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Building Technology BLD 61402

Construction Solutions Project II

Name: Wong Lieng Kam Student ID: 0323566 Tu t o r : A r. E d w i n

Content Introduction


Precedent Studies Roof System: Saw-tooth Roof Faรงade System: Perforated Brick Faรงade System: Timber Louver Structural System: Steel Framing System Structural System: Reinforced Concrete Slab

02 03 04 05

Faรงade Design Scheme 1 Perforated Brick

06 - 07

Faรงade Design Scheme 2 Timber Louver

08 - 09

Sectional Perspective 1 Ground Floor Level


Sectional Perspective 2 To p F l o o r L e v e l





Introduction Jalan Stesen 1

South Klang

The Project Studio V will concentrate on designing a Learning Centre within an urban infill site in South Klang. The design of the building is to consist of appropriate architectural responses that address the aspects of the urban street context and user behavioural patterns as discerned and analysed in the Preliminary Studies. Apart from developing a narrative on architectural strategy in response to the relevant questions pertaining to community and its context, the design should take into consideration a holistic application of structural, spatial, functional and environmental requirements to address the user needs for a Learning Centre. The design development of this project will include an introduction to the legislative restrictions that impact an architectural scheme, the integration of lighting and acoustic design, as well as the design exploration and detailing of the faรงade and building envelopes that is coherent with the architectural language of the overall design project.

The Intention In a small passage, in the city centre. The neighbours protected themselves from the exterior with thick walls and balconies. The intention is to work with lightweight elements, designing the faรงade as a succession of layers, which protects us from noise and inquisitive eyes, acts as a filter between inside and outside, and gives the building an urban image.


Saw-tooth Roof Roof System

Desa House

Joint Detail

Tr u s s D e t a i l Strap

C Channel Purlin

Purlins Studio Bikin

Principal Rafter


Ta m a D e s a , K u a l a Lumpur

Bolts to secure connection between modules



2016 P r o j e c t Ye a r








Roof System bolted to I-Beam

Material Used & Response: Windows which uses low-e glass or window film helps to reduce radiant heat admitted via sawtooth roofs Corrugated Metal sheet insulated roofs with reflective finishes

Wind Ventilation Sun Penetration


Design Relevance: The sawtooth roof, with its glass panels facing away from the equator, blocks the light and heat of direct sun exposure and provides uniform, natural light over a large area crucial for learning center design

Installation Method: The perforated Saw-tooth truss has a basic shape of a triangle. Each roof truss is either supported by a beam which are supported by columns or by the columns itself. The cladding is installed by bolting corrugated zinc onto the C channels that act as purlins.




- Water damage without sufďŹ cient usage of gutters - Can become hot if not designed correctly - Initial cost can be high as it is made from mostly metal construction

Allows the natural lighting to enter interiors Wind ventilation can be utilised Reduce direct glare Reduces energy costs


Façade System Perforated Brick


Partial Section Detail

Facade Detail

Yo u n g C h u n g

Steel plate


Seoul, Korea

Glass window with overlaid brick façade of small openings

Tempered glass




P r o j e c t Ye a r

Plate moulding



Glass window with overlaid brick façade of a large opening

Materials Used & Response Steel plate Concrete

Tempered glass

Perforated brick Small opening angled

No opening angled

Large opening slightly angled

Gradual opening straight

Continuity of brick façade overlay over two floor


Column structure No opening random

Design Relevance: Façade composed of brick and birch which develops the entire building structure. Its structure conceals and reveals parts of the interior and exterior concrete frame. The brick system is implemented as it is inspired by the retail store brand’s culture heritage and the immediate context. Brick are stacked according to various methods The perforated brick facade wraps around the inner structure to provide privacy whilst still allowing controlled fenestration and ventilation inside the building. It forms an eye-catching symbol that is appropriate to the significance of Insadong Road as a major retail district in the capital city.

Large opening consistent

Window opening consistent

Perforated brick

Tempered glass

No opening slight straight




Installation Method: The perforated brick facade is based on the traditional single Flemish bond, with the header components removed to form the perforation. It bonded by steel plates which are then connected to the main concrete structure of the building via square steel pipes.




- May not provide sufficient protection against rain - Height limitation as masonry walls do not hold well above a certain height, unless supported by additional structural system, which will increase the cost

Ease of construction and maintenance Durable, and will “age” beautifully Provide good ventilation & controlled fenestration Savings on finishing costs as the brick walls can be left in its raw form


Façade System Foldable Louver

Luxury Apartment

Facade Detail

Materials Used & Response Endcap Cast aluminium member

Josep Lluis Mateo Architects

M6 screw

Barcelona, Spain

M5 S.S. screw


Support frame (50 x 75 x 5mm thickness. G.M.S. RHS)

Timber panel

2013 Project Year

Residential Types

Timber panel Pulley Steel Cable


Timber panel Cast aluminium member

Sun filtered by metal slatted folding shutters Fixed aluminium chassis Stone tiling


Design Relevance: Malaysia has a hot and humid climate where the sun shines directly onto the façade itself and the proposal of this kinetic façade allows controlling amount of sunlight penetrates into the interior, at the same time, allow ventilation flows through. Indoor lighting depending on user’s favours as well as allowing flexible functionality and creates dynamic changes onto the exterior façade to allow visual interest to the user. In a small passage, in the city centre. The neighbours protected themselves from the exterior with thick walls and balconies. Working with lightweight elements, designing the façade as a succession of layers: one interior, of glass and stainless steel, and another exterior, close to it, of wood that opens and closes at will. It protects us from noise and inquisitive eyes, acts as a filter between inside and outside, and gives the building an urban image.

Galvanised steel housing for motor Horizontal hinge Sliding aluminium chassis

Square tube section 45 x 45mm


Sefton roller guide inside U section tube

Reinforced concrete slab

Installation Method: The main façade is defined by two planes. One, flush with the facades of the adjacent buildings, comprises stainless steel and glass to ensure optimum lighting for the apartments on the upper floors. The wooden brise-soleil nearest to the street, like a veil forming a filter between the pavement and the interiors. This structure is separated 450mm from the façade and is made up of four different mechanisms, turning the façade into a dynamic element that reinvents the Majorcan-style louvered shutters that protect the windows of their neighbours.



- Permeability of façade allow natural ventilation and natural lighting penetrates into the interior - Adjustable wooden planes the amount of light according to user’s needs & activities conducted - Energy efficiency and thermal comfort

- Expensive building cost material - High maintenance cost


Structural System Steel Framing System & Precast Concrete Slab

Modern Forest City

Column & Beam Connection Detail


Steel plates bracket, or tee connect web of beam to side of column. Beam assembly is bolted to the column in the field.

Steel column

Xiantao, China



Steel plates bracket


Bolt Steel beam

IBS System Used

Residential Types

Design Relevance:

Slab & Beam Connection Detail

This IBS is commonly used with precast concrete slabs, steel columns / beams and steel framing systems, and is used extensively in the fast-track construction of skyscrapers. Apart from that, it is extensively used for light steel trusses consisting of cost-effective profiled, cold-formed channels and steel portal frame systems as alternatives to the heavier traditional hot-rolled sections.

Floor treatment

Screed (sand & cement) Reinforcement bar Hollow core slab Mortar Section callout 1:25 Floor system

IBS Score Factor Component

IBS Factor


Wall: In-situ Concrete with reusable system formwork


Partial IBS Factors

Structural System: Steel Column and Beam


Full IBS Factor

*0.1 - 0.5 as Par,al IBS Factors 0.6 - 1.0 as Full IBS Factors

Installation Method: First, clean the site for bringing the steel structure. Next, Erection of Steel Column and Steel Beams Then, Connect the steel structure by bolt, welds, pins and rivets. And, Installation precast wall and floor to beams. Lastly, Fastening the connection




- Thermal conductivity - Reduced flexibility on site as the measurements of steel need to be precisely calculated in advance, because a steel prefabricated

Strength & durability Fire resistance Pest & insect resistant Moisture & weather resistance


Facade Design Scheme 1 Perforated Brick

Open Plaza

Front Elevation Scale 1:100

Research Library Main Staircase

Public Space

Fire Staircase


Facade Design Scheme 1 Perforated Brick


Rear Elevation Scale 1:100

Public Space

Fire Staircase

Open Plaza


Facade Design Scheme 2 Tim ber Louver

Open Plaza

Front Elevation Scale 1:100

Research Library Main Staircase

Public Space

Fire Staircase


Facade Design Scheme 2 Tim ber Louver


Rear Elevation Scale 1:100

Public Space

Fire Staircase

Open Plaza


Sectional Perspective 1 Ground Level

Detail 1 Foundation to Column Connection 200 mm Thickness Ground Slab

200 x 200mm H Column

25mm Diameter Anchor Bolts

200 x 200 mm Concrete Ground Beam

300 x 300 mm Concrete Column Stump

Detail 2 Balcony Connection Detail

Firs Flo t o Rea r d Spa ing ce

Detail 4

Cantilevered beam

Balcony Connector

Detail 3 Floor System

Detail 4 Facade System

Detail 3

Detail 2

Gro und Flo o Pub r li Spa c ce

Detail 5

Detail 1

Detail 5 Beam to Column Connection Detail Acotec Internal Wall Panel Beam

Floor Treatment Screed

Precast External Wall Panel Insulation Elastic Putty

Reinforcement Bar

Shear Connection

Hollow Core Slab

End Plate


20mm Bolt

Steel Plates Bracket





Sectional Perspective 2 To p F l o o r L e v e l

Detail 6 Roof System

Detail 7 Roof & Beam Connection

Metal Deck

Detail 9 Floor Slab & Beam Connection

Metal Flashing

Hollow core slab


Glazing Lightings Stepped Cap Flashing Gutter Lining


Mineral wool packing

Acoustic sealant

Flashing Gutter Box Downpipe

Steel structures wrapped with wire mesh and reinforcing steel to encase with concrete mix

H column One layer of gypsum-based board Deflection head

1 layer of 15mm gypsum board or other fire stopping material between primary steel beam and light steel channel

Detail 8 Facade & Wall Connection Endcap Cast aluminium member M6 screw M5 S.S. screw Support frame (50 x 75 x 5mm thickness. G.M.S. RHS)

Timber panel

Detail 6 Thi r Flo d o Com r mun Inte ract ity Spa ive ce

Detail 7

Detail 8 Timber panel

Support frame


Sec ond Flo o Coo r k Stu ing dio

Detail 9

References EVOLUTIONARY OPTIMIZATION OF SAWTOOTH ROOF. (n.d.). Retrieved from ROOF DESIGN . (n.d.). Retrieved from Poroscape / Younghanchung Architects Ayeneh Office Gives Tehran Apartments a Textured Facade Luke Tebbutt - Steel Frame Structures | Steel Framing | Steel Structures


Profile for Lieng Kam Wong

Building Technology I Industrialised Building System Report  

Building Technology I Industrialised Building System Report