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Association of Licensed Architects

$6.00 Volume 19, No. 2 Summer/Fall 2015


What’s Inside: • 2015 Midwest Architecture Conference • CE Article: Panoramic Glass Door Systems in Green Buildings • Essentials for Small Firms: Good Partnerships • Geo Project Incentives • And more…..


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BUILDING EXCELLENCE … through Experience and Innovation



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Association of Licensed Architects

$6.00 Volume 19, No. 2 Summer/Fall 2015


17th Annual ALA Midwest Architecture Conference & Product Show




Geo Project Incentives

Learn about financial incentives available for Geothermal Heat Pumps.

On the Cover

HIGHLANDS RESIDENCE Aspen, CO Firm: Robert G. Sinclair Architecture, Inc (RGSA) Contemporary and transitional styles merge through many innovative complements. Coursed stone and rough-hewn cedar exteriors match with clean interior lines and polished finishes that echo the home’s Asian influences. This mountain retreat boasts views of the Aspen Highlands Ski Resort and the twin peaks of the Maroon Bells.


By Ted Clutter, Outreach and Communications, Geothermal Exchange Organization

Photography: David O Marlow Photography


You may be trying to be helpful, but there can be significant risks involved by referring contractors to owners. By Shawn E. Goodman, Sabo & Zahn, Attorneys at Law


By Scott Conwell, FAIA, ALA, CSI, CDT, LEED AP, International Masonry Institute



Featured Architects


ALA New Members


Firm Management


2015 Student Merit Award Winners


Golf Outing - 2015


Chapter News


Insurance Info


Code Corner


Legal Issues


Continuing Education



Contributed Article


President’s Letter


Are You Code Blind?

Don’t overthink the Code. It says what is says. By Kelly P. Reynolds, Kelly P. Reynolds & Associates


Accessibility in Religious Facilities

The American with Disabilities Act does not apply to religious facilities; however, the International Building Code treats these buildings as all other assembly places. By Kimberly Paarlberg, RA, Senior Staff Architect, ICC


Essentials for Small Firms: Good Partnerships

Having good partnerships in small firms relies on three aspects of compatibility: operational, interpersonal and aspirational. By Rena M. Klein, FAIA, RM Klein Consulting


ALA 2015 Student Merit Winners


A Discussion on Architect & Engineer’s Professional Liability Insurance Limits

ALA awards 22 architecture students for their academic excellence.

There are a number of variables and considerations every firm will need to process when determining professional liability insurance. By Dan Buelow, Managing Director, Willis A&E



BIM for Masonry: A Case Study of BIM Integration in a New Laboratory Building

This paper documents the construction process of the masonry walls of a large laboratory building per the BIM model.


Providing Contractor Referrals To Owners Poses Risks


CE Article: Panoramic Glass Door Systems in Green Buildings

Earn 1.0 LU in HSW while learning how to successfully design large openings with thermal performance. By Celeste Allen Novak, AIA, LEED AP, Sponsored by Panda Windows and Doors

ALA Continuing Education Providers

Please call upon our CE Providers to present seminars for you and your office. APA - The Engineered Wood Assoc. Chicago Roofing Contractors Association EHLS / To The Top Home Elevators

Graphisoft Kelly P. Reynolds & Associates, Inc. Ohio Stormwater Association Priority Energy

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PUBLISHERS INFO PUBLISHER ALA, Inc. BOARD OF DIRECTORS Jeffrey N. Budgell, FALA - President James K. Zahn, Esq., FALA, Vice President Mark Van Spann, FALA - Secretary Patrick C. Harris, FALA - Treasurer Joanne Sullivan, Executive Director Steven H. Pate, FALA Past President DIRECTORS James J. Belli, FALA Michael Coan, ALA Robert Davidson, FALA Rick Gilmore, FALA Tom Harkins (Affiliate) Kurt Hezner, FALA David Koscielniak, ALA Pat Manley, ALA Russell Peterson, ALA Jeffrey Stoner, ALA William Watkins, ALA Jeff Whyte, ALA EDITORS Lisa Brooks Jeffrey N. Budgell, FALA Robert Davidson, FALA Patrick C. Harris, FALA Steven H. Pate, FALA ADVERTISING SALES Joanne Sullivan GRAPHIC DESIGN MAGAZINE Midwest Type and Imaging

ALA THE PRESIDENT’S LETTER Here we are in the dog days of summer! Soon it will be time for the ALA Annual Conference and Trade Show on Tuesday, October 6th at Drury Lane in Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois. This is our annual event where we will highlight the products and services of over 80 manufacturers and service providers. Additionally, there are 25 different seminars to choose from with up to 8.25 LU’s all in a single day! This year our keynote speaker is Jimenez Lai of Bureau Spectacular who will be presenting on “Narratives in Architecture.” You now have the opportunity to choose from an All-Day or Modified-Day format, both of which include time to visit with the exhibitors, attend the keynote address, cocktail social and the evening session. Plan ahead and register now at ALAtoday.org!! Also in this issue of Licensed Architect we have three member firms highlighting their projects as well as our regular contributed articles on Code, Insurance, Legal, ADA and Firm Management. Our chapters are growing so please check the website at ALAtoday.org to see all of the upcoming events. Mark your calendars for the ALA Design Awards Banquet (November 6th) and the Annual Meeting and Holiday Social (December 8th) at Gianni’s Café in Palatine. This year’s ALA Design Awards Banquet will return to the spectacular Medinah Country Club. Our emcee is Geoffrey Baer of WTTW, so plan on attending an elegant evening of socializing, viewing all of the entries and hearing entertaining stories from Geoffrey Baer! Looking forward to seeing you at one of our upcoming events!

ALA, Inc. serves the architectural profession. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the express written consent of the publisher. Published in the U.S.A.,© 2015 by ALA, Inc. All rights reserved. Opinions expressed in articles are not necessarily those of ALA, Inc. Any reference to a product or service is not to be construed as an endorsement of same. Advertising published in Licensed Architect does not constitute nor imply an endorsement or recommendation of the advertiser’s products by ALA, Inc., or any of its members. ALA reserves the right to review all advertising for acceptability. For advertising, or membership information, call or write Joanne Sullivan at: ALA, One East Northwest Highway, Suite 200, Palatine, IL 60067 Phone: (847) 382-0630; Fax: (847) 382-8380; E-mail: ALA@alatoday.org

Jeffrey Budgell Jeffrey N. Budgell, FALA, LEED AP President

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Geo Project Incentives

Tax Credits and Rebates Cut Geothermal Heat Pumps Costs By Ted Clutter, Outreach and Communications, Geothermal Exchange Organization For architects and builders interested in the efficiency, comfort and environmental advantages of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) for heating and cooling, their initial cost of installation can be daunting. GHPs cost more because of excavation or drilling to install the closed-loop water circulation piping systems that they rely on to expel heat and to tap renewable energy from the earth. Help is out there. “Everyone involved in the creation, design, engineering and development of homes and commercial buildings should be aware of financial incentives to install GHPs,” said Doug Dougherty, President and CEO, Geothermal Exchange Organization (GEO), the industry’s national advocacy group. Since 2008, the federal government has offered its Residential Energy Efficiency Income Tax Credit, a one-time incentive of 30% for residential GHP installations, and a 10% income tax credit for commercial systems. There is no limitation on system cost. Federal GHP Tax Credit for Residential Buildings • Applies to all ENERGY STAR qualified GHPS. They must be installed by Dec. 31, 2016. • Credit is 30% of system cost with no upper limit. Tax credit includes installation costs. • Existing homes and new construction qualify (principal residences and second homes), but rentals do not. Federal GHP Tax Credit for Commercial Buildings • Structure must be in the United States, and installed by Dec. 31, 2016. • Credit is 10% of system cost, with no upper limit, and can only be claimed by the property owner. • Can offset AMT tax, be used in more than one year, and used with subsidized financing. • IRS Form 3468 is used to claim the credit for commercial buildings.

For more information about the federal income tax credits, visit the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Energy Star website at http://www.energystar.gov/ about/federal_tax_credits. Both credits are scheduled to expire on Dec. 31, 2016, but GEO and its allies are seeking extension of the credits for at least four years. GEO has a compelling story to tell. “Because the credits coincided with the Great Recession, we really didn’t have a chance for them to work to jump start our industry,” said Dougherty. “Congress will surely recognize the energy savings and environmental benefits of GHPs, and extend the tax credits through better times ahead.” More important for commercial facilities are so-called “tax extenders” that provide accelerated depreciation and various business expense deductions for energy efficient commercial construction. Though they expired at the end of 2014, their renewal is the topic of bills currently under consideration by the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate. “GEO is confident that these important incentives will be extended for two years,” said Dougherty. They include: • Bonus Depreciation - First year depreciation deduction of 50% for commercial GHP equipment. • Business-Related Expensing - Up to $500,000 per year for GHP equipment. • Energy Efficient Homes - Credit for new energy-efficient homes used as residences. $1,000 for homes that meet a 30% reduction in annual heating and cooling energy, and $2,000 for new homes that meet a 50% reduction. • Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings (Sec. 179) - Building owners are allowed a deduction for equipment to reduce total annual energy costs by 50% or more. The deduction is $1.80 per sq. ft. of property during year of expenditures.

You should always check with your personal tax specialists/accountant to verify the credits and incentives that your GHP projects are eligible for. In addition to federal credits and tax extenders, a number of states provide rebates and tax credits for GHP installations. Examples include: • Connecticut – The Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund offers rebates for qualifying geothermal heat and cooling systems of $500 per ton up to $1,500 per dwelling unit. Website: http://www.energizect.com/ residents/programs/geothermal-heatpump-rebates. • Iowa – Iowa provides a tax credit for residential GHPs equal to 20% of the federal GHP tax credit. • Maryland – The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) provides grants for renewable energy systems installations, including GHPs, offering $3,000 for 1- to 10-ton systems. Website: http:// e n e rg y. m a r y l a n d . g o v / R e s i d e n t i a l / cleanenergygrants/. • Massachusetts – The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) recently announced a $30 million commitment to support installations of home and commercial clean heating and cooling systems—including high-efficiency GHPs. Website: http://www.masscec.com/ programs/ clean-heating-and-cooling. These are only a handful of GHP incentives available around the country. Check the “Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency” (DSIRE) website at http://www.dsireusa.org/ for details about GHP incentives in your state. Be sure to contact your state departments of resources and energy to check on their offerings, and don’t forget to contact your local electricity provider to learn about the incentives for GHPs that they might offer as well. For more information about geothermal heat pumps, visit the GEO website at www.geoexchange. org. Or call us at: (800) 255-4436.



ALA Welcomes New Members • Summer 2015 Professional Members Mr. Kirk Admire ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Thomas Ahleman ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Robert Barr ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Douglas Clark ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Arthur Cole ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. William Cotterman ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Ryan Debari ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Robert Doornbos ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Chris Hagen ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Duane Hicks ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Alexander Hothan ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professor David Hughes ALA . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Michael Hulsey ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. James Moyer ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. John Paulson ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Joanne Pizzo ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Michael Sparks ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Paul Summers ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Dan Tessarolo ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Christopher Walsh ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mrs. Thea Watters ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mrs. Kathy Williams ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Clarendon Hills, IL Evanston, IL Milwaukee, WI Wolf Creek, OR Redstone Arsenal, AL Indianapolis, IN Glen Ellyn, IL Marne, MI Olivette, MO Independence, MO Frankfort, IL Cleveland, OH Lima, OH Northbrook, IL Arcadia, MI Philadelphia, PA Elmhurst, IL Danville, IN Des Plaines, IL Chicago, IL Menomonee Falls, WI St. Louis, MO

Senior Members Mr. John Haley ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. John McKay ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. David Offenberg ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. John Yost ALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Highland Park, IL Columbus, OH Chicago, IL Waukesha, WI

Associate Members Mr. Sawyer Burton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kimberly, WI Mr. Adam Gibson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carmel, IN Mr. Jeff Manzetti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verona, WI

Affililate Members Mr. John Brisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Netrix LLC Mr. Matthew Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APA - The Engineered Wood Association Ms. Kelly Gasner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAGE Electrochromics Ms. Loretta Kunes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bath Fitter Ms. Tammy Schroeder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linetec Ms. Rebecca Waugh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood Haven, Inc. New Graduate Mr. Andrew Cesarz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Michelle Edwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Michelle Hauk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Andrew Hostetler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Kathryn Husar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Andres Pinto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Nada Shuaib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Caitlyn Steele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Matthew Tierney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Tyler Wade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Lukasz Wojnicz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mr. Aaron Yakel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Milwaukee, WI Central Lake, MI St. Louis, MO Nashville, TN South Ogden, UT Wheaton, IL Boston, MA Myrtle Beach, SC Minneapolis, MN Climax, MI Palos Hills, IL Port Washington, WI

Student Ekerin Agboola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eric Baldwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Chorosevic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patricia McKissack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robert Musial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oak Park, IL Ozark, MO Naperville, IL Urbana, IL Addison, IL

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Providing Contractor Referrals To Owners Poses Risks by Shawn E. Goodman, Sabo & Zahn, Attorneys at Law

rchitects are often asked by owners for referrals to contractors, especially when it comes to small commercial and residential projects. While it may be nice to be helpful, this advice can carry significant risks if the contractor performs poorly or defaults. If an owner hires a contractor based on the architect’s suggestion, the owner may assume the architect is vouching for not only the contractor’s construction ability, but also its honesty and financial soundness. Contractors can get into trouble for reasons other than whether they can properly supervise the work. For instance, a contractor may have taken on more than it can handle, or may not have adequate personnel to properly supervise all the new projects undertaken. In other cases, a contractor’s job may be in financial trouble, and it may have to “rob Peter to pay Paul,” i.e., use the owner’s payments on one project to pay subcontractors and workers on another. This invariably leads to financial disaster for the contractor and, subsequently, the owner. If the owner winds up terminating a recommended contractor, the owner may blame the architect for the resulting increased cost to complete the project. Usually, as a result of the loss of the contractor, there is a significant delay in the project which results in additional expenses to the owner, such as having to rent an alternative location, and insurance and taxes during the delay period. The owner is unlikely to recover such costs from the defaulting contractor, so there will be a tendency to try recovering these “damages” from the architect. The architect probably has insurance, so there is a potential pot of money to pursue. (continued on page 31)



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You may join online at www.alatoday.org. Click on “membership”. LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 19 NO. 2 - SUMMER/FALL 2015





A major healthcare institution in the Chicago area recently constructed a large laboratory on its hospital campus. The 45,000 sq. ft. (4,180 m2) basement of this facility was divided into many small rooms and spaces constructed entirely of 17’-6” (5.3 m) high masonry partitions, corridor walls and shaft walls (Figure 1), all of which were grouted and reinforced vertically and horizontally. The laboratory function of the building necessitated extensive and well- coordinated mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systems, all running within and through the reinforced masonry walls. The entire project, including the masonry, was constructed with full BIM integration. This paper will document the construction


Project Information The project name, owner, and architect are withheld. The general contractor (contractor) was Power Construction, Chicago, Illinois (Chris Coyne, Superintendent; Matt Lepper, Project Engineer; Jim Schrader, BIM Manager). The mason contractor was Richards and Weyer Construction Co., Inc (Peter Sindic, Project Manager; Larry McGaffee, Foreman). The mechanical contractor was Mechanical Inc.; the electrical contractor was Meade; the plumbing contractor was Hill; the fire protection contractor was U.S. Fire Protection. The Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing (MEP) trades are credited here because they worked collaboratively with the mason contractor during construction. The contractor’s BIM Execution Plan (BEP) required each specialty contractor, including the mason contractor, to comply with BIM coordination procedures set forth by the contractor.

of pipes and ducts at various elevations would present an unnecessary obstacle to the masons if they were installed prior to the masonry. Conversely, installing the MEP components after the masonry would require excessive cutting through block walls, resulting in inefficiencies. Therefore it made sense to build the block walls with the accommodations for pipes and ducts in a single operation, with the MEP trades working side by side with the bricklayers. This unconventional work method called for a comprehensive and accurate BIM model to facilitate construction.

Sequencing of Trades Due to the building’s unique laboratory function, its design required a complex network of ductwork and piping for the following utility services, which for simplicity’s sake this paper will refer to as MEP:

Figure 1. Bricklayers constructed the masonry on this new laboratory building using BIM technology and tablet computers.

process of these masonry walls built to accommodate over 1,500 penetrations, pipe sleeves, and embedded vertical systems per the BIM model. It will examine the role of tablet computers and other non-traditional information delivery methods, as well as communication and coordination between the masonry and related trades in the construction of these complex masonry walls.

• Electrical • Fire protection • HVAC • Water

• Mechanical pipe • Medical / Lab pipe • Domestic Water Vent

The contractor made the early decision to sequence the installation of the MEP piping and ductwork within and through the masonry walls simultaneously with the masonry construction (see Figure 2). Only a few large sections of ductwork directmounted to the structural slab above were installed prior to the masonry. The contractor rationalized that the thousands

Figure 2. The bricklayers worked alongside the MEP trades to install pipe sleeves through the masonry walls as they were constructed, per the BIM model.


Architectural Model

As part of the construction documents process, the architect issued a preliminary BIM model done in Revit software. This model was very basic, showing only the masonry wall locations and dimensions, without much detail on the interface of MEP elements intersecting or inside the masonry walls. The model was useful to the contractor for bidding purposes, but they needed a more detailed model for construction. (continued on page 32)

1 Director of Industry Development and Technical Service, International Masonry Institute, 2140 W. Corporate Drive, Addison, IL 60101, USA, sconwell@imiweb.org



Energy Efficiency Starts at the Top Creating an energy efficient building takes more than a lot of insulation on the roof. From the bottom up, there is an art and a science to creating a Building Envelope that is an air and water tight system. The Building Envelope is key to successfully meeting the New 2012 International/Illinois Energy Code, International Green Construction Code and Chicago’s Energy Benchmarking Ordinance requirements. Chicagoland Roofing Council Contractors work with building owners and managers and roofing designers to ensure that every roof they install is reasonably priced and provides energy saving options that keep buildings dry and up to, or beyond, minimum Energy Code Requirements. Chicagoland Roofing Council Contractors

stay on top of the issues that affect cost and performance of the complete rooftop as a system. They guide you through the selection process for the best energy efficient, most competitive and long lasting roof possible. Chicagoland Roofing Council Contractors – One Call, Single Source Responsibility, for everything on top of the roof and a building envelope system that works too.

Call 708.449.5266 or visit www.chicagoroofing.org to find the best Roofing Professionals.

www.chicagoroofing.org LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 19 NO. 2 - SUMMER/FALL 2015



ARE YOU CODE BLIND? by Kelly P. Reynolds ALA Code Consultant


ow many times have you read something in the code and came up with a different interpretation each time? What about stopping when you find an answer you like, but forget to check the footnotes and related references? Or, you can’t find what you want because you do not understand the nomenclature the code uses. If you experience any of these problems, then you are probably “code blind”. I once had a case where I was the expert witness representing a business that the fire marshal claimed had alleged code violations. When I took the stand to testify, the prosecuting attorney for the city asked me to read a paragraph from a book he had. I looked at the book and told the judge that this was a textbook, not the adopted code itself. There was a silence in the courtroom. The city attorney had that “deer in the headlights” look on his face. All parties then met in the judges chambers and the matter was dismissed. The fire marshal was code blind and did not use the code book to build his case, but instead relied on something he read in a textbook, not the actual code. In another situation, the architect was reading a code table incorrectly and came up with some hellish rationale that all the walls in a Business/S-1 mixed use group needed a 4-hour fire rating. After I explained the correct way to read the table, it was determined that the B-use group walls were not required to be rated. Only the portion of the wall separating the S-1 needed a fire rating. Misreading and wrong interpretations of the code are not only dangerous, but creates unnecessary costs to construction and the owners. One of my favorites is a 1,500 sq. ft. jewelry store with two exits, exit signs and panic hardware. Panic hardware is only required in certain use groups (A, E and H) with two exits with exit signs only if the occupant load exceeds 50 persons. This small jewelry store did not require any of these costly upgrades. Again, the architect was code blind to the minimum code requirements.

My Advice: Don’t over think the Code. It says what it says. If you have any questions, just call Kelly at 800-950-2633.

Helping you run your organization better Mailing: 154 Wire Road, Thomson,GA 30824 Shipping: 1742 Warrenton Hwy., NW, Ste. B, Thomson, GA 30824 Mobile: 706-990-8963 Sales: 1-800-531-5558 Support: 1-800-TEC-WOOD Fax: 706-595-6600 JAMES P. GOGOLSKI jgogolski@frtw.com www.frtw.com Marketing Representative



Rena M. Klein, FAIA rena@rmklein.com 206-898-9740 http://rmklein.com/


Accessibility in Religious Facilities by Kimberly Paarlberg, RA, Senior Staff Architect, ICC


ften a religious facility serves a broad role in the community. Due to the separation of church and state in our federal government the Americans with Disabilities Act does not apply to religious facilities. However, the International Building Code® (IBC) treats these buildings the same as all others when it comes to applicable minimum health and safety requirements, including those for accessibility. While religious facilities can have a variety of uses, the primary focus is typically the worship area. Be it church, temple, synagogue or mosque, the IBC addresses these types of uses as it would any typical assembly space. This includes access to the seating areas in the nave or prayer hall, presentation and performance areas, speaker platforms and other raised or lowered areas in the front of the sanctuary, or other areas open to and surrounding the main worship area, such as chapels. In the seating area, based on the number of seats, a number of wheelchair spaces in accordance with IBC Table 1108.2.2.1 must be provided. In venues larger than 150 seats, wheelchair spaces must be distributed among different wheelchair space locations (ICC 802.10). There is an exception for dispersion to a balcony if the balcony contains less than 25 percent of the total seating (IBC 1108.2.4 Exception 1). Wheelchair spaces also must be dispersed by type where different types are provided. For example, if the worship area has separate men’s and women’s seating, wheelchair spaces must be provided on both sides. (continued on page 14)




(continued from page 13)

Wheelchair spaces must be adjacent and have shoulder alignment with a companion seat. Both the wheelchair space and the companion seat must be integrated into the general seating (IBC 1108.2.3, ICC 802.6, 802.7). While people often stand during religious facilities, this usually is to participate, not to view the event. Therefore, line of sight for the persons in the wheelchair space can be between or over heads of seating persons. Persons in wheelchair spaces do not have to be elevated to provide a line of sight over standing spectators (ICC 802.9). Five percent of the aisle seats must serve as designated aisle seats (IBC 1108.2.5, ICC 802.8). These seats are for persons who have difficulty moving between the rows of seats down the aisle access way. The end caps on pews are not required to be folding or retractable, because there are no armrests for other seats in the pews (ICC 802.8.1). If a sound system is provided, assistive listening devices are required (IBC 1108.2.7). There are several types of systems available. Most receivers are wireless and about the size of a cell phone. Some areas of a religious facility are required to be raised to allow for a line of sight from the audience to the person speaking (e.g., a pulpit), or raised as part of the tradition or symbolism in the religious facility (e.g., minbar in a mosque, high altar in a church, Torah arks in a synagogue). There are also areas in a religious facility that are lowered below the platform or floor (e.g., a full-immersion baptistery). Often, there can be several different raised or lowered areas as part of the same platform. Accessible routes are required to all spaces within a building (IBC 1104.3.1), therefore, the raised area in front of the worship area must be accessed by a ramp or platform lift (IBC 1109.8 Item 1). Where there are steps directly from the worship area to the platform, the accessible route between levels also has to be within the worship area (ICC 1108.2.8). Some of the raised or lowered areas are very small. For example, a pulpit often takes up less than 10 square feet. Due to the nature of many religious ceremonies, the pulpit often is occupied by persons other than the minister or priest. Therefore, the pulpit cannot use the exception for employee work areas (IBC Section 1103.2.2). There may be several of these small areas on the same platform. Making them accessible is difficult due to limited space or no clear direction on what would be required. For example, the provisions for bathtubs or hot tubs do not

work for a full-immersion baptistery. Many religious facilities were receiving variances for these areas through their local code processes. The 2015 IBC has new allowances to address these areas designed to create consistency by specifically providing the details of where access is not required. A general exemption is now provided that removes the access requirement where the elements are used “primarily for the performance of religious ceremonies,” are of a limited size (areas less than 300 square feet) and are either raised or lowered 7 inches or more from the accessible level. It should be noted the provision is not an aggregate area limitation, so it would be permissible to have several elements exempted separately. The size and elevation differences selected for this exemption were based on exist- ing provisions with the codeexempt employee work areas. Having a size limitation and elevation threshold will allow an exemption for these reasonably sized areas of the religious practice but will not exempt the entire building, as does the ADA. They also will ensure elements used by a large number of people, such as choir seating areas or large sanctuary platforms, exceeding the size limit will be accessible. It is possible someone in that group may need the access and it does not typically directly affect the traditional religious elements of the building. In most facilities, the result will be an accessible route to the main platform, but not to raised areas on that platform.

“Wheelchair spaces must be adjacent and have shoulder alignment with a companion seat.”



2015 CODE: 1103.2 General Exceptions. Sites, buildings, structures, facilities, elements and spaces shall be exempt from this chapter to the extent specified in this section. 1103.2.8 Areas in Places of Religious Worship. Raised or lowered areas, or portions of areas, in places of religious worship that are less than 300 square feet (30 m2) in area and located 7 inches (178 mm) or more above or below the finished floor and used primarily for the performance of religious ceremonies, are not required to comply with this chapter.

Introduction to

Featured Architects pages 16-17, 18-19, 20-21



Fea tu r e d Ar c h i te c t

Bruns Architecture is a small group of passionate and dedicated architects. The firm was founded in 2008 with the simple goal of designing and building well. We believe that through careful listening, rigorous study, strong relationships, and innovative thinking we can improve our spatial surroundings by delivering thoughtful, lasting architecture. We believe that every project deserves unique attention. The experience of the end-user is our focus. We enjoy developing relationships with our clients, learning who they are, how they live and work, and understanding their needs, aspirations and dreams. Through this process of discovery we distill the essence of the project. The resulting vision becomes an invaluable tool that cultivates the design and construction process. We believe that our holistic approach is what sets us apart. Specializing in highly crafted residential and commercial design, we offer a full range of architectural and design services from initial concept and planning through final detailing, construction administration and furniture design. Through careful composition, selective materiality, strong connection to the site, and in specific response to program and budget, we offer a consistent vision and the value of good design.

BRENNER BREWING COMPANY Milwaukee, WI Carved into the fabric of a century old warehouse in the Walker’s Point neighborhood of Milwaukee, Brenner Brewing Company’s gallery-like brewing facility and tasting room re-imagines the ubiquitous brewery in favor of a clean, crisp backdrop not only for craft beer but also local art.

FIELDSTONE HOUSE Rock picking is every farmer’s springtime nemesis. Each winter as the earth freezes and thaws, rocks rise to the surface of the soil and must be removed before plowing can proceed. Stacked at the edges of fields, they become stone walls that tell stories of the region’s history. On a site consisting of both a small farm field and the heavily wooded topography of two glacial kettles, Fieldstone House is balanced about just such a wall with a glacial history all its own.

Photography by: Tricia Shay Photography



Fea tu r e d Ar c h i te c t MIDVALE COURTYARD HOUSE Balancing the introverted nature of a courtyard with the bold personality of an extrovert all while managing matters of privacy, this renovation builds on its solid mid-century roots. Located on a busy boulevard in the state’s capital, the 1,685 sf half-century old ranch home was confined and uninviting, leaving its spaces dark and disconnected from the site. The renovation and 840 sf addition of Midvale Courtyard House adds a proper entry, elevated master suite, and covered parking, but also pierces and stretches the solid forms to create connection between indoor and outdoor spaces. adds a proper entry, elevated master suite, and covered parking, but also pierces and stretches the solid forms to create connection between indoor and outdoor spaces. Photography by: Tricia Shay Photography

Photography by: Tricia Shay Photography

POOL HOUSE Punctuating the narrow riverside parcel of a legacy client, the Pool House provides a backdrop to this stunning oasis. Functioning as a changing and shower room for pool activity, a kitchen and bar for entertaining, a shelter for pool equipment, and a guest house, this charming bookend building serves multiple functions while reaching towards the sky and harnessing panoramic views of the river below.

ROCK RIVER HOUSE Located at the bend of a meandering river, Rock River House is designed to provide its owners with panoramic views of the glistening water below and forested nature preserve beyond. The family had admired the small, overgrown site for years, recognizing its potential at the end of a quiet street a few blocks from town. The program is deftly organized on the narrow wedge of land to create a delightfully functional collection of outdoor spaces while conserving the narrowest tip of the parcel as a view corridor for the community.

Photography by: Tricia Shay Photography



Fea tu r e d Ar c h i te c t

Marcia Stemwedel ALA | LEED AP, designer of a wide variety of commercial projects including work on Caribou Coffee Headquarters and the Saint Cloud Regional Airport Expansion and Russell Peterson ALA | CID, known for his successful Life Time Fitness designs and unique executive homes, have joined forces to create Clever Architecture located in St. Paul, MN. Clever Architecture provides refreshing, fun and innovative services in architecture, interiors, planning, landscapes, forensics and branding to a wide range of clients. Our design philosophy is rooted in several values: • • • • •

HEARING THE CLIENT | Listening to clients’ needs and taking them seriously. DESIGN RESTRAINT | Using the most efficient and minimal means to accomplish the solution. ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY | Paying attention to the complex world around us. TRANSFORMATIONAL EXPERIENCES | Raising the human spirit through built form. BALANCING ANALYTICS AND ART | Making sure that neither numbers nor artistry diminishes the other. • HUMAN TEXTURE | Enliven environments with sensory elements and comfort. Our goals are to solve problems from the inside out, continue to deliver superior service to our clients and to maintain our strong reputation in the art, detailing and buildability of projects. Ultimately, our job is to provide forthright and creative solutions that engage the imagination, and attain a successful project outcome.

Cabin for Photography Family A small 20’ x 40’ cabin nestled at the edge of a national forest on a secluded lake. The vision was to create a simple, yet elegant and clean lined cabin for two prominent commercial and life style photographers and their sons.

Project Architect: Russell Peterson Photography: Erika Ludwig Photograph



Fea tu r e d Ar c h i te c t

Charles Eastman Ohiyes’ A Trail Head Project Architects: Marcia Stemwedel and Russell Peterson Design of a complex 5 plus acre trailhead site at a unique turn in the Minnesota River located adjacent to the city of Morton Minnesota. The granite outcropped site includes canoe landing, interpretive trails, camp sites, unique education/picnic shelter, bike trails to adjacent historical monuments, landscaping and facilities.

Graphics: Clever Architecture

Native American Hmong Montessori Immersion Preschool Project Architect: Marcia Stemwedel Renovation of an existing school facility into a dual purpose language and cultural immersion preschool. Project features entry hallway with painted symbols and two long light colored and sun filled themed day rooms created from removing multiple interior walls and introducing new materials. Other elements included reception, food service, offices, meeting room, and restrooms.

Photography: Clever Architecture

SRF Consulting Group Office Expansion Project Manager: Marcia Stemwedel Project Architect: Russell Peterson Expansion of existing corporate office for transportation and environmental planning division features new more efficient and technology integrated office standards, flexible demountable walls for conferencing and offices, long roadway group layout table, “hotel” offices, and flexible banquette seating to enhance teamwork, group creativity and relieve pressure from the conference rooms.

Graphic: Clever Architecture & Prevolv



Fea tu r e d Ar c h i te c t

Robert G. Sinclair Architecture, Inc (RGSA) is a multifaceted full-service Architecture and Design firm based in Aspen Colorado. Their project range is international and their skill sets vary and complement each project undertaken. A broad aesthetic vocabulary is imbued into their traditional, historic, contemporary, and modern projects. With over 20 years experience, they have successfully executed a wide variety of projects from high end residential, condominium, commercial, resort, and hospitality. Principal Rob Sinclair personally oversees each project with his professional staff to ensure the continuity between design and execution. Rob earned a Masters in Architecture Degree from Syracuse University, studying in their abroad program in Florence Italy, focusing on Architecture and Urban Design in a historical context. His undergraduate studies were at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles earning a 5 year professional Bachelor of Architecture degree. Rob is a member of the American Institute of Architects, the Design Leadership Network, the Leaders of Design Council and the Institute of Classical Architecture & Art. Rob is licensed under NCARB and individually licensed in 8 states. He also belongs to the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the US Green Building Council, among supporting many other charitable organizations.

SUBURBAN CONTRAST De Pere, WI Surrounded by monotonous, sprawling, vinyl-clad suburbia, this house is highlighted from its context. Through the use of custom detailing and modern finishes, this home creates a thoroughly warm and inviting experience. Each space is sized specifically for its function, scale of furnishings, intricacy of detailing, and connection between interior and exterior.

Photo by Launch Photography

EQUESTRIAN STABLE Snowmass, CO This traditionally styled equestrian stable is crafted to appear generations old, complete with timber frame structure and authentic detailing. Every major component is reclaimed, including the timbers, siding material, decking, and slate roof.

Photo by Emily Redfield



Fea tu r e d Ar c h i te c t

CASA TUA ASPEN Aspen, CO Designed in collaboration with Michele Bonan. The experience in this remodeled three-story restaurant and private club is designed to feel like you are dining in the home of a good friend. The building encourages a friendly atmosphere through a rich palette of materials and highly detailed custom finishes that reflect the brand of the Casa Tua lifestyle.

Photo by David O Marlow Photography, Jason Dewey

HIGHLANDS RESIDENCE Aspen, CO Contemporary and transitional styles merge through many innovative complements. Coursed stone and roughhewn cedar exteriors match with clean interior lines and polished finishes that echo the home’s Asian influences. This mountain retreat boasts views of the Aspen Highlands Ski Resort and the twin peaks of the Maroon Bells.

Photo by David O Marlow Photography

LAKESIDE COTTAGE Reynolds Plantation, GA This traditional lakeside residence is nestled amongst the pine trees inside the gates of Reynolds Plantation. Its russet colored stone and cedar siding complement the palette of the surrounding pines. Inside, axial circulation orients the living spaces with framed views to the lake.

Photo by Terry Allen




Essentials for Small Firms: Good Partnerships by Rena M. Klein, FAIA

Having good partnerships in small firms relies on three aspects of compatibility: operational, interpersonal, and aspirational. Despite their inherent challenges, there are numerous motivations for entrepreneurial architects to form partnerships. Sharing a common narrative of what it means to be successful and the ability to collaborate effectively are critical qualities of a prosperous alliance. Entrepreneurial architects frequently start their firms as sole proprietors – often running the practice solo for several years. Many enjoy owning a firm alone, even as their firms begin to grow and hire employees. Others find sole ownership unsatisfying and are drawn to partnering with a peer –another skilled architect who will bring to the firm an element that is missing. Of course, many small firms also originate as partnerships of two or more. Some business partnerships are magical, as are some marriages, but the majority require a great deal of hard work to be truly successful.

Why Partner? Many sole proprietors will form partnerships in the hope of expanding the firm’s offerings and/or stimulating growth. They may be new, ambitious founders or seasoned leaders of well-established firms looking to create value beyond their personal scope. The newly sought partner is likely to

be someone with knowledge and market sector connections the founding partner lacks. The new partner may also have large firm experience, which the founding partner hopes will benefit the organizational structure and work processes of the existing firm. In this scenario, it is often challenging for the founding partner to accept the changes that a new partner brings to the firm. Although the new partner often brings good ideas, it is not unusual for resentment to build as the old firm is “re-invented.” Nor is it unusual for the new partner to disregard the importance of legacy processes and existing firm culture. To further exacerbate the situation, existing staff may feel the struggle between old and new influences, forming alliances behind one partner or the other and thus creating a toxic competitive atmosphere. Fledgling partnerships that take this destructive path are likely to be short-lived. Sole firm owners may look for partners who have skills and interests that complement

their own. If they are naturally personable and gifted at acquiring work, they may look for a partner who excels in project execution and delivery. Conversely, if a firm owner is a talented designer, he/she may seek a partner who is skillful in management. An intellectual, artistic firm owner may seek a partner who is action-oriented with a technical bent. This strategy can work well, although it too has its challenges. The specific danger here is the enabling of each partner’s weaknesses. “Designers” are often granted the liberty to ignore budgets and schedules, while “managers” may become exclusively focused on the short-term bottom line. Misaligned purpose, values and messages to the staff are the likely consequence of this kind of partnership.

What Makes Partnerships Work

Whatever the reasons for the formation of a partnership, certain qualities foster (continued on page 29 )




ALA Announces


Student Merit Award Winners The Association of Licensed Architects congratulates the following students for their academic excellence, numerous awards, honors and significant achievements in the schools of architecture. We believe these winners will be assets to the profession of architecture in the future, and continue to excel in their education and professional pursuits.



Ekerin Agboola

Karolina Chojnowska

The study of architecture has always fascinated Ekerin and Triton College has deepened his interest in the study, analysis, and design of space. In addition to becoming a registered architect, he plans to travel the world as much as possible to discover and experience new cultures so he can develop as a designer and architect.

Karolina has always been interested in art and design, but she discovered her passion for architecture this year at William Rainey Harper College. She is attending the University of Illinois in the fall where she is looking forward to continuing her studies towards a B.S. Arch. Afterwards; she hopes to achieve an M. Arch and then become a licensed architect.

Triton College, IL

Eric Baldwin

Drury University, MO Born and raised in the heart of the Midwest, Eric Baldwin attended Drury University for a first professional Master’s degree. In five years he interned at seven architecture firms across three continents, as well as becoming a writer and editor for three of the largest architectural publications in the world. Inspired by the power of education and an environmental optimist, Baldwin plans to become a licensed architect and then enter academia.

Perla Castillo

Wilbur Wright College, IL Perla Castillo is a student at Wilbur Wright College, Chicago. She is the Media and Communications chair of the Architecture Club. She plans to major in Architecture with a focus on sustainable design, and minor in photography at SIU. She is honored to have been chosen by her professor.

Andrew Cesarz

University of Wisconsin Andrew recently graduated with an Honors Degree with Distinction, Bachelor of Science in Architectural Studies. Through the past four years, opportunities through university research, study abroad, and school exhibitions have helped him to refine his personal goals and interests within the discipline of architecture. He is currently working at Johnsen Schmaling Architects in Milwaukee.



William Rainey Harper College, IL

Jennifer Chorosevic

University of Illinois at Urbana and Champaign- Undergraduate Jennifer graduated from the UIUC with University Honors. She was an active leader on campus as a member of Alpha Rho Chi and the Illinois Leadership Program. She spent her senior year studying abroad in Barcelona, Spain, which left an indelible impact on her future aspirations as an architect. After her graduate education at the University of Maryland, she looks forward to opening her own firm, focusing on the adaptive reuse of existing buildings.

Michelle Edwards

Ferris State University, MI – Undergraduate Program Michelle earned a BS in Architecture and Sustainability and a Minor in Facility Planning. Michelle was the recipient of the 2015 Architecture and Sustainability Outstanding Student award, the 2014 AIAS chapter president, and has been interning at Environment Architects in Northern Michigan for the past two summers. In the fall, she will continue her education at Clemson University in the Master of Architecture program where she was awarded a fellowship. She thanks ALA and Ferris State University for the award.

Michelle L. Hauk

Washington University in St. Louis, MO Michelle L. Hauk graduated this year from Washington University in St. Louis with a Master of Architecture and Master of Science in Architectural Studies. She wrote her architectural history thesis on postwar Japanese new towns. Michelle earned a Bachelor of Arts from Kalamazoo College in 2007, where she doublemajored in Fine Arts and East Asian Studies. This fall, she plans to join the faculty at Washington University in St. Louis where she will teach design studios and research seminars.

Andrew Jacob Hostetler

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Graduate Andrew Hostetler has understood architecture to be the product of three scales – building, human, and detail. The marriage of these three scales creates a quality piece of functioning architecture. Hostetler graduated with a Masters in Architecture from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. He completed his Masters in Civil and Environmental Engineering: Construction Management this summer. In June he began his professional career at Earl Swensson Associates in Nashville, Tennessee.

Kathryn Christine Husar

Judson University, IL- Graduate Kathryn Husar received her Master of Architecture degree from Judson University, from where she also earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Architecture. She is a member of the Tau Sigma Delta Honor Society and recipient of the Bronze Medal. Kathryn is thankful for the professors and mentors who have shepherded her through her architectural education. She will be working as an intern architect for BGW Services near Salt Lake City, Utah.

Robert Musial

Southern Illinois University - Graduate Robert received his Masters of Architecture at Southern Illinois University where he also received his Bachelors in Architectural Studies with Magna Cum Laude. Robert interned at Legat Architects in Oakbrook, IL over the last two winter and summer breaks. He intends to work in an architecture firm while applying for his MBA with an emphasis in real estate development. Robert thanks everyone who has supported him throughout his studies and is honored to receive this award from ALA.

Andres Pinto

College of DuPage, IL Andres just completed his third year in architecture at College of DuPage. He will spend the next year in military service after which he plans on resuming his studies. Andres wants to thank the faculty at COD for guiding him and teaching him. He hopes to one day teach design and inspire students the way his instructors have inspired him.

Francis Rogg Joshua Mac-Williams

University of Notre Dame, IN

Joshua Mac-Williams is from Little Village, Chicago, and recently graduated from Harold Washington College. He plans to be attending an accredited program this fall. Longterm, Joshua seeks to bring affordable and elegant efficiency to the built environment beginning in his own community.

Francis graduated from the University of Notre Dame and will be moving to the DC area to work as an architectural intern for Cooper Carry. He has been involved in various groups including Best Buddies and Youth for United World and pursued elective concentrations in furniture design and business enterprise.

Harold Washington College, IL

Patricia McKissack

Southern Illinois UniversityUndergraduate Program As an undergraduate student, Patricia participated in AIAS, Freedom By Design, Sociology Club, and the Marching Salukis. She developed strong leadership and communication skills that she plans to further enhance during her graduate studies. Patricia graduated with a Bachelor’s of Science in Architectural Studies and a Minor in Sociology. She has been accepted to the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign for graduate school and intends to pursue a dual Master’s in Architecture and Urban Planning.

Erick Sabin

Andrews University, MI Erick graduated with his M. Arch degree from Andrews University School of Architecture, Art, and Design. He is passionate about sustainable design and is currently training to become a LEED Green Associate. Upon graduation he plans to join a local architectural firm and begin his journey to becoming a licensed Architect. Erick has aspirations to start his own firm specializing in sustainable development back home in Texas. His other interests include drawing, painting, and beach volleyball. LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 19 NO. 2 - SUMMER/FALL 2015


Nada Shuaib

Miami University, OH - Graduate Nada’s artistic passion led her to an architectural career. She obtained a bachelor of architecture at University of Khartoum in her hometown Sudan and a Masters of Architecture at Miami University of Ohio. For Nada architecture is not restricted in designing spaces. It is an experience that an Architect has the privilege of directing its birth. Her goal is to become a successful global architect leading her own firm and inspiring people around the world.

Spencer Sommers

South Dakota State University Spencer graduated with a Bachelor’s of Science in Architectural Studies and a Minor in Construction from South Dakota State University. He currently holds an internship at COOP Architecture, a position he has held since 2012. This fall, Spencer will enter into SDSU’s Masters of Architecture program, where he will also TA. He would like to continue to travel during his education, before eventually getting licensed in his home state of South Dakota.

Caitlyn Steel

Miami University, OH- Under Graduate Caitlyn will be entering her fourth year of architecture at Miami University. She is currently a member of the University’s Funding Committee and treasurer of Miami Women’s Rugby Club. Her future plans include attending graduate school with a focus on sustainability, and with aspirations of starting her own firm.



Matt Tierney

University of Minnesota Through the MS and Research Practice at the University of Minnesota College of Design, Matt has completed 6 out of 7 ARE’s and is nearly done with his IDP requirements. Once licensed, Matt hopes to use his experience to lead cultural projects with Snow Kreilich Architects where he currently works as a designer. He hopes to blend architecture, landscape architecture, planning, and art during the course of his career.

Tyler Edward Wade

Judson University – Undergraduate Program Tyler Wade graduated with his B.A. in Architecture from Judson University. Tyler’s professors at Judson have been instrumental to his growing passion for architecture and have been incredible mentors. Other than architecture, Tyler enjoys coaching sports as well as teaching life lessons. Affordable housing is something that Tyler wants to pursue and how the built environment can empower people. Tyler would like to thank the ALA and Judson University for the award.

Lukasz Wojnicz

University of Illinois Chicago Lukasz Wojnicz graduated with a BS in Architecture from UIC. He is Director of Freedom by Design in UIC’s chapter of the AIAS, and also works as an intern at Landon Bone Baker Architects. Lukasz will continue his graduate studies at UIC this fall.


A Discussion on Architect & Engineer’s Professional Liability Insurance Limits by Dan Buelow, Managing Director Willis A&E


design firm’s professional liability (PL) risks are by far its greatest exposure - and their A&E’s PL practice policy is by far their most important insurance coverage. While there is no hard and fast rule as to how much PL insurance limit a design firm should carry, there are a number of variables and considerations that every firm will need to process beginning with two basic questions: what limits does the firm need to meet their contractual obligations and how much do they need to protect the financial core of their business? This latter question is a tad more abstract and difficult to answer. Benchmarking data on what other A&E firms purchase for insurance limits is helpful however, every firm needs to consider their own unique risk profile including their area of practice, scope of work, as well as type of projects and clients. Ultimately, the A&E marketplace will often have the final say on how much PL practice limit a given A&E firm can purchase based on the gross annual revenues of the firm. Considering that approximately 90% of all design firms in North America have fewer than ten employees, it’s no surprise that the vast majority of A&E firms carry PL practice limits of less than two million dollars. It’s important to note that A&E’s PL practice policies are on “claims made” coverage forms and include a “retroactive

date” which typically dates back to the date the firm was established. This means that whatever PL practice limits are in place during the current policy period will need to be sufficient enough to cover all possible claims for all work the firm has ever done since the day it first opened for business. Also, keep in mind that defense costs are inside the limits of most A&E PL policies and can and will erode a substantial amount of the available limit for any serious claim. In short, there is no simple answer to the question of how much PL limit an A&E firm should carry. Every firm should work with their specialty A&E broker to assess their unique exposures and A&E PL limit options – every year.

A Case for Split Limits I typically recommend my A&E clients purchase split limits versus a single limit for their A&E PL practice policy. Most A&E domestic A&E policies will not allow for a reinstate of limits in the event limits are exhausted during the policy period. If a firm has a single limit (the same limit for per claim as it is for the aggregate), it’s possible for one claim to erode the entire limit of the firm’s PL practice policy. A split limit will provide additional aggregate limit and the cost for this is quite reasonable. For example, to move from a single

PL limit of 2/2 ($2MM per claim and $2MM aggregate) to a split limit of 2/4 ($2MM per claim and $4MM aggregate) or a 5/5 to a 5/10 (and so on), the cost will be “around” 20% in additional premium. That’s a lot of coverage for a small amount of additional premium. And, if you believe that most plaintiff attorneys will try to sue you for whatever you have in available limits whenever they possibly can, it’s nice to know you have the additional aggregate limit to protect your firm.

Sub-Consultants and Vicarious Liability It’s prudent not only for owners to be concerned about the adequacy of their consultant’s PL practice limits, but also those consultants that hire sub-consultants and take on additional vicarious exposures. A lot of firms have been left holding the proverbial bag by taking on underinsured sub-consultants. Any decent PL insurance policy should provide coverage for the vicarious exposures a consultant assumes when contracting with a sub-consultant. However, the deductible expense and cost to settle a dispute – as well as the impact on the consultant’s future insurance costs can be significant. Given this, a design firm needs take extra precautions and have clear (continued on page 28)




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protocols in place when it comes to taking on sub-consultants. Carefully selecting your sub-consultants and having a well-drafted sub-consultant agreement is extremely important. Considering how much limit a given sub should have is also important and should be based on each sub-consultant’s discipline and scope of services. A structural sub consultant for example will most likely have a great deal more exposure than an interior designer on a given project. Also, for those larger more complex projects where a given sub-consultant may be responsible for a significant scope of service, it would be ideal to have the owner contract directly with those sub-consultants. While this can be a challenge when an owner wants to look to the Prime as one stop shop, I’ve seen firms achieve this contractually while retaining the responsibility for coordinating all subs. It is well worth the effort as it can greatly reduce your vicarious exposures. As for taking on a sub-consultant selected by the owner, I would push back hard on this unless you are fully comfortable with the sub-consultant. Lastly, you want to make certain to gather all certificates evidencing coverage from all your subs - throughout the period required by contract.

The Owner Should Hire The Geo Tech! I feel the owner should always hire the geo tech. Again, the owner may argue they want “one stop shop” from their prime consultant however, the average consultant doesn’t add anything to this equation other than their deductible and insurance limits. It’s the owner’s dirt and they should be held responsible for getting the site ready. While most A&E PL policies will provide vicarious coverage for hiring a sub-consultants, when it comes to taking on the geo tech exposures, the question will be, do you have enough coverage?

Get Named on the General Contractor’s GL! When having a discussion on A&E PL limits I think it’s a good idea to consider what isn’t covered by the A&E PL policy. It’s important to note that neither a design firm’s PL nor their GL (often BOP) policy is intended to cover supervision or at risk exposures. This exposure rightfully belongs with the GC. Given this, every prime consultant should require that they, and their sub-consultants, be named on the GC’s GL policy on a


“primary and non-contributory basis.” If a worker is injured on the site, the GC’s GL policy is the policy that should respond - not the A&E’s BOP or PL policy. Most good GC GL policies provide for this with a provision

“What limits does the firm need to meet their contractual obligations and how much do they need to protect the financial core of their business?” for “additional Insured by contract”. The challenge is on design-bid-build projects the consultant will need to achieve this via the owner’s agreement with their GC. This will take a bit of work and negotiation effort on the part of the consultant and if you are a sub-consultant downstream you can only hope the prime is successful in accomplishing this. It’s well worth the effort and more than reasonable for all consultants

“It’s prudent not only for owners to be concerned about the adequacy of their consultant’s PL practice limits, but also those consultants that hire sub-consultants and take on additional vicarious exposures.” to be additional insured on the GC’s GL policy. Rest assured the owner will require that they be named as an additional insured on the GC’s GL policy. The consultant isn’t


asking for anything more than what the owner is securing in this regard. If and when you succeed in this be sure to get a certificate (every year!) evidencing this coverage is in place.

Insurable Contracts are in EVERYONE’s Best Interest – Especially the Owner The design firm that works diligently with their prospective clients in negotiating a fair and insurable agreement is in fact doing their prospective client a huge favor. This unfortunately is often lost on the client. It’s particularly frustrating when a prospective client takes a “take it or leave it” stance in their contract negotiations. Some clients will even make the assertion that “if you don’t sign this crappy agreement some other design firm will”. These clients are apparently ignorant to the fact that an A&E firm’s PL insurance is third party coverage and it is arguably the only asset an owner/ client will be able to look to in the event of damages caused by the negligent act, errors or omissions of their A&E consultants. Design firms have little or no assets and there is no bonding that can protect the owner for this exposure. Given this, why would an owner want to compromise the A&E’s PL insurance in any way with uninsurable contract language? Unfortunately, too many owners overlook this fact or are given poor legal advice and often insist on having uninsurable clauses, including overly broad indemnity provisions that are simply uninsurable. This is not in anyone’s best interest – especially the owner. My advice is that owner’s should work with attorneys that specialize in A&E PL insurance and fully understand the standard of care of a design firm when drafting and negotiating their professional agreements – versus an attorney that specializes in contractor risk and GL insurance. Dan Buelow is Managing Director of Willis A&E, a specialty unit of Willis Inc., an international brokerage firm. Willis A&E is exclusively dedicated in providing insurance and risk management solutions to the design community. For more information on this topic or Willis A&E contact Dan at Dan.Buelow@Willis.com or visit www.WillisAE.com


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its success. First and most importantly, partners must share basic values and have complementary professional goals. It almost goes without saying that each must be competent, reliable and have effective work habits, even if work style differs between the partners. Other aspects of operational compatibility include clarity of roles and responsibilities and the ability of each partner to tap into different social networking arenas. But operational compatibility will only go so far. Often, the very differences that cause people to consider one another as a partner pose significant challenges for effective cooperation. Social science research has shown that different career paths attract people with differing talents and personality types. Therefore, when two professionals with divergent experience and knowledge are brought together under one firm, it is not surprising that conflicts arise and/or varying perspectives clash. This is where interpersonal compatibility becomes essential. Interpersonal compatibility, as defined for the purposes of this article, is a similarity in the manner in which each partner deals with relationships. Successful partners possess a high degree of emotional intelligence about themselves and others. They have the ability to be honest communicators – to say what they mean and mean what the say. They also communicate frequently, in both structured and unstructured forums. Partners who are interpersonally compatible demonstrate a willingness to stay current about their thoughts and feelings with one another, avoiding hidden resentments and the “building of a case” against one another. This kind of compatibility is essential to successful collaboration over the long haul. It is easy to see how a married couple might have an advantage in this aspect of partnering. The couple is likely to be ahead of the curve when it comes to interpersonal communication and understanding. Expressing mutual respect and appreciation, and seeing the success of the partner as a personal success, may likewise come easier to married firm leaders. Yet all partners who work well together must have a measure of these qualities – a willingness to accept their partners’ differences and operate with a spirit of generosity. The flipside to this scenario is not hard to imagine: Partners who differ greatly in interpersonal style are in for a rocky ride.

For example, if one partner tends to be withholding of his/her feelings whereas the other is overly expressive, a mutual understanding between the two is likely to be severely strained. Without the mutuality that arises from appreciation and respect, unsavory emotions such as jealousy, envy and competitiveness may surface – or worse, lurk dangerously beneath the surface. In this case, the partners may require the consultation of a skilled organizational psychologist if they want their partnership to survive.

Rules of the Road On the practical level, it is important that partners draft a written agreement that serves as a guide during the twists and

“Interpersonal compatibility, as defined for the purposes of this article, is a similarity in the manner in which each partner deals with relationships. Successful partners possess a high degree of emotional intelligence about themselves and others.” turns of practice and professional life. This is especially important considering the high likelihood of changes to a partnership over time. A consultant can facilitate conversations to help partners form an agreement, and an attorney for each partner should be involved to draft and review a legally binding partnership agreement. At a minimum, partnership agreements should include: • The name of the partnership and the names of each of the partners • A general description of the type of business that will be conducted • The powers and duties of the partners, including any limitations or restrictions

• The financial contribution (cash, labor and/ or equipment) each partner will make. • How profits and losses are to be divided • How partners can leave the business and how new partners can be added • Ownership of intellectual property • Exclusivity: Is a partner allowed to work on projects outside the partnership, which will not contribute to the income of the partnership? • Dispute resolution process Careful consideration must be given to whether the legal entity should be a Partnership or Corporation. For example, it is important to understand that in a Partnership, partners are personally liable for all debts and financial obligations of the Partnership. Laws vary from state to state, so seek professional advice to understand the legal and financial implications of forming a business partnership.

What Makes Partnerships Fail Situation #1: Partnerships that fail quickly are those in which one or more partners misunderstand, and thereby misrepresent, their own leadership style. The partners may think they want to collaborate on decisionmaking, and they may believe that differing approaches will strengthen their firm; but in the day-to-day world of real practice, they may quickly discover otherwise. Entrepreneurial architects who are used to calling the shots can become impatient with one another, growing tired of drawnout discussions and joint decision-making. Sometimes détente occurs with each partner taking control of separate aspects of different “studios” or departments within the practice. This is a functional, but by no means optimal, solution.

Lesson Learned: Make sure you know your leadership style. If you like being “king” you may not like being a partner. Take care not to make promises regarding power sharing that you may not be able to keep in the long-term. Remember, partnerships don’t always have to be 50/50. (continued on page 30)




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Situation #2:

Lesson Learned:

Partnerships are also at risk as firm owners enter mid-life and their firms have matured and stabilized. Partners that have always gotten along may find that their priorities are shifting and differences that were once workable have become untenable. Differing goals and value systems suddenly appear to emerge. Many partnerships dissolve and reconfigure at this stage of professional life.

Prepare for change in advance: Partnership agreements must have an “exit strategy” – one that is agreed to long before it is needed. Stay aware of changes in personal interests and priorities and make adjustments before a crisis forces them on you.

Situation #3: It is often said that business partnerships are similar to marriages. Let us not forget

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that 50% of marriages end in divorce. Partnerships that are based on an alliance of two people who have very divergent professional experiences can be extremely challenging. All the stereotype dualities about different types of architects have some basis in fact – the creative designer versus the efficient project manager, the people person versus the brainy introvert, the scattered visionary versus the rational organizer. It takes a great deal of work to bridge these kinds of personality and professional gaps. If partners are able to achieve a mutual understanding, however, they can leverage their differences positively and create a powerhouse firm.

Lessons Learned: It is reasonable to partner with someone who has a very different work history, professional strengths and personality style. But if you do, be prepared to work extra hard at accepting and appreciating one another’s differences. Make sure your prospective partner is willing to do so as well. Consider soliciting assistance from an organizational psychologist to help you learn to collaborate effectively and efficiently. Otherwise, prepare for divorce court.


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When entrepreneurial architects form business partnerships, they must be sure they are ready to share decision-making power. They must also be prepared to face differing perspectives, finding a way to welcome rather than resist them. They must understand that their priorities and interests may change over time and prepare accordingly. The potential for increased revenues, greater diversity in project types, expanded services and the creation of a firm that has value beyond its founder are strong motivators when considering taking on a partner. Just be sure to exhaustively evaluate the compatibility of operational skills, interpersonal style and aspirational goals before “tying the knot.”

Rena M. Klein, FAIA is the author of The Architect’s Guide to Small Firm Management (Wiley, 2010) and principal of RM Klein Consulting, a firm that specializes in financial management support, strategic planning, and helping small firm owners run their firms better.


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Why would the architect be responsible for damages caused by the contractor? After all, the standard form documents, such as section of American Institute of Architects (AIA) B101-2007, “Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Architect,” provide in pertinent part as follows: “The Architect shall be responsible for the Architect’s negligent acts or omissions, but shall not have control over or charge of, and shall not be responsible for, acts or omissions of the Contractor or of any other persons or entities performing portions of the Work.” While this states that the architect is not responsible for acts or omissions of the contractor, it does not mean the architect is off the hook, especially if the contractor was recommended by the architect and the owner subsequently suffers damages. It will make perfect sense to the owner to accuse the architect of improperly or negligently recommending a contractor that cannot perform the work or that is not financially able to complete the project. A direct claim against the architect for negligently recommending the contractor might not have a high probability of success, assuming the architect was functioning in a more traditional role by providing design services. While Illinois, for example, recognizes a cause of action for “negligent misrepresentation,” it has only limited application to design professionals. If an architect is hired “solely to provide information rather than construct a building or structure,” then there could be liability, but not otherwise.1 However, a disgruntled owner who wants to hold responsible the architect for the errors and omissions of the contractor to which the owner was referred has a number of ways to try doing so, even if a recognized industry form contract is used. By way of example, the following is a short list of allegations in a lawsuit, eventually settled, involving construction defects against an architect who had an AIA B141/CMa-1992, “Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Architect Where the Construction Manager is NOT a Constructor”:

• wrongfully issuing Certificates of Payment to the [owner], which induced the [owner] to pay for defective work; • failing to respond to notices received from the [owner] relating to construction defects, including but not limited to, problems relating to water infiltration, improperly constructed concrete stoops, asphalt, windows, sealants and dry sprinkler systems . . . . Note that the plaintiff owner was very careful to couch its pleading against the defendant architect in terms basically ripped from section 2.6 of B141/CMa-1992, which lays out the architect’s construction phase responsibilities. In other words, the owner was seeking to hold the architect liable for the contractor’s mistakes by alleging that, had the architect sufficiently performed its construction administration, those mistakes could have been avoided. An added difficulty for architects is that standard form contracts are often not even employed on smaller projects. Instead, the parties may use proposals, letter agreements, or simply handshake agreements. These will almost certainly not include anything regarding the architect’s responsibility for the contractor’s failure to complete the project within a reasonable time or within a budget. All too frequently, owners and judges are under a misconception as to the ability of an architect to judge the capability of a contractor, financially or work-wise. Add to this the uncertainty of the market, and the architect is even worse than a meteorologist in forecasting how a contractor will perform several months down the road. What can the architect do when faced with an owner’s urgent request for the identity of a contractor to hire? The first and most obvious answer is not to give one. Of course, that may not be practical considering its unresponsiveness. The architect needs to be scrupulous in terms of what is disclosed to the owner. One can suggest contractors for the owner to interview. For each, disclose all prior dealings and explain why there is a recommendation. If the architect has a financial stake in the contractor, that must be disclosed. All of this must also be in writing. The architect should also, in writing, tell the owner that the architect cannot guarantee the contractor’s performance, and the owner’s own due diligence should be performed, such as contacting former clients of each contractor to see what their experiences have been. There is no perfect way to protect the architect in these situations. Explaining the limits of the architect’s capacity to refer contractors is helpful. Keeping a close eye on the progress of the project and warning the owner of red flags in the contractor’s performance will keep the owner on the architect’s side. A good contract is, as always, an excellent idea.

“If the owner winds up terminating a recommended contractor, the owner may blame the architect for the resulting increased cost to complete the project.”

• failing to visit the site at intervals appropriate to the stage of construction to become generally familiar with the progress and quality of the work completed to determine in general if the work [was] being performed in a manner that would indicate that the work, when completed, would be in accordance with the contract documents; • failing to keep the [owner] informed of the progress and quality of the work to guard the [owner] against defects and deficiencies in the work; • failing to require adequate testing and inspection of the work to ensure that the work would be completed in accordance with plans and specifications; • failing to reject work which was not completed in accordance with the design plans and specifications for the . . . Project; • failing to review contractors’ submittals such as shop drawings, product data, and samples to ensure that they conformed to the Applicable Standards and design plans and specifications;

1 Tolan & Son v. KLLM Architects, 308 Ill.App.3d 18, 21, 719 N.E.2d 288, 291 (1st Dist. 1999).




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Coordination Model Upon award, the contractor imported the architect’s Revit model into Navisworks and began to add information necessary for construction. The contractor’s model would supersede the architect’s model and would become the only model used for

overview of all the trades’ work, the contractor generated a separate BIM model, the composite model, to provide information for all MEP elements passing through and within the masonry walls. This model was to be detailed enough for construction purposes. In fact, the composite model was generated for the benefit of the mason contractor and the related MEP trades working alongside the bricklayers. The composite model was used to generate dimensioned, Figure 6. A bricklayer installs mechanical duct sleeves at precise 2D plans and elevations locations per the BIM model, as he constructs the masonry. out on the composite model drawings (Figures 4 and 5) in PDF format (Figures 6 and 7). The length of the sleeve that were uploaded to a cloud corresponded to the thickness of the wall, storage server and accessible Figure 3. The coordination model shows MEP pipes and ducts passing and its dimensions corresponded to the through the masonry walls. See Figure 4 caption for the color coding legend. to the bricklayers in the field via pipe or duct to be run through the sleeve. tablet computer and/or printed construction and as-built documentation In some cases, if two or more sleeves were in drawings. of all portions of the project, including close proximity, they would be boxed out by These plans and elevations showed the masonry. The contractor’s Navisworks a larger rectangular sleeve. The composite precise locations and sizes of over 1,500 model was known as the coordination model model dimensioned round sleeves (Figure 3) because it showed the work of all to their centers, and rectangular trades and the interrelationships between sleeves to their bottoms. Dimensions them. The coordination model’s purpose appeared on the model to the nearest was not to show a great level of detail, but 1/16 in. (0.15 cm), but the tolerance rather to provide a comprehensive overview was about ±1/4 in (0.6 cm). of the work of all trades. The contractor built the To generate the coordination model, composite sleeve model in Revit. It the contractor gathered and processed was generated after the coordination information from the MEP specialty model, and was used to support, contractors. Some of the MEP contractors validate, and verify the coordination had done their own BIM models in a variety model. Any changes in construction of software platforms, and some had only were first made on the coordination Figure 4. This plan view of the composite model shows some of the 2D drawings. The mason contractor had MEP penetrations. Light green is mechanical, dark green is water, yellow model, and then, if necessary, made is electrical, red is fire protection, blue is HVAC, and cyan is plumbing / neither. Among the BIM models and on the composite model. The domestic water vent. drawings of the MEP trades, there was no composite model was particularly consistency in dimensioning techniques, useful to the mason contractor, as it penetrations required of the masons and i.e. some would dimension to the bottom consolidated information from other related trades during construction of the of their duct or pipe, and some would trades and effectively replaced seven masonry. dimension to the center. Therefore, it individual sets of MEP shop drawings that The penetrations through the masonry, became the contractor’s challenge to would otherwise be necessary. During whether round or rectangular, generally had gather the information and standardize it in construction, any updates to the sleeve a sleeve of sheet metal or plastic that the the coordination model. model were electronically pushed to the bricklayers carefully placed in the block wall The coordination model was generally mason contractor’s tablet computer. at the precise location and elevation called used only for reference. Members of the project team viewed the coordination Control of the BIM Models model on computers and tablets, but it As in typical construction projects, was rarely printed. Throughout construction, if any changes were necessary the contractor maintained the coordination during construction, for example model, keeping it current as RFIs and if a wall or door were to change changes to construction were processed, for location, the architect would issue example, changing the locations of doors in the contractor a bulletin and some of the masonry walls. possibly an accompanying sketch to graphically describe the change. Composite Model Figure 5. This partial elevation view of the composite model locates the From the time construction began, MEP sleeve penetrations for the bricklayers. Each sleeve has a unique however, the architect was not able While it was the function of the coordinanumber and each is color-coded per trade. See Figure 4 caption for the tion model to provide a comprehensive to make changes to the coordicolor coding legend.



by the contractor and the respective MEP foremen. Each Tuesday morning, the masonry foreman marked up a copy of the basement floor plan Figure 7. As the concrete masonry was constructed, the bricklayersinstalled 468 sleeves for HVAC, 69 sleeves for electrical, 159 sleeves for mechanical pipe, 257 sleeves to indicate where the for fire protection, 231 sleeves for plumbing, 343 sleeves for water, and 10 sleeves for bricklayers would be miscellaneous, resulting in a total of 1,537 sleeves in the masonry walls. working that week, and nation model, the primary BIM model. The communicated that with coordination model was under the control the contractor. The contractor then advised of the contractor throughout construction. the MEP contractors of the areas of work The architect and other parties could view so they could prepare their labor and the model, but the contractor was the only materials. The MEP trades needed to know one able to make changes to the model the masons’ plans 4 to 5 days in advance during construction. Upon completion of in order to relocate their manpower from the project, the BIM model would be turned other areas on the job, and to stage over to the owner for facility management. their horizontal penetration sleeves and vertical in-wall piping, making sure to have WORKFLOW them ready for the masons at the proper time. Each day, sometimes twice per day, Construction Workflow the mechanical and plumbing foremen Unlike most projects where the masonry checked in with the masonry foreman on crews work relatively independently of specific manpower and material needs. other trades, this project relied on close communications between the contractor, Prefabrication the mason contractor, the mechanical The central role of the BIM models and the contractor, the electrical contractor, the open lines of communication among trades plumbing contractor, and the fire protection opened the door to prefabricate plumbing contractor. These various trades shared and gas assemblies, freeing up valuable work space and speeding up the construction schedule of the masonry walls in the basement. The basement level contained 50 lab sinks, 15 toilets, and 50 prefabricated gas assemblies with plumbing running either inside the block walls or in a chase between block walls. For the plumbers and pipefitters to assemble the piping on-site per conventional methods, Figure 8. A bricklayer (left) works in alongside a pipefitter (right) to simultaneously would mean increased deconstruct the block wall and the plumbing contained within it. mand for work space in not only information; they also shared areas that were already congested. Therefore, workspace, as the respective MEP trades the plumbing and gas lines were built in would install their components in the the plumbing contractor’s shop on racks masonry walls from the masons’ scaffolding made of steel struts and transported to the when the bricklayers were ready for them site prefabricated. Once the racks were in (see Figure 8). place but before the masonry began, the The masonry foreman laid out the contractor scheduled plumbing inspections block walls with chalk lines on the by the municipality, which required two days’ concrete floors, indicating the various notice. Upon successful inspection, the MEP components with different colors bricklayers built their masonry around the of chalk. The information was verified racks of plumbing and gas lines.

Figure 9. The BIM model made it possible to prefabricate the toilet room plumbing assemblies on steel strut racks to conserve space on the jobsite. The plumbing racks were integrated into the block walls per the coordination model.

Documenting Changes During Construction Early in the development of the BIM model it became apparent that the mechanical contractor required more room for mechanical equipment along the north wall of a basement mechanical room, which necessitated the relocation of a door in one of the masonry walls. The contractor issued an RFI and change request to the architect, which was approved. The contractor subsequently made the change to the coordination model and generated a dimensioned 2D plan view of the change. The revised plan and its corresponding change documentation were then pushed to the bricklayers in the field, where the masonry foreman accessed the new information on his iPad. The RFI and the change order became linked to the drawings on the cloud storage server.


This project required tremendous efficiencies of the bricklayers due to the interdependencies between the masonry and the thousands of MEP components within the walls. For the duration of the basement construction, the bricklayers were arguably the most critical trade on the project, dictating the schedules of the MEP trades. According to Pete Sindic, project manager of Richards & Weyer Masonry, (continued on page 44)



Association of Licensed Architects Continuing Education

Panoramic Glass Door Systems in Green Buildings Thermal performance can be achieved through successful building design using large openings

Sponsored by Panda Windows & Doors | By Celeste Allen Novak, AIA, LEED AP Living in Northern Illinois in the winter and the summer can be a challenge. The lack of daylight, snow, ice and bitter cold and conversely, the hot, humid summers increase the amount of hours spent inside. On average, most Americans spend up to 90 percent of their time indoors.i Studies show that humans may be genetically programmed to the diurnal cycle and require more daylight and the sensory variety of the natural world. Architects are responding to evidence place design with new open concepts that provide direct access to the outdoors. In the newly renovated Oakbrook Center in Oakbrook, Illinois, Omniplan Architects created a new public space in the heart of the mall. The glass pavilion opens up to a large reflecting pool, gardens and a sheltered courtyard during the moderate seasons of the year. This pavilion includes a 32-footwide by 14-foot-tall, bi-parting, lift and slide door system surrounded by a large glass curtain wall. During wet, hot or bitter cold seasons, the public can comfortably sit by these large glass walls. In better weather, seating is provided next to the pool and in the gardens for both formal and informal gatherings. This massive door opening would not be able to meet current ASHRAE 90.1 codes for the thermal insulation if it were not for the integral components of its thermally broken aluminum frames and highly insulated glass. This pavilion is an example of new opportunities for designers of high-performance buildings to meet sustainable

design goals for energy efficiency and the optimization of human comfort. Architects can have a difficult design challenge when meeting both the requirements for stringent energy codes, aesthetics and human comfort. Too often, the best seat with the panoramic view of nature by the large glass window is either too cold or too hot. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010ii defines the range of indoor thermal environmental conditions acceptable to a majority of occupants. These include strict regulations on wall to window ratios and thermal behavior of all wall systems. Advancements in aluminum frames, glass and operable doors now accommodate an ever-increasing variety of design alternatives for large openings that meet sustainable building criteria. Architects can design openings that span over 80 feet wide and range from 10 – 20 feet high. Custom door opening systems can be specified with a range of colors, finishes, glazing, sizes and materials. High-performance glass doors can provide many benefits for sustainable

buildings. They can meet thermal comfort values measurable in ASHRAE standards while providing views to nature and access to daylight. Architects have more flexibility due to the advancement in frames that prevent heat transfer with thermal breaks and glass specified with high insulation values. Heat transfer through framing in glass walls is called thermal bridging. Thermal bridging is created when materials that are poor thermal insulators come into contact, allowing heat (or cold) to flow through the path of least thermal resistance created. Thermal break insulation is designed to prevent resistance to heat flow by using a material that separates two highly conductive metals such as aluminum. New thermal break products are part of the movement to design highperformance glass openings that can meet sustainable building standards. Ximena Rojas, marketing director at Panda Windows & Doors, says, “Using a thermally broken window or door on a project can assist in enhancing the healthy living environment and (continued on page 36)

Learning Objectives: After reading this article, you will: 1. Identify the problems with heat loss and heat gain through large openings and the solutions provided by thermally broken products. 2. Describe the components of thermally broken products that contribute to energy efficiency. 3. Define the benefits of providing greater access to daylight, fresh air and occupant comfort by designing a high-performance building. 4. Discuss the triple bottom line of purchasing thermally broken products and the return on investment for large high-performance openings.

The renovation of the Oakbrook, Illinois, shopping center includes a 32-foot-wide by 14-foot-tall bi-parting, thermally broken lift and slide door system that provides direct access to the mall's courtyard.



Association of Licensed Architects Continuing Education

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sustainability of a project.” She continues, “Thermally broken products can have many environmental benefits; they help improve a building’s energy performance, offer a higher degree of acoustic insulation and have longer service life due to their resistance to the elements.” The window-to-wall ratio is the ratio of window or opening (glazing) to wall area. It is expressed as a percent. If the windowto-wall ratio is greater than 40 percent, ASHRAE 90.1 provides guidance as to the prescriptive measures necessary to meet the International Building Code. Meeting the code requires designers control both the amount of light in a building as well as the amount of heat loss or gain. The advantages of using integrated building envelopes with attention to the performance of all components mean that the architect can increase the size of glass wall opening systems that also bring high performance benefits.

The XS Nightclub at the Encore Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, has a 41-foot-wide by 20-foot-high opening. The eight panels of the lift and slide doors part in the center of this opening and pocket on each side to open up the club to a large cabana-style pool area.

ENERGY STAR is a program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Over the last 10 years, the DOE has set standards for high performance in window products. In 2003, with direction from the Building America teams, researchers at DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory simplified the IECC map for purposes of the Building America Program, into eight


buildings. For more on window selection and performance criteria, the Efficient Windows Collaborativev has a detailed website that assists with window selection that meets ENERGY STAR guidelines. Design professionals may also want to visit the Efficient Window Collaborative website that assists the selection of project windows by zip code.vi climate zones. For reporting purposes, these are further combined into five climate categories: Hot-humid, hot-dry/ mixed dry, mixed-humid, marine, cold/ very cold, and subarctic.iii The ultimate goals of the ENERGY STAR program are to: • Maximize national energy savings • Provide greater economic benefits to consumers • Better reflect climatic zones across the country to accurately reflect both heating and cooling days as well as humidity • Allow for consistent definition and representation of climate zones across the Department’s building programs • Maintain a competitive market for the glass industry and flexibility for the consumer. Evaluating a product that meets the regulatory requirements of a specific climate zone requires attention to the glass and frame components of the opening. As part of their best practices series, in 2010, Building America published the Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County, to assist designers with the selection of the correct climate zone to use in their design calculations to maximize environmental performance. According to ENERGY STAR criteria, the components to consider when evalu-ating a window product include: • Quality frame materials that prevent thermal bridging • Low-e glass • Multiple panes • Gas fills • Warm edge spacers For homeowners, ENERGY STAR provides “A Complete Thermal Enclosure System”iv guide to ENERGY STAR Certified Homes that includes criteria to reduce thermal bridging. ENERGY STAR V3 Thermal Enclosure System is a guide for raters of ENERGY STAR certified


Design for Climate Zones

Advances in glass opening frame systems have created new products that provide structural stability and flexible design that allow larger operable openings. These systems have higher insulation values and provide thermal barriers to prevent thermal bridging. Thermal barriers or thermal breaks are included in frames to provide resistance to heat flow. An aluminum thermally broken frame minimizes heat loss from the inside of a building, as well as heat gain from the outside. In the illustration of the high-performance frame shown in this article, the central polyamide iso-bar core material with glass fibers acts as a barrier for heat flow from a warm interior to a cold exterior in winter and vice-versa in summer. The illustration demonstrates how thermally broken frames prevent cold air bridging, restricting airflow from either direction as it “pools” in the middle of the frame. This type of frame construction creates a high level of thermal resistance and utilizes the added benefits of the properties of aluminum such as durability, strength, stability and corrosion resistance. When designing the components for large openings, the architect will select the correct combination of the orientation of the opening, the glass and frame type necessary to meet the specific project climate zone. There are many advantages to selecting all of the components, the entire window and door package for a

large operable door opening system from one manufacturer. These include the following benefits: • • • •

Structural stability Superior energy efficiency Ease of installation Integrated components with warranties that are “all-inclusive” including glass, frames and opening mechanisms • Factory construction that reduces onsite errors. Comparing systems requires a true life-cycle analysis that includes not just the initial material costs, but the added benefits of continued energy efficiency, durability and ease of maintenance. One of the biggest mistakes that design teams make is the selection of a nonthermally broken system which becomes a problem in the long run because it is not an appropriate system for the climate in which the project is located. The following case study is an example of how new technology for massive openings can support the design visions of the 2014 Laureate for the Pritzker Prize, architect Shigeru Ban.

Design for Climate: Innovations and Access to Nature Shigeru Ban is a Japanese architect known for testing the limits of materials to achieve his goals. Wood, paper tubes and even shipping containers are all part of an exploration of sustainable materials used to design with nature. In the Aspen Art Museum, this firm provides another aesthetic lesson about the transparency of designing with nature. To enter the museum, visitors walk through a “woven gateway” which surrounds the building.

The monumental sliding glass system on the roof spans a 90-degree zero post opening of approximately 84 feet. This is the first rooftop café in Aspen from which the public can experience a grand view to the Rockies beyond.

The public climbs to the top level on a glass stairway, where a large roof garden provides a view to the mountains. Then as if they were at a ski slope, they explore the museum from the top down. The roof garden is an integral part of the design and becomes the entrance hall,

public gathering space, cafe and outdoor projection space. The architect’s goal was to create a unified relationship between the structure and its surroundings. His design uses large glass planes on the stairway and operable glass wall systems to create in-between spaces from which the public can experience the art, each other and the natural surroundings in new ways each time they visit. The challenge faced by the project team was extensive. As defined by the DOE, Aspen, Colorado is in Zone 7 of the Building America and IECC climate zones. This zone is considered a “Very Cold” region with 12,600 heating degreedays (65-degree F basis). Aspen can also have hot dry 90-degree-day summers. The architects and engineers were required to find a glass product that would provide the required insulation values to meet the 2009 International Building and Energy Conservation Code. According to the architect, the climate design concept for the building relies on “thermos” principle, where spaces with a higher tolerance for climate variation are wrapped around the gallery spaces where climate variation must be minimized. The “wrapper” spaces support circulation and visual connections to the outdoors. The entire upper level of the building may be opened to the outdoors by retracting a large-scale operable door wall system. In addition to this innovative climate design concept, the building maximizes opportunities for daylighting, while mediating direct solar gain. The unique woven exterior screen and long-span timber space frame supporting the roof are used to diffuse light entering through the extensive glass curtain wall and skylight system. Structural glass floors provide access to daylighting of gallery spaces below. The monumental sliding glass system on the roof spans a 90-degree zero-post opening of approximately 84 feet. The thermally broken slim profile lift and slide system is a gateway to the museum at the rooftop gathering space. In temperate weather, the pair of 42-foot-wide glass wall systems seems to disappear, removing any obstruction to the outdoor terrace and the Rockies beyond. It also opens up the interior space to daylight and fresh breezes. When the weather is extreme, the 6-foot-wide by 8-foot-tall 14-panel glass wall system closes providing maximum insulation and shelter against the elements. The glass-to-frame ratio accompanied by narrow stiles, ensures the system provides maximum views of the beautiful mountain scenery even when the system is closed. The narrow aluminum frames provide stability to this engineered opening because of the structural advantages of extruded aluminum frames. According to Zachary Moreland, project

Large glass “wrapper” spaces support circulation and visual connections with operable doors that provide access to the outdoors.

architect at Shigeru Ban Architects, “Meeting energy codes is harder than it was in the recent past. One of the project team’s goals was to meet or exceed the existing energy code. We selected tripleglazed windows with the latest low-e coatings and provided shading as needed. Energy conservation was our major focus for performance issues in this design.”

Meeting Sustainable Design Goals With Large Glass Door Openings

Architects can meet even more sustainable design goals by using high-performance glass door systems. As seen in the Aspen Art Museum, the architects were able to meet energy codes with highly insulated glass and a thermally broken frame. The glass opening was structurally stable and will be easy to maintain due to the aluminum frame. The specified materials provide durability and longevity for the large glass openings that are one of the signature elements of the museum.

Glazing systems can include double or triple pane glass, along with transparent coatings with insulating gas provided between the panes.

Thermal Performance and Other Sustainable Components

Architects should consider all components of a sustainable glass opening in order to (continued on page 38)



Association of Licensed Architects Continuing Education (continued from page 37)

maximize performance. The goal is to increase energy efficiency by selecting components that reduce heat loss or heat gain. By using less energy, architects also reduce the carbon footprint of the building. The thermal components of a glass door opening system include the following: • Glass: Glazing should be selected according to climate and building orientation. Glazing systems can include double or triple pane glass, along with transparent coatings with insulating gas provided between the panes. Glazing systems that are supplied by a single manufacturer can provide lower heat loss and less air leakage. Windows and doors have a major influence in heating and cooling processes. This is all measured through a coefficient called “Solar Heat Gain Coefficient” (SHGC) which reports, within a scale from 1 to 0, how well windows and doors block heat from the sun. The lower the SHGC, the less solar heat is transmitted into the building. U-factor of a window or door assembly is equivalent to the rating of heat loss, so the lower the U-factor, the greater a window’s resistance to heat flow. A high-performance window or door system should have a U-factor of 0.30 or lower. • Thermal break technology: There are many ways to provide thermal separations. For example, an aluminum frame profile can be separated in order to reduce thermal conductivity. To isolate heat, some companies remove strips of the aluminum panels’ extrusion and fill those areas with a low-cost option such as plastic. In comparison, highperformance frames are constructed as two separate extrusions and then are crimped together using insulation as the joining material. This means that there are no aluminum connections. Manufacturers of these windows and doors are using a polyamide iso-bar, with integrated glass fibers to optimize the strength of the connections. Isobar insulation is a polyester fiber that is resistant to condensation and has high thermal resistance. Some isobar insulation is made of recycled PET bottles and can be recycled. • Seals: The seals at the edges of all framed openings need to be weathertight. For example, in a lift and slide door one mechanism uses the weight of the


panel along with the lever to compress the seals at the top and bottom of a door opening when in the “down” position. The seals of these large openings are engineered to meet hurricane and impact testing standards. Other components that contribute to sustainability of high-performance windows and door openings such as durability include: • Frames and extrusions: Window and door systems that are constructed of aluminum extrusions can provide greater stability and strength for larger openings. The advantages of aluminum for large framed openings are discussed later in this article. Aluminum frames can be selected with very narrow profiles, further optimizing the views to the outdoors. These frames can also be specified with wood cladding on the interior to add warmth and character to the interior finish. Aluminum frames have very long life cycles and are easy to maintain. • Recessed tracks: Recessed U-channel track options are offered for an ADAcompliant and seamless transition from the interior to exterior spaces. In new lift and slide doors, recessed tracks can be specified either with or without a drain channel. In one system, the only visible track is a 3/16-inch rail protruding from the finished floor. • Multiple configurations: Architects have many options for different types of glass openings. They can expand the interior into the exterior with openings that can lift and slide, fold and pivot. These are just some of the variations that allow the architect to design numerous types of flexible large openings: - Folding door systems can maximize an opening without having to include pocket door panels. A folding door system can stack and either swingand-stack to the interior or the exterior. Folding doors are used along a singletrack system and are made up of multiple panels (up to as many as 10 in one direction). The weight of the panels is carried along the header that allows for ease of operation, even with large groups of panels. - New lift and slide doors, even those that weigh more than 200 pounds, can be easily moved with the push of a finger. As seen in the case study for the Aspen Museum, these door systems can be


used to span very large openings. They can be specified with numerous track options including the ADA recessed track as mentioned earlier. Lift and slide openings are a type of sliding wall with superior performance. When the systems are closed, they have a very tight seal. Heavyweight hardware allows the system panels to be oversized and still run smoothly. - Multi-slide panels provide great flexibility for many configurations. The number of panels used varies based on the configuration and number of vertical sight lines desired (usually between 3 and 10 panels). The panels may all stack on one end behind each other to create a total opening of all but one panel’s width as a viewing obstruction. In order to eliminate viewing obstructions, all panels may be pocketed to one or both sides of an opening. Stacking systems may also bi-part and stack on both sides. Multi-slide systems operate on a bottom wheel set or series of sets that allow the panels to easily glide along a track system. - Horizontal sliding wall systems (HSW) are used in both interior and exterior applications including those that require unique solutions for the design of the stacking area. These partitions can be flexibly designed to suit different structural conditions and design concepts. These systems can be parked in a range of different positions. The designer can align the stack of panels so they are parallel, perpendicular or at an angle to the opening. They can also be readily visible for an effect or hidden behind columns, walls, etc. Individual panels in the configuration can perform different functions ranging from simple sliding panels to integrated pivot or swing doors. To assure quality performance, design professionals can request documentation of third-party testing and certifications. These tests may include information on the quality of the opening, seals and hardware against air leakage, resistance to condensation and thermal performance. The National Fenestration Rating Council is a non-profit organization that provides uniform, independent rating and labeling systems for the energy performance of all window, door and attachment systems. To achieve these certifications, manufacturers are required to document the testing of

their products. These often include actual air pressure and thermal simulations by a third-party testing agency. Reports from the National Fenestration Rating Council will provide valuable information on the performance of doors, tracks, mechanisms and windows.

Performance Ratings of ENERGY STAR Windowsvii

The NFRC label can be found on all ENERGY STAR-qualified windows, doors and skylights and provides performance ratings in five categories: • U-Factor measures the rate of heat transfer and tells you how well the window insulates. U-factor values generally range from 0.25 to 1.25 and are measured in Btu/h•ft²•°F. The lower the U-factor, the better the window insulates. • Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) measures the fraction of solar energy transmitted and tells you how well the product blocks heat caused by sunlight. SHGC is measured on a scale of 0 to 1; values typically range from 0.25 to 0.80. The lower the SHGC, the less solar heat the window transmits.

up. Condensation Resistance is scored on a scale from 0 to 100. The higher the condensation resistance factor, the less build-up the window allows. The large doors and glass opening at the Oakbrook Center Pavilions, is an example of how to meet stringent energy codes with larger openings. According to Project Architect Mark Schantz, AIA, of Omniplan Architects, the engineers provided energy models to the Oakbrook building department working closely with them for approvals. The engineers specified a highperformance glass system with a winter U-value of 0.28 and a summer U-value of 0.26. The glass opening with a shading coefficient of 0.27 was protected from the summer sun with a large 10-foot overhang. The original 1962 shopping center was the largest outdoor shopping center in the country. With the addition of the glass pavilions, the architects have renewed the spirit of place with this indoor/outdoor café that allows the public to experience the gardens, fountains and the outdoors, even in the winter.

• Visible Transmittance (VT) measures the amount of light the window lets through. VT is measured on a scale of 0 to 1; values generally range from 0.20 to 0.80. The higher the VT, the more light you see. • Air Leakage (AL) measures the rate at which air passes through joints in the window. AL is measured in cubic feet of air passing through one square foot of window area per minute. The lower the AL value, the less air leakage. Most industry standards and building codes require an AL of 0.3 cf•m/ft². • Condensation Resistance measures how well the window resists water build-

Design professionals should require certifications of thermal and or air pressure simulations when selecting a high-performance glass opening.

patrons of both the pool and the bar. This colossal opening was designed to open the interior space of the nightclub into the exterior pool area that provides exciting views of the Las Vegas strip below.

Designed by Leo Daly Architect, the 65,000-squarefoot Drais Beachclub Nightclub is located in Las Vegas, Nevada on the rooftop of the Cromwell Hotel. This lift and slide opening is 60 feet long by 21 feet high with eight panel openings.

In addition to providing great strength for large openings, aluminum frames have the following advantages. Aluminum frames are corrosion resistant which contributes to the longevity of the glass opening and easy maintenance. Aluminum is 100 percent recyclable and continues to have high scrap values. Aluminum is a material that can be repeatedly recycled, retaining the same material physical properties. Aluminum can be up-cycled into materials of the same or greater value as a structural member.

This recessed u-channel track provides ADA compliance and a seamless transition from the interior to exterior spaces.

Sustainability and Aluminum Framing

New designs using large glass openings were primarily made possible by the advancement in the use of extruded aluminum as a structural material. Aluminum is an alloy that provides twiceas-much strength per weight as steel. Aluminum glass frames are extruded components. These components can be manufactured to meet any profile, using the least amount of material necessary to provide the maximum strength over the distance of the frame required. This material offers plenty of design flexibility due to being ductile and easily formable. This allows designers to customize openings to meet aesthetic requirements without large up-charges. An example of the expansive use of aluminum frames is the large glass opening installed in the luxurious 65,000-square-foot Drais Beachclub Nightclub located in Las Vegas, Nevada on the rooftop of the Cromwell Hotel. This lift and slide opening is 60 feet long by 21 feet high with eight panel openings. The recessed track system provides a seamless barefoot pathway from inside to out for

The wide 62-inch panels in this Jupiter, Florida home ensures maximum views of the ocean with a minimum of obstructions.

Sustainability and Large Openings that Contribute to Well-Being

Studies of building performance and human comfort indicate that humans need exposure to daylight, fresh air and nature in order to maximize performance. Numerous rating systems, including the USGBC LEED® program, credit building designs that meet a variety of criteria for daylight and natural ventilation. There are many sustainable design advantages to providing large, flexible openings in buildings. These include the following. • Access to Daylight: Large glass panels allow a lot of natural daylight into buildings during the day. Large ground-to-ceiling panels remove the barriers from inside to outside. By using more glass, the indoor comfort of these daylight zones is increased. Studies have shown improvements in test scores, absenteeism and healing when buildings provide greater daylight access. (continued on page 40)



Association of Licensed Architects Continuing Education (continued from page 39)

• Efficient Lighting: Daylight perimeter zones reduce electrical loads in a building. Natural daylight can provide adequate task lighting when properly shaded from glare. An integrated lighting design for a high-performance building can include lighting sensors paired with large openings to reduce the electrical loads. • Space Maximization: Large glass doors that can open into new spaces create new places. They optimize the use of interior and exterior spaces. In addition large doors provide the following benefits: - Fresh air: With a large glass door, space becomes big enough to let in large surges of air providing cooling and improved air quality. In some climates, large openings can improve energy efficiency by reducing the need for air conditioning in the summer months. - Maximized views: When a large glass door is used, the natural surrounding becomes a part of the property. The view of the outdoors will be available 365 days a year. - Increased occupancy: Restaurants can increase their seating capacity in the summer months while keeping the weather out in the colder seasons.

The Chayo restaurant at the Linq Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas increased their seating capacity with large glass door openings in the summer months while keeping the weather out in colder months.

The Fink Residence is a custom modern house located in Norfolk, Virginia, the birthplace of Colonial America. Architects Andrew Fink, Tymoff+Moss Architects and Robyn Thomas Architecture were provided with the challenge of how to extend the intimate space of this charming home’s kitchen into the expansiveness of the backyard and fire-pit area. They worked with a window and door manufacturer to custom design an aluminum and wood clad operable wall system that stacks to parking bays at each end of the wall opening. The wood


When closed, the doors to this backyard provide a cozy view of the garden. When open, the transition between inside and outside is seamless, creating a new room for the homeowners.

cladding provides a traditional warm look to the interior area. Aluminum offers a contemporary sleek style with minimal need for maintenance. This combination created a three-season, indoor-outdoor environment that provides daylighting and natural ventilation. The expansive no-post configuration and recessed track system offer the homeowner a flexible space that seamlessly transits into a seating area covered by an extended roof. When it is too cold to keep the wall of doors retracted, the units are closed and a single swinging door allows access to the backyard. When in the closed position, the system provides a secure, weather-resistant barrier that protects against rain, snow, humidity, noise and extreme temperatures. With this large opening, the architects capitalized on the beautiful views of the Chesapeake Bay in summer and winter and optimized space for the homeowners.

The Triple Bottom Line and Large, Energy-Efficient Openings

According to the Building Managers and Owners Association (BOMA), a highperformance building uses integrated building processes that enhance performance. A high-performance building operates at a higher level with lower costs. A sustainably designed high-performance building also responds to the triple bottom line of people, planet and profits. These buildings can meet the challenges of environmental design that also provides a good return on investment by using smart design and technology that increases the durability of the building and provides energy savings. High-performance sustainable buildings require an integrated design


process that requires components that are durable, easy to maintain and meet energy codes. These buildings deliver a good return on investment. They provide lifecycle benefits measured both numerically as in energy savings as well as psychologically as in client, staff and customer satisfaction. There are many advantages to providing large glass openings to the outdoors but until lately, the disadvantages far outweighed the benefits. New thermally broken high-performance glass openings have provided more opportunities for sustainable design. These openings can have doors that pivot, slide and disappear to create new places that engage the public. These systems can deliver enhanced building energy performance and increase human comfort. In 1949, Philip Johnson designed and built his glass house as a statement about nature and existence. In this building, nature flows into the structure to create an illusion of shelter without walls. Since the construction of that seminal Modernist building, many architects have been striving to achieve this similar aesthetic without sacrificing comfort or creating buildings with large energy footprints. With older glass wall systems, sitting next to the window in the winter could mean adding an extra layer of clothing. In the summer, the glare and heat transfer also made this seating equally uncomfortable. Fortunately, the latest thermal break technology has enabled designers to have more design flexibility for large door openings. They can meet many design criteria for green building credit rating programs such as the United States Green Building LEED® program, Green Globes, BREEAM, the Living Building Challenge or the new Passive House Standard by optimizing access to fresh air, daylight and views of nature. Large glass openings specified with high-performance materials support sustainable design goals by providing increased energy efficiency while optimizing comfort. Innovations in streetscape design and neighborhood planning are part of the new urban placemaking movement and the ability to open up facades to the sidewalk with operable walls and windows creates more lively downtowns. Architect Celeste Allen Novak, FAIA, LEED AP (www.celesteallennovakarchitect.com) specializes in sustainable design and planning in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She is the author of “Designing Rainwater Harvesting Systems: Integrating Rainwater Into Building Systems.”

Association of Licensed Architects Continuing Education

Panoramic Glass Door Systems in Green Buildings by Celeste

Allen Novak, AIA, LEED AP

Learning Objectives:

1. Identify the problems with heat loss and heat gain through large openings and the solutions provided by thermally broken products.

2. Describe the components of thermally broken products that contribute to energy efficiency.

3. Define the benefits of providing greater access to daylight, fresh air and occupant comfort by designing a high-performance building. 4. Discuss the triple bottom line of purchasing thermally broken products and the return on investment for large highperformance openings.

ALA/AIA/CEP Credit: This article qualifies for 1.0 LU/HSW of State Required Learning Units and may qualify for other LU requirements. (Valid through September 2017)

3. Some of the advantages of selecting all of the components of a large window and door opening from one manufacturer include: a. Structural stability b. Superior energy efficiency c. Ease of installation d. All of the above.

Instructions: • Read the article using the learning objectives provided. • Answer the questions. • Fill in your contact information. • Sign the certification. • Submit questions with answers, contact information and payment to ALA by mail or fax to receive credit.

4. Comparing window and door large opening systems requires a true life-cycle analysis that includes not just the initial material costs, but the added benefits of continued energy efficiency, durability and ease of maintenance. a. True b. False

Program Title:

Panoramic Glass Door Systems in Green Buildings

QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. What is heat transfer through frame openings in glass walls called? a. Thermal Bridging b. Thermal Break c. Thermal Link d. Thermal Bond 2. What is the component in frames that provide resistance to heat flow? a. Thermal Bridge b. Thermal Break c. Thermal LInk d. Thermal Bond

5. “Solar Heat Gain Coefficient” (SHGH), describes how well windows block heat from the sun. Which of these is most correct? a. The higher the SHGH, the less solar heat is transmitted into the building. b. The higher the SHGH, the lower a U-value of the glass. c. The lower the SHGH, the less solar heat is transmitted into the building. d. The lower the SHGH, the higher the U-value of the glass.

6. A high performance window should have a U-factor of: a. 1.0 or lower b. 0.50 or lower c. 0.40 or lower d. 0.30 or lower 7. Recessed u-channel track options for folding doors and operable door systems provide ADA compliance. a. True b. False 8. Which of these measures how well a window insulates? a. AL b. VT c. U-Factor d. SHGC 9. Which property of aluminum makes it the best choice for a large frame opening? a. Corrosion resistant b. Strength to weight ratio c. Recyclability d. Upcycling 10. Large glass opening systems can provide which of the following benefits: a. Increased fresh air b. Increased daylight c. Increased occupancy d. All of the above

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- Full day or Afternoon registration option - 25 seminars to choose from - Earn up to 7.25 continuing education credits in one day attending seminars - Earn 1.0 additional learning unit by spending one hour visiting exhibitors - “After 5 Networking Social” for attendees, speakers and exhibitors - Evening seminar starts after the social - All seminars are 1.0 LU - Keynote is 1.25 LU

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Hear leading industry speakers, earn up to 8.25 continuing education credits, attend the “After 5 Networking Social.” Talk to providers of products and services for the design and construction industry.

Our Keynote Speaker:

“Narratives in Architecture”

“Narratives in Architecture” - This presentation will explore architectural drawings as journalism and demonstrate the communication of architecture as a visual language. Mr. Lai ‘s award-winning installations have fascinated many with his interplay between storytelling and building, illustrating his original design thinking.

Educational Sessions:

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of Copyrights in Construction Werner Sabo and Shawn Goodman, Sabo & Zahn, Attorneys at Law

Foundation Restoration Marty Sobelman, Atlas Restoration, LLC

Electrochromic Glazing - Dynamic Control of Solar Energy Kevin Frisone, SAGE Electrochromics, Inc.

2 + 2 = 3? Something Just Doesn’t Add Up Kurt Hoigard, Raths, Raths and Johnson

Introduction to the Prescriptive Residential Wood Deck Construction Guide (DCA6) David Finkenbinder, Simpson Strong-Tie

Designer Led Design-Build - Return of the Master Builder Jeremy Baker, Schiff Hardin LLP

Storefront vs. Curtainwall: Selecting the Proper System Jim Oberlin, Tubelite, Inc.

Understanding Critical Transitions of Air, Vapor and Moisture Barriers Corey Zussman, Pepper Construction

Energy Retrofits: Window ROI and Comfort - The Whole Story Chris Carpenter, Pella EFCO Commercial Solutions

Windows and Environmental Goals Vivian Kahler, Marvin Windows and Doors

Fire-Retardant Treated Wood and Its Use in Design and Construction James Gogolski, Hoover Treated Wood Products, Inc.

Multi-Family Sound Control Daniel Gibson, Keene Building Products

Win Win: Contract Clauses to the Rescue Melissa Roberts. USI Midwest LLC, & Eric Singer, Ice Miller LLP

Selling Healthier Indoor Air Quality and the Related Benefits Robert Schildgen, Priority Energy

Controlling and Isolating Sound in the Design and Construction Process Peter Cook, Automation Design + Entertainment

Mid Rise Design: Understanding Building Size and Fire Protection Archie Landreman, Wood Products Council

Using Energy Codes to Your Advantage Matthew Brown, APA – The Engineered Wood Association

Translucent Daylighting Design Solutions -- Building & Energy Code Compliance Rafael Rivero, CPI Daylighting Aminoplast Masonry Foam Insulation: Facts, Legends & Fire Myths Kevin Cavanaugh and Bob Sullivan, cfiFOAM, Inc. Small Firms Do It Better with BIM Leeswann Bolden and Jon Welker, Graphisoft Advances and Applications of Fluid Applied Air Barrier Membranes Casey Robb, DuPont Building Innovations Top Framing Concerns Matthew Brown, APA - The Engineered Wood Association


Jimenez Lai, Faculty Member at UCLA and Founder of ‘Bureau Spectacular’


Healthy Walls = Rainscreen & Ventilation Jim O’Neill, Keene Building Products Geothermal Done Right! Scott Niesen, WaterFurnace 10 Ways to Better Communicate Dave Molenda, CGA, CCP, Positive Clarity Building an Architect: Understanding Internship & Licensure Harry Falconer, Jr., NCARB


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Exhibitor list

Advantech and ZIP System / Huber Engineered Woods Airfloor ALCOA Architectural Products Ameristar Fence Products Andersen Windows, Inc. Arc Imaging Resources Architectural Mall ARDEX Americas Atlas Restoration, LLC Bathfitter Benjamin Obdyke Bradley Corporation cfiFOAM Inc. Chicago Plastering Institute / Cement Mason Union 502 Chicago Regional Council of Carpenters Cook County Lumber CPI Daylighting, Inc. Custom Building Products Doors For Builders Inc. EHLS/To The Top Home Elevators EPIC Metals FastenMaster FinishingChicago.com GRAPHISOFT Henry Company Hoover Treated Wood Products, Inc. Icynene Corp. IKO Sales Inc. Illinois Brick Company Image Grille Indiana Limestone Company International Beams

Keene Building Products Konica Minolta Business Solutions USA, Inc. Linetec LP Building Products M. G. Welbel & Associates, Inc. Major Industries, Inc. Marvin Windows and Doors Maze Nails Moen Incorporated NCARB Northfield, an OLDCASTLE Company Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope Panda Windows & Doors Parksite / DuPont Tyvek PCI of Illinois and Wisconsin Pella EFCO Commercial Solutions Pilkington North America--NSG Group Rauch Clay Sales Corporation Royal Aluminum & Steel, Inc. SAGE Electrochromics Schwab Group, LLC Shaw Contract Group Simpson Strong-Tie Co. Inc SJ Mallein Co. SPEC MIX Chicago/Quikrete TOTO USA, Inc. Trim-Tex Drywall Products Trus Joist - A Weyerhaeuser Company Tubelite Inc. USG WaterFurnace International Wood Haven, Inc. Wood Products Council - WoodWorks World Dryer Corporation


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FULL DAY Earn 8.25 LU. Includes all sessions, breakfast, exhibits, keynote, lunch & social hour. Early Bird, Until September 18th Member:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $155 Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $180 Students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35 New Graduate Member:. . . . . . . . . $35 Student Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . $45 After September 18th Member:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $180 Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $205 Students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35 New Graduate Member:. . . . . . . . . $35 Student Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . $45

MODIFIED DAY Earn 3.25 LU. Includes exhibits, keynote, social hour & evening session. Early Bird, Until September 18th Member:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $90 Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $115 Students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25 New Graduate Member:. . . . . . . . . $25 Student Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . $35 After September 18th Member:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $115 Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $140 Students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $25 New Graduate Member:. . . . . . . . . $25 Student Non-Member: . . . . . . . . . . $35


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p SESSION 1: 8:00 am – 9:00 am

1A: Foundation Restoration 1B: 2+2=3? Something Just Doesn’t Add Up 1C: Windows and Environmental Goals 1D: Multi-Family Sound Control 1E: Selling Healthier Indoor Air Quality and the Related Benefits

p SESSION 2: 9:30 am – 10:30 am

2A: Understanding Critical Transitions of Air, Vapor and Moisture Barriers 2B: Mid Rise Design: Understanding Building Size and Fire Protection 2C: Translucent Daylighting Design Solutions - Building & Energy Code Compliance 2D: Aminoplast Masonry Foam Insulation: Facts, Legends & Fire Myths 2E: Small Firms Do It Better with BIM

p SESSION 3: 11:00 am – Noon

3A: Advances and Applications of Fluid Applied Air Barrier Membranes 3B: Top Framing Concerns 3C: Electrochromic Glazing - Dynamic Control of Solar Energy 3D: Introduction to the Prescriptive Residential Wood Deck Construction Guide (DCA6) 3E: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of Copyrights in Construction

p SESSION 4: 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

4A: Storefront vs. Curtainwall: Selecting the Proper System 4B: Energy Retrofits: Window ROI and Comfort: The Whole Story 4C: Fire-Retardant Treated Wood and Its Use in Design and Construction 4D: Win Win: Contract Clauses to the Rescue 4E: Controlling and Isolating Sound in the Design and Construction Process

KEYNOTE: 4:15 pm - 5:30 pm Narratives in Architecture

One East Northwest Hwy., Ste. 200 Palatine, IL 60067 Tel: 847-382-0630 Fax: 847-382-8380 or register online at alatoday.org

Check box for each seminar you plan to attend (only one seminar per time period)

5A: Designer Led Design-Build/Return of the Master Builder 5B: Using Energy Codes to Your Advantage 5C: Healthy Walls = Rainscreen & Ventilation 5D: Geothermal Done Right! 5E: 10 Ways to Better Communicate

Mail form and payment to:

Association of Licensed Architects

(for confirmation)

p SESSION 5: 2:45 pm – 3:45 pm

CC# Exp. Date Security Code Signature

USI & All Risks


p SESSION 7: 6:30 pm – 7:30 pm

7A: Top Framing Concerns 7B: Designer Led Design-Build/Return of the Master Builder 7C: Storefront vs. Curtainwall: Selecting the Proper System 7D: Building an Architect: Understanding Internship & Licensure

Cancellations must be received by 5 PM September 18, 2015. “No Shows” are responsible for applicable fees, and will be billed if not pre-paid. LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 19 NO. 2 - SUMMER/FALL 2015



(continued from page 33)

“There was a high level of cooperation and teamwork between the bricklayers and the other trades throughout the

project.” Chris Coyne, Superintendent with Power Construction, said “This was one of the more intense masonry projects I’ve worked on with the prefab in the masonry walls coupled with all the overhead sleeves and the amount of reinforcing. It required a high degree of organization by the masonry contractor as well as working hand in hand with the MEP trades in a team environment. Every day was a new adventure in the basement. Now that the masonry is finished (Figure 10), we all get lost down there due to the amount of masonry walls and the mazelike configuration.” This laboratory is a good example of project-wide reliance on the masons, a dependency that will become prevalent as more projects are delivered using BIM. With the advent of the BIM for Masonry (BIM-M) initiative, an industry-wide task force comprising architects, engineers, contractors, masonry suppliers, labor unions, and academia to promote and develop tools that will facilitate the use of BIM-M, this author predicts that future projects will see an even greater integration of BIM-M as a design and construction tool,

Figure 10. Upon completion of the masonry work, the MEP trades were able to easily install their pipes and ducts without cutting through the masonry due to the well-coordinated sleeve penetrations.

realizing further economies in designing and building with masonry.

References Coyne, Chris, Project Superintendent, Power Construction, 8750 W. Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60631-3546, ccoyne@ powerconstruction.net Lepper, Matt, Power Construction, 8750 W. Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60631-3546, mlepper@powerconstruction.net McGaffee, Larry, Masonry Foreman, Richards & Weyer Construction Co., Inc., 8443 44th Place, Lyons, IL 60534, USA Schrader, Jim, Power Construction, 8750 W. Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60631-3546, jschrader@powerconstruction.net Sindic, Peter, Project Manager, Richards & Weyer Construction Co., Inc., 8443 44th Place, Lyons, IL 60534, USA, psindic@ richardsandweyer.co This article was originally published in the Proceedings of the 12th North American Masonry Conference. The information appears here with the permission of The Masonry Society (TMS).

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2015 ALA Golf Outing Friday, August 14 th

Golf Club of Illinois, Algonquin, IL A great time was had at the 2015 ALA Golf Outing! Over 65 golfers tee’d up and enjoyed a full day of golf, games, fun and laughs. Games along the course included Don’t Drink and Drive goggles, Cash Landings and the infamous Marshmallow Drive. Thank you to our Eagle Sponsor, Projx Construction Group who greeted golfers at their hole and raffled off Blackhawks tickets. Our busy beverage cart was sponsored by Sullivan Goulette Wilson Architects and Trim Tex Drywall Products. Moen Incorporated provided hearty appetizers as the 19th Hole reception sponsor plus many wonderful kitchen and bath raffle prizes. Following the buffet dinner complete with a carving station, winners from the course were announced as well as those lucky ticket holders who won raffle prizes. Prizes included a flat screen TV, FitBit, Notebook, sporting goods and team wear. This event could not be held without the support and efforts of Pat Harris and Kim Aldana from Harris Architects. Thank you for providing such an enjoyable event to ALA members and guests!

Golf Prizes & Winners: Projx Construction Blackhawks Tickets Raffle: Gary Wallsten - Harris Architects Marshmallow Longest Drive $100.00 Cash: John White - Harris Architects Don’t Drink & Drive Winner – 3 Days 2 Nights Hotel stay in Las Vegas: John Cartland – Cartland Kraus Engineering Scratch Card Winner – 3 Days 2 Nights Hotel Stay in Las Vegas: Kelly Harris – Harris Architects Closest to the Pin - $50.00 Gift Certificate – GolfSmith: Arron Bonnes - Rabine Paving America Longest Drive Men’s - $50.00 Gift Certificate - Best Buy: Mike Winkelman – Epic Metals Longest Drive Women’s - $50.00 Gift Certificate – Mario Triccoci: Deanna Hendrey – Harris Architects Lowest Scoring Foursome - $100.00 Gift Certificate Each – Dicks Sporting Goods Andy Johnson, Gary Dupruis, Ryan Lehman, Justin Risetter – Krusinski Construction -13 Highest Score: Plumbers Putter Traveling Trophy Mike Pusich, Rick Harris, Mike Garcia, Steve Campagnolo

Thank you to our outing sponsors:

Beverage Cart: Trim Tex Drywall Products Beverage Cart: Sullivan Goulette Wilson Architects Eagle Sponsor: Projx Construction Group Signage Sponsor: MCS – Midwest Conference Service 19th Hole Sponsor: Moen Incorporated

Hole Sponsors for Golf ATMI Precast Cartland Kraus Engineering Choices Financial Services Energy Shield PRO by Atlas Harris Architects, Inc. IHC Construction Companies, LLC Illinois Brick Company Kimley-Horn

Krusinski Construction Company Meridian Design Build, LLC ML Realty Partners, LLC Morgan Harbour Construction Pilkington North America Northfield an Oldcastle Company Parksite/DuPont Tyvek Peak Construction Corporation

Principle Construction Corporation Rabine Group Reiche Construction, Inc. Ridgeline Property Group RTM & Associates Ruck Pate Architecture SPACECO, Inc. Sabo & Zahn, Attorneys at Law LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 19 NO. 2 - SUMMER/FALL 2015



Join us for these upcoming chapter events.

Thursday, October 15: Geothermal Technology for the Design Professional Presenter: Scott Niesen, WaterFurnace

Registration and more information on these and future programs are available on the ALA website at www.alatoday.org

Thursday, December 10: Design Build Panel Discussion

MISSOURI NEWS Upcoming Events: September 15: Tour - CityArchRiver 2015 Project October 13: Building Envelope: Air Leakage and Moisture Mitigation

ALA Missouri presents its 2015 Continuing Education Series. This series allows architects to acquire 12 Learning Units per year in 6 convenient sessions. The sessions are scheduled every other month over an extended two-hour lunch period. A boxed lunch is included. All seminars are held at the Masonry Institute of St. Louis, 1429 Big Bend Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63117.

December 8: Chapter 9 of the IBC

- Legal Services for Architects Wisconsin

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WHD’s Construction Services Team partners with clients at every stage of a construction project – from concept to design to completion. Our collective expertise provides us the blueprints to structure projects that minimize risk while leading to greater profitability and, ultimately, client success. For more information, contact Josh Levy at (414) 978-5554 or jlevy@whdlaw.com.

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Heley Duncan &Melander PLLP

Mark J. Heley, Attorney at Law Eric Heiberg, Attorney at Law 8500 Normandale Lake Boulevard Suite 2110 Minneapolis, Minnesota 55437


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Sabo & Zahn

ATTORNEYS AT LAW 401 N. Michigan Ave. Suite 2050 Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 655-8620 (312) 655-8622 fax

www.sabozahn.com construction attorneys

CHAPTER NEWS ILLINOIS NEWS On June 17th, ALA members and guests leisurely cruised the Chicago River viewing historic buildings plus the many new changes along the riverfront. Barry Aldridge with the Chicago Architecture Foundation shared his insights of Chicago’s rich architectural history with us. Attendees enjoyed a delicious buffet dinner and the evening concluded with an amazing fireworks display over Lake Michigan. Chicago was in the midst of the Stanley Cup finals and Blackhawk spirit throughout the tour was a bonus to see! We would like to thank our sponsors for this special event: Hinshaw and Culberson LLC, Graphisoft, WaterFurnace and Icynene.

MINNESOTA NEWS Upcoming Events: Please see the ALA MN website at Alatodaymn.org for more information and program registration.

Tuesday, September 22: Overcoming The 7 Minneapolis/St. Paul Area Development Challenges | Presentation + Discussion with R.T. Rybak at Urban Growler, St. Paul, MN Tuesday, October 27: “Charging Clients” Panel Discussion moderated by James Zahn, Attorney at Law. St. Paul Chamber of Commerce Tuesday, November 17: Automation Design with Daniel Woody of Residential Technology Systems Thursday, December 10: “Basic Facts of Engineered Lumber” by Mike Danielzuk of Weyerhauser, All American Conference Center




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Licensed Architect Vol 19 No 2  

A magazine for architects with articles on topics vital to the profession.

Licensed Architect Vol 19 No 2  

A magazine for architects with articles on topics vital to the profession.