INDEX 4 Presentation 8 Review by modernism 14 Promoters 18 Scuplture 22 Literature 26 Music 30 Painting 38 Best 25 buildings to visit 90 Minor arts 92 Decadency
PRE SEN TA TION
7 â€œModernism is a kind of magic word within Catalan culture, and there are those who, without wishing to, have given it a special charisma as a patriotic emblem that is totally excessive and out of all proportionâ€?. Francesc Fontbona.
Review by modernism
10 The beginning of the Modernism is not concrete at all. Alexander Cirici Pellicer, historian, dates the beginning of the Modernism with the appearance of the first buildings in Barcelona, such as Casa Vicens.
Montaner i Simón publishing firm
Academy of Sciences
Víctor Balaguer museum-library
modernity and cultural regeneration. It was not limited to boost architecture, key factor The Modernism sought
of the Modernism. The movement was also focused in sculpture, painting, literature, music and minority arts.
The end of the phenomenon was between 1910 and 1914, according to Joaquim Molas, the 1911 according to Oriol Bohigas and between 1909 and 1919 according to the art historian Mireia Freixa.
PRO MO TERS
16 People that made possible the beginning of the Modernism movement were part of a privileged social group.
17 That privileged social group wanted to distinguish themselves constructing a building in the Eixample quarter. The admiration for the unique building of the Batlló family, designed by Antoni Gaudí, motivated other distinguished people, such as Pere Milà, to order his house to the same architect. Some institutions also wanted to be incorporated in this movement of modernist buildings. This is the case of Sant Pau Hospital, by Domenech i Montaner, or the Sagrada Familia cathedral by Gaudí.
In Catalonia, sculpture was a well consolidated art long time before Modernism. However, sculpture was not an exception and was an important part of the Modernism movement. The sculpture figures from that period show us the liberation feeling of the Modernism. The sculptures were placed in houses, streets, main squares, theaters, hospitals, churches, etc. The main functionalities of the sculpture were to adorn a building and to express something for itself. The workshop of the Agapit and Venanci Vallmitjana brothers was the origin of the sculpture school of the Catalan Modernism. Here was where Josep Llimona studied to improve his knowledge of arts becoming a prominent figure of the Catalan modernist sculpture movement. The artist Miquel Blay also collaborated with this architect. Especially in the Palau de la Música Catalana, where one of its corners shows his brilliant sculpture “La canço popular”.
Eusebi Arnau was also a prominent sculptor and he collaborated with the architect Domènech i Montaner. This was the start of future collaborations such as the sculptures of the Palau de la Música and the Sant Pau Hospital. Other artists like Carreres i Clarasó had relevance in the participation and development of the Catalan Modernism.
In the beginnings we can found the Avenç magazine, directed by Joaquim Casas i Carbó and Jaume Massó i Torrents. Its purpose was to look for a normalized and uniformed grammatical model. This magazine was very important for consolidating the Catalan narrative trough the Modernism. Raimon Casellas proposed an analysis criteria for capturing the reality using the artist feelings and naturalist elements. All this with a deep feeling of pessimism. “Estrofes decadentistes” by Joan Maragall is a representative example. The modernist narrative technique was been developing with the work of Casellas, especially with “Els sots feréstecs”, and the work of others writers such as Victor Català with "Solitud". Among the topics of the modernist narrative, the description of the rural life is one of the most used by these writers. However they write different genres: novel, lyric poetry, short story, epic, theatre, essay, etc. They usually referenced episodes of Catalonia history. Thanks to the modernist Catalan literature, the literature reached the national contemporary level of other European countries.
29 In the same way that with the other arts, the Modernism proclaims in the music the freedom of the artistic creation looking for the authenticity over the beauty. In Catalonia we can also found a distinctive factor: the nationalist feeling. For instance, the composition "El cant de la Senyera" (song to the Catalan national flag) by Millet. However, the musical Modernism had not a component of school and the musicians are classified as a modernists because of the period where they developed their activity. Except the adscription of Morera to the movement, who was strongly implicated. His participation was very active in the modernist parties organized by Santiago Rusi単ol in Sitges. It also was active the presence of musicians in the "Quatre gats" meetings. This leak of a unique modernist school makes the criteria of including the musicians in the movement fuzzy and divergent.
The Catalan pictorial Modernism presented a huge variety of topics, this is the reason because some experts prefer to talk about "Painting of modernist period" instead of "Modernist painting". However, some painters such as Rusiñol, Ramon Casas, Meifrèn, Miró, Utrillo and Lluïsa Vidal are considered as a representative modernist painters. The style differences are not only among different artists, they are also in the work of each painter. A clear example is the work of Ramón Casas. This brilliant painter is known by the description of kind bourgeois scenes such as "Plein air", "Ball de tarda", the decoration of Cercle del Liceu in Barcelona, portraits of the high Catalan society and similar. But he is also the author of paintings with social contents such as "La càrrega", "Garrote vil".
Santiago Rusi帽ol, with Ram贸n Casas, is the most representative painter of this period. His active promotion of the Modernism, the celebration of the modernist parties, his activities in the Cau Ferrat and his work in the literature field allowed him to achieve prestige within the movement. The variety of the topics what he painted about: portraits (Eric Satie), landscapes ("El port de Barcelona" i jardins), daily situations ("La Cuina del Moulin de la Galette"), can give us an idea of his trips and his different sources of inspiration of his bohemian life style.
Architecture is a key element of Modernism as we said before. Below, we present the most important buildings of Catalan Modernism. Most of these important buildings are placed in Barcelona and you can enjoy them using the map we attach you in this book. The most important places are enumerated in the map and described below.
Best 30 buildings to visit
40 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
HIDROELÈCTRICA Pere Falqués i Urpí
1 Modernist building of the old Catalan Electricity Central, work by Pere Falqués i Urpí. I can be visited some days in office hours.
Address: Avinguda de Vilanova,12
42 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASTELL DELS TRES DRAGONS Lluís Domènech i Montaner
2 Built between 1887 and 1888 by the architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner in exposed brickwork, not an usual technique at the time. It constitutes one of the firsts examples of Barcelonan Modernism. The building has medieval appearance because the battlements and shields. It can be observed the eclectic amalgam Catalan arches, the large Roman stained glass windows and the Arabic arches.
Address: Passeig de Picasso s/n. Parc de la Ciutadella. Telephone: 933 196 912 Web: www.bcn.es/museuciencies
44 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
HIVERNACLE-UMBRACLE Josep Amarg贸s i Samaranch-Josep Fontser猫 i Mestres
3 The Hivernacle (greenhouse) is a work by the architect Josep Amarg贸s i Samaranch, built in 1883 and 1887. Currently is used for all types of social events. The Umbracle (shade house) was built by Josep Fontser猫 i Mestre between 1883 and 1884 .
Address: GREENHOUSE-SHADE HOUSE. Passeig de Picasso, s/n. Parc de la Ciutadella.
46 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
PALAU GÜELL Antoni Gaudí
It is the first work of the most important architect of the Catalan Modernism movement, Antoni Gaudí. It was built between 1885 and 1889. The architect was only 34 years old when he received the commission to build the Güell's family residence. The building was built in the Raval instead of the Eixample because Eusebi Güell wanted to be near his father, Joan Güell, who lived in the Rambla. Antoni Gaudí had free budget to build a sumptuous, original palace in which to hold political meetings and chamber music concerts and to accommodate the most illustrious guests of the family. It is clear that the cost of this construction was not a problem for the Güell family. Hence, Gaudí used the best materials available. We can remark some elements such as the façade, with evocative Venetian lines and built with stone and wrought iron covering the tympana of two parabolic entrance and exit forming a coat of arms with the four bars of the Catalan emblem. The whole building is organized around the central hall. A majestic staircase leads to the jewel in the crown of the Palau Güell, the roof terrace. The roof terrace has twenty chimneys designed by Gaudí and restored between 1988 and 1992 by a group of artists who rebuilt 8 of them respecting the original work of Gaudí. In this work, Gaudí used for first time trencadís, a facing technique of Arabic origin using irregular tile fragments. This technique has Arabic origin and Gaudí adapted it as one their characteristic features of the Modernism.
Address: GÜELL PALACE. Nou de la Rambla, 3-5. Open Tuesday to Sunday, inclusive. Summer time (April 1 - September 30): from 10 am to 8 pm (last admissions, 7 pm). Winter times (October 1 - March 31): from 10 am to 5.30 pm (last admissions, 4.30 pm). Tel.: 933 173 974 and 933 173 978 www.palauguell.cat
48 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CAMISERIA BONET-CAFÈ DE L’ÒPERA 5 The façade of this building with modernist decoration was created in 1890. In 2002 the owner and the activity of the building was changed but the exterior appearance was kept. In the adjoining building is the Cafè de l’Òpera, opened in 1929. Featuring inside, the well-preserved original furniture: the Thonet chairs and the nineteenth-century mirrors with female figures suggesting characters from different operas.
Address: BONET OUTFITTER’S. Rambla, 72. CAFÉ DE L’ÒPERA. Rambla, 74.
50 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
MERCAT DE LA BOQUERIA Miquel de bergue
6 It is the most famous market in the city. It was built in 1840, forming a large porticoed square with Ionic columns under which the travelling tradesmen of the city could offer their varied products. A few years later, in 1914, an attractive metal roof designed by the engineer Miquel de Bergue was added.
Address: BOQUERIA MARKET. Rambla, 91
52 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
REIAL ACADÈMIA DE CIÈNCIES I ARTS Josep Domènech i Estapà
7 It was built by Josep Domènech i Estapà in 1883. This building was one of the firsts using ornamental and stylistic resources that would be such a success years later in the Modernism movement. Its most distinguishing feature is located in the façade: a clock that is popularly acknowledged to set the official time of Barcelona.
Address: ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS. Rambla, 115.
54 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
PALAU DE LA MÚSICA CATALANA Lluís Domènech i Montaner
The Palau de la Música was commissioned by the Orfeó Català to Lluís Domènech i Montaner in 1904. The first stone of the new building was placed in Saint George's day 1905 and the construction process took three years. The result was a sumptuous concert hall for performances of Catalan choral music. The small place forced Domènech i Montaner to fit the auditorium between narrow streets that limited the views from the exterior. Like La Pedrera, the Palau de la Música is considered one of the supreme examples of Catalan Modernism because of its brilliant, lavishly and sumptuous architecture. The building proudly bears the category of UNESCO World Heritage listing. The Palau was one of the last extravagances of the Modernism and it was opened in 1908 with a brief concert of works by Clavé and Händel. The façade of the Palau de la Música struck Barcelonans: of exposed brickwork combined with colourful ceramic mosaics, the corner features sculptures by Miquel Blay in the form of an enormous stone prow, representing an allegory of popular music. The concert hall is a pleasant sequence of sculptures, stained glass, mosaics and decorative elements that constantly play with the perception of light and colour. We can find a enormous and spectacular skylight of stained glass in inverted bell shape which weighs a metric ton. It represents a choir of angels surrounding the sun. The stage shows a interesting set made with pumice stone designed by Domènech i Montaner and sculpted by Dídac Massana and Pau Gargallo. On the left, the composition shows a bust of Josep Anselm Clavé and an allegory of the flowers of May representing the popular music. On the right, a bust of Beethoven personifies universal music. Above him, the Wagnerian valkyries ride toward Clavé symbolizing the relationship between the old and the new music of Catalonia. The stage is completed with a grandiose organ made in Germany and the hemicycle designed by Eusebi Arnau and faced with fragment trencadís where we can find eighteen sculptures representing the spirits of music.
Address: Palau de la Música, 4 - 6. Daily 10am to 3.30pm. www.palaumusica.cat telephone 902 475 485.
56 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA CALVET Antoni Gaudí
9 This work of Antoni Gaudí is placed in the Eixample. Each element of the building had a different treatment. The façade features a Baroque bay window with wrought iron railings and reliefs representing different types of fungi in reference to the first owner likings. Between the decorations we can find the coat of arms of Catalonia. The hall is currently a restaurant and it has conserved the original furniture of Calvet’s office.
Address: CALVET HOUSE. Casp, 48
58 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA LLEÓ MORERA Lluís Domènech i Montaner
10 Lluís Domènech i Montaner made improvements the house in 1905, which was built in 1864, with the aim of changing the decoration for the new owners, the family Lleó Morera. From the foyer to the staircase, the lift and the piano nobile, the Casa Lleó Morera is one of the richest and best preserved examples of the Modernism. They are composed by mosaics, stained glass, marquetry, paving and sculptures. We can find one of the treasures of the Catalan Modernism: monumental stained glass window by Antoni Rigalt that occupies the former main dining room of the house and represents a bucolic rural scene. The same room has eight panels of ceramic work with porcelain figures in relief and lintels in which Eusebi Arnau.
Address: LLEÓ MORERA HOUSE. Passeig de Gràcia, 35
60 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA AMATLLER Josep Puig i Cadafalch
Built in 1898 when Antoni Amatller wanted to transform the 1875’s building to use it as his main residence. The architect Puig i Cadafalch gave it the appearance of an urban Gothic mansion, with a flat façade and a central court with a staircase leading to the piano nobile. The façade has a bay window of Wagnerian inspiration that recalls the façade of the Sant Jordi Chapel in the Palau de la Generalitat. Puig i Cadafalch added his typical mediaeval details such as the entrance, decorated with sculptures, capitals and stucco work such as the stone figure of Saint George killing the dragon by Eusebi Arnau. In the main floor, the figures on the windows recall the fantastic creatures that decorated Gothic mansions and churches. Nowadays, the main floor is still conserving the original opulent gilded atmosphere in the bourgeoisie of the Modernista Eixample, thanks to the sculptures that adapt to the spaces, the floors of Roman-style mosaic and white marble. The fireplace is one of the most outstanding pieces, though many consider that the masterpiece of this floor is the pink marble column located in the middle of the bay window, which can be seen from the street. The column was only intended just the pleasure of contemplation, without any structural role.
Address: AMATLLER HOUSE. Passeig de Gràcia, 41
62 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA BATLLÓ Antoni Gaudí
In 1904 Antoni Gaudí to remodeled the building of 1870, and the riches of Familiy Batlló allowed the architect to set his imagination free-indeed, even he added a fifth floor, built the basement, extended the hall, rebuilt the staircase and interior walls, and changed all the rooms using wide curves and removing all the right angles. The façade is the most singular element of the building, which combines stone on the ground and main floor with a mosaic covering on the higher floors, and is crowned with a dragon’s back. There are two main interpretations of the façade. For some, Gaudí wanted to build a symbolic hymn of the legend of Saint George, the patron saint of Catalonia. However, another interpretation is that the whole façade is an allegory of Carnival, where parts of the façade represent ball masks, confetti, etc. Gaudí was always obsessed by lighting and he desing a spectacular light well. He gave it an irregular facing of tiles that become darker, going from pearl grey to cobalt blue, as they go up toward the skylight. The result is an equal distribution of natural lighting on all floors. The main floor is exceptionally well-preserved. The counterweights that are used to raise the stained glass windows giving onto Passeig de Gràcia are still fully operative, as are the grilles that provide a natural ventilation system. On this floor, however, there are only two original pieces of furniture designed by Gaudí for the Batlló family: a desk and a bench.
Address: Passeig de Gràcia, 43 Daily 9am to 8pm. Tel.: 934 880 666 or 932 160 306. email@example.com www.casabatllo.cat
64 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
EDITORIAL MONTANER I SIMON Lluís Domènech i Montaner
13 Built by Domènech i Montaner between 1881 and 1886, together with Gaudí’s Casa Vicens , this is one of the pioneering examples of the architectural and urban renovation that was introduced by the Modernism movement. The building has an unacademic façade with a slightly Mudejar appearance, a system of skylights that provides very diffuse top lighting, and a peculiar structure with cast iron pillars and steel beams that is more characteristic of markets and railway stations than companies in the late 19th century. The building was crowned in the 80's by a sculptural work by the artist Antoni Tàpies, Núvol i cadira (Cloud and Chair), which has become the emblem of his foundation. The institution exhibits a wide selection of the work of this Catalan.
Address: Aragó, 255. Tuesday to Sunday from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. Tel.: 934 870 315. www.fundaciotapies.org
66 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA THOMAS Lluís Domènech i Montaner
14 Work by Domènech i Montaner, built between 1895 and 1898, it shows the first characteristic signs of this architect’s unmistakeable style, such as the Neo-Gothic façade, the bluish tones and the foyer featuring floral motifs with figures of reptiles. The building was originally limited to the workshop and the first floor, the dwelling of the owner. When it was extended in 1912 the original lines were respected, the towers were rebuilt at a higher level and elegant bay windows were added to the façade.
Address: THOMAS HOUSE. Mallorca, 291-293.
68 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
PALAU MONTANER Lluís Domènech i Montaner
15 Designed by Domènech i Montaner, built in 1896 for one of the owners of the Montaner i Simon publishing firm. The building was begun by Josep Domènech i Estapà until he resigned in 1891 after an argument with the owner. In the interior of the palace we find the stamp of great artists of Modernisme, like the sculptor Eusebi Arnau, the carpenter Gaspar Homar and the glassmaker Antoni Rigalt. The mansion is richly decorated, with mosaics, sculptures, carved woodwork and a spectacular staircase under a grand ornamental glass skylight.
Address: Mallorca, 278. Tel.: (+34) 933 177 652. www.rutadelmodernisme.com
70 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA MILÀ Antoni Gaudí
Popularly known as “la Pedrera”, is the last residential building by Gaudí, commissioned by Pere Milà. Milà wanted a building which attracted attention of the city. Gaudí had no economical boundaries gave to Barcelona a gigantic abstract work with organic shapes. Casa Milà is the representation of the curve. When it was finished in 1910 everyone made fun of it and most part of the writers and drawers criticised it. They said that Catalans where so obsessed with the legend of Saint George that they built dragon's houses. Gaudí made a total work going above the architectural limits going into the sculpture art as well. The façade is covered in limestone blocks forming characteristic curved volumes that recall a sea cliff with cave dwellings marked by evocatively shaped wrought iron balconies. The lower part of the façade is built with stone from the Garraf Massif and the upper part with stone from Vilafranca del Penedès. Some claim that the interior of La Pedrera was taken from Gaudí’s studies of medieval fortresses. This theory is reinforced by the chimneys and accesses to the roof terrace that look like sentinels with helmets. The most prominent element is the attic, which has 270 parabolic arches that can be seen as the ribs of an immense animal or as a palm tree. Gaudí had given a logical order to the small windows distributed at different levels to allow light and a constant current of air into the attic, which was also designed for drying laundry. The roof terrace has also undergone a radical restoration: only Gaudí’s original chimneys have been maintained, created using glass bottle fragments of the inauguration party. Casa Milà was listed World Heritage by UNESCO in 1984.
Address: Passeig de Gràcia, 92 / Provença, 261-265. Tel.: 902 400 973. www.fundaciocaixacatalunya.org
72 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA FUSTER Lluís Domènech i Montaner
17 This is the Domènech i Montaner’s last work in Barcelona (1908-1911) and marks the end of Passeig de Gràcia. The façade has a cylindrical tower typical of the architect, adorned with sculptures that simulate swallows’ nests, and a curious French-style attic which is not very common in Modernista architecture. The building should have been crowned with a tower similar to that of the administration pavilion of the Hospital de Sant Pau, but it was never completed.
Address: Passeig de Gràcia, 132.
74 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
PALAU DEL BARÓ DE QUADRAS Puig i Cadafalch’s
18 This mansion was built between 1904 and 1906 and it is a veritable compendium of Puig i Cadafalch’s capacity for design and elegance. Everything is exemplary: from the wrought iron door to the interior, with a highly ornamented foyer. One of the curiosities is the building’s double façade: the façade giving onto Avinguda Diagonal emphasises the noble nature of the mansion, and combines Gothic and Plateresque forms with an abundant floral decoration meanwhile the rear façade (giving onto Carrer Rosselló) reveals that the building was in origin a simple block of flats.
Address: Diagonal, 373.
76 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA COMALAT Salvador Valeri i Popurull
19 Built by Salvador Valeri i Popurull since 1909 to 1911, with high influences of Gaudí. It is needed to focus on its two façades: the main façade, which is symmetrical and urban, and the rear façade (on Carrer Còrsega), which is less formal, polychrome and decorated with peculiar Modernist wooden galleries with blinds and coloured ceramic work. The interior contains mosaic paving and exquisite furniture featuring unusually shaped benches and the peculiar hall lights.
Address: Diagonal, 442.
78 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA TERRADES Josep Puig i Cadafalch
20 This building is known popularly as “Casa de les Punxes”, (House of the spires). Built between 1903 and 1905 by Josep Puig i Cadafalch is one of the most famous Modernist works. The building is placed over a land owned by the Terrades Sisters and it is composed by of three apartment houses, though it seems to be a uniform block. Puig i Cadafalch exaggerated his highly stylised traditional medieval elements to the point that the building looks like a castle. It has four round towers crowned by conical turrets, a main tower with a dome and a host of bay windows and belvederes in Flamboyant Gothic style. The façade is clad in brick, except on the ground floor where stone is used, and it features wrought iron work, balconies and ceramic panels depicting patriotic motifs.
Address: Diagonal, 416-420.
80 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA MACAYA Josep Puig i Cadafalch
21 Built by Josep Puig i Cadafalch between 1899 and 1901. The white faรงade of the palace, culminating in two side turrets, has sgraffito work and openings with sculptural decoration, including capitals by Eusebi Arnau depicting very contemporary subjects, such as the cyclist beside the main door. The highly ornamental decoration of the interior has almost all been lost except for the hall, decorated with sgraffito work and tiles, and the courtyard with an open staircase in the purest style of the medieval mansions of Barcelona.
Address: Passeig de Sant Joan, 108
82 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
CASA PLANELLS Josep Maria Jujol i Gibert
22 This building was built in 1924 by Josep Maria Jujol i Gibert, a student of GaudĂ. It is considered as the last Modernist work in Barcelona, but the influence of new rationalist trends is evident. Jujol used a small site to design maisonettes connected by interior spiral stairs.
Address: Diagonal, 332
84 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
SAGRADA FAMÍLIA Antoni Gaudí
Gaudí was a unique architect in his time, and one of the few in the history of architecture to have had a commission that lasted a lifetime -in fact, a commission that outlived him. The origin of the Basílica of the Sagrada Família dates back to 1869 when Josep M. Bocabella, founder of the Josephite Association dedicated to fostering devotion to Saint Joseph, had the idea of building a church to honour the Holy Family (Saint Joseph, the Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ). Bocabella bought a site and in 1882 started to build a church in a Neo-Gothic. The initial design of the church was by Francesc de Paula Villar, but the lack of understanding between the owner and the architect led Villar to dismiss and being replaced by Antoni Gaudí. In 1891 he started work on the Nativity façade: thirty-four years later, Gaudí had finished only the first of the four bell towers that crown this façade. The other three were finished after the death of the architect. The Sagrada Família may be considered a Bible in stone, owing to the great number of Christian symbols that Gaudí placed on its façades. The Nativity Façade expresses and communicates the joy of creation through the birth of Jesus. This façade has three doors. The central one is the Door of Charity, inscribed with the names of the genealogy of Christ. On the south side is the Door of Hope, representing the marriage of Joseph and Mary. The Passion Façade on Carrer Sardenya is the counterpoint to the Nativity Façade. This façade includes over a hundred contemporary sculptures evoking the Passion by the sculptor Josep Maria Subirachs. The main façade is still to be built. According to Gaudí’s plan, it will represent the life and destiny of man and it will face the sea looking over Carrer Mallorca, which would be covered by a large plaza reached by a huge staircase rising from what today is the doomed block of houses facing the temple.
Address: Mallorca, 401 Tel.: 932 080 414. www.sagradafamilia.org
86 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
HOSPITAL DE SANTA CREU I SANTA PAU Lluís Domènech i Montaner
It is one of the most emblematic institutions of Barcelona and it was founded in 1401. The first place of the Hospital was a building of Gothic Catalan architecture in the Raval quarter which was extended with the adjacent buildings. Domènech i Montaner’s work is considered to be one of the best Art Nouveau complexes in the world. The hospital seems a town, with streets, buildings and gardens. The access pavilion, crowned by a slender clock tower, has the exposed brickwork that predominates in the whole ensemble, with mosaics depicting historical subjects and stone capitals and corbels in the form of angels, sculpted by a young Pau Gargallo. Inside, the main features are the stained glass by Mario Maragliano, the large staircase and the ceilings, which are reminiscent of Islamic architecture. The entrance pavilion and the 10 pavilions located around it were built under the personal direction of Domènech i Montaner and show the highly intelligent use of stone, iron and ceramics which is characteristic of the architect. Most of the remaining pavilions, including the huge Casa de Convalescència (Convalescence House), are a later work of Pere Domènech i Roura, the architect’s son. Domènech designed a totally innovative hospital, breaking the building up into a series of cells surrounded by gardens, with a great deal of sunlight and fresh air, in which the patients and doctors enjoyed a far more pleasant natural environment than that of the old medieval hospital.
Address: Sant Antoni Maria Claret, 167. Tel.: 933 177 652. www.rutadelmodernisme.com
88 I BEST 25 BUILDINGS TO VISIT
PARK GÜELL Antoni Gaudí
Nowadays, the Park Güell (1900-1914) only conserves the few finished constructions by Gaudí. Eusebi Güell bought a rural area to build a garden-city in 1899. Gaudí’s project involved the construction of a housing estate of 60 private plots and large common greens. However, just one plot was purchased by the owner of the construction company and two more plots were sold to a single purchaser As a result of this financial disaster, the heirs of Eusebi Güell (died in 1918) sold the site to the City Council, and it became a public park.. It is a work where Gaudí chose a language of his own ranging from naturally-inspired forms to a surprisingly avant-garde plasticity. The main gate of Park Güell is flanked by two evocative pavilions that reproduce the story of Hansel and Gretel, which was performed as an opera at the Liceu in late 1900. The one on the left with a double cross on the roof, is the house of the children Hansel and Gretel. The house on the right, crowned by a poisonous toadstool-shaped dome, represents the Witch’s. The main staircase is parted by a small waterfall featuring the famous multi-coloured dragon of glazed ceramic mosaic. The stairs lead to the Hall of the 100 Columns though it only has 86. The square is surrounded by a winding bench of mosaic in which is a symphony of colours: greens, blues and yellows are used in different combinations, forming moon shapes and stars and abstract flowers. Other unusual features of the Park Güell are its bridges and viaducts, with twisted, grotto-like columns.
Address: Olot, s/n; ctra. del Carmel, s/n
FURNITURE COLOURED GLASS CERAMICS MOSAICS CLAY HEADS
93 Apart from the artistic movements such as the literature and sculpture, among others, there were traditional craft that provide relevance to the Modernism. Joan Busquets created some of the most valued Modernist furniture at his time. Along with the Majorcan Gaspar Homar, he was one of the leading figures in the field of furniture. Another craft was the leadcoloured glass, such as the windows of Casa Leon Morera. Finally, it is also noteworthy the wrought iron in Manyach workshop, the ceramics of the Pujol i Bausis factory, the mosaics of Casa Escofet, the jewels of LluĂs Masriera or the clayed heads of Lambert Escaler.
deca den cy
idiology artistic movement
Noucentisme was the movement that replaced the Modernism. It eliminated all the strident performances, many buildings were renovated in a more discreet way, the opposite of the Modernism features. Even Gaudí did not save the widespread contempt. Between 1966 and 1968 the Casa Trinxet of Puig i Cadafalch was
demolished and it was necessary to fight against the demolishment of the Casa Serra by Puig i Cadafalch as well or the Can Golferichs by Joan Rubió i Bellvé. It wasn't until the 1968 that Oriol Bohigas and Leopold Pomès revitalized the interest for a genuine Catalan artistic movement with an exposition and the publication of Modernist architecture. Thanks to time, it is now that you can see what it was and what it is, a particular ideological and artistic