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JOURNAL ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR / 2013

ZHOUXING LIU (PHYLLIS)


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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 04 - 09

A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

10 - 15

A.2 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE 16 - 21

A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING 12 - 29

A.4 ALGORITHMIC THINKING 30 - 34

A.5 CONCLUSION 35 - 37

A.6 LEARNING OUTCOMES 38 - 39

REFERENCES / ILLUSTRATIONS B.1 DESIGN APPROACH B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

40 - 42

40 - 45

46 - 49

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55 - 61


CONTENTS

B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE

62 - 68

B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSALS

69 - 76

B.7 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

77 - 79

B.8 LEARNING OUTCOMES

80 - 82

REFERENCES / ILLUSTRATIONS

83 - 84

C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT

85 - 89

C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS C.3 FINAL MODEL C.4 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES C.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

90 - 100

101 - 114

115 - 117

118 - 122

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INTRODUCTION

PART A. EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION


INTRODUCTION

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I’m Zhouxing Liu (Phyllis) from western China, 3rd year environments student major in architecture. After 2 years studying, I’m able to use digital approaches to help with my design. Software engaged during this period are AutoCAD, SketchUp, Rhino and Adobe Photoshop, InDesign, Illustrator.


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INTRODUCTION

PREVIOUS WORK

Previous work -Studio: Water. Boathouse Project. Associated with AutoCAD and SketchUp.


INTRODUCTION

Previous work: -Virtual Environments project working with Rhino and Paneiing Tools.

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A.1 / ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

a.1 Architecture as a Discourse


A.1 / ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

“Much of what we know distribution of power, social relations, cultural values, and everyday life is mediated by the built environment.”[1]

Architecture is not only about buildings and constructions. It’s much a philosophical, social and professional realm.[2] When the building environment is created, people who are regarded as users as well as the surrounding content is greatly influenced and changed. Architects should be responsible to this kind of effect.

[1] Dutton, Thomas A. and Lian Hurst Mann,Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices,1996, p. 1 [2] Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, 2005, pp. 103

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A.1 / ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

XIAOQUAN Elementary School

This project was designed by architect Hua Li after Xiaoquan was greatly damaged by the earthquake. And it shows great consideration to the local students who have been through the disaster. The design concept is to build something new on the ruins but the new still refers to the old memory of the town and respects the local context. [3] All materials, concrete, bricks come from local factories. And some really vernacular materials such as bamboo, timber and shale brick are applied. It is, on one hand, to help the recovery of local economy after the earthquake. On the other hand, architect wanted to recall the memory of the town even it is something completely new.

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The traditional squared form of school based on the needs of administration rather than students’ experience is abandoned. In this case it is conceived as a cluster of small buildings to create a micro-city like campus. The fragmentary instead of unified building composition reates many urban like places such us streets, plazas, courtyards, and steps at various scales. It is derived from the naturally growing plan of Xiaoquan. The architect explains that the reconstruction still needs to take the local texture into consideration. Otherwise the city would lose its cuniqueness and diversity. And Xiaoquan Elementary School manages to respond to the needs of comforting, encouraging people and memorizing the town after the earth-

[3]. Li Hua, ‘Rebuilding City Memeory’, 2011< http://www.t-a-o.cn/c20730/w10136208. asp>


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fig.4 Skechy plan of XiaoQuan Elementary School fig.5 Shot of XiaoQuan Elementary School fig.6 Shot of XiaoQuan Elementary School


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A.1 / ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

The Absolute Tower 44

The Absolute Tower, also known as Marilyn Monroe Towers, is located in Mississauga, Canada, designed by architect Ma Yansong and his architecture firm MAD. Something attracting is the soft and curvy shape of its rotating structure. Or it’s more proper to describe it as sexy as many critics commended. Though Ma said he did not intend to make it sexy, he did tried not to make it a box in the city. And the digital approach enabled him to achieve it. The organic structure works beyond aesthetics. It’s a new idea of urbanism. Contrasting with all the other squares around, the continual balcony spirals up the building’s sinuous exterior, and every floor is different. Ma created a huge space in high-density urban environments and trying to show respects to every user. The ultimate idea actually is to introduce nature into the center of the city. The soft curve, I think, is one of the tributes

can be regarded as the private garden for each unit. Why can’t we have gardens in high-rising urban district? Ma gave his answer with Absolute Tower and it might be a new future for urban development. Just as what Frank Lloyd Wright applied to suburb residential house, now people could still use the idea of organic architecture to skyscrapers with computational techniques. Though the designing methods are different compared with Xiaoquan Elementary School, what in common is the thought about users and urban environments which it sits within. No matter it is a small town or metropolis, people are always the fundamental factor involved in the building environment. And the city can be regarded as an organic mixture of different building environments. So one single unit of design is supposed to communicate with its users as well as other units that forms the whole ur-


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fig.4. Abstract figure of Absolute Tower fig.5.the Absolute Tower fig.6.the Absolute Tower with its urban surroundings


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A.2 / COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

a.2 computational architecture


A.2 / COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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Computational, digital architecture are designed by computationally based processes of form origination and transformations. In contemporary architecture design, digital media is increasingly being used not as representational tool for visualization but as a generative tool for the derivation of form and its transformation.[4] The conventional processes of design has been divided into four phases which are Problem analysis, solution synthesis, evaluating and communication.[5] But now architecture design deal with more complicated form. The last step, communication, which can also be called visualization, involves more work to do. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s almost [4] Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003),p.13 [5] Yehuda E. Kalay, Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 10

impossible to document a complicated structure with million surfaces by CAD or other media after everything is designed. A single object with millions of unique facets would take years to draw. Or to say itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impossible to design it without constant form explorations and documentation. So the process is actually revised now and form finding becomes the start point of architecture design. Complexity in form is not an impediment to design and fabrication. Rather, it is an opportunity that is waiting to be explored.[6] Though the complexity is the goal, computational architecture enables it to start with single input fig.7. the Column by Michael Hansmeyer


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A.2 / COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

that might be a basic geometry. The algorithms then would give numerous opportunities to explore the final form. The Column project by Michael Hansmeyer only uses a basic shape of doric column as the input. And there is no certain goal that defines the final form like what the conventioanl process could have done in the first a few stages. The subdivision algorithms manipulate the change of original input form. By changing parameters and orders, there are unlimited outcomes. In this case, there is almost no manual constrains for finding the form which could broaden the boundary of possibilities.

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A.2 / COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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And form finding is more than one single step in the designing process. It could involve other explorations about function, materials and others. The Evolutional Computaion Project by MOH Arcjhitects takes advantage of evolutionary form finding strategies through the use of material self organization under load and gravity. Instead of relying on post-optimizing the structure in the final stage of the process, the project embraces these methods as great opportunities and deliberately deploys them as the very tools

[8] Robert Woodbury, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Elements of Parametric Designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, (London: Routledge, 2010) pp. 9

Techniques like fabrication develop fast as well during this decade. So it is not a crucial constrain for architecture design now. Furthermore it sometimes encourages architects to explore and test what the ultimate possibility that the materiality and fabrication could achieve. In other hand, the construction industry would also feel the pressure from architecture design and then try to push itself to meet its needs.

fig.8 Details of the Column fig.9 the Evolutional Computation


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A.3 / PARAMETRIC MODELLING

a.3 parametric MODELLING


A.3 / PARAMETRIC MODELLING

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For Architects, parametric design is a tool built upon the knowledge that weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve already learned. Of course, new skill for programming is one of the fundamental keys. Woodbury pointed out that architects working with computing who can generally be regarded as amateur programmers tend to work on programs that relate to current work task.[8] Architects would satisfy when it works for the task at hand after finding, skimming, testing and modifying code. In other words, once the original goal is set, architects march towards it. But the goal is too clear that they

the original goal is set, architects march towards it. But the goal is too clear that they might miss some opportunities and other paths to another related result. Just as mentioned, computing design enables designers to try more solutions during the process. If only treated as a tool like pens and paper, it would lose this significant advantage and become something simply make designing easier.

[7] MOH Architects, Evolutionary Computation, 2008, <http://moh-architecture.com/projects_p007.htm>

fig.10 Digital Model of Hangzhou Sports Park by NBBJ


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A.3 / PARAMETRIC MODELLING

However, there is another term called scripting designing. It is defined as a high level computer programming design.[9] Scripting is an effective computing program overlay. Thus the tool users becomes the new tool makers. It is to say that to figure out the logic inside the design. For instance, when use Rhino we just make geometry and change the form with orders. In terms of grasshopper, the graphic order linking with objects pushes users to think about the relationship between them and the reason why the form need to be changed. With the consideration through the whole process, the result can be modified to the best solution.

Logic makes parametric design differ from conventional ways. It initially requires the designer to take one step back from the direct activity of design and focus on what binds all the elements together. And then we can give answer to every action we take. Still, parametric is a tool helping us to find solution in a rational way especially in determining the geometric form. The Hangzhou Sports Park by NBBJ is a good precedent showing how the petal-like panel which looks irregular but created with a precise process by parametric tool.

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[9] Mark Burry, ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 8 [10] Nathan Miller, ‘NBBJ: Parametric Strategies in the Design of Hangzhou Stadium’, 2012 <http://www.theprovingground.org/2009/12/parametric-strategies-in-design-of.html> [11] Mark Burry, ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 23-45

fig.11 Parametric Process – points and arcs fig.12 Parametric Process – numbers of petals fig.13 Digital Model of Hangzhou Sports Parks


A.3 / PARAMETRIC MODELLING

The challenge is how to transfer the initial idea into practice. By controlling points and arcs the digital model of petals around the stadium is created. With the system built by grasshopper with logic links, influence of the change of each point and arc can be reflected directly on the digital model.[10] In addition, parametric design doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t require defining the location of models at the very beginning. So it gives architects much space for different trials. In this case, it is not necessary to decide how many petals there must be to enclose the stadium. It can be tested by changing property of parameters. After the proper amount and basic form is

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set, the model is adjusted to fit the site. Parametric designs, as one of the digital ways to design, provide more opportunities for designers to explore the form. But the model built in program might not be practical in reality. Space and materiality is constrained. And it would arise construction issues.[11] Actually most people are quite confident about the future of parametric design. It is the new trend. But unlike conventional architecture, there is no certain rule or theory to guide its development. Unlike computing design discussed in last chapter,

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A.3 / PARAMETRIC MODELLING

Image on the bottom and those on the right are in a completely atmosphere. The bottom one is the ideal expression of designer’s will. But the others show how it coexists with current surroundings which is a micrograph of the city.

parametric design has already developed beyond a simple tool. Somehow it influences the whole process of design when we write the script. Though the sketch and idea are still significant from the start, the form created is never alike what architect designed before. It is, of course, its major advantages. But new and crazy forms need to consider how to coexist with traditional urban context. Most parametric projects are still in a relatively small scale as experiments or just utilized for partial design such as façade and ceiling. It makes project outstand with great visual compact. When we are fascinated by the appearance it shows to us, it’s easy to ignore the environments around especially when it’s in a pretty large scale.

For instance, Zaha Hadid’s project, the Galaxy Soho just finished in 2012 in Beijing, is a successful example of parametric design. The consistent and flowing structure is absolutely beautiful and elegant. Despite opinions of critics, residences of Beijing actually have s strong voice against it. Most discussions are unofficial online chat but their opinions are quite clear that the giant object doesn’t accord with Beijing City, just like an alien. It is not about academic research or serious critics, but something about the users and their emotional experience. So is parametric design the magic key to every question? If it is the new trend, how can people utilize it in an localized way.

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A.3 / PARAMETRIC MODELLING

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16 fig.14 Galaxy Soho by Zaha Hadid in Beijing fig.15 Galaxy Soho with its urban surroundings shot from Beijing Hutong fig.16 Galaxy Soho and Beijing Hutong

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A.4 / ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

A.4 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS


A.4 / ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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PARAMETRIC CONTROL

Grasshopper makes parametric designs possible with software like Rhino that provide a straightforward sense of three-dimensional modeling. Parameters, as the input to the components, have direct influence to the output. After a series of algorithms,

the final output is usually the digital model that architects create. It is very rational and convenient to make change of the model by changing property of parameters. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s also easy to compare different results to find the better solution with parametric control.


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A.4 / ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

LOGICAL PROCESS

GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

fig.17 Morning Line project by Matthew Ritchie in Vienna 2012, initially derived from the geometry on the left


A.4 / ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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Instead of simply redoing the orders, copying and pasting, grasshopper establishes a more serious designing process. The parameter control property of the model, and it is clear to see what algorithm is applies to the structure created in grasshopper. Process shown on the left two same algorithms that divide the original tetrahedron twice resulting in a complex geometry. The accumulation of algorithms is visually shown as connections of components. It helps designers to figure out the logical relationship between each step. Process shown on the left two same algorithms that divide the original tetrahedron

twice resulting in a complex geometry. The accumulation of algorithms is visually shown as connections of components. It helps designers to figure out the logical relationship between each step and answering why it must be like this. Accumulation of algorithms makes it possible to create a complex form from a simple geometry. Change of parameter in different stages avoids simple manipulation. Both projects VoltaDom and Morning Line start with one single unit. Algorithms complicate the form. And the original units perform as controllable cells in an organic structure.


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A.4 / ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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fig.18 VoltaDom, by Skylar Tibbits in MIT, 2011


A.5 / CONCLUSION

A.5 CONCLUSION

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A.5

/ CONCLUSION

Computer is still a tool. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s like pencil and paper that help to express architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ideas. But it is so different from pen and paper that it is able to influence and shift how architects think. Architects design to solve problems. It is a way to find solutions. Digital means broaden the vastness of possibilities. But it also makes people lost. The fascinating form created by new approaches is never like what was built before. New forms would generate new sociality. How does this new sociality coexist with current urban context? New designing approach still needs to be localized to perform its social functions. Because architecture is more than the structure built. For architects, no matter tool users or toolmakers, it s true that computer leads to a new designing field and that it provides so many opportunities to turn ideas into reality. But it is people who make the decision.


A.5 / CONCLUSION

SIMILAR APPRACH APPLIED ON VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS THAT THE FORM STARTS WITH SINGEL GEOMETRY

However, the advantages of this new approach are so attractive that no designers could resist. The complexity created by parametric tool is however in an extremely logical order. It represents the designing process and explains every action that architects decide to take which differs from other digital means. The organic complexity could just be derived from one single geometry. The chaotic relationship among units is actually in logic. This is, I think, how my design approach could be like. But the urban context and usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience are something canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be ignored when exploring the form. Issues aroused by the surroundings can be transformed into another computational language and regarded as another kind of parameter that control the change.

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A.6

/ LEARNING OUTCOMES

A.6 LEARNING OUTCOMES


A.6

/ LEARNING OUTCOMES

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From the start, architectural computing was only a hi-tech way to design in my opinion. But it was not realized that how significantly it influence the whole process including the outcome. It is, of course, the overwhelming trend and exists more than only in experimental projects but also into buildings in large scale. But the vastness of possibility also forces architects to think about the reason why the design must be like that. I did use digital tools to help with my design before and just accept the form created by computer as granted. Sometimes it was created by my own willingness without exploring more possibilities that the computer is able to offer. And sometimes I was just told that computer could help ti achieve a certain form and then followed the instruction and made it but didn’t think about why I had to take this form. So it is a challenge to figure out the logic and answering all “why” questions in the coming project. As for the past, the new approach could have helped me to decide the relationship between the changing geometry of windows on the façade on boathouse project, which was only designed from the visual aspect. I couldn’t even tell myself the exact reason of doing that. So for me, architectural computing is a tool developed upon designing rationale. And I’d like to apply the logical thinking in the design.


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REFERENCES

REFERENCES

[1] Dutton, Thomas A. and Lian Hurst Mann, eds (1996). Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), p. 1 [2] Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 103 [3] Li Hua, ‘Rebuilding City Memeory’, 2011< http://www.t-a-o.cn/c20730/w10136208. asp> [4]Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press,), pp14 [5] Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 10 [6] Michael Hansmeyer, Computational Architecture, 2011, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/profile/about.html?screenSize=1&color=1> [7] MOH Architects, Evolutionary Computation, 2008, <http://moh-architecture.com/ projects_p007.htm> [8] Robert Woodbury, ‘Elements of Parametric Design’, (London: Routledge, 2010) pp. 9 [9] Mark Burry, ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 8 [10] Nathan Miller, ‘NBBJ: Parametric Strategies in the Design of Hangzhou Stadium’, 2012 <http://www.theprovingground.org/2009/12/parametric-strategies-in-design-of.html> [11] Mark Burry, ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 23-45


ILLUSTRATIONS

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ILLUSTRATIONS

fig.1 TAO, Skechy plan of XiaoQuan Elementary School <http://www.archdaily.com/205454/xiaoquan-elementary-school-tao/sketch-88/> fig.2 Yao Li, XiaoQuan Elementary School <http://www.archdaily.com/205454/xiaoquan-elementary-school-tao/_mainimage_01-big-step/> fig.3Yao Li, XiaoQuan Elementary School <http://www.archdaily.com/205454/xiaoquan-elementary-school-tao/06-252/> Fig.4 MAD, Abstract figure of Absolute Tower <http://www.i-mad.com/#works_details?wtid=4&id=29> fig.5 MAD, the Absolute Tower <http://www.i-mad.com/Uploads/WorksImgFile/WorkBigImgFile//20111030/20111030122546_0932.jpg> fig.6 MAD, the Absolute Tower with its urban surroundings <http://www.i-mad.com/Uploads/ExhibitionsFile/ExhVideoImgFile//20121203/20121203222832_9394.jpg> fig.7. Michael Hansmeyer, the Column by Michael Hansmeyer <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/profile/about.html?screenSize=1&color=1> fig.8 Michael Hansmeyer, Details of the Column <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/profile/about.html?screenSize=1&color=1> fig.9 MOH Architects, the Evolutional Computation <http://moh-architecture.com/projects_p007.htm> fig.10 NBBJ, Digital Model of Hangzhou Sports Park by NBBJ <https://d3pxppq3195xue.cloudfront.net/media/images/12/12/19/Hangzhou_Rendering_Schematic_petal-detail_720_405.jpg> fig.11 Parametric Process – points and arcs <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_cPhUnOPYCFE/S2tzFFTkw2I/AAAAAAAAAbI/YF8g8SeFGeA/s400/Hangzhou_DD_ Parametric_GeometryScript.jpg> fig.12 NBBJ, Parametric Process – numbers of petals <https://d3pxppq3195xue.cloudfront.net/media/images/12/12/19/Hangzhou_DD_Parametric_Grasshopper_720_405.jpg> fig.13 NBBJ, Digital Model of Hangzhou Sports Parks <https://d3pxppq3195xue.cloudfront.net/media/images/12/12/19/parametric-1_720_405.jpg> fig.14 Galaxy Soho, Galaxy Soho by Zaha Hadid in Beijing <http://galaxysoho.sohochina.com/en> fig.15 Hufton + Crow, Galaxy Soho with its urban surroundings shot from Beijing Hutong <http://www.architizer.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/GalaxySoho_City-6.jpg> fig.16 Hufton + Crow, Galaxy Soho and Beijing Hutong <http://www.architizer.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/GalaxySoho_City-3.jpg> fig.17 Doni Dexter Photography, Morning Line project <http://www.donidexter.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Schwarzenbergplatz.jpg http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3484/3182166847_b606e278e2_b.jpg> fig.18 SJET, VoltaDom Project <http://api.ning.com/files/TGh3pl14wk3DaiOT1*KkxMALSe3sDHN4a5kLcFG6HxoG7GF-RkhkNVWNpFStBH3pZDGJIUmyxOTGOn0wMBUUxtIoAc3qrD-8/voltaDom_0280_Final.jpg>


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PART -B. AD EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH TA JUS


B.1 / DESIGN FOCUS

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B.1 DESIGN FOCUS


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B.1 / DESIGN FOCUS

BIOMIMICRY VORONOIS / HEXAGONS Design approach for further explorations would be biomimicry. It is actually a widely applied idea in designing field. Inspirations from nature are almost unlimited. Human beings are amazed by those forms, then study them, duplicate them, and apply them into other artificial design. Sequence and logic within design process are clearly presented in this approach. It explained the original sources of the design and there is a transformation from a natural object to a designed work step by step. In computational architecture, biomimicry can perform as the basic input. Algorithms are able to manipulate the form and explore how it can be applied into architecture with numerous possibilities.

“The allure for designers...lies in the efficiency, strength, and general compactness of natural designs...”.[1]. --Sandro, Biomimicry Architecture

Voronois and hexagons are two focuses on this design approach. Because they are common forms in nature but always extraordinarily amazing and well laid. They can form flexible structures as the basic unit that is easy to control and work with. It it is the approach combining biomimicry, geometry and structure. It can be said that biomimicry is the origin and the others are means to achieve the goal. Biomimicry could also help to localize parametric design. Inspirations relating to local urban and natural context are something that is able to distinguish it from other work that is produced by the same ‘programming factory’.It would bring Wyndham city a new identity from both cultural and social aspect. [1] Alberti Sandrol, Biomimetic Architecture, 2002, p23


B.1 / DESIGN FOCUS

voronoi exploration

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B.1 / DESIGN FOCUS

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The Spanish pavilion in 2005 designed by Foreign Office Architects applied hexagon panels on the faรงade. Each hexagon is not repeating each other, creating a dynamic and geometric form. The hexagon grid was inspired by traditional Spanish structure rather than pure biomimicry in this case (however, hexagon is always the natural geometry form), but cultural expression and identification are essential and it is what Wyndham city needs by the gateway project.

The hexagon grids perform as skin and the structural member at the same time. In other words, no other structures are needed to support the hexagon skin. Thus it allows sunlight and wind to come inside the building creating a relationship with exterior space. The combination of structure that is able to self-support and the ornament or skin with cultural expression is what the project is going to achieve.


B.1 / DESIGN FOCUS

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Fig.1 Spanish Pavilion faรงade 1 Fig.2 Spanish Pavilion Faรงade 2 Fig.3 Hexagon details


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B.2 / CASE STUDY 1.0

B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0


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B.2 / CASE STUDY 1.0

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5 Fig.4 University of Suttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion Fig.5 Details, Inspiration from sea urchinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plate skeleton,


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B.2 / CASE STUDY 1.0

The Research Pavilion explores the architectural transfer of biological principles of the sea urchinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plate skeleton morphology by means of novel computer-based design and simulation methods, along with computer-controlled manufacturing methods for its building implementation.[2] The inspiration was basically for the pattern. Panels are irregular but every three edges meet at one single point. The transformation from regular geometry into an organic form is one of the challenges. The other is how to morph the pattern into a surface.

In the grasshopper file, the first step I did was to customize the hexagon patterns. Hexagons grew and shrank as a group resulting in overlapping or isolated structures. Then I tried to morph the pattern onto a certain surface. The original hexagon was quite geometric though the morphology result remained regular. But by controlling the numbers of units, the surface would be customized as well.

[2] University of Stuttgart,ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011, 2011, <http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?p=6553>


B.2 / CASE STUDY 1.0

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B.3 / CASE STUDY 2.0

B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0


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Fig.6 National Aquatic Center faรงade


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B.3 / CASE STUDY 2.0

VORONOI ‘WATER CUBE’ SURFACE

I continued to search for organic voronoi/hexagon form case study 2.0. This time I looked at some structure that was more smooth and organic. The national Aquatics Center, as known as water cube, used biomimicry approaches to imitate water bubbles and then applied the pattern onto the whole façade. Compared with this precedent, what I did was to create a more softened and smoothened voronoi pattern. It’s developed from the planar surface still, but then I extruded the surface and covers part of the structure. The result was a panel with thickness like a tile with drop-like holes on it which I thought could be


B.3 / CASE STUDY 2.0

A: 2D VORONOI PATTERNING Morphology of the surface with voronoi thick panel failed on last step due to the base square which the voronoi was originally set on. So I return to the planar and changed my strategy into ‘map the surface’ rather than PATTERN ONE

PATTERN TWO

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B.3 / CASE STUDY 2.0

Replacing the simple definition of the base structure into another algorithms that devides the structure into layers.It is still inpired by the idea od natural rock weathering result. But due to the trim order, the pattern dosenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit the trimmed shape.


B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

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B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT


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B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

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The voronoi surface reminds us of rock erosion patterns in natural environment. During the erosion process, part of the top surface has been washed away. The solid structure gradually turned into a patterned surface, supported by the structure on the back. And it can be seen from another aspect that there will always be a solid structure to support other parts. Another similar process is rock weathering. What left at the very end is usually a rock skeleton that is able to self-support. There is no more distinguish between skin and structure. It is a structural system with visual impact. But still, what left must be something that bears, stands and supports. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the essence of the original entity.

The 2D voinoi pattern in last step is limited in 2 dimensions. But we want to see how voronoi unit could adapt to a real structure rather than simply laid in a surface. We create a 3D voronoi skeleton. Each voronoi unit has a 3 dimensional spatial relationship with others. It develops independently not based on other surface or structure but the spatial links between each other.

Fig.7 Natural Rock Erosion Pattern


B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

57

B: 3D VORONOI SKELETON 1. Create 3D Voronoi 2. Remove exterior faces 3. Move Voronoi cells away from each other 4. Loft together common faces 5. Create mesh and smooth connections

- Change parameters for moving distance

- Change parameters for moving distance 1. Create 3D Voronoi 2. Remove exterior faces 3. Move Voronoi cells away from each other 4. Loft together common faces 5. Create mesh and smooth connections

- CHANGE BASE BOX TO MORE LINEAR

CHANGE PARAMETER FOR NUMBERS OF VORONOI UNITS

CHANGE PARAMETER FOR NUMBERS OF VORONOI UNITS

- ADJUST ALL PARAMETERS FOR BETTER OUTCOME


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B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

APPROACH ONE: 2D VORONOI PATTERNING

- CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE ((PANTTERN ONE) - LOFT - CHANGE PARAMETER FOR DISTANCE

VORONOI PATTERN ONE - 2D VORONIO - OFFSET

- 2D VORONIO - OFFSET

VORONOI PATTERN TWO - 2D VORONIO - OFFSET - EXTRACT CONTROL POLYGON POINTS - CREAT CURVES

- 2D VORONIO - OFFSET - EXTRACT CONTROL POLYGON POINTS - CREAT CURVES

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES

- OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT

- OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT - CHANGE DISTANCE

- OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT - CHANGE DISTANCE

- OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT - CHANGE DISTANCE

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES -POINT ATTRACTOR -SLIDER CHANGE

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES -POINT ATTRACTOR -SLIDER CHANGE

- CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE ((PANTTERN THREE) - LOFT

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES -POINTS ATTRACTOR

- OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT - CHANGE DISTANCE

- CREATE BASE STRUCTUR - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE ((PAN - LOFT - CHANGE PARAMETER FO

- CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE (PANTTERN TWO) - LOFT

- OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT

- CREATE BASE STRUC - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE ( - LOFT - CHANGE PARAMETE


B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

-POLYGON -BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE MORPH

-BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE PLANER -SURFACE MORPH

-LOFT CURVE -EXTRUDE -DIVIDE SURFACE -PLANER SURFACE

-POLYGON -BOUNDING BOX -POINT ATTRACTOR -SURFACE MORPH

-POPULATE 3D -VORONOI 3D -BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE MORPH

-LOFT CURVE -MAP SURFACE -POPULATE 2D -VORONOI 2D -EXTRUDE SURFACE

-HAXEGON -BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE MORPH

-CURVE TO PIPE -BOUNDING BOX -POP GEO -VORONIO 3D -SOLID INTERSECTION

-CURVE TO PIPE -BREP -POP GEO -VORONOI 3D -SOLID INTERSECTION -RANDOM SEGMENT PICKING

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-ANGLED POLYGON GEOMETRY -BOUNDING BOX

-CURVE TO PIPE -BOUNDING BOX -POP GEO -VORONOI 3D -SOLID INTERSECTION -SLIDER CHANGE

-CURVE TO PIPE -BREP -POP GEO -VORONOI 3D -SOLID INTERSECTION -SLIDER CHANGE


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B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

APPROACH TWO: 3D VORONOI SKELETON

-POPULATE GEO -VORONOI 3D -NO. OF SEEDS (5)

-POPULATE GEO -VORONOI 3D -NO. OF SEEDS (20)

-POPULATE GEO -VORONOI 3D -NO. OF SEEDS (60)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.9)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.7)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.2)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME(0.8) -EXPLODE (0.8)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH TRAIANGULATED -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH TRAIANGULATED -VOLUME(1) -EXPLODE (0.95)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.3) -EXPLODE (0.001)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (10.98) -EXPLODE (0.98)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH TRAIANGULATED -VOLUME (0.8) -EXPLODE (0.8)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.01)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLOD(0.4) -BOX(1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.95) -EXPLODE (0.95)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.05) -EXPLODE (0.01) -SCALE OF BOX (0.7)


B.4 / TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-INCRESE THE NUMBER OF VORONOI CELLS

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.5) -EXPLODE0.4)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE

- 3D VORONOI - REMOVE EXTERIOR FACES - MOVE - LOFT - SMOOTH MESH

-CHANGE PARAMETERS OF VORONOI UNITS

-CHANGE NUMBER OF VORONOI UNITS

- FIND EDGES -CONNECT END POINTS

-DIFFERENT EDGES AND CURVES

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-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6)

- 3D VORONOI REMOVE EXTERIOR FACES - LOFT -CHANGE PARAMETERS -CHANGE

- 3D VORONOI -REMOVE EXTERIOR FACES - MOVE - LOFT - SMOOTH MESH - KEEP VORONOI EDGES

- EDGES OF VORONOI SURFACES - CONNECTED END POINTS


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B.5 / TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE


B.5 / TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

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In order to create the voronoi surface where each unit is linked with each other, the 2D pattern is refined so that it is possible to turn it into a physical model. The process of building physical model helps to understand more about the structure. Voronoi units squeeze together and every two units would share one edge, which ensures that they attached firmly with wach other without any gap. Thus these units become a holistic system.


The second model for 2D voronoi is based on similar algorithm. The distance for lofting surface is increased so that there is a wider underside to support itself. It presents the curvy outlines better with a larger scale compared with the last one.


B.5 / TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

The third is built with timber. The thickness of timber makes it hard to join all surfaces together. Thus the voronoi units couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t keep its form. As mentioned, every two units share one edge and they are attached to each other precisely. With the change of each unit, the whole structure is influence. In addition, timber is much heavier than paper. Load from top layer compresses the base causing two problems one of which is that the shape is changed and the other is that the structure is not stable enough to stand for a long time. Those issues force us to think what material is suitable for the gateway project. Joints are essential for stabilize the structure and the selfweight is another criterion.

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The 3D voronoi skeleton doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t follow a certain order to compose which is easy to follow. It is a bit difficult to build a skeleton model. So we choose 3D print as the first method to produce a accurate model from Rhino and grasshopper. At the same time, we also tried other ways. We took one step back of the algorithm and keep the surface, which the skeleton based on. And then use straw to frame the edge. The first straw frame was basically to test whether it was able to stand and the second was more complicated with wires going through straw to strengthen the joint.


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B.5 / TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES


B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

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B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE


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B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

8

Architecture needs mechanisms that allow it to become connected to culture.[3] Wyndham city is also searching for a culture identity through the gateway project that unites people in the community together. Biomimicry takes inspiration from nature. In this case the local rock erosion patterns which we found near Wyndham city along the coast is the start point which we think could help to localize the parametric design and connect it with local context. Similar idea has been applied to the Babiy Yar Memorial by Kokkugia. The space of remembrance within the inverted monument is cast from bronze and generated through the interaction of agent-based components[4].

[3] Farshid Moussavi, the Function of Ornament, 2006, p1 [4] Kokkigia, Babiy Yar Memorial2010ďź&#x152; < http://www.kokkugia.com>

It represents a relief from two lumbersome stone and then creates a new space in between. The rock erosion results in a relief of structure. What remains is the essence that is able to support and stand. The metaphor within this process is the cultural expression that we want to apply to this project. But it requires more understanding and explorations of the erosion process. Besides rock erosion, we are also curious to see how other natural factors could have an influence on different materials and structure. So we use water to soak and fire to burn on several models in this stage and

Fig.8 Babiy Yar Memorial by Kokkugia


Water - Paper: After soaking the paper model into some erosive liquid, the structure was still able to selfsupport with the shape changing slightly. It is a process from dry to wet, and then from wet back to dry, leaving a corrugated surface.

Fire - Timber: resulting in two changes: 1.structural fail 2.surface property change. The structural failed before the total change of surface property. The joints would fall at first thus the whole structure and the original shape disappear ending up with several pieces. However, there is one moment that the structure stands still and the surface is slightly curing. In other words, the sharp edge is in some way softened by fire. During the process, timber turned black at first and bends later. After the structure fell, the material itself became fragile as well. Thin fibers of wood came out of the surface. â&#x20AC;&#x153;New patternâ&#x20AC;? was added to the surface but it is no longer able to support the structure.


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B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL


B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

FIRE - Timber and plaster: After pouring plasters in, the whole structure became quite firm. And it took longer time to ignite the material. Due to the incombustibility of plaster, the structure remained with little change or damage. Compared with the timber model itself which was burned into ashes so easily, there was only some burned mark on the edge that made the surface cure a little bit.

FIRE - Paper and plaster: Plaster was moulded into paper model as well. Amazingly the plaster made it quite hard to light the paper. Like the one with timber and plaster, only some edges were burned forming an organic outline.

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B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL


B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

Sand burying to imitate rock erosion The frame model was buried into sand. Gradually it was blown away and the structure reveals. The base part was more solid and intense thus there was more sand remaining. Just like rock erosion, what left was the real structure thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s able to support other parts. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s also because that wind through the bottom was less strong. And sand in bottom stayed longer which helped to stabilize the

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B.6 / TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

Those soaking, burning and ‘erosion’ process lead to both structure and surface (or skin) change. Only those with stable structural member would stay. Fragile parts (or to say the skins) attaching to the structural element are able to exist as well. So the idea of relief means demolishing the old and leaving something valuable and creating a new form that consists of the real structure and the skin that tells a story of nature and human as a relief of old structures. Wyndham City doesn’t need a real gate. It is more like an abstract definition about cultural identity telling people that it’s Wyndham. At the same time we want to be honesty to the structure as well which means to recognize it not only based on the skin but also for the structure. We want an entity that performs both functions and speaks the same language. Luckily the erosion process provides us with the outcome that synthesizes


B.7 / ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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B.7 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


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B.7 / ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

- keep voronoi surface

- choose different edges and curves

- find edges of voronoi surfaces - connect end points

- choose different edges and curves

- create pipes along edge curves to form the skeleton

- choose different edges and curves - change pipe diameter


B.7 / ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

79

-The smoothed voronois mesh

- find edges of voronoi meshes - connect end points - create pipes

The algorithmic challenge basically lies on how to transform the grasshopper model into something that can be built. The definition for 3D voronoi skeleton has been explained in B.4. But the conceptual model need to be turned into surface from mesh to give it a thickness and then turn the surface back to mesh for 3D print.

- choose different edges and curves

Further developments upon the algorithm are defining the edge of original 3d voronoi, creating surface based on it, and then turing the final refined mesh into surface by the same method that creating pipe based on its edge.


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B.8 / LEARNING OUTCOMES

B.8 LEARNING OUTCOMES


B.8 / LEARNING OUTCOMES

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Part B is a process of understanding parametric design through practice. The challenge doesn’t only exist in grasshopper but is also about how to link the parametric design technique into the gateway project.

As for grasshopper, to figure out the logic and sequence in a series of definition are important. Online tutorial and examples that offer a preview of what is possible to build are also helpful.

Computational architecture design starts with form finding. And we started in voronoi explorations. The essential step is to link the voronoi with local culture. Because architecture as a discourse, need to respond to its surrounding environments and consider the users’ needs. Wyndham city requires a cultural identity thus it’s important to build a gateway with cultural metaphor instead of a simply beautiful structure.

After setting voronoi and rock erosion as the topic of our design, we were still confused about what else can be done. Trials with materials and other natural factors play the most influential step in the designing process. It’s the turning point from grasshopper back to the project itself, thinking about the metaphor within it. As mentioned in part A, some parametric design work has lost its uniqueness for a certain site. The relationship with site and local natural and urban texture is still important for computational architecture. And the form finding should constantly be refined based on the explorations of this relationship.

It takes time to realize it because in the first a few days we were stuck in grasshopper definitions.


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B.8 / LEARNING OUTCOMES

For next stepâ&#x20AC;Ś Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll stick to the idea of burning and relief into the project and finalize the digital model and do more experiments about burning. Casting effect on parametric designing model stands for the humanity. Our work is going through both parametric approach and the craft work (burning in this case) that links the design to natural texture.


REFERENCES

REFERENCES [1] Alberti Sandrol, Biomimetic Architecture, 2002, p23 [2] University of Stuttgart,ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, 2011, <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553> [3] Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 [4] Kokkigia, Babiy Yar Memorial, 2010ďź&#x152; < http://www.kokkugia.com>

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ILLUSTRATIONS

ILLUSTRATIONS Fig.1 Unknown, Spanish Pavilion façade, <http://farm1.staticflickr.com/9/13404941_99885685a9_z.jpg?zz=1> Fig.2 Unknown, Spanish Pavilion Façade <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_svAyYhspKJw/TL7xnc8cqlI/AAAAAAAAJZU/FwPQ01IFbAs/s1600/foa+copy+copy.jpg> Fig.3 Unknown,Hexagon details <http://designmuseum.org/media/item/4906/-1/109_12Lg.jpg> Fig.4 University of Suttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, 2011, <http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_ tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262336_1%26url%3D> Fig.5 Details, Inspiration from sea urchin’s plate skeleton, 2011 <http://www.detail-online.com/architecture/topics/temporary-bionic-research-pavilion-made-of-wood-018458.html> Fig.6 Water Cube, National Aquatic Center façade < www.water-cube.com> Fig.7 Jennifer Bright, Natural Rock Erosion Pattern < http://fineartamerica.com/featured/1-rock-erosion-3-koh-kut-jennifer-bright. html> Fig.8 Kokkugia, Babiy Yar Memorial, 2010 < http://www.kokkugia.com>


C.1 / DESIGN CONCEPT

PART C. PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C.1 / DESIGN CONCEPT

C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT


C.1 / DESIGN CONCEPT

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WHY BURNING...?

Burning experiments on biomimicry based structure is a transformation of how the natural erosion process is expressed through parametric design. Burning acts as a significant step after digital modelling, introducing humanity and extending the erosion effects into a long-term process rather than a simple imitation of the erosion patterns. Besides fire, other natural factors like water and wind have been tested on different materials and structures as well. But fire is the fastest way to wipe the old surface. Fragments are peeled off and reveal the new texture that is emerged from the essence of the structure that is able to stand after burning.


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C.1 / DESIGN CONCEPT

FOR WYNDHAM...

For Wyndham City, burning represents the new beginning. The parametric design model has already been applied to a metaphor of structure relief that is inspired by rock erosion process. It stands for the bearing elements remaining in harsh environments. The voronoi pattern performs as the skin after erosion, but it is also the true self-supporting structure. When introducing fire, the threatened factor and changing process are visualized. For residents in Wyndham, the idea becomes comprehensible through this materialized symbol. Fire as an overwhelming power in Australia, means destroying, but also leads to a start of new life. What is emerged immediately after burning and can be seen are the burned surface and its new texture. And the structure would witness the whole process and is still able to self-support with its new skin. The idea of resistance from the past as well as growing new future would be memorized


C.1 / DESIGN CONCEPT

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1:250 laser cut model to show overall form

It is an approach to create urban memory, shared by the whole community. And the memory would last and develop in the future as whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new is not only the skin but also real life. Vegetation like grass and other kinds of plants would naturally grow on the burned structure. As time goes by, the plant becomes another new surface after burning and make the structure dissolve in the surroundings.


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C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS


C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

strategy one

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C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

Different strategies based on voronoi patterning have been tested. The common objective is to create a structure that could enhance the experience of burning. The first attempt is to create a fluent surface that across the road and form an overhead structure. The overall shape is derived from Melbourne wind direction because for erosion process, wind is the predominant factor. And the road beneath can be regarded as a channel of wind, which can be further developed as channel of speed and movement. Two challenges for this strategy are how to make the structure self-support and how to apply burning effect especially for the overhead part. Three load bearing points are set at the end

patterns are extruded down as solid column to support other parts. Adjacent structure would gradually shrink to normal cell and join the top surface to show their continuous relationship. But the initial concept of rock erosion is structure as ornament. There is supposed to be no clear division between structural element and the pure surface. Despite the graduate structure change, it is still in some way opposite to the idea of structure relief in rock erosion process. In addition, it is hard to notice the burning effect if it is overhead. For all those reasons, we stop exploring this idea and try to find another solution.


C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

strategy two

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C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

As the first strategy fail to express the design concept developed earlier, we try to find a new form for the final model. This time, we take one step back to examine what weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve done in part B for the prototype and realize that the first burning model has already been a self-supported structure with impactful burning effect. The wall like structure is a straight-

combing well with the concept of structural essence that remains after burning. However, the form should be finalised in terms of height, length and thickness. The very criterion is stability. The structure must be self-supported and still able to stand after burning. Three prototypes have been made. Grasshopper enbles us to adjust the model by adding different parameters without disturb-


C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

model with even thickness from top to bottom fails to stand even after puring plaster on the base, which make us realize that there must be a solid base to support its self-load. The final form is two trips of wall following the highway. Each of them is about 550m long and 5m high to maximize the experience when people drive by. Two walls define a central space which we wish people could

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set foot on to sense not only by looking but also by touching and smelling at close range. To see the burning marks, to touch the combination of new and old surface and to smell the burned material are what we expect could help users to communicate with this project and convey the total idea of relief, revealing and new beginning.


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C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS


C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

SITE PLAN

HIGHWAY RAMP

PRINCESS HIGHWAY MOVING DIRECTION TREE GATEWAY

PRO-

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C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS


C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

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C.2 / TECTONIC ELEMENTS

Long term effect with plants growing and dissolving in landscape


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

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C.3 FINAL MODEL


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C.3 / FINAL MODEL

Final model making follows the basic steps as prototype making process. But there are some improvement on material and structure as a learning outcome from C.2. STRUCTURE CRITERIA FOR FINAL MODELLING : 1. Voronoi frame should be able to self-support before pouring plaster to ensure afterward activities. 2.Voronoi frame wall should be stable enough to perform as form-work during the process of plaster pouring and drying. 3. The whole system (frame + plaster) should stand even with structural relief after


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

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MATERIALS:

PROCESS:

- 1.2 mm Mount Board With Laser Cut

-Digital Modeling

- Plaster

- Unroll Surface Of Each Cell - Laser Cut - Manually Assemble All Cell Into A Continuous Wall - Pour Plaster - Tilt The Model Up - Burn


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C.3 / FINAL MODEL


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

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BURNING PROCESS / CHANGE OF THE SURFACE


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C.3 / FINAL MODEL


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

1:50

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FINAL BURNING MODEL


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C.3 / FINAL MODEL

construction in practice After building final 1:50 burning model, we receive feedback from critics about how to construct the huge structure in reality. In terms of material, the voronoi frame wall is still made of cardboard which is able to be lit . Plaster would be replaced by white concrete. In order to support the heavy load of concrete, the cardboard is specified with recycled high strength triple wall corrugated cardboard to avoid structural fail. The voronoi wall would be lifted up first before pouring white concrete into each cell to create a holistic structure. Then the concrete would be sprayed on.

3M VHB double sided tape is used to connect each cell instead of screw or nail. It is high-strength bonding tape permanently adheres one substrate to another while spreading the stress load across the entire length of the joint. In this case, it saves construction time and simplify the structure.


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

MATERIALS:

PROCESS:

- High Strength Triple Wall Corrugated Cardboard

-Digital modeling

- Shot-Crete - 3M VHB Double Sided Tape 5952

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- Casting cell - Assemble cells with 3m double sided tape - Transport voronoi framing wall to the site - Tilt up - Spray concrete - Burn


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C.3 / FINAL MODEL


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

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C.3 / FINAL MODEL


C.3 / FINAL MODEL

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C.3 / FINAL MODEL

As mentioned, we expect the long term effect of the burned structure. The recycled cardboard would be burned and what left would gradually peel or route to nurture plants. It is a project requiring low budget for cheap and handy material and almost needs no maintenance.


C.4 / ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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C.4 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


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C.4 / ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


C.4 / ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

FInal design is based on 2D voronoi pattern, using ‘mapsurface’ to apply it to different structures. There are both explorations about voronoi pattern as well as the base structure. For the base, besides visual effect, it’s also about structural consideration such as load bearing and stability.

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For the voronoi pattern, we try to introduce point attractor to enhance the dramatic extension effect but fail to combine it with the base structure.


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C.5 / LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

C.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES


C.5 / LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

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To be honest, I was not a big fan of parametric design before taking studio air. I just regarded it as one of the designing tools. The title of parametric design has been seen in many project with complicated form. Every curve or unit is precisely controlled by parameter and calculated, showing the power of contemporary technology, which is not only about digital modelling but also about construction as the parametric approach creates a construction system that is much more complex than ever before. However, after collecting information about recent parametric design projects in part A and part B, I found sometimes they bored the views because it is so easy to become a simple puesuit about form without refering to local texture. Parametric design has changed the conventional designing process and started design with form finding in programs. In other words, parametric tool is the inspirations that determine the final form. But it is definitely not the only one. I've talked about how Zaha's Galaxy Soho looking like an alien standing among Beijing heritage Hutong. The total ignorance of local urban context make it stand out from the surroundings. But it fails to achieve the local narrative with its urban environments.


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I think architecture as a discourse should always respond to the surroundings. Thus we always consider what does Wyndham city need from this gateway project and what can we present about Wyndham city through the gateway as a cultural identity. Biommicry voronoi pattern based on local rock eroision texture is what we believe is relevant to Wyndham city. And the idea of relief, revealing and new beginning is cheerful for local residents. But it is just so easy to forget the original designing concept and get misled in algorithmic explorations. This subject is quite competitive as you can view everyone’s work through wiki. So our group also want to explore complicated algorithms and adopt some high-tech to complete the model. We have a 3D-print voronoi skeleton as well as floating surface that requires more complicated definition than the final wall-like form. However, complexity doesn’t mean the same as good design. Parametric design still need to be ‘softened’ and localized to find the best form.

Another big challenge is about construction. We have to consider materials and the casting method for the final model which are actually not enough, For architects, it is important to consider the construction issue in reality. The final design consists of two walls each of which is about 550m long. Should it be precast or built in-situ? How can we pour concrete in each cell? How do we burn this mega structure without splitting the holistic system? The whole process need to be specified for each step. This is what we didn’t pay enough attention until the final presentation. Parametric design has put pressure on construction due to its complexity but architects should be capable of dealing and solving it from designing perspective.


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Overall, instead of putting all the effort on algorithm design, our designing focus is how to add humanity to this project as we realize the importance of localizing parametric design for Wyndham city. It is struggling to decide to apply physical effect which means we have to test more than once to see how the actual model would be after burning. We are not confident about the effect untill the first prototype is actually burned, resulting in the beautiful burning edge and coloured plaster surface. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve actually burned about 5 times to test different structures and shape and we must do that. Parametric design helped us to improve the form in an efficient way but it couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t imitate the actual burning process. Through this method, we want the gateway approachable not as a typical cold structure but something they can feel and touch, As mentioned, parametric design attracts people with unlimited opportunities about forms. And the most complicated may not be the best, What we learned from the final designing process is that a good design must go through several tests. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been dealing with issues from grasshopper to physical model and then going back to grasshopper to adjust it based on the test result of physical model. So parametric design is not an independent designing process. It


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IN THE END WE SURVIVE FROM ALL THE RHINO, GRASSHOPPER AND BURNING FIRE. THANKS FOR ALL THE SUPPORTS FROM MY GROUPMATES, LINDA AND SUNNY. AND THANKS, ROSIE AND CHRIS, FOR YOUR HELP AND ADVICE!


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