Academic Portfolio Liam Kieran Rogers 150203524 Stage 2 Newcastle University School of Architecture K100 2016-2017
Sprinkle of Inspiration.
I created this portfolio with the aim of presenting and celebrating my work from Stage Two Architecture at Newcastle University.
AP1: Contents and decleration (Stage 2).
Provisional Grade then Page.
Contents and Declaration
Semester 1 Design Submissions P2.3.1 P2.3.2 P2.3.3 P2.3.4
16 28 50 68
Study Type Leith 2026 Dwelling+ Inhabit
AP3 Semester 2 Design Submissions
P2.4.0 Engineering Experience P2.5.0 Exploring Experience
AP4 Non-Design Module Coursework 2009 2010 2024 2020
120 130 134 138
Architectural Technology Environmental Design About Architecture Dissertation Studies and Research Methods
AP6 Process and Reflect AP6 Digital Submission
LIAM KIERAN ROGERS
Wallpaper Design Pertinent to Controversy. Charette: A public meeting or workshop devoted to a concerted effort to solve a problem or plan the design of something.
Hand painted base (left), Screen printing template (right).
Charette is a celebration of the school through the collaberation of several year groups. With each passing year we as the students are expected to take up more responsibility throughout charette week. The charette group I was involved with this year was expected to design a set of wallpaper which had ties with controversial issues. This could be with concern to what is happening in the news at present or something of the past.
The wallpaper strips hung from the ceiling. My groups is the blue kids paper.
My individual team within the project came up with a form of kids wallpaper which had an extremely dark meaning. We looked at various examples and decided the best option within the alotted time scale was to lino print boats onto a couloured backdrop. The issue we related our wallpaper to was with respect to the immagration crisis and itâ€™s accompanying boat disasters. The boats sit under water sinking to the murky depths rather than floating above the water., subtle but effective.
A Day In A Life. A Story Told Through Space.
A Day In The Life: This mini project allowed me to explore the development of a space that is important to me, focusing on itâ€™s acompanying journey through various media.
Day in a Life: Process
I worked out what i was going to do in my sketchbook first.
For this micro project I chose my bedroom for my study as itâ€™s the place I spend the majority of my time at university. Relative to my daily journey my room tends to be kept pristine so as you will see from the images it never strays far from itâ€™s original character. The story is told through photos in chronological order as indicated from the lighting and useage, with each prior section being cleaned before the beginning of the next segmant.
Day in a Life: Story
The bed is where i start my day, ensuring it is tidy before leaving the house.
The large majority of my day is spent at my main desk either working or gaming.
In the evening I move my chair over to my second desk to work without distractions.
Couvent Sainte-Marie de la Tourette Study. Study Type: The research that your group presents will contribute to a conversation within your studio about ways that housing might be designed and the implications that may have.
The site sits to the West of Lyon in South Eastern France,
The typoology project was orientated around a group presentation followed by a booklet submission portaying our findings. The next few pages indicate a little about the Convent extracted from the produced booklet.The buildingâ€™s was designed originally as a Dominican Order Priory for the monks of the area. It was constructed between 1956 and 1960 but was eventually abandoned and used for other practice.
Various images supporting the booklet to help give an indication of itâ€™s planning.
Sainte-Marie de la Tourette was designed by the architect Le Corbusier in partnership with French music theorist, Iannis Xenakis. Now a UNESCO World Heritage site and heralded as one of the most prominent building of the late modernist style, La Tourette was commissioned in 1952 by the Dominican monks of Lyon. The private spaces are of particular interest due to the Dwelling+ inks later in my portfolio.
A lego model representing a typical convent bedroom.
The Monks who live there only ever intended to stay for 7 years at a time using it as a retreat for leearning, It was never intended as a permanent residence. The nature of the design would not allow for a successful larger scale community living. The poor sound insulation, the awkward bedroom â€œcellâ€? space and lack of private areas and even perhaps the imposing style of design would make inhabitation on a larger scale unlikely.
Read, Understand and Propose a Neighborhood Plan. Leith 2026: Read and present a proposal for a neighbourhood in Leith. Each studio has identified a specific area of Leith to study, ours being the north eastern area.
Leith 2026: Site
The neibourhoud I was given is indicated in yellow.
The neibourhood we visited and studied is highlighted in yellow and sits to the North East of Leith. After decades of industrial decline, deindustrialisation, slum clearance and resultant depopulation in the post-war era, Leith gradually began to enjoy an upturn in fortunes in the late 1980s. Several old industrial sites were developed with modest, afordable housing, while small industrial business units were constructed at Swan eld, Bonnington, Sea eld and Lindsay Road. The Shore developed a clutch of upmarket restaurants, including the second of the chain of Malmaison hotels in a conversion of the former â€œAngel Hotelâ€?, a seamanâ€™s mission, whilst the once industrially-polluted and desolate banks of the Water of Leith were cleaned up and a public walkway opened.
Leith 2026: Economy
Information about the area.
Several of Leithâ€™s former industries have passed out of existence in the Port. Thus, for instance, although Leith does an enormous business in the rectifying, blending, bonding, and exporting of spirits, yet there are nowadays no distilleries within the bounds of the Port, nor does it now contain a single working brewery. Enormous quantities of ale are exported from Leith to nearly every country, but none of it is brewed in Leith itself. It used to possess a flourishing cane sugar refining business, but it is many a day since the last of the Portâ€™s sugar refineries closed down. Leithâ€™s leading industries in our own day are shipbuilding, the wine trade, milling, biscuit making, rope making, and the timber trade. (Extracted from Group)
Leith 2026: Photos
Across from a potential site a row of houses stand.
As part of the group work my particular contribution was orientated around the â€œRhythms of the CItyâ€?, this means i had to visually interpret the feelings and flow that I experienced on my visit. The site in general is riddled with possibilty for the creative industry that is already present so this is something I focused on later in the project. In this section i looked back at my notes and photography to help inspire a set of facets for future Dwelling+ Sites.
Leith 2026: Rhythms
Three potential sites for Dwelling+.
This map illustrates a closer view of the site with the locations of possible future development areas on the site. From this map you can also see how cramped the site is with awkward buildings that restrict the ease of travel. I found at the site that it was difficult to manoeuvre through due to the more recent additions, which makes the area not very desirable to be in. Opening up the area for creative useage was a main driving force in out proposal due to these feelings.
Leith 2026: Facet 1
Waterside Facet inspited by photography on the left.
The image is taken from across the water at location 1 on the map from the previous page. â€œThis is the rhythm of the waterside; a location with several eateries represented here by the dense water molecules. These take their stances on both water and land. The water is a source of food and leisure for the residents of Leith.â€?
Leith 2026: Facet 2
Heavy surroundings weighing down on the area.
The image is taken from the midst of the clutter and grime at location 2 on the map â€œTowards the centre of the site a car park acompanied by itâ€™s abandoned companion are bullied and overshadowed by the larger surroundings similar to a prison of stone and brick. It is a dark and uncomfortable place.â€?
Leith 2026: Facet 3
Site 3 sits across the road from a scrapyard.
The image is taken from across the street at location 3 where a scrapyard is overlooked by a reasidential block, the scrapyard should serve as a precedent and be embraced as a celebration of Leith’s culture and industry. “The site of interest lies across from a scrapyard where the crunching and smashing of metal and glass can be experienced and heard by the public and it’s residents.”
Leith 2026: Precedents
Inspiration for renovations and new buildings within the proposal.
The top image was taken by a photographer in croydon showing a scheme referred to as box park which is a pop-up mall for: independent/global, fashion, lifestyle stores and cafes. The building has a look similar to something we want to impliment onto the site as it links to the surrounding industrial docks allowing for the use of local resources. We also want to create a large green space for events such as sculpture shows and oudoor cinema so some residential will be relocated.
Initial concept sketch for final proposal.
A clearer throughfare will be introduced to the site with primary uses for emergency services and deliveries rather than cars. This almost makes the neibourhood act as a self sufficent super block similar to what has been implemened in Barcelona, this means pedestrians will feel safer and more comfortable. The creative industries that exist will be given the opportunity to use the new space for working in or for running events/workshops to inspire the wider public.
Leith 2026: Sketches
Sketches showing potential landscaping and building concepts.
These drawings have a scale of aproximately 1:500. They show the new buildings we have added in yellow inspired by our precedence. The top drawing is of a SW section of the site showing a new housing development that incorporates possible creative industry at the bottom. The second drawing shows the NE section of the new box park style structure. On the the third and fourth drawing another South East then North West section shows the new multipurpous area mentioned prior.
Leith 2026: Site Model
The model shows the neighbourhood three dimensionally.
Leith 2026: Proposal
In this project I set out to create a building that not only worked structurally but blended into its environment seamlessly whilst retaining its individual character that was developed from the design stage. I believe I did this through various different routes that led me to the final result. The design was based around both heavy and light weight steel structure in which both stone cladding and a complete grid of metal shaders can rely on. The stone cladding was the easiest choice as the vast majority of the buildings in the neighbourhood follow that schematic, I just simply had to devise a modern way of working it with the shader system. The shader system works in terms of materiality because of the scrapyard across the street, I see it as a celebration in the keeping of the industry and culture of Leith. The metal panels are not purely for show as they are devised to open outwards from the deep set balconyâ€™s and windows to diffuse light from several angles when need be. The bedroom design was a bold one which I believe payed of. The rooms are large enough to move freely around when the bed is suspended upwards allowing for activities such as painting or building models itâ€™s really all about the resident creatives. The method of moving the bed up wards allowed for a double size bed to be put into place meaning if need be a partner or friend can stay over which doubles the amount of people limit in the residence. In conclusion I think the building works efficiently with the brief given.
Shared Dwelling For 24 People. The Minimum Flat. Dwelling+: Drawing on your neighbourhood plan and vision for Leith 2026 make the first steps towards this future plan through your own proposal for a small housing scheme on a site within your study neighbourhood.
The large site has been split into three indivudual sections.
â€˜The site has been identified as a strip from Constitution Street to Timber Bush (see attached 1:500 plan for boundaries). We would like you to select a portion of this site for your proposal. The dashed lines on the plan indicate a suggested split of the site into thirds. You are encouraged to choose one of these thirds to become the extents of built project. As part of your dwelling plus proposal you will need to include a non-residential public fronting space.â€™ (Brief)
Sketchbook pages illustrating furthest right selection and analysis.
I chose the site that runs just off constitution street as it had the perfect outreach for a public fronting space and due to the sun paths (available above) there should nit be too many lighting issues. I could also use the isolated car park for landscaping or other activites relative to my Leith 2026 work. My public fronting space is designed to cater for the creative industry with a workshop, dance studio and private work rooms, I chose my user group to be creatives due to the outcome of my symposium work.
Dwelling: Site visit
South on Constitution Street, to the left is the scrapyard.
Looking from the North of the site.
Some samples of my process in relation to elevations.
I designed in both plan and section taking massive influence from my Leith 2026 work on City Rhythms. I wanted to use some form of metal in my design along with some sharp angles representative of the scrapyard industry. The facade is to be mainly stone to create a monolothic enterance of minimalism whilst being in keeping with the streetâ€™s flow, the main body will be set back from the street becasue of this feature.
I used yellow in the design process hence its use in the Portfolio.
Sketches developing facade further along with interior concepts and plans.
Precedent images that had massive influence on my project.
The precedents above represents the main inspiration for my dwelling design. I wanted to combine the heaviness of the surrounding landscape with the lightness of the scrapyard metal. The metal cladding will accompany the balconys and windows to double up as shaders for all the rooms on the south facade in particular. The heavy stone entrance reaches out into the street creating a space which is both public and private to entice the public in.
Dwelling: 3D View
Dwelling: Plans Dwelling + Dwelling + 1:100 1:100
Section from West to East
Dwelling: Final Model
Close up of Front Facade and North West corner.
I felt like a model would really help show my design insitu considering the small area of site I was given. Using modelling throughout the design process I was able to understand how my building would work with the buildings around particularly with lighting challenges. I used grey board on both the surrounding buildings and part of my facade to show how the materialty in particular blends in whith the existing buildings.
Shot from Garden/ Landscaping.
Inhabitation of a Residential Building. Inhabit: An extension of Dwelling +. Show how the dwelling will be inhabited both internally and externally. The work in this section is either new or has been revised since the initial portfolio hand in. I believe the work shows improvement relative to my final crit.
Left image shows landscaping whilst the right shows internal staircase.
Left image shows the standard flat whilst the right shows the external entrance.
Engineering Experience: Paprika Response. Breaking Boundaries: Collaboration is key to making things in and of the world. Architects, artists and engineers are one part of a much larger system that is vital to bringing projects to life.
ika is a Japanese Anime about a device known as the DC Mini falling into the wrong hands which allows a person to enter someone elseâ€™s dream. As we understood the project was based around representing ideas given by the short scene and exploring them through a serious of outputs. We approached this project by meeting every weekday to discuss our thoughts and ideas to create a collaborative storyboard. The initial idea in terms of job allocation was to collectively come up with the concept and then split off into two individual mixed groups to give everyone equal work load. However, once we started coming up with the general outline the methodology changed and although some tasks were sometimes split into sub groups, the majority of the time was actually spent working as a large unit. It took a surprising amount of people to do a lot of the shooting for our short film whilst the maquette also needed multiple working hands, particularly for assembly. This process allowed everyone in the group to know the exact direction we were heading in and assured everyone understood the tasks undertaken. This was a welcome change as everyone got along well and I believe this helped improve our output for the film festival. After watching the scene, we picked out 8 key ideas and angles we wanted to convey in the maquette and film, some of which can be seen later in this
Statement about the groups approaches abd responses to the project.
document. An example consists in the scene featuring traffic lights awarded a pair of standout colours which we then incorporated into our scenes, ambient red light for the backdrop and the glowing green of a mask. One of the more important key features in the scene was not necessarily that of visual but that of audible, a growing impression of stress and claustrophobia is noticeable through intensifying sound and rhythm. The main way of representing this was not only through editorial technique but through the maquette. In the film the entry to the dream world and reality was dictated in and out through an antagonist of which the maquette was representative of, our main maquette was a large 2.0m x 0.9m gramophone which was designed to emphasise this growth of noise. The size was chosen to allow it to be used in filming and the exhibition to show how much power it has over the character in our film. We also created another maquette which was used more as a prop or representation of the DC mini in the film. This came in the form of a purge inspired mask that would help keep the anonymity of the actor, allowing the viewer to really feel the stress and frustration between understanding what is really reality and what is not. I believe the editing process was the only part in which we did not all work directly on as it was easier to have two people working on the computers
albeit with the design orientated suggestions from the rest of the group. On the whole the group came together and responded well with a sensible approach and deserved the output we achieved.
Some notes from the first meeting shiowing both personal and group ideas.
My personal experience of the project was extremely positive, I relished the chance to work with people of different backgrounds and enjoyed their ideas and alternate ways of thinking. It was interesting to see the Engineers in particular really getting involved in the project and being just as keen as the the rest of the architects and artist to produce something of aesthetic prowess. I believe I as they collaborated well throughout this process by having input in almost every decision that was made and opposing views that were all considered in aid of the best outcome. The different degrees helped each other with both design and construction which I believe allowed us to a lot more time to create the best outputs possible. Reflecting on the project now I believe we could have improved the exhibition at the end but unfortunately just didnâ€™t have the correct lighting in the room we were allocated, this was due the other exhibition pieces and the time of day. In hindsight I personally could have perhaps suggested an alternate way of representing out film and showing our Marquette. This was possibly one of our main failures which I can learn from and hopefully improve in the future. Finally, I also think we created too much work for ourselves in the allotted time after seeing other films which was not necessarily a negative but instead provided challenge which
Statement describing personal thoughts and experiences.
is what university is about. In contrast the positives far outweighed the negatives throughout the project which can be seen in our other outputs such as the two Marquetteâ€™s and film. I believe it had a good rhythm representative of our analysis and followed certain rules that were created to suit it visually but on the whole my experience extremely positive and I look forward to collaboration in the future.
Illustartion of Gramophone Concept and general notes from editing process.
A couple of sketches by myself and the group when expanding on a concept.
Various images that were taken as influemce throughout our filming.
Some pages illustrating sketch models and laser cutting of final cad .
The gramophone was originally designed to be mostly geometric to make it easier to laser cut and then construct. After a few redesigns we found a way in which we could use two spines, several dividers and metal wire to construct a solid maquette.The pieces were flatpacked like a jigsaw and placed onto A1 size sheets ready for laser cut. Finally the pieces were glued and nailed in place and a curved design was achieved.
Images of the process work ,insitu and finished shot.
Paprika Film Film Clip Clip Paprika
Paprika Our Film Film Our
Our Maquette Maquette Our
Mood Boards Boards Mood 86
I have picked some shots from Paprika and our film to help show influence.
As you can see from the images on the left in comparison to the images on the subsuquent pages we have taken lots of influence from Paprika through: Angles, Colour Scheme, Depth of Field, Lighting and of course story. I have also shown some behind the scenes shots to show the challenge we faced to get the shots we needed on no budget.
His Masterâ€™s Voice
We used both shower curtains and acrylic to create the controlling shadows.
For this scene we wanted to quite literally take the characters life out of his hands, we wanted it to seem as though he is in a constant struggle, as if he is stuck in a nightmare and reality is no longer a possibility. The hand controls the actor and interacts with him similar to the voises in the paprika scene. The space feels like you are enclosed within your own bubble.
Our Maquette 90
Images taken from our film and the behind the scenes.
Throughout the short film the actor experiences various stressfull scenes one of which reaches a climax in a drowning scene we wanted the space to change drastically to evoke different levels of stress. The dark depths of closing in water being the pinnacle of this journey. We used a plastic tub and a spotlight to create this shot.
The Berwick Project was my favourite so far, the setting of materials restricted thinking whilst promoting creativity to work around limits. At the start of the project I moved the build area at site five from the abandoned community centre to the wall. This was a bold move because it did break the rules but I believe for the better. I moved the site so I could accommodate for access for all with the aim of allowing everyone disabled or not the same experience. The experiences I have created with the vertical inclusion and the joker protagonist plays with the emotion of the viewer in that moment. It creates a sense of awe and bemusement with its hidden tricks. My favourite of which is incorporated into the civic thoroughfare. Initially the building is rather minimal on approach whilst still hosting detailed technical aspect associated with the optical glass brick faĂ§ade. I think the renders do the building more justice than my initial models as the life of Leith and the materiality is recognised more accurately which becomes a rich selling point. The main attraction of my design is based around the four exhibition spaces which deceive any onlooker towards an idea of weightlessness. When you pass under you see the blurred footsteps and movement creating intrigue, you feel intruding but thatâ€™s just the way everyone is. You travel to the exhibition space and are again surprised by the onlookers from above, it seems never ending in layers but instead of you being the onlooker you are now looked upon. I considered My structural strategy more so than the last design project as it was something I set out to improve on. Overall I am extremely happy with how the year and the projects have unfolded and I feel that being bold has played off.
Exploring Experience. Bricks of Glass and Stone. Exploring Experience: Each studio will be asked to work with one material protagonist (Glass).Each of the students will develop his/her brief on a multi-purpose building for an art practice (Glass blowing).
䤀渀渀攀爀 吀眀攀攀搀 刀椀瘀攀爀 伀甀琀攀爀 吀眀攀攀搀 刀椀瘀攀爀 䰀漀眀 吀椀搀攀 吀眀攀攀搀 䴀漀甀琀栀 䜀攀渀攀爀椀挀 匀甀爀昀愀挀攀猀 䈀甀椀氀搀椀渀最猀 愀渀搀 匀琀爀甀挀琀甀爀攀猀 匀愀渀搀 䴀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀 䜀爀攀攀渀攀爀礀
I used photography too help retain the aesthetics of the site for later in the project.
The site is contained by a series of walls, housing and abandoned buildings (community centre), at the moment there is one entrance to the north which is tight and awkward particularly for emergency vehicles. The verticle aspect is of interest to me as I knew the sight had potential the become a throughfare connection between the sea front and the community centre. This is one reason of many which inspired me to build next to the wall rather than the centre.
The Left page features the Optical Glass Brick House by Hiroshi Nakamura and NAP.
My design features the building as the protagonist, the building plays Jokes and suprises the visiter at each and every turn. Two areas of the design incorporate a glass brick facade as seen above. In contrast to normal glass bricks this unique form lends a pattern from that of a real brick whilst allowing light to pass through to the inside spaces. These inside spaces are therefore lit in subtle but again unique ways.
On the right page an image taken at one of Andos building is featured.
Left page shows my interpretation of the brief in a visual format.
The artist I looked at in more detail is called John Sharvin. He creates glass blown sculptures and installations one of which looks like that of a cloud. I had an idea in which a sculpture like this would hang within â€œfloatingâ€? exhibition spaces in which the visitor can experience the sculpture/intsallation from every angle whether it be above below or side.
Left shows one sample of many design sheets showing experiential qualities.
Rather than using a sketchbook for this project I decided to develop my project using large A2 and A3 sheets of layout paper as it allowed me to redraw my ideas over and over without loosing general proportions. The right image shows an early concept model which helped me throughout my design process as i developed the design. After the drawing process i moved onto digital rendering to neaten everything i did for final submission.
Plans were originally printed A1 at 1:100 scale.
䜀愀氀氀攀爀礀 倀氀愀渀猀 㨀
䈀攀爀眀椀挀欀 㔀 ㈀ ㌀㔀㈀㐀 ㈀䘀
Axonametric to the left and Section BB to the right. Originally 1:20 on A1.
The section above reiterates that ever evident joker presence in the building. The toilets sit beneath the civic throughfare with its partial glass brick floor. This allows anyone in a cubicle to look up and see the shadows of the passerbys above creating unease but joy. I suppose this intrigue works in both ways as the passerby may wonder what is below hence pushing the popularity and visitor count. To the left is an axonametric that helps understand the planning.
I tried playing with the effect of perspective view to further improve my sections.
This section faces NE. It shows the relationship with the wall and sea,
Left shows exhibition structure, right shows glass brick detail/connection.
For my structural strategy the majority of the building follows a steel frame format with concrete cladding with some aread such as the exterior landscape consisting of reinforced concrete. The focus of my study was orientated around how i could make the left exhibition look like it was floating. This ideology relates back to my initial brief representation where the glass is the deceiver just like the Joker. The right features the top connection of the glass brick facade to steel.
㨀 伀瀀瀀挀愀氀 䜀氀愀猀猀 䐀攀琀愀椀氀猀⸀
Left shows the exterior from the centre, the right image shows the entrance.
View from wall towards accomodation and cafe. Relationship shown again.
Tech Coursework. Extension of Dwelling Design. Technology Coursework: This section compiles two seperate pieces of coursework. The second coursework is made up of Part A and Part B as labled.
Environmental Design. Application to Dwelling. Environmental Design Coursework: This section contains one short project relative to Dwelling + and Leith.
ARC 2010 Environmental Design and Services 150203524 20/01/17
2024 / 2020
About Architecture. Essay and Dissertation Studies. This Section contains some loose non design work such as Essays and Dissertation Study. Mark already received for this section. Some work as quoted is not my own but was quoted in my text.
Terrorism and Architecture Essay How has the urbanscape of Greater London developed in response to the modern acts of terror that the city has experienced in the 20th and 21st Century using three specific examples as a precedent for other areas of the city to follow. Terrorism has been somewhat of a controversial issue throughout the 21st century due to its delicate nature and strong ties within politics. This is not an essay siding with a particular political party on the best way to deal with the issue but a personal opinion aided by sets of text and research into the methods that have been used and can be used in the response to these modern acts of terror within the urban environment. I will talk about how mass attacks have affected our mentality as designers and how it has become the architect and planners job to interlace security measures within the design process without compromising the aesthetics of London. I will focus on three particular examples that were of great significance following periods of terrorism, these examples include: The Emirates Stadium, The Ring of Steel and The US Embassy. On the 7th July 2005 the largest attack on UK soil since World War 2 took place (7/7), 52 were killed and 784 injured by four separate suicide bombers on London’s transport services. It was assumed that a reign of terror was to follow in the coming years but on its 10th anniversary only 1 death has been recorded since. After the attack the city realised it had to protect against a viable threat and needed to change quickly. Prof Tahir Abbas, a senior research fellow at the Royal United Services Institute made a viable point in that “You try to protect yourself from any possible risk, but there will always be something that creeps through. With terrorism you’re always playing a game of catch-up in some respects and this is where lessons learned from across the world become important.” This catch up game has worked well in London’s favour in recent years learning from what is happening in the rest of Europe. In the following two years of the 7/7 attack counter terrorism units were more proactive on the prevention of suicide bomb plots but in November 2007 an attack on Glasgow airport and attempted car bombing in London’s West end reinitiated the threat of this style, in which cars were being used to deliver explosives closer to buildings. Sporting venues were areas of particular worry as they attract large crowds creating a potential target for these types of attacks. Holloway, North London is home to the Emirates Stadium which was one of the first stadiums in England to fully apply counter terrorism methods. One of the more intriguing strategies was to place the name Arsenal in dramatic singular reinforced concrete letters blocking off one of the larger openings to the site, the letters are not purely there for aesthetic purpose but also have the capability to stop a 7 tonne lorry travelling at speed from potentially running down a large crowd. Club officials stated other examples on a
BBC article explaining that: “The stadium’s apron is ringed with subtle obstacles that would prevent a car bomb from getting near. Concrete planters and benches are deliberately placed to prevent a car weaving through them to reach the stadium itself.” . One final noteworthy feature lies with the ornate canons positioned towards the front entrance of the stadium to again provide an obstacle for a vehicle to avoid, the canons are actually the signature of the club, nicknamed The Gunners. Other stadia do not have the same privilege as the Emirates as they stand closer to inner city roads with no room for protection leading to protection nowhere near as well executed as at Arsenals ground. The Royal British Institute of Architects published a document for the Designing for Counter Terrorism Conference in 2011 in which Ruth Reed, RIBA President writes: “If design retreats to a bunker mentality and colludes in the restriction or exclusion of the general public from many public buildings, or the creation of a sense of unease in crowded places there will be a greater sense of alienation from all corners of society, including the disaffected and radicalised.” She makes a very good point in relation to the prevention of radicalization being introduced through the improved planning of a city without this bunker mentality that clearly affected us from past attacks. In simpler terms she wants public space to feel safe and be safe without the need for obvious blockades being installed on every street corner. A public space needs to feel accepting and open to everyone not just the minority. The document seems to suggest that areas in the city centre are being pushed towards pedestrian thoroughfares with limited vehicular access for deliveries and emergency services, this not only lightens the city centre from the grips of the car but also prevents vehicles which could potentially carry explosives from getting anywhere near. This is a tactic that could solve the issue presented to Tottenham. The City of London is a county and city within London itself, it is seen as the business and financial epicentre of the United Kingdom with some of the largest national and international corporation’s lying within. The power it holds makes it a large target to make a political statement or inflict mass causality towards both people and architecture. Today the occupying architecture such as Tower 42 and the 30 St Mary Axe stands as a statement of human endeavour meaning a successful attack would surely create a feeling of insecurity throughout the Greater London area. In reality Tower 42 (one of London’s first skyscrapers) was actually bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1993 causing over £1 billion worth of damage . This forced any insurance costs to skyrocket for potential skyscrapers in the city. At this time the IRA were an ever imposing threat in England so it is assumed that this prevented or rather delayed the skyscraper boom in London. During this slower architectural period in the early 90s the IRA continued to terrorise major Uk cities such as London and Manchester forcing the City of London to
lead a stand in counter terrorism design through the ‘Ring of Steel’ or what it was dubbed as at the time ‘The Ring of Plastic’. This nicknaming came from the fact that a lot of the measures put in place represented more a multitude of plastic cones, armed police checkpoints were situated temporarily at open entrances to the city whilst parking areas were moved outside the area. In 1994 these policing checkpoints became permanent as cautioned in a police review “there were fears that such permanent arrangements could have made the city “look like Belfast” giving a propaganda coup to the terrorists” . To the surprise of most the ring of steel didn’t appear anything like that of Belfast, instead it seemed scaled down and more of a subtle 6 ½ mile range of obstructions. Some of the more noticeable features was actually the disappearance of over 1000 litter bins that couldn’t be made bomb proof, in attempt to reduce the amount of places a bomb could be hidden. The ring evolved towards the 20th century into a series of smaller permanent bollards and planters with new block like buildings being placed over what use to be thoroughfares creating the extents of this subtle ring. Closed-circuit television has been implemented further at the checkpoints mentioned through a scheme to allow these cameras to be placed overtly with hope to defer anyone from considering an attack. Buildings that are still situated to the limited open areas have been designed with large buffer zones or extensions between the street and the building itself. In present day the police checkpoints only become active if an imminent threat has been made. The measures taken have been perceived to be a fortress like mentality that was well debated over, as the roads that did still flow had the potential to be traffic nightmares as highlighted “There is a balance to be struck between having roadblocks which will frustrate what the terrorists can do, and creating enormous traffic jams which would disrupt the life out of the City” , I feel this is an important balance to get right but can understand why such drastic measures had to be made at the time whether it be temporary or permanent to protecting against an immediate threat, the is far more important than making something aesthetically pleasing. On contrary to the lack of skyscraper growth in the 90s the years following the 9/11 attack on the world trade centre in New York by Al Qaeda seemed to have the opposite effect, instead it inspired architects to design taller buildings with a focus towards counter terrorism measures perhaps as an act of defiance or more likely “mirrors the economic boom of the early 21st Century. The UK was experiencing a longer period of economic growth, than at any time over the previous 100 years.”. The measures built into the actual new buildings within The City of London incorporates structure directly tailored to stop an explosion from damaging its structural integrity. This and the factor of an economic boom have allowed the age of the skyscraper to take over London, new buildings of
almost organic and wacky shapes dominate the skyline in present day (2017) with more following rapidly. This doesn’t seem like a city under a severe terror threat to me. The bunker mentality mentioned was something of a persistent annoyance throughout the 20th Century, not that it was largely unwelcomed but rather the fact it was so visible in comparison to modern 21st century methodology. As mentioned earlier the Ring of Steel did evolve to a less visible more free moving example tailored for pedestrian use. Perhaps the other reason for this ring becoming more invisible was its partial dismantle after the years following the Provisional IRA’s ceasefire in 1997. Boulevards are still very visible yet have the potential to be invisible as is currently in planning. The UKs current terror level being set as Severe or Highly Likely suggests that such protection that was removed should be reinstalled hence why a plan has been put into place to revitalise the ring of steel, due to be complete in 2022. Modern exemplar shows it is possible to implement new ideals, as seen in the rebuilding of the US embassy in Battersea. The consulate currently in place was built in more optimistic and open times but over recent years has been reinforced. At present day it is one of the more prominent instances of a Bunker mentality with its layers upon layers of visible protection, from gargantuan concrete ‘planters’ to omnipresent bollards. In addition, the front of the consulate has been closed off to vehicles similar to the case studies suggested by the RIBA document I mentioned earlier, this was done to prevent car bombs from being driven close. What we are seeing is an example sitting within an amalgamation of two styles of counter terrorism practise. The response is due to the different threats throughout the past two decades, as over the past two years (2015/16) Muslim terror groups such as Islamic State have ordered militants to step away from bombing tactics. Instead using hijacked trucks and lorries to run down mass crowds was suggested to cause maximum carnage in order to impose their message . This tactic has been used multiple times across Europe in countries such as France and Germany forcing a looming threat towards the United Kingdom. Again we must adapt to the change in terrorist methodology. You could argue that this form of attack could be considered easier to prevent against in architectural and planning terms but we cannot forget the past and just adapt and change leaving ourselves vulnerable. Although the tactic might be easier to prevent against it has inspired more militants to attempt such attacks due to its ease. With no sign of terrorism being fully prevented anytime soon and the impending threats of other countries and tension across the globe we are heading into perhaps the most delicate period of my personal life, we ask ourselves what is the future of the bunker mentality in response to the ever present threats on London and how will we respond? The US embassy is certainly one of the first to change as it builds its new consulate outside the city centre towards Battersea, South London
this year (2017). The site was chosen in particular for its defendable potential yet has the initial appearance of being open and inviting, something of which wasn’t present in The City of London case study. This ideology is more of a contemporary way of thinking in that of what Ruth Reed wanted for the future of British architecture relative to counter terrorism. The new embassy was to be designed to “ensure the new facility reflects the best of modern design, incorporates the latest in energy-efficient building techniques, and celebrates the values of freedom and democracy.” , although anyone who looks closely at its design can understand why some design decisions have been made in a positive way towards counter terrorism. The architect Kieran Timberlake talks about multifunctioning features on his website relative to the current London embassy, he says “In contrast to high perimeter walls and fences, security requirements are achieved through landscape design—such as the large pond, low garden walls with bench seating, and differences in elevation that create natural, unobtrusive barriers.” Some of the more noticeable features of this new design such as the self-sufficient water system that surrounds half the building is largely representative of a moat surrounding a castle or fort, a medieval defence tactic of such simplicity has been modernized with waterfalls and concrete in response to a modern day threat. The feature creates an interesting relationship between form and function, it is a method to prevent chaos but in its aesthetic it embodies a sense of serenity in which I find ultimately intriguing, it stops any potential threats from being able to get anywhere near the structure from street level. In addition, CCTV can be used to monitor the wider extent of the site so when they are slowed down by this “moat” they can be stopped with immediate effect. On the opposite side of the structure the site is stretched and littered with freestanding trees and plantations next to a gentle hill that would provide obstacles for any speeding vehicle. I found that walls have been used less like one side and another but one below and one above meaning they cannot be broken through but are more likely to be climbed, this idea almost puts the consulate on a pedestal rather than a us and them mentality is currently depicted, this backed up on the idea of “freedom and democracy” that the designer wanted to achieve. One of the final methods used is that idea of a buffer zone which was introduced on buildings in The City of London but again this has gone through a design change in which the buffer surrounding the building will now lie underneath, the larger structural elements grow upwards almost suspending the interior. I believe this Is a smart response and justified response perhaps “This is the future of counter terrorism in architecture of retrofitting ugly concrete blocks” Upon researching various examples in this essay I have concluded that London had developed a bunker mentality that I do not believe will ever leave, instead it will simply be better masked and blended into everyday life. The improvement from a system of plastic cones towards landscaping for a healthier more secure city has created an
atmosphere of self-belief portrayed through the thriving urban scape. In particular, it is inspiring to see Greater London come through these darker times of modern warfare standing almost unshaved in the face of evil. As Tom Dyckholf so eloquently said “Fortress urbanism, what was once exceptional is slowly becoming ubiquitous” . In my personal opinion landscaping is the future of urban security against particular threats albeit incorporated within a strain of CCTV. It allows prevention and integration from all areas of society hence reducing radicalisation as prior mentioned. I believe in a war of negatives positivity can be taken from how London’s Planning and Architecture have responded, as evident from the US Embassy case study I much prefer freedom and democracy rather than suppression and London is truly leading the way.
Dissertation Study This dissertation is project based, I will document the abandoned sea forts as a form of preservation by producing audio visual and literary output. In 1942 Guy Maunsell designed four sea forts to defend London from the impending threat of the Luftwaffe on its naval infrastructure. These forts were visualized as two large concrete habitable columns with a platform resting on top. In present day these forts for the most part have been or claimed or destroyed by the British Government. As much of a shame as this is Maunsell did also design a multitude of futuristic looking army forts closer to the coast. The army forts consisted of a central control tower linked to six satellites by walkways . The best of these forts in terms of condition are located at red sands which is the only fort to still have all of its satellites intact. Since they were decommissioned and abandoned in 1958 the forts have been used for the occasional pirate radio station but nothing under correct legality. There has been deliberation of what to do with these forts but whilst this deliberation continues the forts are sadly rusting away in desperate need of saving. The forts are a vital part of history representing the valiant war effort fought by the people of Britain and in my opinion stand as a symbol of human endeavor in defiance of its surroundings, through war and storm they still stand insolent albeit in a dilapidated state. I believe that if nothing is agreed they will eventually collapse into the sea not only destroying a part of history but Maunsell’s legacy. I think it’s important to document these moments in our architectural timeline when such an impending threat is evident. As aforementioned the dissertation I intend to undertake is project based which gives me the opportunity to produce both written and graphical outputs that capture the atmospheric qualities that make these forts so special so that when they are gone they will be preserved through my documentation. This allows anyone in the future to be able to understand and feel the impact made by these bizarre looking structures.
directly correlate with the visual aspects I intend to impose I think it would be beneficial to read and refer to books such as Thinking Architecture by Peter Zumthor to help me perfectly generate the pieces of writing that best capture the sea forts. Thinking beyond the construction the character will be detailed. What values do they hold? And how do I replicate that in film and literature? Another interesting reference I can look into is the project of Stephen Turner. Stephan visited the Shivering Sands Forts for 36 days in 2005, roughly the same amount of time a WWII serviceman would have spent at the fort. He described the project as an experiment in isolation and wrote a blog and a book about the project. Before I visit it would be helpful to read Stephen’s thoughts to serve as inspiration. I will start by researching the artist’s film makers and writers and learning about the kind of atmosphere that will most likely be apparent when I visit. I will then plan my visit in advance looking at the kind of shots that I believe will initially capture the atmosphere generated by the literature. I have found a boat which would to take me to the forts and are In contact with them about potential dates of visit. I also have a drone which I will be able to take to help take my film making to the next level, it will help if I am not allowed to go into the forts (still awaiting confirmation). I believe the drone shots will help capture and therefore preserve the forts from angles that haven’t been caught on film before. I will get a couple of hours at the sites which will allow me to write up my own notes and dialog of the qualities and experiences I feel best document the structures. I can use samples of my video and photography throughout the dissertation to aid with understanding.
In relation to videography and other visual aids for the graphical representations aspect of the project I am interested in researching into the style of various film makers that create the type of qualities that are required to help capture the feel the structures create. A couple I already admire include Ben Brown , a British film maker specializing in the capturing of both photographic and audio visual qualities. I will also look at Tim Kellner an American Film maker who follows a route of storytelling in aid to capture his surroundings, he also produces his own music for his pieces so it will be interesting to see how I can also best capture that in the moment feel through audible communication as well as the visual. I believe videography is the best form of documentation at this time because it would be difficult to 3D map these structures out at sea to the same standard. In regards to 3D mapping I will use a drone to attempt to map the structures myself using the drone deploy application. The dissertation has also the writing aspect which will
Process and Reflect. Workshops and Improvements. Process and Reflect: The workshop have helped throughout the year. this section shows how through drawing techniques and digital rendering.
Using Photoshop and Sketchup I was able to improve my interim sections.
This Render more primarily used photoshop to apply textures and shadows.
Combining Digimaps with the previous skills I was able to make accurate site maps.
This is my final portfolio from stage 2 Architecture at Newcastle University. Originally printed A3. Enjoy.