference in prices. So the group who have chosen the option A reaffirmed that they’ve bought the product for it’s packaging.

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Figure 16. Option A.

Again, I make them choose between two options; the product is still the same in booth options (beans), but the packaging is very different. The option B (Figure 17) is what we use to find in shops, beans packed inside a can. In the option A we find them packed inside a transparent plastic bag, an unusual way to find them at shops. Option A (figure 16) let us see the product without hide it’s content, something that we can’t say about option B. 75% of polled people have chosen the option B. So, we can deduce that people could buy a product for it’s packaging, but likewise packaging can also make you decide not to buy this product. Regarding design innovation, the designer have to find the middle point between a classic product and an innovative one, because most of the people prefers traditional products and just a few of them like the innovative ones (talking about aliment packaging).

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In this concrete product, it could be two possible explanations to understand this 80% of people that has choose second option. First explanation is that option A could fails because product is shown in its entirety, perhaps, instead of a transparent plastic, it could have a layer of opaque colour, which keep the beans in a certain mystery. Or, another possibility is that the material (plastic) has been badly chosen; it not makes its function of protection compared to a tin. The designer has been daring, but maybe he should try to tweak some things; colour or material. For that reason we say that it so important election of good material, because it could affect our packaging. However, current society is still very classic and does not like changes and prefers traditional things.

Figure 17. Option B.

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One more time, there are given two options. This time the product is some matches. In the option A (Figure 18) the product is presented inside a cardboard box. In option B (Figure 19) the product is subjected to a wooden base and protected by a cardboard lid. 75% of people have chosen option A, so we deduce that consumers doesn’t like innovation in the form and presentation of option B. Therefore, in this case, material is not bad chosen but the shape that it has is not correct; from buyer standpoint is not useful. From designer point of view is a groundbreaking and innovative design, and attracts attention, but he obviates to bear functionality for consumers in mind. This is where he fails, therefore, at the moment to create a new packaging; we cannot stop having attention at any of these mentioned points to create a good packaging. Also is so important to be in mind our product target, this is one of the most important factors, we need to know what consumers like because they have to like our packaging. As I said, packaging should be able to attract attention, while it still makes its main functions.

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Figure 18. Option A.

Figure 19. Option B.

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We have another case like previous one, where we could found innovation in packaging form. Once again we have two options and the same product, in this case wine, and two different ways to present it. The results are again the same as the previous question: 60% of people have chosen the option B (Figure 21), the bottle with traditional way. In this case, design form of option A (Figure 20) is very well worked. But looking at the results we have to find where it fails, and we have to find out why only a 66'7% of poolers have chosen the most innovative packaging option, and why it does not attract more possible consumers. Looking at two packaging, we can think that the fault of first option is in the amount of the product; it is considerably lower than a normal bottle, only to get the new shape. So, the shape is not bad, because attract a lot of attention, but maybe the size is inadequate. From my point of view, analyzing the results, the size should be proportional to a normal bottle of wine amount. Maybe, this way, the results of the option A would increase and new packaging should have more voters. I think that in this case the shape is suitable because it attention attracts much, and besides, this packaging has a double functionality, protects and contains the product.

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Figure 20. Option A.

Figure 21. Option B.

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Figure 22. Option A.

Figure 23. Option B.

In this case is exactly the same product in option A (Figure 22) and B (Figure 23), Coca Cola, there is no kind of difference between first product and second one, the content is the same, just there is a little colour change and text position. Option A is the classic red tin with white letters; the other (B) is inverted and also takes a few icons it connotes polar bears. 66'7% of poolers has chosen option A, the traditional option and what they are accustomed. It's funny to observe how only the colour could affect the sale of a product, been exactly the same in both cases. One more time, is evidence that society is not prone to changes. We are talking about a real case, Coca Cola took this product (B) to sale, and was not a good reception by consumers, because we can see the can white and silver, and we associated automatically with the Coca cola light or diet. Because of this colour association by consumers, they had to remove this product from sale, because he had no exit. In addition, this edition of the product was for a charity cause.

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Finally, we have two ways to buy milk, one (Figure 24) packed with a can, and another one (Figure 25) with a plastic bottle. Both options keeps white colour (remembering the connotation of white as milk), and both play with three different colours to distinguish the three types of milk. 83'4% of people has chosen option B. We are again in front of a daily use product and we can observe that people do not want to risk with that. We can say that first option it is a risked design, it uses a can instead of the typical bottle. People use to associate cans for soft drinks, and in this case causes that consumers doesn't like the product.

Figure 25. Option B.

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Figure 24. Option A.

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Thus, in general, we can extract that a lot of respondents (who represents a part of society) think that the shape of the container and a good packaging, it should not stop trying to be functional. This factor it has to be considered by the designer at the moment to give way to a new packaging. We can also ensure that a bad colour choice of packaging can make the sale of the product almost entirely void, so as I said, the designer's task is very complex when he is going to design a new packaging. Any of previously studied elements placed wrongly in a new packaging could make useless all designer effort. On the other hand, we can say that the daily products such as drinks, food, hygiene, and as we have seen in the case of milk, consumers prefer to maintain the normal packaging as they are everyday products and want to be sure of what they buy daily, and the use of the product, while not difficult to be used for its packaging, for example the case of matches. For such, we could say that where the designer has more freedom to innovate, will not use the products everyday, for example colonies, appliances, among others. Thus, we can ensure that the products of the day, we are very traditional and classic, and not like the changes in these products, because in these cases we compare it for the product and not for the packaging. But even so, people have a point where we let ourselves be tempted by a seductive packaging, provided that the functionality is respected.

78


In general, as we have seen, a long and elaborate process is needed by the designer to create a new packaging. The first and most important thing that the designer has to do is familiarise himself with the product that needs packaging, and once familiar with it, he will need to know his target with the help

79

of a brief.


The designer always needs to have various points clear in his head: the product's target and

the selection of materials, the shape, colour, and the typography aswell as others mentioned earlier. All of these elements together form the packaging.

As we've seen, it's important to take into account that choosing these elements badly can

make our packaging fail, and might not be accepted by possible consumers. Or, it may be a

success being accepted by the majority of consumers thus achieving the packaging's objectives, and so, the work by the designer will be known and recognised.

Also, we have to realise that any radical change in a packaging, has to be studied well before marketing it, because we live in a society that likes tradition and be classic, where changes

aren't always accepted well. Even though the designer doesn't have to stop being innovative, he has to take this factor into account, and find the right point between innovation and traditional, without leaving aside the service that the product gives and it's principal functions. This is possibly the most difficult but important thing to do and achieve.

On the other hand, even if the packaging is innovative and different, if it doesn't grab people's attention in respect to similar products, be assured that all the effort put in won't be worth a thing, even if it is functional and innovative.

For this reason, I repeat, one small thing badly done can be the the main problem of our packaging, which will make it work or not.

Finally, a reflection: A good packaging, in the end, is giving a product a good image and personality.

From this, imagine two shampoos with the same composition and characteristics.

Imagine one in a green plastic bottle with a badly placed label saying "Shampoo" in orange, and the other an opaque black plastic bottle with a silver text saying "The shampoo that will

make your hair stronger and shinier". One more piece of information, the difference in price is minimal.

Take this all into account... Which one would you buy? This is the effect of packaging, and what a good designer looks to create.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] More packaging prototypes Denison, Edward Published Mies : Rotovision 2006 [2] Arens, W. (1996), Contemporary Advertising, Irwin, United States of America, 
G-12. [8] El color i la publicitat. Baceló. AEDEMO 1976. [9] Color graphics: the power of color in graphic design, Triedman, Karen; Cullen, Cheryl Dangel, Publisheed: Gloucester, Mass. : Rockport 2004 [10] B. B. Kimia, A. Tannebaum, and S. W. Zucker. Toward a computational theory of shape: An overview. pages 402–407, 1990. [13] What is typography?. Jury, David, Mies ; Hove : RotoVision 2006

[4] (Wendy Jedlicka, 2009) Packaging sustainability, Package Design, Magazine


[3] http://www.tcs.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/Whit e%20Papers/Platform-BPO_Whitepaper_Effective _Practices_Sourcing_Packaging_Materials_Consu mer_Packaged_Goods_05_2011.pdf [5] http://www.tisgdv.de/tis_e/verpack/papier/papierso/papierso.htm [6] [http://mincetur.gob.pe/comercio/ueperu/consultora /docs_taller/Parte_1_Presentacion_Taller_Uso_de _Envases_yEmbalajes_b.pfd [7] http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/AE/AE20600.pdf [9] http://www.lems.brown.edu/vision/publications/Kimi a's_Publication/Journals/shocks_shape_wiggles.p df [11] http://www.vanseodesign.com/web-design/visualgrammar-lines/ [12] http://www.desarrolloweb.com/articulos/1691.php


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Albert  Gubern   Age:         62   Profession:   Hotel  Manager     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Albert  Pla   Age:         25   Profession:   Researcher     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Albert  Ramos   Age:         31   Profession:   Graphic  Designer     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Anna  Limberg   Age:         54   Profession:   Housewife     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Ariadna  Grau   Age:         21   Profession:   Student     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Carles  Girona   Age:         65   Profession:   retired     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Enric  Galceran   Age:         25   Profession:   Student     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Gerard  Pons   Age:         25   Profession:   Student     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Mireia  Albó   Age:         21   Profession:   Student     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Miriam  Girona   Age:         30   Profession:   production  assistant  and  receptionist     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Pablo  Gay   Age:         25   Profession:   Researcher     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Fill the  gray  fields  below:     Name:     Ricard  Campos   Age:         45   Profession:   Teacher     Click  in  only  one  answer:     When  you  buy  a  product,  you  buy  it  for:       its  price     the  product     the  packaging     If  you  could  choose  between  the  product  alone  or  the  product  with  a   packaging  (bottled,  canned,  packed,  etc.)    which  would  you  choose?       alone     with  packaging     Have  you  ever  bought  a  product  because  its  packaging?     yes     no     Do  you  think  that  a  good  packaging  guarantees  the  quality  of  the  product?     yes     no     Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?         Option  A:    £8.45               Option  B:    £6.95    

               


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?       Option  A:          

Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?      Option  A:            

           

Option B  

Option B:  


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?          Option  A:              

 

   Option  B:  

 


Which of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:          

          Which  of  these  products  would  you  buy?        Option  A:              

 Option  B:  

 Option  B:  


Different elements to consider for a good packaging.  

Dissertattion. University of Northampton. BA Graphic Communication.

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