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Jin Eui Kim


Jin Eui Kim Datblygu Technegau a Chleiau Ar Gyfer Celfwaith Newydd The Development of Tonal Clays and Techniques Towards New Artworks

© A Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre Exhibition 2019 Gellir archebu copi caled o’r cyhoeddiad hwn gan www.lgac.org.uk/cats A hardcopy of this publication can be ordered from www.lgac.org.uk/cats/


Datblygu Technegau a Chleiau Ar Gyfer Celfwaith Newydd The Development of Tonal Clays and Techniques Towards New Artworks Lansiwyd y prosiect hwn, a ariennir

This project funded by the Arts Council

gan Gyngor Celfyddydau Cymru, i

of Wales was launched to develop

ddatblygu

er

new techniques to create artworks

mwyn creu celfwaith sydd â’r potensial

which have the potential to influence

i ddylanwadu ar ganfyddiad y gwyliwr

the viewer’s perception in three-

mewn celfwaith tri dimensiwn a dau

dimensional

ddimensiwn.

artworks.

Cyn y prosiect hwn, roeddwn yn llunio

My work prior to the project has been

fy ngwaith â throell ac wedyn byddai

wheel-thrown with eighteen different

deunaw o wahanol donau o engobau

tones of grey engobes applied by

llwyd yn cael eu brwsio ar yr wyneb.

brushing

Roedd y dechneg hon yn creu estheteg

technique created a particular visual

weledol

gymesuredd

aesthetic of perfect symmetry and

perffaith a bandiau tonaidd trachywir,

precise tonal bands, whilst at same time

gan ddylanwadu ar y llygad ar yr un pryd

influencing the eye creating illusions

technegau

benodol

o

newydd

and

onto

two-dimensional

the

surface. This


i greu rhithiau ac effeithiau optegol.

and optical effects. I had spent many

Roeddwn wedi treulio blynyddoedd

years perfecting these techniques and

lawer yn perffeithio’r technegau hyn

I thought I had reached a point where

ac roeddwn yn credu fy mod wedi

I had fully explored and exploited the

cyrraedd pwynt lle roeddwn wedi

possibilities within these processes.

archwilio a datblygu’r posibiliadau’n

There were a couple of restrictions or

llawn yn y prosesau hyn. Roedd un neu

limitations that I wanted to improve

ddau gyfyngiad neu derfyn roeddwn

with the techniques - it could only be

eisiau gwella arnynt o ran y technegau

applied to circular and symmetrical

– gellid defnyddio’r broses ar ffurfiau

forms; the scale of the work was also

cylchol a chymesur yn unig, ac roedd

restricted by the difficulties of painting.

yr anawsterau wrth beintio hefyd yn

The firing temperature and the choice

cyfyngu ar raddfa’r gwaith. Roedd yn

of an earthenware clay body were

rhaid i dymheredd y tanio a’r dewis o

necessary to acquire the variation of

gorff clai priddwaith fod yn gywir er

tones and the visual effects which were

mwyn medru cyflawni’r amrywiad o

so important. However, I was eager


donau ac effeithiau gweledol a oedd

to use another clay body with higher

mor bwysig. Fodd bynnag, roeddwn

firing temperature to make the work

yn awyddus i ddefnyddio corff clai arall

stronger.

gyda thymheredd tanio uwch i wneud y gwaith yn gryfach.

I had been thinking of this new project for a long time. The initial ideas arose

Roeddwn wedi bod yn meddwl am y

from the restrictions of my current

prosiect newydd hwn ers tro.Ymgododd

work and I wanted to make tonal clays

y syniadau gwreiddiol oddi wrth y

that could be used to create artwork

cyfyngiadau ar fy ngwaith presennol

with different techniques. Over the

ac roeddwn eisiau gwneud cleiau

last year countless experiments have

tonaidd y gellid eu defnyddio i greu

been meticulously undertaken to

celfwaith gyda thechnegau gwahanol.

create new clay bodies with strength

Dros y flwyddyn ddiwethaf, mae

and the appropriate variation of tones.

arbrofion di-rif a thra manwl wedi cael

Black stains were added to create

eu cynnal i greu cyrff clai newydd sy’n

smooth tonal gradation and molochite


meddu ar gryfder a’r amrywiad priodol

was added to make the shrinkage as

o

staeniau

similar as possible all the way from the

duon i greu graddoliad tonaidd llyfn

lightest to the darkest tone to prevent

ac ychwanegwyd molochit i sicrhau

cracking at the join. Lots of firing

bod y culhau mor gyson â phosibl

tests have been done to find the right

yr holl ffordd o’r tôn mwyaf golau i’r

temperature which can ensure the clay

mwyaf tywyll i atal cracio ar yr uniad.

body is vitreous and strong as well as

Cynhaliwyd nifer fawr o brofion tanio

acquiring the good tonal gradation.

donau. Ychwanegwyd

i ddod o hyd i’r tymheredd cywir a all sicrhau bod y corff clai yn wydrog ac yn

I

have

explored

two-dimensional

gryf ynghyd ag yn dangos graddoliad

work by using these new tonal clays. I

tonaidd da.

made some examples of modules with particular patterns. The modules can

Rydw i wedi archwilio gwaith dau

be juxtaposed together to potentially

ddimensiwn

ddefnyddio’r

experiment with creating larger scale

cleiau tonaidd newydd hyn. Lluniais

architectural artworks in the future. The

trwy


enghreifftiau o fodiwlau â phatrymau

larger work will enable me to influence

penodol. Gall y modiwlau cael eu

the viewers perception of forms in a

cyfosod er mwyn ceisio arbrofi ar

much more dynamic and impactful

greu celfwaith pensaernïol ar raddfa

way.

fwy eang yn y dyfodol. Bydd y gwaith ehangach yn fy ngalluogi i ddylanwadu

This

exhibition

will

show

the

ar ganfyddiad y gwylwyr o ffurfiau

development of the project from

mewn ffordd sy’n llawer mwy dynamig

beginning to end with videos, drawings,

a thrawiadol.

idea journals, recorded results of experimentation, test pieces and some

Bydd yr arddangosfa hon yn dangos

final artworks. This exhibition will share

datblygiad y prosiect o’r dechrau

the experience of the investigative

i’r diwedd gyda fideos, darluniau,

process and demonstrate potential

dyddlyfrau

new developments in Jin’s work. The

arbrofion

syniadau, wedi’u

canlyniadau

cofnodi,

darnau

audiences can see and ‘feel’ the full

prawf a pheth celfwaith gorffenedig.

experiences of the techniques created,


Bydd yr arddangosfa hon yn rhannu

making the exhibition educational and

profiad y broses ymchwiliol ac yn

informative.”

dangos datblygiadau newydd posibl yng ngwaith Jin. Gall y cynulleidfaoedd

Jin Eui Kim is an internationally

weld a ‘theimlo’ profiadau llawn y

renowned ceramic artist. Originally

technegau a grëwyd, gan sicrhau

from South Korea, he is now based in

bod yr arddangosfa’n addysgol ac yn

Cardiff. He completed an MA and PhD

addysgiadol.”

at Cardiff School of Art and Design.

Mae Jin Eui Kim yn artist cerameg bydenwog. Yn wreiddiol o Dde Corea, mae nawr yn byw yng Nghaerdydd. Cwblhaodd MA a PhD yn Ysgol Celf a Dylunio Mae’r prosiect wedi cael ei rannu’n dri cham:


Cam 1. Datblygu cyrff clai newydd | Stage 1. Developing new clay bodies

Canolbwyntiodd y cam hwn ar ddod o

This stage focused on finding a stable

hyd i gorff clai sefydlog y gellid ei danio

clay body for high temperature firings,

ar dymheredd uchel, gyda digon o

with enough plasticity for hand-building,

blastigrwydd ar gyfer llunio â llaw, gyda

controllable shrinkage, and with a white

chulhau y gellid ei reoli, a gyda chorff clai

base clay body. Black stain was added

gwyn. Ychwanegwyd staen du yn raddol

gradually to get tonal variations and

er mwyn cael amrywiadau tonaidd, a

molochite was used to ensure a similar

defnyddiwyd molochit i sicrhau bod y culhau

shrinkage for all the tonal clays. The firing

yn debyg ar yr holl gleiau tonaidd. Profwyd

temperature was also tested many times

y tymheredd tanio lawer gwaith hefyd gan

firing between 1220 to 1260C in order to

danio rhwng 1220 a 1260C gradd er mwyn

achieve the tonal variation, strength of

cyflawni’r amrywiad tonaidd, y cryfder corff

body and to avoid porosity. As expected

ac i osgoi mandylledd. Fel y disgwyliwyd, yr

the most challenging aspect was creating

agwedd fwyaf heriol oedd creu’r amrywiad

the variation of tones through to darkest

o donau, hyd at y du tywyllaf, ond gan atal

black while at the same time preventing

y ffurfiau rhag aflunio ar yr un pryd.

distortion in the forms.


Ffigur 1 / Figure 1 Darnau prawf i ddod o hyd i’r tymheredd tanio cywir ar gyfer corff gwydrog ac

i sicrhau bod y culhau yn debyg ar gyfer yr holl gleiau tonaidd. Cawsant eu profi hefyd ar gyfer y tĂ´n tywyllaf | Test pieces to find the right firing temperature of vitreous body and make the similar shrinkages for all tonal clays. It was also tested the maximum dark tone.


Ffigur 2 / Figure 2 Y tri darn prawf ar ddeg cyntaf o gleiau tonaidd. Roedd yn rhaid estyn er mwyn

sicrhau bod y tôn yn cynyddu’n raddol | The first thirteen test pieces of tonal clays. It was necessary to stretch out to get the tone gradually increase.


Ffigur 3 / Figure 3 Y tri deg darn prawf olaf o gleiau tonaidd | The final thirty test pieces of tonal clays.


Ffigur 4 / Figure 4 Prawf cysylltu ar gyfer y cleiau tonaidd | Attachment test for the tonal clays.


Ffigur 5 / Figure 5 Platiau llunio â dei o amrywiol siapiau i greu torchau | various shapes of die plates

to create coils.


Ffigur 6 / Figure 6 Cedwir y torchau wedi’u hallwthio mewn cynwysyddion â chlawr plastig | Extruded

coils are kept in a plastic lidded containers.


5

Ffigur 7 / Figure 7 Gwnaed ugain o gleiau tonaidd a’u cadw yn y cynwysyddion | Twenty tonal clays

were made and kept in the containers.


Cam 2. Datblygu technegau | Stage 2. The development of techniques

Mae dulliau newydd wedi cael eu profi

New methods have been tested to

i greu’r ffurfiau tri dimensiwn a dau

create the three-dimensional and two-

ddimensiwn,

cleiau

dimensional forms, using the tonal

tonaidd a wnaed yng ngham 1. Roedd

clays made from stage 1. The building

y technegau llunio’n cyfuno torchau a

techniques combined coils made using

wnaed gan ddefnyddio allwthwyr gyda

extruders with customised dies and

phlatiau llunio â dei wedi’u haddasu, a

stacked together to create initially just

chawsant eu pentyrru gyda’i gilydd i greu

a simple form. Coils were cut to create

ffurf syml i gychwyn. Torrwyd torchau i

smaller bricks and used to stack pieces

greu brics llai a chawsant eu defnyddio

together to create three-dimensional

i bentyrru darnau gyda’i gilydd i greu

form. Various patterns were created

ffurf tri dimensiwn. Crëwyd amrywiaeth

by assembling the bricks; this method

o batrymau drwy gydosod y brics:

demonstrated a possible direction for

dangosodd y dull hwn gyfeiriad posibl

future development of architectural

ar gyfer datblygu gweithiau a ffurfiau

works and forms.

yn

defnyddio’r

pensaernïol yn y dyfodol.


Ffigur 8 / Figure 8 Dyluniwyd yn gyntaf ac yna gwnaed cylchoedd drwy ddefnyddio’r templedi pren

sydd â’r un cylchedd. Gwnaed setiau templedi o amrywiol feintiau ar gyfer creu cylchoedd o wahanol feintiau | Designed first and made rings by using the wooden templates which have the same circumference. Various sizes of template set were made for creating different sized rings.


Ffigur 9 / Figure 9 Trefnwyd y cylchoedd o glai tonaidd fel y byddent yn barod i greu ffurf | The tonal

clay rings were arranged to be ready to build up a form


Ffigur 10 / Figure 10 Cafodd y cylchoedd clai tonaidd eu pentyrru gan drimio un haen a’r gwaelod |

the tonal clay rings were stacked up and trimmed a layer and bottom.


Ffigur 11 / Figure 11Torri’r torchau’n gyfartal drwy ddefnyddio’r slot torri pren hwn i greu brics bach |

Cutting the coils equally by using this wooden cutting slot to create small bricks.


Ffigur 12 / Figure 12 Trefnwyd y brics bach i greu patrwm | The small bricks were arranged to create a

pattern.


Ffigur 13 / Figure 13 Cafodd y brics wedi’u trefnu eu cysylltu wrth ei gilydd i wneud panel | Arranged bricks were attached together making panel.


Cam 3. Coethi a chreu ar gyfer yr arddangosfa | Stage 3. Refinement and creation towards the exhibition Cafodd yr arbrofion eu profi a’u coethi

The experiments were tested and refined

i ddatblygu’r technegau terfynol a

to develop the final techniques leading

arweiniodd at greu gwaith yn llwyddiannus

to the successful creation of work for the

ar gyfer yr arddangosfa. Datblygwyd

showcase exhibition. Challenging coil-

technegau llunio torchau heriol i greu’r

building techniques were developed

ffurfiau mawr a’r patrymau cymhleth

to create the larger forms and complex

ar gyfer y gweithiau tri dimensiwn a

patterns for both the three-dimensional

dau ddimensiwn fel ei gilydd. Mae’r

and

arddangosfa derfynol yn cynnwys y cyfan

final exhibition includes all that was

a ddysgwyd o’r camau blaenorol, gyda

learned from the previous stages with

dogfennaeth gysylltiedig ar ddatblygiad

accompanying documentation of the

y celfwaith a’r technegau. Mae hyn yn

development

cynnwys lluniau, fideos, myfyrdodau ar

techniques. This includes, photos, videos,

arfer. Mae’r arddangosfa’n dod â’r prosiect

reflections on practice. The exhibition

i ben ac yn dangos y potensial i ddatblygu

concludes the project and demonstrates

celfwaith newydd.

the potential to develop new artwork.

two-dimensional

of

the

works.

artworks

The

and


Ffigur 14 / Figure 14 Roedd rhai o’r darnau mawr yn heriol | Some larger pieces were challenged.


Ffigur 15 / Figure 15 Taniwyd llawer o gonau er mwyn dod o hyd i’r tymheredd cywir ac i weld pa mor hir i gynnal y tymheredd tanio terfynol | lots of Cones were fired to find the right temperature and duration of soaking. was created with the tonal clay bricks.


Ffigur 16 / Figure 16 Gržp o ddarnau gorffenedig gyda’r tu mewn yn unig yn wydrog | A group of final pieces with glazed inside only.


Ffigur 17 / Figure 17 Cafodd patrwm mwy cymhleth ei greu â’r brics clai tonaidd | More complex pattern was created with the tonal clay bricks.


Jin Eui Kim

Arddangosfa Canolfan y Celfyddydau Llantarnam Grange A Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre Exhibition Dylunio/Design: Hillview Design Cyhoeddwyd gan Ganolfan y Celfyddydau Llantarnam Grange. Testun Yr Awduron a LGAC 2017 Canolfan y Celfyddyda Llantarnam Grange, Heol Dewi Sant, Cwmbran, Torfaen NP44 1PD Published by Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre. Text LGAC 2018 Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre ,St Davids Road, Cwmbran, Torfaen NP44 1PD +44(0)1633 483321 info@lgac.org.uk www.lgac.org.uk Mae Canolfan y Celfyddydau Llantarnam Grange yn rhan o bortffolio Sefydliadau Refeniw Cyngor Celfyddydau Cymrun “Portffolio Celfyddydol Cymru” Elusen Gofrestredig rhif: 1006933. Cwmni Cyfyngedig trwy Warant rhif: 2616241 Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre is part of Arts Council of Wales portfolio of Revenue Funded Organisations “Arts Portfolio Wales” Registered Chartiy no: 1006933. Company Limited by Guarantee no: 2616241 Ariennir Canolfan y Celfyddydau Llantarnam Grange gan Gyngor Celfyddydau Cymru, Cyngor Bwrdeistref Sirol Torfaen a Chyngor Sir Fynwy. Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre is funded by the Arts Council of Wales, Torfaen County Borough Council and Monmouthshire County Council. Ni chaniateir atgynhyrchu’r cyhoeddiad hwn, boed yn rhannol neu yn ei gyfanrwydd, ar unrhyw ffurf heb ganiatad ysgrifenedig y Cyhoeddwr. This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without written permission from the publisher.


Profile for Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre

Jin Eui Kim: The development of tonal clays and techniques towards new artworks  

This research and development project funded by Arts Council of Wales was launched to develop new techniques to create artworks which have t...

Jin Eui Kim: The development of tonal clays and techniques towards new artworks  

This research and development project funded by Arts Council of Wales was launched to develop new techniques to create artworks which have t...

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