Page 1


CONTENTS [A]

Introduction

How prior genres influenced Shoegaze and its evolution through time The publics perception of what the scene was like around the time

What were the triggering factors to the genres demise

The influence it’s had on todays music

Interviews

References


INTRODUCTION


The objective of this essay is to shed light on the music genre ‘Shoegaze’, an underground and somewhat controversial genre born in the late 80’s before tragically fading in the mid 90’s, losing the spotlight to other genres such as grunge and Britpop. The main aspects this essay will cover are: •How prior genres influenced Shoegaze and its evolution through time. •The publics perception of what the scene was like around the time? •What were the triggering factors to the genres demise? •The influence it’s had on todays music


LEVEL

LOW

HIGH

GAIN


Built on experimentation, Shoegaze music was created with the use of a number of different guitar pedals and effects, namely distortion, fuzz, tremolo, reverb and delay. The use of such pedals enabled groups to develop a wall of sound in an atmospheric nature. The name ‘Shoegaze’ itself derives from the bands on-stage behavior, spending the duration of their time on stage looking downward (partly due to the use of so many pedals), having almost no rapport with the audience what so ever.

ECHO

DELAY

MODE


Shoegaze was a genre evidently influenced by experimental bands before them, going as far back as the 1960’s, specifically psychedelic acts. Andy Bell, the founder of British Shoegaze band Ride, claims that a number of acts made a telling impression on him and his bands sound.


“Early on in Ride it was Spacemen 3, The House of Love, My Bloody Valentine, Loop, Sonic Youth, The Dinosaur Jr, The Fall, Pixies and Stone Roses, and also older stuff like The Beatles, Stones, Velvets and the Stooges.” (BELL) [1] This statement is backed up when you take into consideration that The Beatles songs such as ‘Rain’ have been covered by numerous shoe gaze acts such as Galaxie 500 and Chapterhouse. ‘Bands used effect pedals to try and recreate 60’s sounds’ [2],no doubt like The Beatles and other 60’s bands experimenting with guitar effect pedals.

[B]


Briefly before the emergence of Shoegaze there was a thriving scene including bands such as Sonic Youth, The Cure, The Pixies, Bauhaus, Cocteau Twins, Spacemen 3 and Loop, a group of bands referred to as ‘Indie New Wave’, ‘College Rock’ and ‘Post Punk’.Considered as ‘Alternative’ and ‘Underground’,these acts were anything but mainstream acts and it was their experimental tones that not only influenced shoegaze, also opened the doors for it too.

[C]

“We were really into Sonic Youth, My Bloody Valentine, Dinosaur Jr, The Pixies, and a lot of 4ad stuff like the Cocteau twins and A.R kane.” (Neil Halstead) [A].


[D]

[E]

[F]

[G]

These bands “experimented with noise and feedback in a shoe gaze way” (Russell Hiscox, Runs ‘I was a teenager shoegazer’ blog) [B] which bands in the shoe gaze genre took influence from. It was as if all the genres were working together to lead up to the arrival of Shoegaze that resulted in an outburst of new noise and bands. The origins of the genre are vague as bands developed elements of Shoegaze before the genre actually began.


“We were 3 freaks in a horrible new town and people were literally shouting at us in the street.” (Douglas Hart) [3]

“We were 3 freaks in a


[H]


The first band to take footsteps into the arrival of the Shoegaze genre was The Jesus and Mary Chain. They had a rock and roll / punk inspired image which made them really stand out. “It was perfect timing because there weren’t any guitar bands. Everybody was making this electronic pop music,” says guitarist William Reid [4]. With a ‘cool’ and laid back orientated image, this helped their music become so successful.

“Everything we wore, everything we had we got it from rock and roll. We used to just listen to back to back stuff like Shangri Las and we’d go from one extreme to the other.” (Jim REID) [3]

Their first contact with creation records was through Bobby Gillespie, singer of rock band Primal Scream. Signed by Alan Mcgee, the founder of Creation Records in 1984 [3],”They had their first gig in London and a few weeks later released their massive single ‘Upside Down’,”[3] becoming an underground sensation.


“When we met them they had sound, image and philosophy. They had everything, they just needed a drummer I guess and eventually that drummer was me.� (Bobby Gillespie) [3]


The Jesus and Mary Chains attitude was heavily influenced by the punk movement, predominantly dressing in leather and swearing in interviews. This rebelliousness attracted the attention of young fans as a result of this fresh and exciting approach. It made its mark on the media too, with The Sun newspaper running a story about the bands drug use and violence, labeling them “The new Sex Pistols�[6]. They didn’t bother building rapport with the audience in their live performances as they played with their backs to the attendees [5], an element which followed through into the shoegaze movement.

[I]


“The Jesus and Mary chain spent five years on the dole, and in that time they wrote and recorded songs at home and worked out the sound and image of the band.� [6] There was a definite lo-fi/ DIY quality to these bands, which worked in their favor to create the genre. The Punk ethos showed the public how they could create and make their own records. Great example of this are Alan Mcgee and Tony Wilson who both started successful labels, [3] with Mcgee going on to revolutionize this punk inspired DIY quality and this new wave of DIY bands.


“This guy was gonna do a gig and he wanted Biff bang pow to support MBV. We were like no way are we supporting them, they were so dodgy around this time, me and dick had to play above them so we went on after them and suddenly there had been a total matamorfas and kevin had somehow grasped what it was he was trying to do and it was like raw and it was amazing.� (Alan Mcgee) [3]


Another band to be influenced by punk, specifically The Cramps and the Birthday Party were My Bloody Valentine [7]. Beginning as a post punk band in 1978, because at that time post punk was huge and everyone was in a post punk band.

M

The band then moved with what the music scene was doing and became an Indie Twee Pop band in 1987 as they were signed to Lazy Records [8]. In 1988 My Bloody Valentine were on tour and met the aforementioned Alan Mcgee.

My Bloody Valentine had to do something to make a lasting impression as a live act so in their live performances they gave lots of energy. “We were just being really angry and full of energy and spirit�(Shields)[3]. After the gig Alan offered to sign the band to Creation Records, the band quickly accepting [3].

V

[J]


“IN THE 2 WEEKS WE SPENT WITH THEM, IT WAS SOME OF THE WORST Behavior I’ve ever seen. ” [K]

(ALAN MCGEE) [3]


“Shoegaze was weird, shoegaze had a really romantic, antisocial element to it.� [2]


There were no rules in shoe gaze

“You didn’t talk about it, it wasn’t like punk or ska where you had rules and ways of dressing.” [2] Shoegaze appealed to many young people at the time because of these antisocial elements, and lack of rules, giving them a sense of freedom to both the creation of the music and those that followed it.

...


A quote posted by Steve Mills who runs The Sisters of Mercy fan page proves how music changed so much towards the end of the 80s resulting in a lot of people with different musical interests turning to Shoegaze, as it was so refreshing.

“By the late 80’s the music scene was so stagnated and the bands I had liked had either died or turned shit, that I had lost interest. Then a mate lent me ‘Doolittle’ by the Pixies and ‘Nowhere’ by Ride and music was back!” (Steve mills) [C] Shoegaze gave a new lease of life to the music scene. At the time the music scene was catching on to this DIY revolution and there were so many Anorak/ Twee Pop bands, which made Shoegaze stand out.


“Anorak bands, happy bands were celebrating the fact they have their own scene out side of the top of the pops.� [2]


Due to its lack of rules, Shoegaze was difficult to define as a genre. Individually the bands weren’t comparable apart from their use of reverb, delay and distortion on their pedal boards and their anti-social attitude. Shoegazers were seen as being shy and not very social, it was purely about the music they created. My Bloody Valentine for instance had their punk attitude in their live performances and had developed a sound that was so unique and distinctive to them.

“You know when you kind of bend a guitar string and you get the double effect, pixies used to do it all the time. I was starting to do that but I couldn’t do it. So I got the idea of putting 2 strings together and using tremolo and suddenly found that there was this amazing expressive thing so in the space of 4 - 5 days we made our sound. By the time we came out of the studio that whole ‘melting’ thing happened”. (Kevin Shield) [3]


My bloody Valentine were an inspiration to all the Shoegaze bands who followed.

Their sound was like nothing that had ever been done before. Once people started to notice these bands, everyone started doing it.


The scene itself was completely different to anything before...

[L]

In a way it could be seen as a controversial genre, as a select few of the Shoegaze bands were completely hated at the time, yet now they are icons in the music industry, specifically the band Slowdive. Music magazine Melody Maker made a comment in a 1993 issue stating...

“Souvlaki is a soulless void. I would rather drown choking in porridge than ever listen to it again.� [2]


The difference between Slowdive and My Bloody Valentine, despite both belonging to the Shoegaze genre, was that Slowdive were Middle Class and therefore didn’t struggle to get shows due to lack of finance. Slowdive did however lack the DIY rebellious punk elements that My Bloody Valentine and The Jesus and Mary Chain had, which was what the public wanted at the time.

“They thought their music was too precious. They weren’t seen as cool, if you liked them you got a lot of crap for it.” [2]

Skip 19 years later and Slowdive have just announced a reunion show, a concert that sold out in under minute. This displays how Shoegaze was way ahead of its time. An interesting and telling point was made about the band, The Cocteau Twins in a YouTube documentary on the genre, ‘at the time Elizabeth Frasers voice was so off putting that it took time for people to accept it. Perhaps that’s why Shoegaze hasn’t become popular until now?’ [2].


“We will always hate Slowdive more than we hate Hitler� (Manic street preachers) [D]


Slowdive didn’t get any appreciation until they released their last album ‘Pygmalion’ in the mid 90s, but by this point it was too late as Grunge and Britpop had emerged and subsequently taken over mainstream music [2]. Most of the Shoegaze bands had run out of steam by this point anyway, for example My Bloody Valentine hadn’t released anything new for quite some time. Frontman Kevin Shields explained their silence by saying,

“I never could be bothered to make another record unless I was really excited by it.” [9]

Britpop was the next and only step for the music scene to take. Shoegaze was quickly forgotten as it didn’t stand out against this new wave of music, which effortlessly attracted attention [D].

“When bands like Suede and Manic Street Preachers came along, everyone realised how much we’d missed having bands who had something to say.” (SIMON PRICE) [D]


The members of the Shoegaze bands were shy and antisocial, so compared to the frontmen of the new Britpop bands such as Liam Gallagher (Oasis) and Jarvis Cocker (Pulp), they were lacking superstar qualities in the Shoegaze scene [B].

[M]

Andy Bell, the lead singer of Ride, moved into the Britpop scene and joined Oasis as the Bassist whilst the majority of the Shoegaze bands have recently been welcomed back into the world with their releases of new albums and tours.


The Shoegaze genre was incredibly influential and elements of it can be heard across a huge variety of genres today. The genre has only recently started to be seen as ‘cool’. In 2003, frontman Kevin Shields of My Bloody Valentine, worked on the soundtrack for the film ‘Lost in Translation’. This sparked a huge new wave of bands referring to themselves as ’Nu-Gaze’ [10]. My Bloody Valentine also released their 3rd album in 2013, ending a 17-year wait. Since My Bloody Valentine are seen as one of the main Shoegaze bands, the public and bands started to notice their importance with their new release, gaining a lot of attention.

The Shoegaze influence can be heard in new bands such as TOY, Blonde Redhead, A Place To Bury Strangers, Whirr, The Horrors, Maps, M83 and more. A similar aspect that follows through from the Shoegaze to the Nu-Gaze scene is that all of these bands are remarkably different, despite belonging to the same genre. For instance, A Place to Bury Strangers and The Horrors are a lot heavier than the others, so would be influenced by specific Shoegaze bands such as My Bloody Valentine and The Jesus and Mary Chain. You could say the Shoegaze genre needs sub genres with in it, as it’s so broad.


The continuous improvement in Technology has made it easier to re-create the Shoegaze sound, with specific pedal boards being produced.

“Kevin Shields invented the reverse-reverb sound using Yamaha SPX 90, the tremolo arm and a guitar slide. Now you can buy an effects pedal that can do this.” (Russell hiscox) [b] Nu-Gaze is much more accepted today and is quite popular. The bands get instant respect, unlike Shoegaze, which had to fight for its recognition. This leads back to the point I made about Shoegaze being way ahead of its time, but also standing the test of time, as a lot of people are becoming interested in the Nu-Gaze roots so are therefore rediscovering the originators of the Shoegaze genre and scene.


interview with Neil Halstead [A] Singer and Guitarist in Slowdive

When ‘shoegaze’ bands emerged, what was the music scene like at the time?

How was the genre viewed by the public? Was it seen as ‘cool’ to be a ‘shoegazer’?

It was pretty cool , we were really into sonic youth, my bloody valentine, dinosaur Jr, the pixies and a lot of 4ad stuff like the Cocteau twins and A.R Kane. There was a great venue in reading where we lived called the after dark club and the promoter there, Decklan, brought a lot of great bands in to play. Really inspiring , we saw spacemen 3 and loop play there and i remember a house of love gig that really blew the roof off.

I don’t know. it was never called that at the time, but a lot of the bands that were in that scene like us and ride and chapter house and moose did really well for a few years...but i guess grunge came along and took the music world by storm. Who are your main musical influences? Probably the Jesus and Mary chain, the byrds, pink Floyd, i love the Beatles and i love can.


What caused Slowdive and the other shoegaze bands to fade out in the mid 90s?

How is the come back of shoegaze/nu-gaze today different to how it use to be?

Well for us we just ran out of steam. I think we felt that we’d done as much as we could at that point and so after the last album Pygmalion we all decided to call it a day.

Not sure really...I haven’t kept up with the scene but i guess theres a lot of different influences going into that stuff now. People are much more open and aware of different music and genres collide better now i think.


interview with Russell HISCOX

[B]

Runs the ‘I was a teenager shoegaze’ blog

Who do you class as the first shoe gaze band? It is difficult to class the first shoegaze band. There were elements of shoegaze in The Smiths (How Soon is Now), Jesus and Mary chain, Echo and the Bunnymen. Loop and Spacemen 3 experimented with noise and feedback in a shoegaze way, which probably influenced My Bloody Valentine. Then you have the C86 factor. The Field Mice are very shoegaze as well as twee. I would say the first shoegaze bands were the Cocteau Twins and My Bloody Valentine when they released Isn’t Anything. This means that they were the first predominantly shoegaze style bands, not postpunk or space-rock with an element of shoegaze.

The shoegaze genre was quite broad and merged in with a few sub genres. Who were the main shoegaze bands? The main bands of the shoegaze scene were Chapterhouse, Ride, Slowdive, My Bloody Valentine and Lush. What did the majority of people think of the movement? I think I covered this in the previous question that they did not understand. We were probably pigeon holed as Smiths fans, for ease. What did other fans of other genres think of the movement? Was there a clash of genres ? At early shoegaze gigs there used to be punks and hippies. The well established sub-cultures had a respect for us.


I’ve heard that the term ‘shoe gazer’ was offensive at the time. Is this true? It probably was offensive, but not to me. I was very proud to be part of an elite underground scene. The term was used as abuse when Britpop arrived on the scene, but not at the peak of shoegazing. Britpop was very lad culture orientated, so the introverted fey style of shoegazers was not cool at all. Kids that were into grunge had a mutual respect for us. It was probably due to grunge being experimental with noise in a similar way that shoegaze was. Some of the bands did cover both genres. I don’t know what the ravers thought; although in my Art class at college they did call me ‘grebo’,but,in a nice way.

Who are the biggest influences on the genre? I would say that shoegaze is a mixture of the Jesus and Mary chain and the twee C86 indiepop scene. I am not sure where the ethereal vocals and melodies are from. The sonic guitars came from Spacemen 3. In interviews most bands cite that The Beach Boys and The Kinks were big influences. But I think that is a case of bandwagon jumping. In 1991 the film The Doors came out, suddenly all the bands of the time were hugely influenced by Jim Morrison. Now you never hear of anyone being influenced by them. Drugs were a huge influence too. The drugs of the time were for voyages of selfdiscovery by yourself, rather than going out in groups taking drugs. The music lent itself to this voyage rather than dancing.


interview with Russell HISCOX continued...

How big was the shoe gaze scene at the time? (Was it popular or was it an underground movement? It was a very underground movement. This was part of its appeal. At the time the only way to be part of the scene was to listen to John Peel very late at night, and read the NME cover to cover. You couldn’t go on the internet a listen to the latest single by The Telescopes, you had the listen to the radio or buy the single. The demise of shoegaze came around the mid 90s, what do you think was the cause of this?? There was the well documented NME shoegaze backlash, which is widely believed to kick-start the decline of the scene. But I personally think that public wanted to have some music that was extrovert and had some personalities.

If you compare Jarvis Cocker, Damon Albarn and Liam Gallagher to Russell Barrett, Neil Halstead and Mark Gardener, there is a lacking of superstar character in the shoegaze scene. The grunge and Britpop succeeded shoegaze, this I feel that this is the evolution of the original shoegaze scene, not its demise. After the shoegaze era, what did its fans listen to? Did they move on to a new genre or did they continue to listen to shoegaze? Personally I hung on to bands that I liked in the early 90’s. When the internet was launched I could buy records that I couldn’t find in the record shop. I still go to gigs but they are bands that were around in the 90’s like Spiritualized and Mogwai. There are a few new bands that I like, The Warlocks are probably my favourite.


Some of my friends that were into shoegaze now look at older bands. Krautrock like Can or Neu, are popular and old Dance Hall reggae. We are all still fanatical about music. What do you think of the shoegaze come back ‘nu-gaze’ bands? Do you feel it celebrates it’s influences and has it evolved for the better? Now there’s an offensive term,‘Nu-gaze’. I do not know much about nugaze, and bands that are part of the nu-gaze scene they keep it to themselves. It might be a secretive sub culture like shoegaze. The Maps have evolved the sound in ‘We Can Create’, probably taking the ambient later work of Slowdive as a starting point. Otherwise I don’t know enough to comment, the whole nu-gaze thing lacked the substance. It never really excited me and made me want to listen to it.

Are these ‘Nu-Gaze’ bands attracting new audiences or the same original shoegaze fans? A few of my friends listen to Deerhunter, but I would say that many of the listeners to nugaze are new. They will probably dive into the older shoegaze stuff to discover the roots of their scene Did you see any advancements in technology which affected the original shoegaze sound? I don’t think that technology has improved the shoegaze sound. But I think that it has made the sound easier to create. Kevin Shields invented reverse-reverb sound used extensively in Loveless using Yamaha SPX 90, the tremolo arm and a guitar slide. Now you can buy an effects pedal that can do this.


INTERVIEW WITH Steve mills [C] Runs the Sisters of Mercy (band) fan page

How did you first come across shoegaze music and what was your view on it? By the late 80’s the music scene was so stagnated and the bands I had liked had either died or turned shit, that I had lost interest. Then a mate lent me ‘Doolittle’ by the Pixies and ‘Nowhere’ by Ride and music was back!

My first love was rock music in the 70’s (1st single by T-Rex when I was 7). This merged with Punk in the late 70’s (which i was a bit to young to be a part of) By the early 80’s I was 16-17 and going to college where I discovered The Sisters, Cure, Bauhaus, Birthday Party and, rather belatedly, Joy Division (still my favourite band) By the late 80’s music in general had gone a bit stale (also I had left college and worked on a farm, so didn’t get to hear so much) Then a friend lent me a number of albums. Two of which were Doolittle by the Pixies and Nowhere by Ride which had an immediate impact on me.


I didn’t explore much deeper into ‘Shoegaze’ and only listened to bands like Loop and Spacemen 3 much later, due to limited funds and the emergence of bands like the Stone Roses happening at a similar time (thinking about it, I heard the Roses before Ride or the Pixes) In my opinion,‘Shoegaze’ only had a limited appeal and I think most people saw it as an ‘add-on’ to their primary musical interest. More dynamic scenes like Grunge and the strong club/‘E’ culture at the time were of more interest to the youth of the time.


Interview WITH Simon price [D] British music journalist What was your view on shoegaze when the scene first emerged? Mostly positive, at first. I was a huge fan of My Bloody Valentine, and it was exciting to see a second wave of young bands who were taking inspiration from MBV’s album Isn’t Anything. I remember receiving a demo tape from Ride before they’d even been signed to Creation, and being hugely impressed. I went to check them out at the Camden Palace (now Koko), and thinking that they were the perfect indie band for the new decade: using avant-garde guitar effects, but repurposing them with pop melodies. And they were young and good-looking, which didn’t do any harm. The first three Ride EPs and first album were fantastic. I also had quite a high opinion of Chapterhouse’s stuff. The other shoegaze bands, not so much...

How was the shoegaze genre viewed by the public? Was it seen as ‘cool’ to be a ‘shoegazer’? There was a North/South divide. The shoegaze bands were seen as being fey, effete and middleclass, and were often contrasted with the ‘baggy’/’Madchester’ bands and ‘grebo’/Brummie bands of that time (and also, to some extent, the grunge/Seattle bands). However, the shoegaze bands never really made an impact on the broader public consciousness, so the truth is that most people simply didn’t have an opinion on whether or not they were cool. There was a London shoegaze club called Syndrome that was considered a pretty hip place to hang out, I remember that much.


What did melody maker think and say about the shoegaze bands at the time? We gave it a lot of coverage, for a while. Mostly for the reasons stated above. Melody Maker had invested a lot of effort into promoting obscure avantgarde guitar noise at the end of the 80s, so I think the idea that this second wave of bands might actually sell a few records and break into the mainstream was quite exciting to the writers at the paper. We never called it ‘shoegaze’, though. That was NME’s term. We called it ‘The Scene That Celebrates Itself’ (due its cliquey, incestuous nature), but it never caught on and NME’s word won. What caused shoegaze to fade out? The bands themselves ran out of steam, and started to seem boring compared to the more colourful, energetic, flamboyant

bands emerging. When bands like Suede and Manic Street Preachers came along, everyone realised how much we’d missed having bands who had something to say. How is the come back of shoegaze/nu-gaze today different to how it use to be? There’s no mockery now. The new wave of bands get instant respect. And the original shoegazers are viewed with reverence in many quarters. Slowdive used to be a laughing stock (Richey Edwards of the Manics said “We will always hate Slowdive more than we hate Hitler”), but their comeback has been warmly welcomed. Stylistically, the difference seems to be that the newer bands make more use of electronics.


TEXT REFERENCES [1] TRUNICK,A. (2013), Ride on “Nowhere” [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from: http://www.undertheradarmag.com/interviews/ ride_on_nowhere_mark_gardener_and_andy_bell/ [2] SHALLOW REWARDS // 22 SHOEGAZE, (2013) [online video]. Shallow rewards production [Viewed 9 April 2014] Available from: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJvIi_GZo1c [3] Upside Down: The Creation Records Story, 2010 [online video]. Directed by Danny OCONNER. [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tMjc6VU3Obk [4] SLADECKOVA, 2002. The Jesus and Mary Chain: Interview with Jim Reid Part 1 [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from: http://www. pennyblackmusic.co.uk/MagSitePages/Article. aspx?id=2919 [5] LARKIN, 1992. The Jesus and Mary Chain, Early years [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ The_Jesus_and_Mary_Chain [6] ROBERTSON, 1988. The Jesus and Mary Chain, Early years [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ The_Jesus_and_Mary_Chain


[7] CAREW, A., no date. My Bloody Valentine Artist Profile [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://altmusic.about.com/od/ artists/a/mbv.htm [8] LAZELL, 1997. Lazy Records and Butcher’s recruitment: 1987 [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/My_Bloody_Valentine_(band)#Discography [9] WILSON,M., 2007. My Bloody Valentine: Kevin Shields sets the “Loveless” record straight [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www.magnetmagazine.com/2007/02/11/ my-bloody-valentine-kevin-shields-sets-the“loveless”-record-straight/ [10] IGBAL,N., 2013. Shoegaze: the genre that could not be killed [online] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www.theguardian. com/music/2013/apr/12/shoegazing-back-infashion


IMAGE REFERENCES All images shown are the originals which have been manipulated by myself for this project

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

[F]

[G]

[H]

[I]

[J]

[K]

[L]

[M]

[A] THE JESUS AND MARY CHAIN., no date. The Jesus and Mary Chain promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www. feveravenue.com/jamc-2012-singaporee/ [B] RIDE., no date. Ride promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://britpopnews.com/news/ride/ [C] THE VELVET UNDERGROUND., no date. The Velvet Underground promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www. live4ever.uk.com/2012/11/early-dawning-the-story-ofvelvet-underground-nico/thevelvetunderground/ [D] COCTEAU TWINS., no date. The Cocteau Twins promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www.last.fm/music/ Cocteau+Twins/+images/10870513


[E] BAUHAUS., no date. Bauhaus promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://en.metalship.org/bands/Bauhaus [F] THE CURE., 1989. The Cure, Disintegration [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=2110vvp&s=6#. U0WPsZG62BJ [G] SONIC YOUTH., 1992. Promo photo of Sonic Youth for their album dirty [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/File:Sonic_youth_dirty_promo_photo_1992.jpg [H] THE JESUS AND MARY CHAIN., no date. The Jesus and Mary Chain promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www. uncut.co.uk/the-jesus-and-mary-chain/the-jesus-andmary-chain-reform-for-us-tour-news [I] THE JESUS AND MARY CHAIN., no date. The Jesus and Mary Chain promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www. uncut.co.uk/watch-mad-men-star-duet-with-the-jesusand-mary-chain-news [J] MY BLOODY VALENTINE., no date. My Bloody Valentine promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http:// www.slicingupeyeballs.com/2013/09/09/my-bloodyvalentine-november-tour-dates/ [K] THE HOUSE OF LOVE., 1988. The house of love self titled album cover photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www.uncut. co.uk/the-house-of-love-the-house-of-love-review [L] SLOWDIVE., no date. Slowdive promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 9 April 2014]. Available from : http://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/jan/29/ slowdive-confirm-reunion-primavera-london-gig [M] JARVIS COCKER, no date. Jarvis cocker swearing promotional photo [Digital image] [Viewed 10 April 2014]. Available from : http://thequietus.com/ articles/01914-britpop-spotify-the-case-againstand-the-case-against


SHOEGAZE

A visual communication of the shoegaze scene with interviews from... Neil Halstead Simon price russell hiscox & Steve mills By Lilly Marfy

Distortion Reverb and Delay Shoegaze Fanzine  

Distortion Reverb and Delay This is a fanzine about shoegaze which I created for a 3rd year project on my BA (hons) graphic design course, i...

Distortion Reverb and Delay Shoegaze Fanzine  

Distortion Reverb and Delay This is a fanzine about shoegaze which I created for a 3rd year project on my BA (hons) graphic design course, i...

Advertisement