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The Road West: The Steve Turner Collection of African Americana, Part II December 3, 2020


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Detail Lot 224 | Float Like a Butterfly, Sting Like a Bee, Muhammad Ali Rumble in the Jungle Pinback, 1974 Front Cover Lot 220 | Henry Armstrong Portrait by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Inside Front Cover Lot 30 | 25th Infantry, Company A, Grabill Oversize Photograph, Sturgis, Dakota Territory, circa 1887 Back Cover Lot 151 | Booker T. Washington with Captain William T. Shorey and Distinguished Bay Area African American Citizens, Oversize Photograph, Jan. 14, 1903 Inside Back Cover Lot 22 | C.S. Fly Cabinet Card of 24th Infantryman, Tombstone, Arizona, circa 1882


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Welcome to Hindman A Personal Message From Wes Cowan In 2019 Cowan’s Auctions joined forces with Leslie Hindman Auctioneers in Chicago, forming Hindman Auctions, now the leading middle market auction house in the country. We operate more salesrooms in the United States than any other auction house and conduct over 100 auctions annually in categories such as fine jewelry, fine art, arms and armor, American history, Native American art and jewelry, modern design, books and manuscripts, furniture, decorative arts, couture, Asian works of art, Western art and sculpture, and numismatics, as well as various special focus subjects. Sales in our first year totalled nearly $70 million across all of our categories. When I announced the sale of my company in January 2019, I promised all of you that the Cowan’s you had grown to know and trust wasn’t going anywhere, and I hope you found that to be true. While 2020 will bring more exciting growth, the personalized service that you have come to expect from Cowan’s will not change. I’m happy to report that the terrific Cowan’s team will remain intact. Danica Farnand, Katie Horstman and all the specialists and hardworking office staff you have come to trust will still be available on the other end of the phone. Soon we will be taking steps to more fully integrate Hindman Auctions into one entity. Most of this will happen behind the scenes to create a seamless consignment and bidding experience across all Hindman locations. You will begin to see the name Hindman more and Cowan’s less, but it’s still us, your trusted advisors. You can continue to visit us at cowans.com, but shortly, we will transition all sales to hindmanauctions.com.

C. Wesley Cowan Founder, Vice Chair and Principal Auctioneer

As a consignor, you can expect even more avenues to showcase your property to an ever-expanding pool of bidders. Our offices in Cincinnati, Chicago, Atlanta, Cleveland, Denver, Milwaukee, Naples, San Diego, Scottsdale, St. Louis, Palm Beach, and Washington, DC, will offer additional auction categories to maximize the value of your consignments. As a bidder, you’ll find dozens of new and exciting auctions. While we have been cross-promoting auctions for some time now, you’ll see the bidding process begin to streamline as all Hindman auctions eventually migrate to a single home. While I’m proud of the auction house we’ve built at Cowan’s, I’m even prouder of the company we’re building today. Hindman Auctions will provide you with the same great service that has been Cowan’s hallmark since we conducted our first auctions through the mail from a makeshift office in my garage. Thank you for your loyalty and understanding as we set this exciting new course. Onward and Upward. -Wes Cowan

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Observations from a Collector The collection I built of Black Americana includes famous, infamous, unknown and anonymous people, but my favorite personalities fall into two categories: those who are well known to scholars of Black history but who are still unknown to the general public, and those who are unknown to everyone. Two men are included in this sale who exemplify the omission of Black people from the broader American history. Both are underdogs of a sort and deserve more recognition. In the “famous while invisible” category is Martin Delany. In the “totally unknown category” is Reuben the Guide. After Frederick Douglass, Martin Delany (1812-1885) might have the most impressive biography of any African American of the 19th century. He was an abolitionist, publisher, editor, author, doctor, orator, judge, U.S. army major, political candidate and the first African American to visit Africa as an explorer and entrepreneur. He is often described as America’s first Black Nationalist. He established The Mystery, the first African American newspaper published west of the Allegheny Mountains in 1840, and when it folded, he joined Douglass in Rochester, New York as co-founder and co-editor of the North Star. In 1850, Delany entered Harvard Medical School but left when white students protested his enrollment. He soon concluded that the only solution to slavery and racism was to leave the country. In 1852, he published The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, the first book to advocate for African American emigration. He attended the first National Emigration Convention of Colored People in 1854 where he delivered a powerful speech and served as president of the National Board of Commissioners. In 1859, he traveled to Yoruba, in present-day Nigeria, to investigate possible locations for colonization. After a year and a half abroad, he returned to the United States to publish a summary of his trip and to organize the first phase of emigration. The Civil War soon intervened and Delany became an important recruiter of Black officers and soldiers. When President Lincoln appointed him to be a major he became the highest-ranking African American officer during the Civil War.  After the war, he was a customs house inspector in South Carolina and then a judge in Charleston until the Democrats removed all African Americans from government positions. He ultimately moved to Oberlin, Ohio where he died in 1885. In contrast to Douglass, for whom numerous schools are named, I know of not one Martin Delany High School. In spite of Delany’s numerous achievements, I would bet that very few students of American history have heard of him. Representing the unknown category is Reuben the Guide (1856-1903), someone who made his mark as a popular tour guide at the Mexico–United States border near San Diego. His story, though not well known today, exemplifies what I love about collecting historical material. When I first encountered “Reuben the Guide,” more than twenty years ago, he was a total mystery. Who was this smiling man wearing a sombrero and a badge? What was he doing in San Diego? Over time, I learned a lot.

Opposite Lot 9 | Major Martin Delany CDV, circa 1864 DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO

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Reuben Williams was born in Kansas City in 1856 and came to California in 1864, first to San Francisco, then to Los Angeles and finally to Tia Juana (as it was then spelled). Around 1889, he began working for the National City & Otay Railroad escorting tourist parties to points of interest along the Mexican border. I believe that is when Reuben Williams became Reuben the Guide: that is the name by which thousands of tourists knew him. In an 1894 article on Tia Juana for the San Francisco Chronicle, Mabel Craft described him: The interesting character of Tia Juana is Reuben, the guide. His other name is Williams, but he does not consider it a nice name and has dropped it. He likes to be considered Mexican, but he is really a fullblooded African. Forewarned tourists address him as a Mexican, and then Reuben cannot do enough for them. He is the most picturesquely dressed individual in town. He, and he alone, wears a sombrero, and two months ago he married an Indian woman. His comments on the passing landscape are very humorous, and he stands on the steps of the bus and rolls his eyes. Reuben alone is worth the price of the trip, for one hears the philosophy of the man who has compressed sixty years if life into thirty, for one can live fast even in Tia Juana. A tourist could have many ways to remember Reuben. He smiled for Kodak pictures; his likeness was included on postcards and cigar bands; his name was headlined in promotional broadsides; he was mentioned in tourist guides; and he was described in newspaper and magazine articles. He stamped the back of the cabinet cards (which invariably showed him in his signature suit and sombrero), “Tia Juana, Old Mexico. Stamped by Reuben the Guide.” He often added his signature and “Yours for Climate.” When he died in January 1903, he was remembered in five lengthy obituaries including those in several different San Diego newspapers, the San Francisco Chronicle and the Los Angeles Times. One stated that he had been working on a manuscript of his life story. How I would love to find that. While Reuben is not the most historically significant person in my collection, he certainly is one of my favorites, and by nearly all accounts, he was a strikingly memorable character to those who met him. Gratifying as it is to introduce his story here, I am still excited to uncover more on Reuben the Guide. There must be scores of snapshots of him in photo albums around the world. Several articles mention that Reuben posed for photographs, but no one said it more teasingly to the collector of all things Reuben than did Henry S. Kirk in his article in the December 1902 issue of the Overland Monthly: …The people climb into the busses and the horses start down the dusty, winding road into the river bed. At this end of the excursion is Reuben, the guide. Reuben has been written about by everyone who ever writes anything about Tia Juana, and those who cannot put him on paper put him in their kodaks. Reuben is a remarkable personage, well informed of the things of Tia Juana, and well able to tell of them. He wears an immense sombrero, gorgeously decorated with bullion and colored cords. He speaks Spanish like a Mexican, only his color and his good humored volubility suggesting his Dixie origin.” The Kodak mention has been corroborated by my own research. Harvard has one snapshot and The San Diego Historical Society has another. So, as I say good-bye to the many treasures that I collected, I do so in the hope that they will add to the quilt that is American history and that other collectors and scholars will dig deeper into the lives of men like Martin Delany and Reuben the Guide. -Steve Turner

Opposite Lot 109 | Reuben the Guide Cabinet Card, circa 1895 6

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The Road West: The Steve Turner Collection of African Americana, Part II Lots 1-243

Detail Lot 85 | Colored Agricultural and Normal University Baseball Team, Langston, Oklahoma, circa 1910 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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1 Slave Bill of Sale, Washington DC, 1830 Bill of slave sale, 2pp, 7.75 x 11 in., Washington, DC. July 3, 1830. From Dorcas Galvin of the city of Washington to Catherine W. Greenfield. Documents sale of “the person, labour and services of my Negro Slave called Caroline / eighteen months, the daughter of Casandra / for and during the term of twenty eight years and six months at the end of which term the said Caroline will, if living, have attained the age of thirty....” With Galvin’s seal and signature, and signatures of witnesses John Chalmers and William Hicks. Verso with statement of Justice of the Peace “Jno Chalmers” declaring that said party appeared before him and that said slave Caroline will be “manumitted and discharged from all service to her or any claiming under her from and after the term of service therein named.” $200-400

2 Letter Offering $100.00 Reward for Return of Missing Slave Letter, 2pp, approx 5.25 x 8.375 in., n.p., n.d. Document appears to provide the written text for a fugitive slave advertisement that is intended for publication. Written and signed by “John Wagoner.” Addressed to “Editor of Battle Ground Scholastic” / “Mattre [?] King.” Document reads in part, “$100 Reward / The undersigned begs lief to state to the public, that he will give a reward for $100.00 to any person returning to him one fine young man who has lately strayed or as his hair is somewhat kinky been stolen by some unprincipled wrech with the hope of receiving a valuable remuneration for him within the borders of the southern states.” Author then continues by describing the physical characteristics of the individual and his clothing. The 1850 Federal Census Slave Schedules list two slave owners by the name of “John Wagoner,” one in Virginia and one in Arkansas; the 1860 Slave Schedules list three slave owners by the same name with the additional owner living in Kentucky. The Library of Congress Chronicling America historic newspaper database does not list any publication with the name “Battle Ground Scholastic.” $100-200

3 1857 Tax Receipt Printed at the Crusader of Freedom Office, Doniphan, Kansas Partly printed tax receipt for W.H. Bayliss for his 1857 taxes in Doniphan County, Kansas, completed in manuscript on July 20, 1858. 7.5 x 3.5 in. Doniphan: Crusader of Freedom, n.d. [1858]. Printed at the Crusader of Freedom offices, Doniphan, Kansas, the newspaper started by James Redpath (1833-1891). Originally from Scotland, the journalist first worked for Horace Greeley’s New York Tribune where he published a series of articles compiling “Facts of Slavery.” In 1855, he moved to the Kansas-Missouri border and reported on the slavery disputes for the Free Soil newspaper The Missouri Democrat. He then started his own paper, the Crusader of Freedom, with the first printed words being: “I enroll myself a Crusader of Freedom until slavery ceases to exist.” He met John Brown immediately after the Pottawatomie Creek incident and his interview with the fervent abolitionist was Brown’s debut in the press with Redpath labeling him a “warrior-saint.” The journalist became Brown’s most vocal supporter in the press, and his report of the Battle of Osawatomie helped take Brown to national prominence. This receipt was printed near the end of Redpath’s time in Kansas, as he moved to Boston in July 1858 at Brown’s suggestion in order to more directly support his plan for a Southern insurrection of the enslaved. After Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Redpath would write in his defense and publish The Public Life of Capt. John Brown in 1860, with portions of the proceeds going to Brown’s family. $200-400

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4 Frederick Douglass CDV by Fassett, circa 1864 CDV portrait of Frederick Douglass. Samuel M. Fassett: Chicago, n.d., [late February 1864]. Photographer’s 122 & 124 Clark St. imprint on verso. Douglass is pictured wearing a dark, high-necked waistcoat and jacket looking at the camera with a piercing gaze, his hair beginning to grey. Cataloged in Picturing Frederick Douglass cat. #30, dated to Douglass’ trip to Chicago to deliver two lectures at Bryan Hall on February 25 and 28, 1864. $4,000-5,000

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5 Sojourner Truth CDV, 1864 CDV portrait of Sojourner Truth. Uncredited: Michigan, 1864. With recto caption, “I Sell the Shadow to Support the Substance. / Sojourner Truth.” Verso with imprint, “Entered according to the act of Congress in the year 1864, by Sojourner Truth, in the Clerk’s Office, of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Mich.” Truth appears seated at a table with flowers, engaged in a knitting project. A fine image in pristine condition. $3,000-5,000

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6 Slave Pen at Alexandria, circa 1864 Oversize albumen photograph of street view of former slave pen, 9 x 7 in., mounted to 11 x 9 in. Uncredited: [Alexandria, Virginia], circa 1864. Ink inscription on verso, “Slave Pen at Alexandria Va.” James H. Birch and Charles M. Price operated the largest slave pen in Alexandria, Virginia beginning in 1858. The building’s orientation within the city, midway between the urban center and farmland to the west, allowed for the efficient containment and transport of men, women, and children before and after slave auctions. Following the invasion and capture of Alexandria by the Union Army in May 1861, the facility was converted to a military prison. $2,000-3,000

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7 Joseph Taylor, 108th USCT CDV, Rock Island, Illinois, circa 1863 CDV full-length portrait of African American soldier. Gayford & Speidel: Rock Island, Illinois, n.d., circa 1865. Imprint on verso. Identified on verso by ink inscription as “Joseph Taylor / 1st. Sergt. Co. F. 108 U.S.C.T.” Organized at Louisville, Kentucky on June 20, 1864, the 108th United States Colored Infantry regiment consisted predominantly of formerly enslaved men from Kentucky as well as some free men. After garrison and guard duty at various points in Kentucky, the regiment arrived at Rock Island POW camp in Illinois. Here the 108th served guard duty over Confederate prisoners from January to May 1865 during which time this photograph was likely taken. Records indicate that Taylor enlisted on June 27, 1864, as a 1st Sergeant, his discharge or any other information is unlisted. Gayford & Speidel Photographers were active in a Rock Island in the 1860s and are known to have photographed dozens of soldiers from the USCT, including Lot 21 in Part I of The Road West. A group of 30 related Gayford & Speidel images of officers, non-commissioned officers, and enlisted men from the 108th, Company F are in the collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University. Taylor’s image is not among them. $3,000-5,000

8 Anderson Ruffin Abbott Pair of CDVs, Incl. Brady, circa 1863-1865 Lot of 2 CDV studio portraits of Anderson Ruffin Abbot (1837-1913), comprising: CDV full-length portrait of Anderson Ruffin Abbott. Mathew Brady: New York & Washington DC, n.d. circa 1863. Imprints on recto and verso. Contemporary pen inscription on verso identifies Abbott and his military designation. Abbott is photographed wearing a threepiece suit and his academic robe with three velvet stripes visible on each sleeve. His hand rests on a book. Taken during Abbott’s time serving as a surgeon in the Union Army. CDV vignette bust portrait of Anderson Ruffin Abbott. John Goldin & Co.: Washington DC, n.d., circa 1864-5. Imprint and 2-cent revenue stamp to verso. Abbott is pictured wearing his military uniform with his shoulder boards visible. Two CDV portraits of Abbott are held by the Marilyn & Charles Baillie Special Collections at the Toronto Public Library including a portrait of Abbott in his military uniform taken by Brady (S90.A.R.ABBOTT. PHOTO.NO.37), perhaps taken at the same sitting as the first image here. Neither view offered here was found in other examples. Abbott led a prestigious life with the distinction of being the first Canadian-born Black doctor. His parents were free people of color who fled Alabama when their store was looted and after settling briefly in New York, relocated to Toronto in 1835 after experiencing further racial tensions. His parents purchased property around the city and amassed considerable wealth allowing Anderson access to a fine education. Studying at Oberlin College in Ohio, one of the few integrated American colleges, he later returned to Canada to attend the Toronto School of Medicine and to study under African American doctor Alexander Thomas Augusta who was practicing in Toronto. Abbott received his medical license in 1861 from the Medical Board of Upper Canada to become the first Canadian-born Black doctor. In Toronto, he married Mary Ann Casey (1855-1931) on August 9, 1871, a CDV portrait of her is included as Lot 58. Together they would have three daughters and two sons. In February 1863, Abbott applied for a commission as an assistant surgeon in the Union Army but was denied. He then reapplied as a “medical cadet” and was accepted as a civilian surgeon under contract in the newly created US Colored Troops. He served in several hospitals from June 1863 through the end of the war including the Freedmen’s Hospital which eventually became a part of Howard University, and was the head of a hospital in Arlington, Virginia. Notably, Abbott was one of several doctors in attendance during President Lincoln’s final hours after he was shot. Mary Todd Lincoln later presented Abbott with a plaid shawl worn by Lincoln at his first inauguration as a gift of appreciation. $3,000-5,000 14

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9 Major Martin Delany CDV, circa 1864 CDV full-length studio portrait of Major Martin Delany in military uniform, no imprint, circa 1864. Photographer unidentified. Delany wears his double-breasted uniform with tasseled sash and brimmed hat. He grips his unsheathed sword in one hand while steadying his sheath with the other. Images of Delany are remarkably scarce with only one other copy of this image known. Martin Robison Delany (1812-1885) was one of the first African American men admitted to Harvard Medical School and led a distinguished medical career in addition to his abolitionist activities, journalistic pursuits, and interest in foreign colonization for African Americans. During the Civil War, he served as a surgeon in the famed 54th Massachusetts Volunteers and also aided in recruitment efforts. In February 1865, he became the first African American man to receive a regular army commission when promoted to major in the 104th US Colored Troops. For more details of Delany’s life, please see the introduction of this catalogue. $6,000-8,000

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10 Corps d’Afrique Recruitment Card, circa 1865 Recruitment card for the 16th Regiment of the Corps d’Afrique, n.d., circa 1863. 88 x 54 mm. The 16th Regiment was organized October 8-16, 1863 in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was consolidated with the 95th USCT on April 4, 1864 and designated the 81st USCT (new). Their designation changed again on December 19, 1864, to the 87th USCT and was consolidated on August 14, 1865, with the 84th USCT. The regiment saw duty at Brazos Santiago, Point Isabel, and Brownsville, Texas until July 1864 and saw the remainder of the war in Texas with the Department of the Gulf. The card references, “Plumley’s Brigade” and “Col. M.C. Kempsey”, referring to Matthew C. Kempsey (1832-1895), a pastor, originally born in Ireland, who first served in the Union when he was enlisted as a chaplain on Dec. 18, 1862, in Albany, New York and commissioned into the 176th New York Infantry. He was discharged on October 16, 1863, possibly when he was attached to the 16th Corps d’Afrique. After the war, he moved west to Iowa and according to the 1880 census, worked as a merchant. “Plumley’s Brigade” likely refers to Mardon Wilson Plumley (alternatively spelled Mordon Plumly), who is listed in official reports as the commanding officer of the 14th Regiment of the Corps d’Afrique, later becoming consolidated into the 86th USCT. After the war, Plumley moved west receiving a land grant on December 15, 1879, for a parcel of land in Sonoma, California near Mt. Diablo. In formal reports, the 14th Infantry under Col. Plumley and the 16th Infantry under Col. Kempsey were a part of the First Brigade of the Second Division of the Corps d’Afrique. The report noted that they were headquartered at Port Hudson, Louisiana and that the regiments were dispersed with the 14th going to Barrancas, Florida and the 16th to Texas. $1,500-2,500

11 3rd USCT Banner CDV by D.B. Bowser, Philadelphia, circa 1865 CDV of the banner of the 3rd United States Colored Troops designed by David Bustill Bowser. David Bustill Bowser: Philadelphia, n.d., circa 1865. This example bears Bowser’s mark on the verso: “D.B. Bowser / Artist / No. 481 North 4th St. / Philadelphia.” Serving as a kind of business card, one of the earliest examples from an African American artist. Verso with pencil inscription: “Compliments of / Robert C. Carson.” The pictured banner, used as a battle flag, shows an African American soldier and the (white) personification of the Republic grasping fasces. Both figures hold on to an American flag in front of a soldier’s camp, surrounded by laurel leaves and the motto, “Rather Die Freemen, Than Live to be Slaves” and “3rd United States Colored Troops.” The battle flag captured here was designed by African American artist David Bustill Bowser (1820-1900). From a prominent and wellrespected family, Bowser was well regarded for his civic engagement and philanthropy, especially involved in the abolitionist movement. He spent much of his career designing and painting banners and regalia for all manner of organizations and was the natural choice to design the battle flags for several of the regiments of African American soldiers that were formed in 1863. The 3rd USCT was mustered into service on August 10, 1863, and training at Camp William Penn when this banner was created. The inspiring motto at the top of the banner is taken from dynamic abolitionist and Presbyterian pastor Henry Highland Garnet’s “Call to Rebellion” speech at the 1843 National Negro Convention in Buffalo, New York. $2,000-3,000 16

12 CDV of Seated African American Boy Wearing a Kepi by J.W. Black, Boston, circa 1865 CDV studio portrait of seated African American boy wearing a kepi. J.W. Black: Boston, n.d., circa 1865. 173 Washington St. imprint on verso. James Wallace Black (1825-1896) was an experimental photographer who began his career as a daguerreotype plate polisher. He is well known for his portraits of Walt Whitman and of abolitionist John Brown taken in 1859, the year of Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. He also successfully captured aerial photographs from a hot-air balloon creating Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It, recognized as the first clear aerial image of a city. Black is also known to have taken the portraits of several officers and enlisted men who served in the Union army during the Civil War. Here, Black captures the youthfulness of his subject reflected in the jaunty angle of the kepi and the hint of a smile. It is possible that the young, unidentified subject may have served in some capacity with a regiment, as the servant for an officer or in another support capacity. $2,000-3,000

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13 Veterans Toasting Cabinet Card, Reading, Pennsylvania, circa 1880 Cabinet card portrait of six men posed together in a studio, including five white men in civilian dress and an African American gentleman wearing a uniform decorated with an assortment of ribbons and medals, presumably collected at GAR reunions. New York Gallery: Reading, Pennsylvania, n.d., circa 1880. Each man looks directly at the camera while raising his glass for a toast. A dog sits between two empty bottles on a table positioned in the middle of the group. $500-750

14 African American Civil War Veteran Cabinet Card, Boston, circa 1882 Cabinet card of a bespectacled African American veteran of the Civil War. Foster: Boston, n.d., circa 1882. The subject likely served for some length of time reflected by the six long service stripes he wears on each cuff of his uniform. The single star he wears on his sleeve indicates the relatively senior rank of an enlisted boatswain, gunner, carpenter, or master’s mate. The subject poses in a studio setting with a Model 1852 sword tucked in his belt, proudly displaying four reunion medals on his chest, including the GAR badge. An interesting image of a veteran reflecting the GAR at its zenith. $800-1,200

15 GAR Card, Free S. Bowley, 30th USCT Veteran, San Francisco, circa 1880 Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) card for Freeman S. Bowley, Lincoln Post, No. 1 in San Francisco, California. 4 x 2.25 in. Verso pencil inscription: “Freeman S. Bowley Ist Lieut. / 30th Regt. U.S. Colored Inf. / 1st + 2nd Fort Fisher. / Organized Feb. 1864 / 48 KIA / 177 disease.” Freeman S. Bowley of Philadelphia enlisted on May 4, 1864, and was commissioned as a 1st lieutenant into Co. H of the 30th United States Colored Troops. The 30th USCT was heavily involved in the Richmond-Petersburg campaign, including the siege operations against the Virginia cities. The campaign was the Civil War’s largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties. It was during the Battle of the Crater on July 30th, when the 30th USCT was deployed in the 1st Brigade in the Fourth Division commanded by Brigadier General Edward Ferrero. The Union forces exploded a mine, forcing open a gap in the Confederate defenses of Petersburg. The attacks after the explosion, however, were confused and Grant referred to the assault as “the saddest affair I have witnessed in this war.” The Confederates under Robert E. Lee quickly countered, repulsing Union forces and inflicting severe casualties on Ferrero’s division in particular. It was here that Bowley was captured and later confined at Macon, Georgia. The card verso particularly mentions the first and second Battles of Fort Fisher where the Union attempted to capture the fort guarding Wilmington, North Carolina, the South’s last major Atlantic port. The first battle, December 23-27, 1864, was abandoned due to several factors. The second, in January 1865, was a more successful siege sometimes referred to as the “Gibraltar of the South.” The rest of the war, the 30th USCT participated in the Carolinas Campaign seeing the surrender of CSA General Joseph E. Johnston. The unit and Bowley were mustered out of service on December 10, 1865. Freeman S. Bowley is listed in the San Francisco city directories as early as 1869, and as late as 1901 with occupations listed variously as a fireman, engineer, and locomotive engineer. GAR, Lincoln Post No. 1 was chartered in December 1874 and last mentioned in 1940. $250-350 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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16 John Brown Semi-Centennial Celebration of the Battle of Osawatomie, Pinback, 1906 John Brown pinback button. Caption “Semi-Centennial Celebration of the Battle of Osawatomie” surrounds illustration of battle scene below which appears a portrait of John Brown flanked by banners with the abolitionist’s name, the date of the confrontation, August 30, 1856, and year of the commemorative celebration, 1906. Back paper with identification “Buttons Made by / The Whitehead & Hoag Co. / Newark, N.J., U.S.A.” circa 1906. Diam.: 1.5 in. The Battle of Osawatomie was an engagement involving pro-slavery forces led by John W. Reid and Free-State abolitionists led by John Brown during the Bleeding Kansas era. On August 30, 1856, Reid and his men attacked the settlement of Osawatomie, Kansas, killing John Brown’s son and destroying the town in the process. Despite the losses suffered by the abolitionists during this violent clash, the Battle of Osawatomie served to heighten Brown’s reputation as a formidable antislavery figure earning him the moniker “Osawatomie Brown.” A scarce pinback button produced to commemorate this pivotal event. $600-800

17 Buffalo Soldier Cabinet Card by O.S. Goff, Fort Custer, Montana, circa 1880s Cabinet card of an unidentified Buffalo Soldier. O.S. Goff: Fort Custer, Montana, n.d., circa 1880s. Imprint on verso. Photographer Orland Scott Goff (1843-1912). The soldier stands with one hand on his hip, wearing uniform including kepi with insignia. The background and pose featured here are identical to another photograph sold as Lot 32 in Part I of The Road West, featuring an identified member of Company D, 25th Infantry Regiment. Two companies of the 25th Infantry were stationed at Fort Custer starting in May 1888. In addition to the images from this collection, another 25th Infantryman from Fort Custer photographed by Goff is housed in the Library of Congress (LOT 14024, no. 23 [P&P]). $2,000-3,000

18 Ninth Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers, Lot of 2 Tintypes Lot of 2 tintypes of Buffalo Soldier cavalrymen, comprising: CDV-sized tintype studio portrait of young African American man in uniform and a woman in a fine dress, wearing a hat, and holding a parasol. Uncredited. Ninth plate tintype studio portrait of a soldier, crossed swords clearly visible on his kepi which appear to identify him as serving with Company C of the 9th Cavalry. Uncredited. $2,000-3,000

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19 Tintype of Sergeant Thomas Polk, Fort Sill, Indian Territory, circa 1885 Tintype studio portrait of four men, one identified as Sargent Thomas Polk of the 9th Cavalry. Uncredited: [Fort Sill, Indian Territory], n.d., circa 1885. With original paper frame, now separated from the tintype with ink inscriptions. Verso reads: “Sergent Thomas Polk. Troop / C. 9 Ud. Cavalry. Fort. Sill. / I.T.” Recto reads: “Back Row Left / Wm. Tull, John Polk / Front Left / J. C. B...[illegible].” Four young men are pictured with two seated on stools with the others standing behind them, one with his hands on his friend’s shoulders. Thomas Polk is listed as a “recruit” with Co. C of the 9th Cavalry in March 1882 at Fort Sill, Indian Territory and shows up in records as late as a return from Fort Leavenworth on Sept. 5, 1892, with the same company. Notably, he returned to Fort Sill, now listed as a sergeant on the returns dated January 6, 1885. This image with three companions, one possibly his brother John, was likely taken at this time. $2,000-3,000

20 Buffalo Soldier CDV by Cross, Niobrara, Nebraska, circa 1880s CDV studio portrait of an unidentified Buffalo Soldier corporal with dual chevrons visible on his sleeve. William Richard Cross: Niobrara, Nebraska, n.d., circa 1880s. Pictorial imprint on verso. Cross (1839-1907), originally from Vermont, had moved west and initially operated a traveling tent studio in northeastern Nebraska. He settled in Niobrara and opened a studio on July 4, 1878, where he would remain for the next twelve years though he still traveled intermittently. Notably, he opened another studio at Fort Niobrara around 1886 and worked with his apprentice John A. Anderson at Fort Meade in 1888. Units of the 9th Cavalry joined the garrison in 1885 at Fort Niobrara and the 25th Infantry had troops at Fort Meade during this period. Though his collar pins are not fully discernable, this corporal is almost certainly from one of these regiments. $1,500-2,500

21 CDV of Buffalo Soldier with Saber by Cramer, St. Louis, circa 1880 CDV studio portrait of an unidentifed Buffalo Soldier in uniform. Gustav Cramer: St. Louis, Missouri, n.d., circa 1885-1887. 1001 S. Broadway imprint on verso. The officer, of either the 9th or 10th Cavalry known as Buffalo Soldiers, stands with erect posture, one hand holding his cavalry saber, the other resting on his scabbard. He wears his kepi, with his designation as part of Troop B clearly visible. In 1885, the 10th Cavalry was assigned to the Department of Arizona and the 9th to Fort Robinson, Kansas (presentday western Nebraska), suggesting that this officer was perhaps on leave in St. Louis, the site of extensive recruitment for both regiments in 1867. $800-1,200

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22 C.S. Fly Cabinet Card of 24th Infantryman, Tombstone, Arizona Territory, circa 1882 Cabinet card studio portrait of an unidentified Buffalo Soldier sergeant of Company B, 24th Infantry. C.S. Fly: Tombstone, Arizona Territory, n.d., circa 1882. “Fly’s Gallery” imprint on recto. Verso inscribed: “Mrs. Lottie Nenanet?” A half-length portrait of the soldier with his sergeant’s chevrons visible on his sleeve and his regiment and company pin visible on his hat. Perhaps taken when the 24th was stationed at nearby Camp/Fort Huachuca. Camilius S. Fly (1849-1901) was the principal photographer of Tombstone, Arizona, moving there in 1879 with his wife Mary and promptly setting up a tent studio. Fly’s Gallery was open by 1880 and he photographed the town and vicinity. He is best remembered for his series of photographs documenting Geronimo, Apache warriors, General Crook, as well as the gunfighters and lawmen that put Tombstone on the map. Though he was prolific, no other known images of Buffalo Soldiers or African Americans taken by Fly are known. This image, almost certainly unique, was undoubtedly made for the sitter. Fly’s negatives were destroyed in a studio fire in 1912 and another warehouse fire in 1915. $8,000-10,000

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23 Band of Ute Indians Boudoir Card Featuring John Taylor by Hook, Colorado Springs, circa 1890 Boudoir card featuring a group of Ute Indian subjects with Buffalo Soldier John Taylor. W.E. Hook: Colorado Springs, Colorado, n.d., circa 1890. Credited and captioned in the negative: “Hook Photo / 1781 Band of Ute Indians.” Photographer’s blindstamp on mount. John Taylor stands near the center of the group, wearing a suit, while western-style hats and feathered headdresses rest on the grass in the foreground. Another boudoir card featuring John Taylor and Ute Indians was sold as Lot 37 in Part I of The Road West. Born into slavery in Paris, Kentucky, Taylor (1841-1935) escaped as a young man and enlisted in a Black regiment of the Union Army, possibly the 10th US Cavalry. He was discharged in February of 1866 but reenlisted the following year and traveled west, serving in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. Along the way, he learned Spanish and the languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Apache, and Ute peoples and often worked as a translator. Taylor found he preferred the company of the Indians he encountered over that of the white settlers, many of whom were unaccustomed to the presence of African Americans on the frontier. He purportedly had twelve wives during his lifetime, and, partially by consequence, helped establish Ignacio, Colorado, by selling to the Southern Utes a homestead he inherited from a deceased stepson; this land was later merged with additional holdings to form the town. $3,000-4,000

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24 Glass, “Chief of Scouts,” and Wife, Apache, Ariz., circa 1886-1887, Lot of 2 Cabinet Cards Lot of 2 cabinet cards related to John Glass, comprising: Glass, Chief of Scouts, and Wife, Ft. Apache, Ariz. 24. Uncredited but almost certainly [Andrew Miller]: [Globe, Arizona Territory], circa 18861887. Stamped to verso “C.A. Spurgeon 561 W. / 4th St., Dayton, O.” Glass is seated on a faux log wearing a hat as his American Indian wife, presumably Apache but not identified further, stands at his side, their arms resting on another log. Wife of the Chief of Scouts Ft. Apache, Arz. A. Miller: Ft. Apache, Arizona, n.d., circa 1886-1887. Imprint on recto. From the same sitting, Glass’s wife stands wearing a European-style skirt and bottomed blouse, resting her crossed arms on a faux tree stump. John T. Glass was born in Polk County, Georgia, and enlisted with the 10th Cavalry in Atlanta in 1876. He is known to have been at Fort Apache during 1887, though was likely there earlier and later as well. He is listed on the voter registers for Apache County, Arizona on October 5, 1888, and September 20, 1890. He and his wife had a son and daughter, and he applied for disability compensation in 1902 because of damaged hearing. He was deaf in both ears by the time he died in 1908. In February 1891, for reasons unknown, Glass shot and killed a Sergeant George Foster. Records do not indicate any wrongdoing and the incident remains a mystery.

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The cavalry troops in Arizona Territory and Fort Apache were heavily involved in the Apache Wars and Andrew Miller was one of the principal photographers at the time. He was from Silver City, New Mexico, was known to be active in Globe, Arizona near Fort Apache in 1886, and later worked in Bisbee in 1897. He was killed by Yaqui Indians on August 3, 1899, in Sonora, Mexico. While Miller is well known for his photographs of Apache Indians, these two images are very rare. Although others have attributed the image to George Benjamin Wittick, it was almost certainly taken by Miller. The second cabinet card, with Miller’s imprint, is from the same sitting, with Glass’s wife wearing the same outfit, necklace, and kerchief. Additionally, the only other known copy of this image bears Miller’s imprint identical to the one seen in the portrait of Mrs. Glass here. Two other images of Glass are known to exist, White Mountain Apaches and Renegade Negro and Glass, Chief of Scouts, Fort Apache, Ariz. The former shows a standing Glass in buckskins with two Apache scouts amidst studio cacti and the latter shows Glass alone against a different backdrop, armed with an 1878 Colt double-action revolver. (See Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. A Season on the Reservation. My Sojourn with the White Mountain Apache for the author’s pursuit of information on Glass). $3,000-4,000

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25 Navajo Warrior & Negro Cavalry, Arizona, circa 1887 Albumen photograph (possibly an unmounted boudoir card), 4 x 5.75 in., featuring a Navajo warrior and an African American soldier. Uncredited and undated, though likely taken by Ben Wittick in Arizona Territory, circa 1887. “Navajo Warrior” and “Negro Cavalry” inscribed in ink beneath each subject. Navajo subject wears a poncho, silver hoop earrings, and a bandolier with pistol. African American subject wears a hat, bandolier, and gauntlets, and holds the barrel of his firearm with one hand. $3,000-4,000

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26 Scouts Capturing Boomers Large Format Photograph, Purcell, Oklahoma Territory, circa 18831885 Albumen photograph, 7.5 x 4.75 in., mounted to 9.875 x 8 in., featuring white soldiers, a Buffalo Soldier, an Indian scout, and an African American woman with a captured “Boomer.” Uncredited: n.p., n.d., circa 1883-1885. Captioned in the negative, lower left: “[Indecipherable] Capturing 5[?] Boomers.” Verso inscribed, in part: “Boomers captured by Soldiers and Indian Scouts from Fort Reno, between Oklahoma City and Yukon, on Mustang Creek, 1883. / Picture taken at Purcell / Ben Keith to right Sargent Indian Scouts / Flaco, Indian scout, / Negro Jackson / Corporal / Rachel.” The Boomer has a thick beard and looks somewhat haggard. An image with many of the same subjects previously sold in these rooms as Lot 298 in American History: Live Salesroom Auction, November 17, 2017. That image was captioned on verso: “Detachment of Indian Soldiers from C troop 5 Cav. during evictions of the Boomer in 1885 from Oklahoma.” The term “Boomers” refers to white homesteaders in the 1870s and 1880s who moved in on “Unassigned Lands” within Indian Territory, believing them to be part of the public domain. Indian nations sent delegates to Washington DC to counter the railroad lobby and others working to open these lands to the non-Indian settlers. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, numerous Boomers were arrested and expelled by federal forces purposed to protect Indian Territory from intruders. $1,000-1,500

27 Issuing Clothing to Apache Indians, San Carlos, Ariz. Cabinet Card, circa 1890 Cabinet card. Issuing clothing to Apache Indians, San Carlos, Ariz. Uncredited, but possibly by E.A. Bonine, San Carlos, Arizona, circa 1890. View of several Buffalo Soldiers, likely from the 9th and 10th Cavalries, looking on as clothing is issued to Apache Indians, who were relocated from their homelands to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation first established in 1871 by President Grant. $1,500-2,500

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28 Rare 10th Cavalry Guidon, circa 1889 42-star 10th Cavalry guidon flag, n.d., circa 1889-1891. Cotton swallowtail flag with printed stars, stencil “10” above crossed sabers and “US” at center of field. At widest 32.5 x 25.5 in., framed to 38.25 x 31 in. No maker’s mark and no date, however, the 42-star flag was only official for two years from 1889 to 1891. During this time the 10th participated in the Battle of Salt River on March 7, 1890, at the end of the Apache Wars. In 1891, the 10th was transferred out of the southwest to the Department of Dakota. Other guidons in the same configuration with different cavalry units have surfaced, but none from the Buffalo Soldiers, with suggestions that the flags were used in dress parades. Exceedingly rare. $5,000-7,000

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29 Officer’s Quarters at Ft. Robinson, Neb. Boudoir Card, circa 1887 Boudoir card. Officers Quarters, at Ft. Robinson, Nebr. Uncredited. Toward the camera is a young girl with her dog. The hospital is identified by a manuscript caption in the left margin. Manuscript inscription on verso: “Compliments of H.W. Davis / ‘Med. Dept.’ / U.S. Army.” Additional note: “The little girl shown in this view is the daughter of a colored servant girl at this post. The little girl is white as any white person notwithstanding the fact that she has a negro mother.” A rare object illustrating the history of inter-racial relationships in the frontier West soon after Emancipation. The inscriber clearly found it noteworthy to comment that the daughter of an African American woman was “white passing.” The 9th Cavalry was stationed at Fort Robinson in 1885 and became their regimental headquarters from 1887 through 1898. During this time the fort was enlarged and served as a major training center, in part thanks to its strategic placement on the rail lines. Until 1907, the majority of the troops stationed there were African American. An H.W. Davis was a private with Co. D of the 9th Cavalry and saw action in the Philippine-American War, stationed at Nueva Caceres in 1901. There is no indication, however, that this Davis was involved with the Medical Department and the same hand seen here. $1,200-1,800

30 25th Infantry, Company A, Grabill Oversize Photograph, Sturgis, Dakota Territory, circa 1887 Boudoir card of 25th Infantry, Company A. J.C.H. Grabill: Sturgis, Dakota Territory, circa 1887. Photographer’s imprints on recto and verso. 27 Black soldiers stand in line wearing their uniforms and packs, each holding a rifle. A white officer stands at a height behind the troop. The company’s “A” designation can be discerned from their cap badges. The Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment were transferred from the southwest and Texas to the northern Great Plains in 1880, with Companies A, D, H, and K stationed at Fort Meade, in what is now South Dakota. They remained there until June 1888. John C.H. Grabill (1849-1903) was well known for his photographs of American Indians and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre. He took several images of the 3rd Infantry and notably a remarkable portrait of a Buffalo Soldier wearing a buffalo coat [Sold as Lot 31 in Part I of The Road West]. No images of the 25th Infantry are included in the Library of Congress’s Grabill archive of 193 images. $4,000-5,000

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31 US Military Academy at West Point Graduating Class of 1889 Featuring Charles Young, 1889 Oversize albumen photograph of approximately sixty graduates of United States Military Academy at West Point, Class of 1889, notably featuring Charles Young (1864-1922), 7 x 9 in. Uncredited. The students wear their cadet uniforms and caps, some wear their overcoats, including Young who is visible in the back row at center-right, the only nonwhite student. The cadets are posed in a manner that is consistent with the treatment Young received while at the Academy. Young appears isolated and ostracized. A cabinet card portrait of Young as a cadet was sold as Lot 41 in Part I of The Road West. In 1889, Charles Young graduated from the United States Military Academy, despite heavy racial abuse from his classmates and teachers. He was only the third African American to do so, after Henry Ossian Flipper and John Hanks Alexander. There would not be another Black graduate until Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. in 1936. Young was commissioned as a second lieutenant and served for 28 years, primarily with the Buffalo Soldiers in both the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments. During the Spanish-American War, he was promoted to the temporary rank of major on May 14, 1898, commanding the 9th Ohio Infantry Regiment, a segregated unit with four companies. Although the unit did not ship overseas before the end of the conflict, his command was very important as it was the first time that an African American commanded a sizable unit of the United States Army. The volunteers were mustered out on January 28, 1899, and he reverted to his regular army rank of first lieutenant. Young would eventually attain the rank of lieutenant colonel, the first African American to do so. Immediately prior to World War I, Young was removed from service reportedly due to health reasons, however, it was almost certainly to prevent Young from commanding white officers. He died while on military attaché to Nigeria where he was originally buried. After a campaign led by his wife, his body was returned to the United States and he was given a full military funeral and buried at Arlington National Cemetery. See Lot 37 for another image of Charles Young. $1,500-2,500

32 A.H. Adams Ninth Cavalry, Troop H Cabinet Card by McBride, Crawford, Nebraska, circa 1894 Cabinet card studio portrait of Buffalo Soldier identified as A.H. Adams of the 9th Cavalry. McBride: Crawford & Ft. Robinson, Nebraska, n.d., circa 1894. Imprint on recto. Inscribed in ink on verso: “A.H. Adams / Troop H, Ninth Cavalry / U.S.A.” Adams stands in uniform next to a wire chair where his hat is resting, the 9th Cavalry, Troop H badge clearly visible. Adams is listed as a recruit in Co. B of the 10th Cavalry on April 1890 in Fort Apache. By August 1897 he is listed as a private with Co. H in the 9th Cavalry stationed in Cinnabar, Montana “on detached service.” It is unknown when Adams transferred from the 10th to the 9th. Fort Robinson, where this image was captured, was home to the 9th Cavalry from 1885 until 1898, serving as the regimental headquarters from 1887-1898. $1,500-2,500

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33 Tenth Cavalryman with White Gloves Cabinet Card by O.S. Goff, Dickinson, North Dakota, circa 1891 Cabinet card of an unidentified Buffalo Soldier of Company E of the 10th Cavalry. O.S. Goff: Dickinson, North Dakota, n.d., circa 1891. The Buffalo Soldier stands in his uniform wearing white gloves and his hat where the insignia indicating that he is in Company E of the 10th Cavalry is visible. He holds an elegant cane in one hand. Another Buffalo Soldier, also holding a walking stick and with the same backdrop is held in the Carnegie Museum of Art (2019.13.2) and four images by Goff of Buffalo Soldiers are held by the University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections. Orlando Scott Goff (1843-1917) first moved to the Dakota Territory in 1871 establishing the first photographic studio in Yankton. He became one of the most prominent and prolific photographers of the American west, establishing several studios in Dakota Territory and Montana. He is known to have been in Dickinson, North Dakota by 1891 and stayed until 1894, possibly later while maintaining several studios and residences. 1891 was when the 10th Cavalry transferred to the Department of Dakota after serving for twenty years in various posts throughout the southwest. $2,000-3,000

34 Tenth Cavalry Camp, Chloride Creek, New Mexico, circa 1890 Small boudoir card showing eleven Buffalo Soldiers and their pup tents, 5 x 7 in. [H.A. Schmidt]: [Chloride, New Mexico], circa 1890. Manuscript note on verso credits the photographer as H.S. Schmidt. Manuscript note on verso identifies the scene: “10th Cavalry Camp - Chloride Creek.” Henry A. Schmidt (1861-1944) was born in Germany and emigrated to the US in 1878, coming to Chloride, New Mexico as a member of a survey team in 1882. Primarily an assayer, he sometimes operated photo studios in the region including Chloride. The 10th Cavalry played an important role in the Campaign in New Mexico and Texas against Victorio’s Apache bands in 1879-1880 and the regiment officially moved to Fort Bayard, New Mexico in 1887. They were transferred out of the southwest and to the Department of Dakota in 1891. Another image of the 10th Cavalry with Indian scouts at Silver Monument Mine Camp at Chloride Creek by Henry A. Schmidt, tentatively dated 1892, is housed in the Palace of the Governors Photo Archives Collection. $2,000-3,000

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35 Ninth Cavalry Buffalo Soldier Cabinet Card, Lander, Wyoming, ca 1891 Cabinet card of Buffalo Soldier from Company B, 9th Cavalry. Scott: Lander, Wyoming, n.d., circa 1891. Imprint on recto. The soldier stands with his arms by his side, next to him appears to be a possible gilly suit or camouflage blanket. His cap rests atop clearly identifying him with Company D of the 9th Cavalry. Troop D of the 9th Cavalry were heroic participants in the events of autumn 1879 when violence broke out between the Utes at White River Agency and their overzealous agent Nathan Meeker. The 35-man company reinforced three companies of the 5th Cavalry and a company from the 4th who were besieged by Utes in Wyoming Territory. The 9th also participated in the Johnson County War and were stationed at Fort McKinney. The photographer George W. Scott was active in Lander in the 1890s. $3,000-4,000

36 Group of Officers and Ladies, Fort Grant, Arizona Boudoir Card, 1892 Boudoir card outdoor group portrait of eleven white cavalry officers, several of their wives, “Baby JoeMcDonald,” and a dog. A[ndrew] Miller: [Fort Grant, Arizona Territory], [1892]. Extensive inscription dated February 10, 1892 on the verso identifies the subjects and with which regiments they served, notably most of the men were officers with the 10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers regiment: Lieut. Paxton, Lieut. Smith and his wife, Lieut. Finley and his wife, Capt. Kelley, Colonel Mizner, Lieut. Grierson and his wife, Lieut. Johnston, Lieut. Read and his wife (whose home they are posed in front of), and Lieut. Rockenbach all listed as officers with the 10th Cavalry. With Miss Norvell and Mrs. McDonald also associated with the 10th. A Lieut. Sargent is listed as an officer with the 2nd Cavalry and Capt. and Mrs. Arthur are listed as “Med. Dept.” Fort Grant was originally an outpost in the Arizona Territory named Fort Breckinridge in 1860. Later renamed to Camp Grant between 1865-1872, it was relocated after the Camp Grant massacre in 1872. The new fort played a prominent role in the Apache Wars of the 1880s and was strategically located to provide protection to settlers. The Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry were stationed at Fort Grant in 1888 and troops would be stationed there until 1898. While there, the 10th was often involved in catching train robbers and other outlaws. $800-1,200

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37 Charles Young Cabinet Card, Xenia, Ohio, circa 1894 with Inscription by William Sanders Scarborough Cabinet card portrait of Charles Young. Biddle: Xenia, Ohio, n.d, circa 1894. 34 E. Main St. imprint on recto. Inscription on verso: “Lt. Chas. Young / 9th Cav. - the third / Negro graduate from / West Point.- Class ‘90. He is now active Major of 9th Bat. O.V.I. - appointed by the Gov.” Though unsigned, the hand is the same as that of scholar William Sanders Scarborough (1852-1926). The same portrait of Young was used in Scarborough’s 1899 publication Famous Black Regiment, The 10th United States Cavalry, sold as Lot 44 in Part I of The Road West. Charles Young was the third African American graduate from West Point and he sat for this photograph wearing his 9th Cavalry uniform. The Xenia photographer’s imprint suggests that the image was taken when Lieutenant Young was assigned to Wilberforce College in 1894, where he met W.E.B. Du Bois and William Sanders Scarborough. The inscription is almost certainly by Scarborough, who became the first African American professional Classics scholar when he became a professor at Wilberforce University. He led a distinguished career and though his primary focus was Classics, he held an interest in and wrote about West Point’s African American graduates and the Buffalo Soldiers [see Lots 43-44 in Part I of The Road West]. In 1889, Charles Young graduated from the United States Military Academy, despite heavy racial abuse from his classmates and teachers.

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He was only the third African American to do so, after Henry Ossian Flipper and John Hanks Alexander. There would not be another Black graduate until Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. in 1936. Young was commissioned as a second lieutenant and served for 28 years, primarily with the Buffalo Soldiers in both the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments. During the Spanish-American War, he was promoted to the temporary rank of major on May 14, 1898, commanding the 9th Ohio Infantry Regiment, a segregated unit with four companies. Although the unit did not ship overseas before the end of the conflict, his command was very important as it was the first time that an African American commanded a sizable unit of the United States Army. The volunteers were mustered out on January 28, 1899, and he reverted to his regular army rank of first lieutenant. The inscription appears to be from this time. While Young was serving as captain of a Black company at the Presidio, San Francisco in 1903, he was appointed acting superintendent of Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, thus becoming the first Black superintendent of a National Park. Although it was only a temporary assignment, his men completed extensive road construction, accomplishing more at the underdeveloped park during his tenure than the three previous officers. Young would eventually attain the rank of lieutenant colonel, the first African American to do so. Immediately prior to World War I, Young was removed from service reported due to health reasons, however, it was almost certainly to prevent Young from commanding white officers. $3,000-4,000

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38 Cabinet Card Vignette of CSU’s First African American Graduate and US Army Second Lieutenant Grafton Norman, Fort Collins, Colorado, circa 1896 Cabinet card vignetted bust portrait of Grafton Norman. S.H. Seckner: Fort Collins, Colorado, n.d., circa 1896. Imprint on recto. Ink identification on verso. Norman wears a sack coat with partially obscured chevrons and medal. Grafton St. Clair Norman (1875-1945) grew up in Hamilton, Ohio, where and while Alston Ellis was serving as superintendent of public schools. Ellis was a trailblazer in many ways, one of which was desegregating Hamilton public schools as early as 1891. A year later, he was chosen to serve as President of the State Agricultural College of Colorado in Fort Collins, where he invited a young, promising Hamilton student, Grafton Norman, to join him. Norman enrolled in the college, making the most of his college career by participating in numerous organizations, most notably the College Oratorical Association. Norman was a gifted orator, a trait recognized and supported by his peers and instructors through awards and nominations, including the student body’s selection of Norman as College orator for the 1896 George Washington birthday celebration. After graduating in 1896 with a degree in mechanical engineering and subsequently leaving Fort Collins, Norman enlisted in the US Army, serving as a second lieutenant during the Spanish-American War. Norman pursued a teaching career after the war, instructing pupils at Kentucky’s Blue Grass Normal and Industrial School in mathematics and natural science, and at Alabama’s Agricultural and Manufacturing College in military sciences. Norman served in France during World War I, and upon returning to the United States, climbed the insurance industry ladder to become State Inspector of the Union Central Relief Association in Birmingham, Alabama. Norman’s life was cut short when he was struck by a car on the way home from church in 1945. $600-800

39 Cabinet Card of 2 Buffalo Soldiers by Stein, San Antonio, Texas, circa 1898 Cabinet card studio portrait of two Buffalo Soldiers. Stein: [San Antonio, Texas], n.d., circa 1898. 215 Alamo Plaza imprint on recto. The young soldiers wear their uniforms and shined shoes, one sitting in a wicker chair, the other standing at his side, without insignia or identifying clues. The 9th was assigned to San Antonio shortly after their formation in March 1867 participating in the Battle of Fort Lancaster later that year. Though all of the Buffalo Soldier regiments served in Texas and the southwest throughout the second half of the 19th century and these men could have served with any of them. $600-800

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40 Buffalo Soldier William H. Ross, 24th Infantry, Cabinet Card, Fort Douglas, Utah, 1899 Cabinet card portrait of Buffalo Soldier William H. Ross, Co. B, 24th Infantry Division. Matson: Salt Lake City, Utah, [1899]. Imprint on recto, with handstamp and ink inscriptions on verso, reading, in part, “Fort Douglas / March 15, 1899. / William H. Ross. / Co. B 24th. Inf.” Seated, Ross wears a sack coat and gazes off-camera. Newspaper clipping included in lot features article titled, “ExRough Rider Taken By Death,” detailing the service history of William H. Ross (1877-1950), “who served with Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders in the Spanish-American war [sic], and who took part in the battle of San Juan hill...” He enlisted with the 24th Infantry Division in Columbus, Ohio in 1898 until he was discharged in 1901. Of his life after the war, the article only mentions that he “worked in the west for three years” after being discharged, was preceded in death by his wife, and was survived by ten children. $1,500-2,500

41 Henry O. Flipper Engraved Cabinet Card with Inscription by William S. Scarborough, circa 1899 Cabinet card engraved portrait of Henry O. Flipper after a photograph by Kennedy, Wilberforce, Ohio, circa 1877. Homer Lee & Co.: New York, n.d., circa 1899. Printers mark in plate. Captioned with a facsimile signature and rank: “Henry O. Flipper / 2d Lieut. 10” Cavy.” The verso is SIGNED and INSCRIBED by William Sanders Scarborough (1852-1926): “Mr. H. O. Flipper 10th Cav. - the first Negro graduate from West Point - Class of ‘77. From Scarborough.” Born into slavery, Henry Ossian Flipper was the fifth Black cadet to attend the United States Military Academy. But due to the rejection and discrimination by their white peers, the others dropped out. Flipper was able to persevere and became the first person of color to graduate from West Point and by many accounts received the best score at graduation. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant assigned to the 10th Cavalry Regiment, becoming the first Black officer to command regular troops in the US Army. $500-700

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42 Buffalo Soldier Stereoviews, circa 1899-1900 Lot of 4 stereoviews depicting Buffalo Soldiers, comprising: Troop A, Ninth U.S. Cavalry - Famous Indian Fighters. Underwood and Underwood: New York, etc., 1899. Copyright by Strohmeyer & Wyman. Some of the brave colored boys who helped to free Cuba. Underwood and Underwood: New York, etc., 1899. Copyright by J.F. Jarvis. Keystone View, 10995 - Searching for the Dead among the Ruins, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Keystone: Meadville, Pennsylvania and St. Louis, 1900. Copyright by B.L. Singley. This was after the hurricane that devastated Galveston in September 1900, costing thousands of lives and many millions of dollars in property damage. Extensive storm description on verso. Much of that “searching army” is African American. Troop D, 9th Cav. on the trunk of the fallen Monarch (tree), Mariposa Grove, Cal., U.S.A.” H.C. White Co.: Bennington, Vermont, 1905. The diameter of this trunk is higher than a mounted soldier. $300-350

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43 Charlie Smart, Tenth Cavalry Real Photo Postcard, Plus Lot of 2 real photo postcards depicting Charles Smart, comprising: Real photo postcard with an oval portrait of an African American soldier from the 10th Cavalry. N.p., n.d. Manuscript note on verso “Charlie Smart.” A Charles H. Smart served with the 10th Cavalry and first appears in records from Holguin, Cuba with Company K in 1902 as a private. He was stationed at Ft. Robinson, now with Company H, in December 1906, and participated in the Philippine-American War, stationed at Fort William McKinley in the Philippines in 1908. The unit was transferred east to Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont with records showing Smart there throughout 1910. A final record shows that he had been promoted to corporal and discharged and reenlisted at Fort Ethan Allen in April 1913. Real photo postcard studio portrait of an African American soldier holding an American flag. N.p., n.d. The subject wears his cavalry hat, khaki fatigue blouse, trousers, and stirrup leggings. The uniform is similar to those worn by cavalrymen in the late 19th century and early 20th century during the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars, both of which saw heavy action from the all-Black regiments. $250-450

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44 Buffalo Soldier Baseball Teams, circa 1910 Oversize Photograph and 1907 Mirror Lot of 2 items related to Buffalo Soldiers baseball teams, comprising: 9th Cav. Base Ball Team 1907, souvenir mirror. Diam. 2.25 in. Features a photograph of the team wearing baseball uniforms with a “9” emblazoned on the chest. In 1907, most of the 9th Cavalry returned to the Philippines, having originally served there during the Philippine-American War in 1900-1902. They would remain there until 1909 fighting against Moro rebels. Several troops remained stationed at the Presidio of San Francisco. Baseball Team, Company “E,” 24th Infantry, oversize albumen photograph. 6.75 x 5 in., mounted to 10 x 7.75 in. Stotesenburg Studio: Philippine Islands, n.d., circa 1910. Photographer’s imprint blind-stamped in lower left. Titled in negative with a complete list of the 13 players, each identified with a number, and their manager, “Thaxton.” Inscribed on mount verso: “Private. Otis. Dacus. Co. E. 24th Inf., Manila. Phil., Il’s.” Returns from June 7, 1912 place Co. E of the 24th Infantry at Camp Stotsenburg, Pampanga, Philippine Islands. The one-time owner of the image, Private Otis Dacus, is included alongside most of the players listed in the image: George T. Bailey, Earl Burns, Joe Ross, LaFayette Riddle. (There were two Smiths in Co. E: Jesse Smith and Robert C. Smith). The six other players served in Co. E with records from 1911: Ermon Thomas, George E. Echols, Roscoe Ellis, Thomas A. Firmes, John Johnson, and John W. Talton. Baseball was a treasured pastime among soldiers with many companies and units forming teams. They would play against other military teams, local civilians, and even professionals. There is a report that a local minister complained to the War Department about the 10th Cavalry’s team, then stationed at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont, which was so popular on Sundays that a minister claimed it was distracting the community from their spiritual duties. The troops helped to export the game overseas especially in the Philippines, with the first baseball game played there in September 1989 between Astor Battery and a regiment from the American Army. Local clubs were established by Filipinos, with American newspapers reporting that “Baseball is Helping Taft, The Game Aids Great Work in the Philippine Islands, Filipinos in Love with It.” (Pittsburg Press, March 22, 1903). $1,600-2,400

45 African American Soldiers in Mexico, circa 1910-1916 Lot of 2 real photo postcards showing African American US soldiers in Mexico, comprising: Outdoor candid image of American soldiers, some African Americans among them. N.p., n.d., circa 1916. Manuscript inscription on verso “Black U.S. Soldiers captured, then released by Pancho Villa.” With General Pershing on the Punitive Expedition against Villa, in retaliation for the latter’s attack on Columbus, New Mexico, were the 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th Cavalry plus some infantry units. Outdoor posed portrait of a troop of about twenty Buffalo Soldiers in front of an adobe building. N.p., n.d., circa 1910. Illegible inscription in negative. The soldiers wear fatigue blouses and many pose with their long guns. $400-600

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46 History of the Tenth Cavalry 1866-1921 with 10th Cavalry Provenance GLASS, Edward L.N., comp. History of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866-1921. [Tucson, Arizona]: [Acme Printing], [1921]. Small 4to (171 x 225 mm). Tipped-in colored frontispiece of the Buffalo Soldiers’ emblem with the motto “Ready andForward,” illustrated throughout. Original gilt-stamped leatherette (very light wear at joints). Provenance: Mark Rhoads, 2nd Lieut., 10th Cavalry from Feb. 1919-March 1920 (ownership inscription). FIRST EDITION of the scarce regimental history of the 10th Cavalry from their inception through World War I. Previously owned by Mark Rhoads (1897-1969), a white officer who served with the 10th from Feb. 12, 1919, to Jan. 30, 1920 during World War I. The 10th was stationed at Fort Huachuca in Arizona throughout the War and fought in the Battle of Ambos Nogales, the only battle during WWI in which Germans engaged in land combat against the United States in North America. Rhoads was promoted to 1st lieut. during his service with the Buffalo Soldiers on Nov. 4, 1919, and was transferred to the 12th Cavalry at the beginning of 1920. He would join the Signal Corps in 1927 where he would spend the rest of his career. He was promoted to captain on Feb. 1, 1935, and retired on March 31, 1937. $800-1,000

47 The Twenty Fourth Infantry Past and Present, 1922 with 24th Infantry Provenance MULLER, William G. The Twenty Fourth Infantry Past and Present. N.p.: n.d., circa 1922. 4to (197 x 267 mm ). Illustrated throughout (front fly endpaper lacking.) Original publisher’s embossed leatherette (corners lightly bumped). Provenance: Nathaniel G. Jones, Sgt., Co. D, 24th Infantry (ownership inscription). FIRST EDITION of the regimental history of the 24th Infantry owned by a veteran of the unit. Nathaniel G. Jones initially served as a private with the 25th Infantry Regiment, stationed at Fort Logan, Colorado and seeing action during the Philippine-American War. The 24th and the 25th Infantry Regiments were both deployed in 1899 to the Philippine Islands to help suppress guerrilla activity. The 25th stayed until 1902 and the 24th returned in 1905 and 1911. Jones served in the initial deployment at Iba, Zambales and San Felipe. It is unclear when he transferred to the 24th or was promoted to sergeant as indicated by his ownership inscription. $800-1,200

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48 WWI African American Veteran Amputee with Prosthetic Legs, circa 1918 Lot of 2 photographs of an unidentified African American WWI veteran with both of his legs amputated below the knee. In a larger image (6.25 x 8 in.), the soldier is depicted seated, his legs bandaged, with prosthetic legs positioned on either side. The legs are outfitted with patent-leather shoes, braces, and laced leather cuffs above the socket. A smaller image (3.5 x 4.25 in.) captures the veteran standing and wearing the prosthetics, the leather cuffs laced around his thighs. The unparalleled destruction in the First World War combined with improved medical techniques and care led to many more soldiers surviving amputations and necessitating improvements in prosthetic device technology. The Artificial Limb Laboratory opened at Walter Reed General Hospital in Washington, DC in 1917 and aimed to return veterans to the workforce with improved prosthetics, earning them the nickname “bionic men.” This veteran is a testament to the thousands of Black men who served in World War I. Although units were segregated and many were forced into support roles, there were several units on the frontlines who fought with the French Army, famously the Harlem Hellfighters of the 369th Infantry Regiment. $600-800

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49 Daguerreotype of an Elegant African American Woman, circa 1850 Ninth plate daguerreotype portrait of an elegantly-dressed African American woman. Uncredited: n.p., n.d., circa 1850. Sitter wears hoop earrings, a bracelet, and a ring, all highlighted in gold, and holds what appears to be a handkerchief on her lap. She rests one arm on an unidentified book lying on the table next to her. Housed in pressed paper case. $2,000-3,000

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50 Daguerreotype of an African American Gentleman, circa 1857 Ninth plate daguerreotype portrait of a bearded African American gentleman. Uncredited: n.p., n.d., circa 1857. Sitter is posed casually, with one arm resting on what appears to be the back of a chair. Housed in pressed paper case. $1,200-1,800

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51 Tintype of an African American Gentleman Holding a Book, circa 1870 Ninth plate tintype portrait of an African American gentleman holding a book. Uncredited: n.p., n.d., ca 1870. Sitter stares directly into the camera while holding an unidentified book up on his lap. One arm rests on a table covered in a cloth partially tinted pink. Housed in pressed paper case fully separated at spine. $300-500

52 Two Elderly African American Gentlemen Tintype, circa 1880 Sixth plate tintype portrait of two elderly African American gentlemen. Uncredited: n.p., n.d., circa 1880. Sitter featured on the right wears a slight smile and holds what appears to be a handkerchief in one hand, while the sitter on the left exhibits more serious expression. Both men wear their salt and pepper hair in similar voluminous styles. Housed in pressed paper case. $1,500-2,500

53 J.P. Ball Daguerreotype of a Little Girl with Hand Tinting, Cincinnati, circa 1850 Ninth plate daguerreotype portrait of a young girl with pink-tinted cheeks and curled hair. Ball & Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., circa 1850. Sitter wears a dress and sits on a chair draped with a textile partially tinted pink and blue. Housed under mat marked with Ball & Thomas’ 120 W. 4th St. studio address, in pressed paper case fully separated at spine. James Presley Ball (1825-1904) is one of the most renowned African American photographers at one point owning the largest photographic gallery west of the Appalachians. When visiting White Sulphur Sprints, Virginia in 1845 he met John B. Bailey, an African American daguerreotypist from Boston where he acquired the passion and skill of photography. He opened a studio in Cincinnati later that year, and though it was unsuccessful, he continued his art with studios in Pittsburgh and Richmond and traveled as an itinerant daguerreotypist. In 1849, he reopened a studio in Cincinnati. He hired his younger brother Thomas Ball to work as an operator, and in 1852 hired his future brother-in-law Alexander Thomas to work with him. By 1857, their gallery was one of the grandest in the United States attracting notables including Frederick Douglass. He was chosen in 1887 as the official photographer of a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation held in Minneapolis-St.Paul. In 1888, he moved to Helena, Montana with his son where he operated a studio for several years before moving again in 1892 to Seattle. $2,000-4,000

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54 7 CDVs by African American Photographers J.P. Ball, Alexander Thomas, James Ball, and A.W. Thomas, circa 1862-1868 Lot of 7 CDVS, comprising: CDV studio portrait of an African American woman wearing a dress with a white collar, posing next to a rustic studio fence. Ball and Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., circa 1862-1868. No. 30 West Fourth Street imprint on verso. (Some soiling). CDV studio portrait of a white man wearing a long jacket with a watch fob visible. J.P. Ball: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., circa 1862. 30 W. 4th St. impressed imprint on recto. CDV studio portrait of a young white man wearing a long jacket, a striped tie, and holding a hat in his hand. J.P. Ball: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., circa 1865. No. 30 West 4th street imprint on verso. Pencil inscription tentatively suggesting the subject is with the 70th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. CDV studio portrait of a couple, with the man seated while wearing a light jacket. The woman stands at his side, her hair parted in the middle and with a ruffleddark dress. Ball & Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., circa 1858-1860. 120 West Fourth St. imprint on verso. Two CDV studio portraits featuring a handsome African American couple, possibly husband and wife. Both by James Ball: Fostoria, Ohio, n.d., circa late 19th century. “Two doors South of Postoffice” imprint on versos. Male subject wears a tie and waistcoat, female subject wears a frilled bow at her neck, a tasseled necklace, and drop earrings. (Sharp clarity and tonality to male portrait, some spotting to female portrait). CDV studio portrait of a white woman wearing a full-skirted dress standing next to a wooden chair. A.W. Thomas: Athens, Ohio, n.d., circa 1862-1868. Imprint on verso. James Presley Ball (1825-1904) is one of the most renowned African American photographers at one point owning the largest photographic gallery west of the Appalachians. When visiting White Sulphur Springs, Virginia in 1845 he met John B. Bailey, an African American Daguerreotypist from Boston where he acquired the passion and skill of photography. He opened a studio in Cincinnati later that year, and though it was unsuccessful, he continued his art with studios in Pittsburgh and Richmond and traveled as an itinerant Daguerreotypist. In 1849, he reopened a studio in Cincinnati. He hired his 4 of 7 younger brother Thomas Ball to work as an operator, and in 1852 hired his future brother-in-law Alexander Thomas to work with him. By 1857, their gallery was one of the grandest in the United States attracting notables including Frederick Douglass. In 1887 Ball was chosen as the official photographer of a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation held in Minneapolis-St. Paul. In 1888, he moved to Helena, Montana with his son where he operated a studio for several years before moving again in 1892 to Seattle. $700-1,300

55 J.P. Ball Cabinet Card of Young Chinese Scholar, Helena, Montana, circa 1888 Cabinet card studio portrait of a young Chinese scholar. J.P. Ball & Son: Helena, Montana, n.d., circa 1888. 129 Broadway and 211 North Main St. imprint on recto. The young man is seated wearing Manchu-style clothing popular in the late Qing dynasty (1644-1911): a silk brocade tangzhuang jacket and pants, embroidered shoes, and a close-fitting cap. He holds a scroll and stacks of books and scholar’s objects are neatly arranged on the table next to him. The table arrangement is very similar to the arrangement, including the hanging tassel and stacked books, that are visible in a portrait of a Chinese man identified as “Joe,” a cook for the wealthy Ming family of Helena (Willis, Deborah, ed. J.P. Ball: Daguerrean and Studio Photographer, 4.42). It is possible that the young subject here is a member of the Ming family or in their employ. $600-800

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56 J.P. Ball Cabinet Cards, Helena & Seattle, circa 1888-1902 Lot of 7 cards by James Pressley Ball and his son when they moved their studios out west, including 4 cabinet cards from the Helena, Montana studios, and 3 from their Seattle studios. Ball was chosen in 1887 as the official photographer of a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation held in Minneapolis-St. Paul and afterward moved west. In 1888, he opened a studio in Helena, Montana with his son where he operated a studio for several years before moving again in 1892 to Seattle. $1,200-1,800

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57 CDV of a Bearded Man, Augusta, Georgia, 1870s CDV of elderly African American gentleman with white hair and beard, wearing tie. G.J. Gable: Augusta, Georgia, n.d., circa 1870s. Imprint on verso. $100-150

58 Mrs A.R. Abbott, Cleveland, Ohio, circa 1865 CDV studio portrait of a young African American woman in a fine dress. Uncredited, circa 1865. Verso with manuscript inscription “Miss Lyons / With Miss Abbott’s compliments.” From an album with the CDV portraits of Anderson Ruffin Abbott (see Lot 8) and the subject is almost certainly his wife Mary Ann Casey (1855-1931), the 18-year-old daughter of a successful Black barber. They married in an Anglican ceremony in Toronto on August 9, 1871 when Anderson was at medical school. Together they would have three daughters and two sons. $400-600

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59 CDV Group Portraits of African Americans, circa 1865 Lot of 5 CDVs providing formal studio portraits of African American subjects, most unidentified, with the exception of a seated elderly couple, the female tentatively identified on verso as “Mrs. Jane V. Gray, 7 Fox St., Owego, NY.” A.F. Fisher: Monroetown, Pennsylvania, n.d., circa 1865; two portraits of the same group of young women wearing patterned dresses, possibly sisters, taken during different sittings. Coburn’s Gallery: Owego, NY, n.d., circa 1865; formal portrait of a young mother and father posed with their infant, who wears a long, white gown. Poole & Jarvis: Chatham, Ontario, n.d., circa 1865; portrait of a boy standing beside a young man, who is seated with a rifle in hand. Uncredited: n.p., n.d., circa 1865. $200-400

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60 Mrs. Gulick’s Adopted Son, Princeton, New Jersey CDV, circa 1885 CDV studio portrait of a Black man with a young white girl sitting on his knee. [Morris] Moses: Trenton, New Jersey, n.d., circa 1865. Contemporary pencil inscription on the verso reads: “Mrs. Gulick’s / adopted son / Princeton N.J.” Photographer’s 13 E. State Street imprint alongside 2 cent revenue stamp on verso. Morris Moses (1826-1891) operated a studio at 13 East State Street in Trenton, New Jersey on the 3rd floor of the Mansion House from 1858-1873. At the time of the 1870 census, a Gulick family was living in Princeton, New Jersey, and had 2 young daughters, Elizabeth (b. circa 1864) and Isabella (b. circa 1868), one of whom might be the young girl pictured here. The gentleman referred to as “Mrs. Gulick’s adopted son” is otherwise unidentified. An unusual image as most interracial images of the time depict Black women with their white charges. $800-1,200

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61 Flora Stewart...Aged 117 Years CDV Portrait, 1867 Flora Stewart. CDV studio portrait. A.W. Kimball: Manchester, New Hampshire, 1867. Printed caption on recto: “Londonderry, N. H. / Aged 117 years. / Taken Nov. 5, 1867.” Reported as “The Oldest Person in New Hampshire,” the year of Flora Stewart’s (circa 1750-1868) birth is not certain, but likely around 1750. It is known that she was enslaved at birth with some accounts reporting that she was emancipated by 1810 when she was 60, whereafter she came to live in Londonderry. Again, reports vary, but she was reputed to have lived to either 118 or 120 years old when she died in 1868. Her remarkable longevity, especially for a person who survived the enormous physical toll of enslavement, was noteworthy that “a few years before she passed away she was brought to Manchester by John D. Patterson of that place and a photograph was taken of her form and features.” (Moore et al, History of the Town of Candia, Rockingham County, N.H., 1893). $300-500

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62 CDV of African American Caretaker with White Baby, New Orleans, circa 1867 CDV portrait of a Black caretaker with a white infant. William D. McPherson: [New Orleans], n.d., circa 1865-1867. No. 132 Canal Street imprint on verso. Taken during the brief time between the dissolution of McPherson’s partnership with Oliver in 1865 and his death from yellow fever in 1867. The image captures a Black caretaker wearing a patterned blouse, lace collar, and headscarf holding a white infant in her lap, her hands holding those of the child. $600-800

63 Charles Mitchell, CDV Portrait, Boston, 1867 CDV portrait of a middle-aged African American gentleman. Marshall: Boston, [1867]. 145 Tremont Street imprint on verso, alongside inscription: “With regards, / Chas. L. Mitchell / 1867 Boston.” A 41-yearold Black man named Charles Mitchell is listed in the 1870 Federal Census for Boston. His birthplace is listed as Connecticut and his occupation listed as janitor. $1,200-1,800

64 Dual Portrait of African American Women, CDV, West Chester, Pennsylvania, circa 1868 CDV of two elderly African American women both with head coverings. C. Alfred Garrett: West Chester, Pennsylvania, n.d., circa 1868. Imprint on verso with negative numbered “15194” in pencil. $600-800

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65 African American Woman with Black Shawl, CDV, Woodstock, Vermont, circa 1868 CDV, standing portrait of a dignified African American woman wearing a black shawl. H. Cushing: Woodstock, Vermont, n.d., circa 1868. Photographer’s imprint on mount recto and verso. $300-500

66 Little Jim Plum & Maid CDV, 1869 CDV studio portrait of a young boy, identified as “Little Jim Plum,” and a Black girl, unidentified. A.S. Teshune: Hackensack, New Jersey, n.d., [1869]. Main Street imprint on verso. Contemporary ink inscription on verso reads: “Little Jim Plum / & / Maid / August 1st, 1869.” Both children look directly at the camera with the young white boy, “Little Jim Plum,” sitting in a high chair. The girl, identified only as “maid” stands at a fancy table wearing an apron over her striped tunic and checked skirt. The inscription suggests that the young girl, despite being a child herself, would have provided care for “Little Jim Plum.” $1,200-1,800

67 Portrait of Harvard’s First African American Instructor, Aaron Molyneaux Hewlett, 1859 Oval albumen portrait, 6 x 8.125 in., mounted to 7 x 10.125 in., featuring Aaron Molyneaux Hewlett, Harvard’s first African American instructor. Uncredited, though attributed to George Kendall Warren: n.p., n.d. [1859]. Ink inscription on mount reads, “Molineaux.” Hewlett is featured sitting in a chair wearing a three-piece suit and surrounded by athletic equipment. Notably, this is the first known image in the United States to feature a medicine ball. Oval albumen portrait, 6 x 8.125 in., mounted to 7 x 10.125 in., featuring Aaron Molyneaux Hewlett, Harvard’s first African American instructor. Uncredited, though attributed to George Kendall Warren: n.p., n.d. [1859]. Ink inscription on mount reads, “Molineaux.” Hewlett is featured sitting in a chair wearing a three-piece suit and surrounded by athletic equipment. Notably, this is the first known image in the United States to feature a medicine ball. A truly fascinating subject, Aaron Molyneaux Hewlett (1820-1871) served as the curator of Harvard College’s gymnasium from 1859 until his death in 1871, making him the first African American faculty member at Harvard and the first college-level African American superintendent of physical education in the United States. Prior to his employment at Harvard, Hewlett was successful (and famous) in his own right as a boxer in Brooklyn. He was known as one of the best boxers in the town, and even operated his own sparring academy, Molineaux House, out of his home starting in 1854. In 1860, Rogers Gymnasium was built and Harvard hired Hewlett to run the gym and coach various sports teams. Newspapers soon touted his success, including one Boston paper, which claimed that athletics had “come almost to rank with Mathematics” at Harvard. Hewlett had as interesting a personal life as a professional one. He married gymnast Virginia Josephine Lewis, and with her had five children, including a daughter, Virginia, who married Frederick Douglass, Jr. and a son, Emanuel, who became the first African American graduate of Boston University School of Law. $400-600

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68 CDV of Well-Dressed African American Man by Lovell, Amherst, Massachusetts, circa 1870 CDV standing portrait of an unidentified African American gentleman wearing a fur-lined coat and top hat. Lovell: Amherst, Massachusetts, n.d., circa 1870. Imprint on recto. John Lyman Lovell (1825-1903) was a prominent photographer in Amherst, Massachusetts, operating the Amherst Picture Gallery, publishing the Amherst Photographer in 1868, and even serving as a class photographer for Amherst College. $50-100

69 African American Man in Coat, CDV, circa 1870 CDV studio portrait of an elderly African American man in coat and work clothes, his top hat on a table. F.F. Feller: n.p., n.d., circa 1870. 179 Greenwich St. imprint on verso, but the city cannot be positively identified. $100-200

70 Old “Uncle Dick” Richard Burr CDV, circa 1875 CDV portrait of an elderly Black man identified as Richard Burr. S.S. Teel: Hope, New Jersey, n.d., circa 1873. Photographer’s imprint on verso. Contemporary ink inscription reads: “Old “Uncle Dick” (Richard Burr) Died 17th Aug. 1873. Age about 96 years.” A Richard Burr is listed in the New Jersey Deaths and Burials Index, which records that he was born about 1778 and died on 16 August 1873 in Blairstown, New Jersey. He is noted at being 95 years at death and worked as a laborer, however, no other information is known. $800-1,200

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71 11 CDVs of an African American Family, Pennsylvania and New York Lot of 11 CDV portraits of African Americans from a family album, subjects include a toddler, adults, and an elderly couple. Most imprints from Towanda, Pennsylvania and surrounding areas. Notably includes 2 CDV studio portraits by Johann F. Bender of Towanda, Pennsylvania in the same studio set up of two different women. Each stands next to a dressed table with a floral arrangement and 2 large books. More description available at cowans.com. $800-1,500

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72 African American Nanny with White Child Cabinet Card, Louisville, Kentucky, circa 1880 Cabinet card portrait of a middle-aged African American caretaker holding a white baby dressed in a white gown. E. Klauber: Louisville, Kentucky, n.d., circa 1880. Photographer’s imprint on mount recto and verso. $200-300

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73 Seated African American Woman, CDV, Philadelphia, circa 1885 CDV, seated portrait of young African American woman in hairnet. Draper & Husted: Philadelphia, n.d., circa 1885. $100-150

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74 Aunty Bell Cabinet Card, Elmira, New York, circa 1890 Cabinet card portrait of Caroline Elizabeth “Aunty” Bell. Van Aken: Elmira, New York, n.d., circa 1890. Gilt imprint on recto, inscribed identification in print lower right. Bell is seated in a chair holding a cane and wearing a shawl with eyelet design and a plaid headscarf. Ink inscribed biographical information on verso: “Caroline Elizabeth Bell was born a Slave in Oct 1812. near Nashville Davison. [sic] Co Tenn. When quite young she was sold to another Master for $500. Soon she was obliged to carry a basket on her head & sell from that as she went from House to House. This she followed for several years. He failed in business & she was sold from the Block at Sheriffs sale to an accomplished wealthy - French Lady of New Orleans, by the name of Madam Durell for $1600. She visited France every year & Caroline was always with her & her children. She spoke French fluently & was a noted Cook. In New Orleans she met & married a Frenchman who bought her freedom & after some years he visited his native country & never returned. Then for 10 or 12 years she was stewardess on a Steamboat from Memphis to N.O. In 1862 she went to Toronto, Can. & met a Brother she had not seen fo [sic] 32 years. She came to Elmira about 1870 & remained here untill [sic] her Death Aug 20th 1895 aged 83 years.” $1,200-1,800

75 Cabinet Card Portrait of Elegant African American Woman, Washington DC, circa 1890 Cabinet card of an African American woman in fine attire, including a fashionable hat. She sits on the arm of a twig-style chair. Photographer’s identification on recto and verso “D. Freeman, 15th & M Street, N.W., Washington, DC.” Born in Alexandria, Virginia in 1868, African American photographer Daniel Freeman (1868-1927) moved to Washington, DC to study drawing in the public schools there. He also studied photography under E.J. Pullman, and went into business in the nation’s capital in 1885. $200-300

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76 “Prof. Jim” Janitor of Trinity Coll., Lithograph, circa 1848 Lithograph, 10.625 x 14.5 in. including border, featuring James “Professor Jim” Williams accompanied by several janitorial accouterments including broom, bucket, and keys. Hartford, Connecticut: Kellogg & Co., n.d., circa 1848. After a daguerreotype by Roberts (likely William S. Roberts, operating in Hartford 1849-1855). Captioned “’Prof. Jim.’ / Janitor of Trin. Coll.” beneath image. James Williams (1790-1878) was a longtime custodian at Trinity College, fondly known as “Professor Jim.” Born into slavery to Revolutionary War Colonel John F. Robert, he was witness to Robert’s friendship with Aaron Burr, and it was to Robert’s estate that Burr fled to after his duel with Alexander Hamilton, an account not recorded elsewhere but mentioned in Charles Hayden Proctor’s contemporary biography of Williams. At 20, Williams escaped and served in the American Navy and on commercial vessels during the War of 1812. After several years at sea, he settled in Connecticut and became a household servant to Bishop Brownell, founder of Trinity College. He would serve in various capacities at the College, rising to Chief Janitor. His biographer and a descendant of Colonel Robert, C.H. Proctor, noted, Williams “was affectionately remembered as an uneducated but intelligent Negro janitor who became a college institution, ‘a prominent personage at Class-Day celebrations’, and a speaker to graduating seniors.” A lounge was named in his honor in March 1999. $2,000-3,000

77 Professor Jim Cabinet Card by Prescott & White, Hartford, Connecticut, circa 1870s Lot of 2 items related to James “Professor Jim” Williams. Cabinet card portrait of James “Professor Jim” Williams. Prescott & White: Hartford, Connecticut, n.d., circa 1870s. Imprint on recto. Williams sits with his arm resting on the fringed arm of a chair, wearing a suit jacket and watch chain. [With:] The Trinity Tablet. Volume XI. January-December 1878. Hartford, Connecticut: 1878. 8vo (190 x 262 mm). Bound copy of The Trinity Tablet. (Occasional spotting.) Quarter brown morocco gilt, spine in 5 compartments with 4 raised bands gilt (front board detached, rubbing to extremities). Includes the lengthy obituary for James “Professor Jim” Williams in the Saturday, June 8, 1878, Vol. XI No. VII issue (p.81). The author remarks: “It was hoped that he would live to brighten with his presence.” The affectionate obituary includes fond remembrances: “On Class-Day, he walked arm-in-arm with the President of the class, occupied a seat of honor, and, in acknowledgment of the usual presentation to him, made a speech which attracted at least as much attention as any other exercise of the day.” $600-800

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78 Cabinet Cards of Yale Staff by Pach Brothers, New Haven, circa 1881 Lot of 3 cabinet cards of African American men, all by the Pach Brothers in New York, from a Yale-related album dated 1881. The Pach Brothers took a large series of images at Yale, many now housed at their Archives (RU 644). Cabinet card half-length studio portrait of a man identified as Washington Allston in a pencil inscription on recto. Imprint on recto.

Allston wears a knit cap and carries a satchel with a ring of several keys visible. Cabinet card vignetted bust-length studio portrait of a bearded man. Imprint on recto. Cabinet card full-length studio portrait of a man with a goatee sitting on a faux stone wall holding a cane with a straw boater hat sitting next to him. 841 Broadway imprint on verso. $1,200-1,500

79 “Prof. Charley” Amherst College Cabinet Card, circa 1885 Cabinet card vignetted bust portrait of Charles “Professor Charley” Thompson, of Amherst College. Pach: New York, n.d., circa 1885. Imprint on verso. Thompson wears a bowler hat and gazes off-camera. Charles Thompson was born in Portland, Maine, and though little is known about his early life, in around 1838 he went to live with Amherst College President Reverend William A. Stearns and his family in Massachusetts. At some point, Thompson went to work for Captain Charles Thomas Evans, spending years at sea on voyages all throughout the world including on whaling and merchant vessels. After Thompson returned, he got married and went to work at Amherst College as a janitor, a post he maintained for 40 years. After a prolonged mental illness took the life of his wife, Thompson was left destitute, having to sell his house and other material belongings. In 1874, the daughter of the late President Stearns published a brief biographical work entitled Prof. Charley: A Sketch of Charles Thompson in order to inform the Amherst community about Thompson’s fascinating life and to raise money for him to live on in his last years. $400-600

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80 “Janitor Sam” Colby University Cabinet Card, Boston, circa late 1880s Cabinet card vignetted bust portrait of Samuel “Janitor Sam” Osborne of Colby University. H.F. Holland: Boston, Massachusetts, n.d., circa late 1880s. Gilt imprint on recto, with ink identification “Osborne” on image. Samuel Osborne (1833-1903) was born into slavery and raised on a Virginia plantation, where he married his childhood friend, Maria Iverson. At the close of the Civil War in 1865, Samuel traveled to Maine with two of his daughters, where he landed a job with the Maine Central Railroad. Later that year, with funds raised by Baptist friends, he was able to bring his wife, third daughter, and father to join him in the north. Nearby Colby College hired Samuel’s father as its janitor, but upon his passing, offered the job to Samuel. It was in this position that Samuel remained for 37 years and from which he earned the nickname “Janitor Sam.” Samuel was an institution at the college, being featured more than any other subject in the weekly student newspaper, The Colby Echo, during the late 19th century. And it was Samuel’s own daughter, Marion Osborne, who became the very first African American woman to graduate from the college in 1900. Samuel passed away in 1904, the year after he retired. His funeral was held in the Colby Chapel and the college bell rang seventy-one times in his honor. While there are many seemingly lighthearted anecdotes about Sam’s interaction with students at Colby, there is also controversy surrounding his treatment by students and administration alike. For example, it is known that by the year 1896 (after nearly thirty years’ service), Sam’s annual salary was still a paltry $480. Sam’s legacy at the college continues to provoke discussion and change as evidenced by the recent renaming of Colby’s president’s house to The Osborne House in 2017. $400-600

81 Howard University Early CDV, circa 1870, and Stereoview CDV of Howard University’s first building, “Old Main.” Gardner: Washington, DC, n.d., circa 1870. This image shows the university’s inaugural building as viewed from the southeast, with General Oliver Otis Howard’s home just visible in the background to the left. Designed by Henry R. Searle Jr. of Rochester, New York, the building combined both Gothic and Second Empire architectural styles and held thirty-six rooms in total. The building was later taken down in order to make room for Founders Library. Stereoview featuring a large crowd of people outside in front of “Old Main.” C.W. Woodward: Rochester, New York, n.d., circa late 19th century. Publisher’s imprint on mount. Captioned beneath image: “1482. Howard University.” A large crowd of African American students gathers on the lawn outside the main building and atop one of the structure’s balconies. Other examples published by the Union View Company and J.W. and J.S. Moulton. $400-600

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82 Students, Bishop College, Marshall, Texas, circa 1900 Oversize albumen photograph of students at Bishop College in Marshall, Texas. M[ose] E. Hughes: Marshall, Texas, n.d., circa 1900. African American students, both men and women, of various ages are captured here, posed on campus with a low fence visible in the background. Several benches dot the composition, some with stacks of books on top. “Students, Bishop College” inscribed in ink below photograph, and stamped “M.E. Hughes,” on verso with location written in ink. In its nascence, Bishop operated both a grammar school and high school in addition to the college. Industrial skills such as carpentry and wood-working were also taught, though its primary college-level programs were in the fields of religion and education. Bishop College was established in 1881 by the American Baptist Home Mission Society as a coeducational school for African Americans. It was named for Nathan Bishop (1808-1880), a white attorney and philanthropist who supported the establishment of the school. With Bishop’s support, the Society purchased land in Marshall from both white and Black property holders to establish and expand the college campus. By 1910, Bishop College consisted of seven brick buildings, including student housing, classrooms, and administrative spaces. After the school relocated to Dallas in 1961, its Marshall campus was sold and all of the buildings were demolished. $400-600

83 Talladega College Coeds Oversize Photograph, circa 1905 Oversize silver gelatin photograph of female students at Talladega College, Alabama. 9.50 x 7.75 in., mounted to 12 x 10 in. French: Talladega, Alabama, n.d., circa 1905. Imprint on recto. A group of young women wearing elegant skirts and blouses, their hair in fashionable Edwardian coifs, lounge on a lawn with collegiate buildings and trees in the background. Inscribed ink (faded) on verso: “To ‘Cousin Jack / From Pearl” alongside a list of the women depicted and their hometowns: “Sadie Brown Montgomery, Ala. / Helen Headin - Birmingham, Ala. [Class of 1906] / Darlene Walker - Chicago, Ill. / Augusta Bibb - Uniontown, Ala. [Class of 1905] / Missouri Duncan - Montgomery, Ala. [Class of 1910] / Mabel Gill - Selma, Ala. [Class of 1908] / Etta Smyly - Montgomery, Ala. [Class of 1905] / Ida Hamilton - Montgomery, Ala., / Pearl Crawford Tuscaloosa, Ala.” Most likely given by Pearl Crawford, one of the students in the photo, to “Cousin Jack.” A scarce image of a group of African American women college students at Talladega College, founded in 1867, Alabama’s oldest private historically Black college. Each student is identified on the verso by name, and where she was from, and all are mentioned in Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Talladega College…for the Scholastic Year 1904-05, Atlanta, 1905. $300-500

84 Fundraising Letter for Florida Normal & Industrial Institute with Mounted Photograph of a Young African American Woman, circa 1918 Fundraising letter for Florida Normal & Industrial Institute, 1p, 8.5 x 11 in., circa 1918, illustrated with a mounted photograph of potential student Parale Ricks, a young African American woman described as “the daughter of a widowed mother” who is “making a courageous fight to secure at least an academic training for the duties and responsibilities of life.” Photograph approx 2.25 x 3 in., flanked on each side by a testimonial promoting the work of the school, including one from Mary E. Woolley, President of Mt. Holyoke College. Letter signed in type by Dr. and Mrs. W.C. King, prominent residents of Springfield, Massachusetts. Accompanied by a return envelope addressed to Nathan W. Collier, Principal, Florida Normal & Industrial Institute in St. Augustine, Florida. The fundraising letter begins, “This Christian girl is commended to your kindly consideration. / She did not come into the world endowed with that rich heritage of Ancestry, Privilege and Opportunity enjoyed by the Anglo-Saxon. She belongs to a less favored race, long deprived of the common opportunities and privileges equally enjoyed in the North, regardless of race or color.” The letter continues, “The great masses of the colored people of the South, are earnestly striving, under difficult conditions and restricted privileges, to educate their children....” Florida Normal & Industrial Institute (now Florida Memorial University in Miami) was a private, historically Black educational institution led for over four decades by Nathan W. Collier, a leading academic administrator and activist. $100-200 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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85 Colored Agricultural and Normal University Baseball Team, Langston, Oklahoma, circa 1910 Real photo postcard featuring an African American baseball team. Ink inscription on recto: “C.A. & N. Univ. team / Langston, Okla.” Ten men wear baseball uniforms while three wear suits. Verso bears autograph note to Miss. J. Edna Hunter in Cleveland, Ohio from a student. The Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma was established in 1897, named in honor of civil rights pioneer John Mercer Langston (1829-1897), the first African American member of Congress from Virginia, the founder of Howard University Law School, and the American consul-general to Haiti. The school offered baccalaureate degrees as well as junior college programs; some of the areas of focus were teaching, vocational agriculture, home economics, and trades such as woodworking and shoemaking. Baseball had long been popular in the Black community with the first African American amateur teams established in the 1860s and all-Black professional teams by the 1880s with some professional Negro leagues and many traveling as barnstorming teams. With more historically Black colleges and universities being established, in part due to the Second Morrill Act, collegiate baseball teams proliferated across the country, though due to color lines, it was often in-practice an intramural sport for some isolated colleges. This team likely played against other all-Black teams, collegiate or not. $4,000-6,000

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86 3 CDVs of African Americans by Western Photographers Lot of 3 CDVS of African American subjects by Western photographers, comprising: Studio portrait of an elegant woman wearing a fashionable dress, a necklace, bracelet, earrings, and her hair in a curled updo. Charles William Carter: Salt Lake City, Utah, n.d., 1869-1880. Nos. 2 and 4 Third South Street imprint on verso. Carter, originally from London, learned photography while serving in the British Army in the Crimean War. He emigrated to American and on to Salt Lake City by 1859, shortly thereafter establishing his View Emporium which typically catered to the Mormon community, of which he was a part. Studio portrait of a standing gentleman wearing a threepiece suit. J.E. Bilbrough: Dubuque, n.d., circa 1870. Main and Eighth Streets imprint on verso. Vignetted studio portrait of a woman wearing a pearl necklace and drop earrings. Charles D. Kirkland: Cheyenne, Wyoming, n.d., 1881-1892. 292 Ferguson Street imprint on verso. Kirkland was a well-regarded photographer who is best remembered for inventing the “Gelatine Chloride” process which he eventually sold to the Eastman Kodak Company. $600-800

87 Pollard Cole, USCT & 10th Cavalry Sergeant Cabinet Card Portrait with Infant Son, El Paso, Texas 1893, Plus Lot of 2 cabinet cards of African American subjects taken on the Western frontier, comprising: Studio portrait of Pollard Cole holding his infant son Joseph on his lap. Vendome Studio: El Paso, Texas, n.d, [1893]. Manuscript inscription on verso: “Compliments of Pollard Cole / To Mr. C. Brazington.” Pollard Cole was a USCT veteran and Buffalo Soldier with the 10th Cavalry. His service record is well documented, this career military man serving from 1864 until at least 1892. He was born circa 1842 and was enslaved by a man named Stephen F. Gano. From Georgetown, Kentucky, he enlisted on October 7, 1864, at Camp Nelson, Kentucky as a private into Company K of the 12th USCT Heavy Artillery. After the war he continued with the army, serving in Louisville in 1866, and with the earliest Indian War-era documents recording him as a Sergeant with Company H of the 10th Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth in June 1867. He would serve the entirety of his future career with this troop, mostly under the command of fellow Civil War veteran Benjamin Grierson. Cole would spend some time at Fort Sill in Indian Territory (returns from 1872 and 1874), but his troop would be stationed at Fort Davis, Texas, not far from El Paso, from at least September 1875 through July 1882. The 10th first arrived in 1875 with the responsibility of protecting travelers on the San Antonio-El Paso road, garrison, scouting, constructing telegraph lines, and more. They also were involved in expeditions against the Apache Indians into the Guadalupe Mountains. The 10th was heavily involved with tracking the powerful Apache leader Victorio. While he was stationed at Fort Davis, he is known to have married Estephana Gonzales in 1882, and together they had one son, Joseph Cole, born on December 26, 1894, in El Paso. The cabinet card almost certainly features Cole holding his young son Joseph. By 1886, Pollard and the 10th had relocated to Arizona Territory with returns from San Carlos and Fort Apache. In 1886, Cole and five others in his troop, including John Casey, helped to capture Chief Mangus, the last major Chiricahua Apache chief to surrender the US government. He would end his military career at Fort Buford in North Dakota in 1892. The returns testify to the trust his commanding officers had in his leadership capabilities as he is listed as “in charge of company” at least three times. A Civil War pension card from California confirms that Pollard Cole served with the USCT and the 10th and lists his wife as Estephana Cole. [With:] Studio portrait of a man in frontier-style clothing, including boots and vest. Hughes: Tulsa, Indian Territory, n.d., circa 1890. Imprint on recto. $1,500-2,000

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88 Boudoir Cards of African Americans by Western Photographers Lot of 4 boudoir cards, each approx. 8.25 x 4 in., of African American subjects, including: Portrait of well-dressed middle-aged man with swagger stick. C.D. Kirkland: Cheyenne, Wyoming, n.d., circa 1895. Portrait of gentleman with manuscript inscription on verso: “From Wm. McGinnis / To his Old friend / Will Gray / Dec. 1st, 1880.” Uncredited: Cheyenne, Wyoming, 1880. William McGinnis (18481890) was described in his obituary, printed in the Cheyenne Daily Sun on February 15, 1890, as “an old timer in his period of residence here, having come to Wyoming in 1868.” He is listed in the 1870 Census for South Pass City, Wyoming as a “waiter in an eating house” and in the 1880 Census in Cheyenne as a “servant” living with his wife Hannah and infant daughter Adelaide. He was buried in the local AME Church. He was possibly a veteran of the Civil War, with a Military Registry noting that he was a “messenger.” Studio portrait of well-dressed woman with parasol. Albright: Albuquerque, New Mexico, n.d., circa 1895. Studio portrait of woman holding a photo album with “Our Friends” on front cover. L.T. Hazeltine: Virginia City, Montana, n.d., circa 1890. $600-1,000 2 of 4

89 Western Cabinet Cards with African American Subjects Lot of 2 cabinet cards, comprising: Studio portrait of an African American woman, her elbow on the table with a velvet covered album. L.S. Hazeltine: [Idaho?], n.d., circa 1890. Imprint on recto. Leland S. Hazeltine operated studios in Boise and Idaho City in the mid-1880s, and in Montana until at least 1900. He was the son of photographer M.M. Hazeltine. Outdoor scene with three African American women standing on a boardwalk in front of a house with a white picket fence. A.W. Manning: Edina, Missouri, n.d., circa 1885. Imprints on recto and verso. $300-500 1 of 2

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90 Tintypes of African Americans from Identified Midwestern Photographers Lot of 4 tintype CDV portraits of African Americans. Each presented in paper frame mount with a photographer’s imprint. Includes: CDV studio portrait of a handsome young man wearing a string tie and a hat. Nerous Baldwin: Wichita, Kansas, n.d., circa 1876. Imprint on verso. Baldwin (1840-1901) was one of the first photographers to work in Wichita with a studio as early as the mid-1870s. CDV studio portrait of a mature African American woman wearing dark clothes with a brooch tinted gold at her throat. She is seated next to a young white girl wearing a polka dot dress with a tie tinted pink. F.J. Kesler: Beardstown, Illinois, 1874. 50 State St. imprint on verso CDV studio portrait of a man wearing a deep-cut waistcoat and jacket. J.R. Tewksbury: Farmington, Iowa, n.d., circa 1875. Imprints to recto and verso. (Very light pitting). CDV studio portrait of a woman wearing a dark dress, she stands with her elbow resting on the back of a high sofa. J.R. Tewksbury: Farmington, Iowa, n.d., circa 1875. Imprints to recto and verso. $800-1,300

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92 Out on Bale (Bail), West Point, Miss., 1913 Real photo postcard, 3.25 x 5.375 in. Out on Bale (Bail), West Point, Miss. Murffs: West Point, Mississippi, 1913. One cent US postage stamp on verso, postmarked West Point, Mississippi, January 22, 1913. A view of an African American man seated atop a large bale of cotton with a farcical caption. $300-500

93 Cabinet Card of Four Children, Cadiz, Kentucky, circa 1900 Cabinet card of four young children posed in a studio setting, including an African American boy who reclines on the floor, while a toddler-aged white child holding a miniature toy wagon sits on top of him. Two other white children holding or wearing straw hats complete the informal portrait. Randolph: Cadiz, Kentucky, n.d., circa 1900. $200-400

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91 Missouri Cabinet Card Portraits of African Americans Lot of 2 cabinet cards portraits of African Americans, comprising: Studio portrait of a woman. F.L. Williams: Sedalia, Missouri, [1889]. Imprints on recto and verso. With a typical studio chair and backdrop. Studio portrait of an older gentleman with a gray beard, leaning on a cane. Meredith: Fayette, Missouri, [1893]. Imprints on recto and verso. Date inscribed on verso. $200-400

94 Cabinet Card of Two Cowboys in Chaps, circa 1900 Cabinet card of two African American cowboys, W. J. Reckamp & Co.: Greenfield, Illinois, circa 1900. Rare photograph by the W. J. Reckamp & Co. firm, in which two men are pictured, one seated, one standing, both wearing chaps, cowboy hats, cowboy boots, and neckerchiefs, with the seated subject wearing spurs. $400-600

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95 1893 Indian Territory Album with Images of Tacky Grayson Oklahoma photograph album with 29 images, many featuring Tacky Grayson, each 3.5 x 4.5 in. Oblong binder gilt, 6 x 8 in., maroon leather, watered silk endpapers. String-tied binding. 16 cardboard pages with cloth hinges. Most pages have photos front and back, a few with manuscript captions including: “Crossing the Verdigre [sic] River, I.T. / Dec. 1893”; “Choska, I.T. / 1893 the whole town” with buildings and lots of cattle visible; “Arkansas bottoms” is an image mostly of thickets; “Old Tacky Grayson (left) / Dave Mc Curtain (right)” and following image has “Tacky / Cook / Dave McCurtain”; several images have vast expanses of Plains, another of a “Cotton Field.”; “Old Tacky Grayson” is pictured by himself near the end of the album; and more. Thomas “Tacky” Grayson was a Black freedman who was the captain of the Lighthorse police in the Coweta District in the Creek Nation in Indian Territory. He was involved with several high-profile captures during his career, including that of the Rufus Buck Gang. The McCurtains were an influential family in southwestern Indian Territory, and the most southwestern county is now named in their honor.

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An article in the February 5, 1891, Muskogee Phoenix includes a report that involves Tacky Grayson and a Sam McCurtain, possibly a brother, cousin, or another relative of the Dave McCurtain included in the album. The article reports that one of the Creek lighthorseman, Governor McIntosh, was killed by an Indian Policeman Bob Marshal while acting as a guard for the paymaster of the Creek per capita fund. “While Marshall was at the hack, Sam McCurtain, Tacky Grayson and Gov. McIntosh came up and the parties...were scuffling. (exhilarated doubtless with a little redeye,) During the scuffle Marshal slightly tapped Tacky Grayson over the head with his shot gun. At this, McIntosh, who evidently had a grudge at Marshal, took the matter up. Marshal told McIntosh that it was none of his business, whereupon McIntosh said: ‘G-d- you I’m going to kill you.’” With both guns drawn and them facing off, the reporter continues: “At this point Tacky Grayson stepped from the side of McIntosh and Marshal fired, the full contents of the shot gun entering McIntosh’s neck, killing him instantly.” More images from the album available at cowans.com. $4,000-6,000

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96 African Americans on the Ranch, Oversized Photographs by George F. Gibbs, circa 1900 Lot of 2 boudoir cards by George F. Gibbs of Ferguson, Oklahoma, comprising: Outdoor image of horses and cattle on open plains with a young Black woman leaning on one of the cattle, a mule cart in the far background. Photographers imprint stamped to verso, circa 1900. Pencil note on verso indicates that Gibb worked at this location from Aug. 21, 1901 to April 30, 1920. Outdoor photograph of several horses with a few cattle among them outside rough-hewn buildings on the plains. Imprint stamped in red on verso. Additional stamp on verso indicates this is a cattle camp, Another stamp “Indians, Teepes, Mountai[n] / C__ns Creeks, Water-falls, / Caves, Rocks, Salt Works, / Stucco-Plaster Work� suggesting some of these may have been made as advertising cards. $300-500

97 CDV of an African American Freemason by George Schuwirth, Austin, Texas CDV studio portrait of an African American mason dressed in regalia. George Schuwirth: Austin Texas, n.d., circa 1877-1885. East Pecan Street imprint on verso. The unidentified subject stands wearing a tasseled Masonic apron and sash with stars. He wears white gloves and holds a feathered hat with a cockade across his body at his shoulder, a Masonic triangle visible on his wide cuff. A sword or dagger is sheathed at his side. he is possibly a member of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Freemasons, an African American fraternal lodge originally founded by Prince Hall in 1798. The first Lodges in Texas were founded between 1871 and 1873, and the 1875 convention records a representative from Austin, Rt. Worshipful Brother J. H. Morris. The important statesman Norris Wright Cuney (1846-1898) was elected the first grandmaster at the same convention. $600-800

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98 Colored People - Own a Lot in Austin, Real Estate Brochure, circa 1940s Grandview Place Addition Austin’s Best Home Property for Colored People, real estate pamphlet. 10.5 x 14 in., 4pp. on pink paper. Published by The Trentman Co. Realtors, listed at Fort Worth, Texas, and Wichita, Kansas. N.d., circa 1940s. 00 00 Advertises: “$1 Down - $1 Weekly,” with illustrations of bungalowstyle homes. Interior spread touts available amenities: “Have plenty of room for Garden - every lot has good soil and will raise a fine garden. Have plenty of space for chickens and a cow - plan enough room for a few fruit trees....” Verso reports “...[Y]ou get immediate possession, and may build a garage for a temporary residence, thereby saving your rent money, which will soon pay for your lot.” African Americans began to establish “Freedman’s Towns” around Austin after Emancipation, with many centered on Clarksville, Wheatsville, Masontown, and Kincheonville. A 1928 city planning regulation dislocated non-white Austin residents from the city to east of East Avenue (now IH-35), where this neighborhood is located. Grand View was established circa 1925. It is not certain when this addition was set up, but likely around the time of WWII. $1,500-2,500

99 San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, Rockdale, Texas, circa 1910 Real photo postcard. M. L. Zercher: Rockdale, Texas, circa 1910. Captioned in the negative: “B5802 S. A. & A. P. Depot, Rockdale, Texas.” African American residents first settled in Rockdale Texas prior to the town’s incorporation in 1874; Paul Moultry, who was recruited by Valentine & Hooks General Store to work as a blacksmith, was the first freed slave to settle in the town. The segregation of Rockdale present by 1910 is evident as there are two separate doors at the depot, one labeled “Whites,” the other “Negroes.” There were two railroad lines running through Rockdale: the San Antonio and Aransas Pass, and the Missouri Pacific. $150-250

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100 “Jennings City” is a New Colored Town, Texas, Broadside, circa 1918 Printed broadside, 9.125 x 12 in. “Jennings City” is a New Colored Town. Naples, Texas: Jennings City Townsite Company, n.d., circa 1920s. Rare broadside features printed images of The Jennings City Townsite Company’s Manager, C.E. Rosborough, and Agents Director, J.W. Broaders, both of whom are African American men, flanking text reading, in part: “This beautiful little city is located on the St. Louis Southwestern R.R., five miles northeast of Naples, and forty-one miles southwest of Tex-arkana. The location...is high, clean and beautiful. You will find in its locality numbers of well-to-do farmers. The country joining this little city is thickly populated by enterprising colored people. They offer you their support and are anxious for you to join in and help them build a little modern city.” Broadside boasts “over one thousand lots on the market at a low price—one hundred dollars each.” Lots, described as spanning 50 by 150 feet, are available for financing and home building, with company assistance. Broadside undersigned in print by executives of The Jennings City Townsite Company, including Mr. T.C. Young, President, Prof. J.J. Yates, Vice President, and others. $1,500-2,500

101 African American Cowboy George Fletcher Real Photo Postcard, Plus Lot of 2 real photo postcards, comprising: Titled in negative “No. 27 George Fletcher / Round Up Pendleton, OR” alongside copyright statement: “Copyright 1911 by W.S. Bowman.” Fletcher is shown riding a bucking bronco. There were few African American cowboys in Oregon and much of the West, partly because of discriminatory policies and attitudes. By the early twentieth century, the role of cowboys had changed to one of entertainment as part of a rodeo. The Pendleton Round Up was the state’s largest rodeo beginning in 1910 and African Americans were part of the show from the beginning. In 1911, there were three men competing in the bucking competition, John Spain (white), Jackson Sundown (Nez Perce), and Fletcher. The judges gave the first place to Spain, apparently hesitant to award the top prize to a minority competitor. The crowd, however, disagreed and cheered loudest for Fletcher, who, they decided, had ridden better. This postcard celebrates that ride. An additional postcard shows an unidentified Black trick rider, standing on the backs of two charging horses, hundreds of fans, many of them African American, are lined up along the rail. $400-700

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102 José and Joe Clark, Hunters of the U.S.G.S., Oversize Albumen Photograph by W.H. Jackson, Yellowstone, Wyoming, 1871 Albumen photograph, 8.75 x 6.625 in., mounted to 13 x 10.5 in., featuring José and Joe Clark. W.H. Jackson: Washington, DC, 1871. Captioned on mount: “José and Joe Clark, Hunters of U. S. G. S.” Image number “302” written in the negative, lower left. “Forbes Library” handstamp on image and mount, lower left. “Wyoming” inscribed in ink on verso. Image features the two hunters mounted on horses, with a third horse in between carrying elk meat from a successful hunt. Joe Clark and a Mexican guide known only as José were part of the famous Hayden Geological Survey of 1871, led by geologist Ferdinand Hayden (1829-1887). The expedition was purposed to explore and survey the area that would become Yellowstone National Park. The findings of this federally funded project directly led to the 1872 establishment of the park, the first of its kind in the United States. Joe Clark is thought to be the first African American to see Yellowstone. $4,000-6,000

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103 Posing with a Burro, African American Women and Their Wards, Boudoir Card, Colorado Springs, circa 1890 Boudoir card of three African American women holding their young wards, who are seated on a burro. W.E. Hook: Colorado Springs, n.d., circa 1890. Title in negative difficult to discern. Verso with Hook’s imprint and descriptive information. $100-200

104 Cabinet Card Portrait of Rosa Simmons, Wife of Calvin Simmons, circa 1896, Plus Lot of 2 cabinet cards of African Americans by South Dakota photographers, comprising: Studio portrait of a young woman sitting in a wicker studio chair. Glendenning: Madison, South Dakota, n.d., circa 1896. Imprint on recto. Identified in very light pencil on verso: “Calvin Simmons girl Rosa [illegible] when 18 years old.” A Calvin Simmons (d.1915), originally from Mississippi, is buried in Clark County, South Dakota and it is noted that he is the “first Black buried in Clark County” and “served as personal servant of G.W. McSpadden during the Civil War.” A Calvin Simmons was enlisted on March 13, 1865, into Company E of the 6th USCT. This does appear to be the same Calvin Simmons listed in the 1910 Federal Census of Day Township in Clark County whose wife is listed as “Rosa B.” Simmons, listed as Black man born in July 1861 who works as a stonemason. Rosa’s birth year is listed as 1878, and if she is indeed 18 years old in this image, it was taken circa 1896. Studio portrait of a group of children, two boys and two girls. Miller: Clark, South Dakota, n.d., circa 1895. Imprint on recto. Inscription on verso: “A Merry Xmas / To / Grandma & Aunt Belle.” $200-400

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105 African American Family and Home, Oversized Photograph, South Dakota, circa 1900 Silver gelatin photograph, 4.75 x 6.75 in., on 7 x 9 in. mount, pencil inscribed on verso, “Calvin Simmons & Family.” Uncredited: [Clark, South Dakota], n.d., circa 1900. A view of Calvin Simmons, his wife, and four children in front of a wood house. Mississippi native Calvin Simmons (b. circa 1856) is recorded in the 1910 Census as living in Garfield, South Dakota, with his wife Rosa and four children, May, Carl, William, and Adeline. His occupation is listed as a farmer. $300-500

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106 Tintype of “Stagecoach Mary,” Montana, circa 1880 Tintype portrait, approx. 2.75 x 3.25 in., tentatively identified as Mary “Stagecoach Mary” Fields. Uncredited: n.p. [Montana], n.d., circa 1880. Mary is seated, wearing a headscarf and two rings on her fingers. Mary Fields (circa 1832-1914) was born into slavery, though little is known about her life prior to the abolition of slavery when she went to work on the Mississippi River aboard the Robert E. Lee. An impressive figure, Mary stood six feet tall and weighed 200 pounds at only eighteen years of age. Her physical prowess paired with her sometimes gruff personality and hot temper made her a standout figure at her next place of employment, a convent in Toledo, Ohio, where she worked for about fifteen years. In 1885, at the request of an old friend and convent superior, Mary went to Montana to work for St. Peters mission. While her devotion to the nuns and students at the mission was unquestioned, her harsh nature and reputation for smoking and swearing were enough to provoke a bishop who had her removed from her position and banned from the mission in 1894. Her next successful occupation was the one from which her nickname was derived. In 1895, Mary became a Star Route Carrier for the United States Postal Service, meaning that she worked as an independent contractor to deliver mail using a stagecoach in the harsh conditions of northern Montana. She was the first African American woman (and the second woman) to obtain such a contract. Not only was she responsible for carrying the mail, but she also had to protect it. She was known to carry both a revolver and a rifle with her and was not afraid to be tough when the opportunity arose. Montana native and film star Gary Cooper once said of Fields that she “could whip any two men in the territory.” Upon her retirement, Mary stayed in Cascade, opening both a laundry business and an eatery, and babysitting children in the town. She died in 1914 and was buried along her mail route with funds donated by the townspeople. Her funeral was said to be one of the most well-attended in town. $4,000-6,000

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107 Cabinet Card of African American Cowgirl, Anaconda, Montana, circa 1900 Cabinet card of African American cowgirl holding a lariat, wearing a gun and ammunition belt. Hunter: Anaconda, Montana, n.d., circa 1900. Imprint on recto. The subject wears a bandana around her neck and a long fringed skirt. Anaconda, Montana, founded in 1883, was known as “Smelter City” and was widely regarded as an ethnically diverse community, with many immigrants and a large African American population especially in the 1890s. The first African Americans came to work at the smelter or in the service industries in the growing city. The 1890 census was lost to fire, but the 1900 census reveals that 75 of the 100 Black residents were men, with few single women and only four or five families. By 1910 and 1930, most Black residents were married with families and an AME Church was founded in 1903. $400-600

108 Washington Cabinet Cards Incl. First Pastor of Spokane St. Paul’s AME Church, George W. White, circa 1893 Lot of 2 cabinet cards from Washington, comprising: Cabinet card studio full-length portrait of a gentleman. [A.D.] Rogers: Olympia, Washington Territory, n.d., 1895. Imprint on recto. The subject leans against an upholstered chair, crossing his legs. He wears a dark 3-piece suit with a pocket square and a watch fob visible. He also wears a ring on his last finger and a hat. Cabinet card studio full-length portrait of a man identified as Reverend George W. White wearing a top hat. [Delwin C.] Canfield & Gulick: Spokane, [Washington], n.d., circa 1893. Post & Sprague Sts. imprint on recto. The man is posed next to a faux column and stairs. He wears a dark overcoat and top hat with a watch fob visible. Pencil inscription to the verso identifies the subject as: “Rev. Geo. W. White, 1st Pastor, St. Pauls A.M.E. Church now (Bethel) of Spokane).” The Reverend White is listed as the pastor of St. Paul’s African Methodist Episcopal church in the 1890 Spokane directory. St. Pauls AME, now Bethel AME Church, was the second traditionally Black church in Washington, founded in 1890 only shortly after Calvary Baptist Church also in Spokane. St. Pauls was founded by Reverend A.C. Augustus who was sent by the California diocese who installed Reverend George W. White as the first pastor. The community first met at the home of Mrs. D.F.C. Washington on South 7th St. The church served as a community nucleus for the sizeable Black population of Spokane which had grown considerably in the 1880s thanks to both coal mining and railroad jobs. The populations had increased from just 180 people in 1880 to over 1600 by 1890. $600-800

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109 Reuben the Guide Cabinet Card, Postcards, and Scarce Cigar Collar Lot 6 items related Reuben “The Guide” Williams (1856-1903), comprising: Cabinet card studio half-length portrait of Reuben the Guide. He wears his signature suit, a tall sombrero hat, a ribboned star badge, and a tie with a fanciful pattern. [H.E.] Coonley: San Diego, California, n.d., circa 1890. Signed “Yours for Climate / Reuben” on the verso alongside his typical stamp, “Tia Juana, Old Mexico / Stamp[ed b]y Reuben the Guide.” Cigar collar, gilt with printed portrait of Reuben the Guide at center after a photograph. Approx. 3 x 0.75 in. (79 x 21 mm). Postcard with color print of Reuben the Guide and sights from Tijuana, captioned “Reuben the Guide / Custom House / 27. Greetings from Tia Juana, Mexico.” Edward H. Mitchell: San Francisco, n.d., circa 1902. Addressed to Miss Josephene Frankel of Los Angeles with a 1903 postmark. Postcard with color print illustration of Reuben the Guide and sights from Tijuana captioned “Reuben the Guide. / Monument Dividing

the U.S. and Mexico. / Custom House. / The Chapel.” M. Rieder: Los Angeles, 1902. Addressed to Mr. Albert Goose in Brussels, Belgium. Postmarked Oct. 31, 1902 on verso and Nov. 5, 1902 on recto. Stamped “Arthur H. Zachau, South Pasadena, Los Angeles County, Calif. U.S.A.” on verso. Postcard with color print of Reuben the Guide after the Coonley photograph, captioned “Reuben, The Guide, San Diego, Cal.” Detroit Photographic Co.: Detroit, 1901. With a note in German sent to a Rev. B. Larsen in Bremen, Germany. Postmarked Jan. 3, 1908. Postcard with photographic reproductions of Reuben’s Coonley portrait and Tiajuana tourist destinations surrounding a colored illustration of the Mexican flag. Captioned: “Reuben the Guide/ Chapel / Boundary Monument / Custom House / Tia Juana, Mexico.” N.P., n.d. Postally unused. For a complete description of the Tijuana docent Reuben the Guide, please see the introduction of this catalogue and cowans.com. $2,000-3,000

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110 The Pacific Appeal Newspaper, San Francisco, 1877 The Pacific Appeal, San Francisco. Thirty-one issues from 1876-1878. According to the publisher’s statement: “The Pacific Appeal is the immediate successor of the Mirror of the Times, which was established by colored men in San Francisco...The Pacific Appeal has long been regarded on the Pacific Coast, as also in the Eastern States, as a reliable index of the doings of the colored citizens of the Pacific States and adjacent Territories. Every important political or other movement made by colored citizens on the Pacific shores is promptly detailed by correspondents.” A complete list of issues included is available at cowans.com. The Mirror of the Times was a weekly paper published between 1857 and 1862 in San Francisco by the State Executive Committee. It was superseded, as mentioned here by the Pacific Appeal in 1862 by African American abolitionist Philip Alexander Bell (1808-1889) who had worked for William Lloyd Garrison’s anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator as a young man. He founded The Weekly Advocate in 1832, later renamed the Colored American, and moved west to San Francisco in 1860. The Pacific Appeal would run weekly until 1880. The masthead notes dozens of agents from eastern states and a wide variety of western American and Canadian cities showing the widespread circulation of the paper. Locales include Portland, Oregon; Eureka and Winnemucca, Nevada; Williams Creek and New Westminster, British Columbia; Idaho Territory, and many California cities such as Sacramento, Salinas City, Watsonville, Oakland, Oroville, Mariposa, Sonora, and Folsom. During the summer of 1876, there was major coverage of the “Hamburg Massacre.” This was an event in the town of Hamburg, South Carolina in July, leading up to the election that year. This and others involved white “rifle clubs,” then known as “Red Shirts,” trying to suppress the civil rights of African Americans. In Hamburg, over 100 white men attacked 30 African American National Guards, eventually killing six men and wounding several more. None of the white men was prosecuted, in part because no jury could be seated that would convict them. Civil rights of South Carolinian minorities were suppressed by a new state constitution until the 1960s federal legislation was passed that negated the state laws. Original issues of The Pacific Appeal are uncommon and rarely come to market. Danky-Handy 3850, 4686. $3,000-5,000

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111 Church, Los Angeles, Oversized Photograph, circa 1914 Silver gelatin photograph, 10 x 8 in., on 12 x 10 in. mount. OES Sunday April - 5 14 Los Angeles Cal. Uncredited: Los Angeles, 1914. Portrait of a large African American church congregation gathered in front of a Los Angeles area church. A small number of men are posed together with several women, many wearing white dresses and sashes. $200-300

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112 CDV Mugshot of Harry “Diamond Harry” Ward, circa 1887 CDV mugshot of Harry Ward in coat and bowler hat. N.p., 1887. The partly-printed verso is completed in manuscript with Ward’s details, noting that his Alias is “Diamond Harry,” his Crime is “Sneak Theif,” and his occupation as “Rail Road Porter.” The card reports his date of arrest as Feb. 23, 1887, by offers Dwyer and Connors. The papers reported the arrest widely, with at least 20 papers publishing the following report from May 9, 1887: “Chicago, May 9 - A mulatto named Harry Ward, alias “Diamond Harry” who has been under surveillance for several days was arrested last night. he had just pawned a $1,500 diamond ring for a trifling sum and had on his person several hundred dollars worth of other jewelry, supposed to have been stolen. The police suspect Ward of being concerned in the recent diamond robberies at Washington, New York and Albany.” A Harry Ward is listed in the McNeil Island, Washington Federal Penitentiary with a sentencing date of May 24, 1887. Though some of Ward’s physical descriptions vary, this could possibly be the same Ward. $200-300

113 Betrayal and Capture of Cherokee Bill, Cabinet Card, Wagoner, Indian Territory (Oklahoma), 1895 Cabinet card featuring Crawford “Cherokee Bill” Goldsby and the US Deputy Marshals responsible for capturing him, taken moments before Goldsby tried to escape. E.D. Macfee: Wagoner, Indian Territory (Oklahoma), n.d., [1895]. Imprint on recto, and printed story of capture on verso. Image with Goldsby’s signature and identification numbers written in the negative above subjets. Included in the image are US Deputy Marshal Bill Smith, Deputy Marshal Isaac Rogers, Clint Scales, Deputy Marshal Dick Critendon, and Deputy Marshal Zeke Critendon. Story featured on verso, titled “Betrayal and Capture of Cherokee Bill!” reads, in part, “After a desperate battle of 30 minutes with two strong men and one woman; the desperado was bound in chains and his hands cuffed, but like the man whose name was ‘Legion,’ he plucked the hand cuffs asunder and threw them at his captors, but was held in subjection at the muzzle of Winchesters until the door of his cell received its own.” Crawford Goldsby’s (1876-1896) father, George Goldsby, had served as a Buffalo Soldier in the 10th Cavalry Regiment, being promoted to sergeant major in 1872, four years before Crawford was born. His mother was a Cherokee freedman of mixed African, Indian, and white heritage. Crawford himself was sent to Indian school in Cherokee, Kansas at the age of seven, to return home to Fort Gibson at the age of twelve. It was during this period at home that he began to develop some habits that foreshadowed his life of crime, including drinking alcohol, rebelling against authority, and associating with less-than-reputable personalities. He began his crime spree at the age of 18 when he shot a man over a dispute with Goldsby’s younger brother. When confronted by lawman outside of Tahlequah, Oklahoma, he shot and killed a deputy by the name of Sequoyah Houston. A cold-blooded killer, he joined another outlaw, Bill Cook, and formed the Cook Gang that terrorized Indian Territory for two years. He was finally caught during a robbery and turned over to the authorities. After failing to escape prison and the death sentence, he was hanged on March 17, 1896, in front of hundreds of spectators. Allegedly, when asked if he had any last words the 20-year-old said, “I came here to die, not make a speech.” $1,200-1,800

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114 Bass Reeves in The Federal Official Family, Nov. 16, 1907, Muskogee, Oklahoma, Oversize Photograph The Federal Official Family. Nov. 16, 1907. Oversize albumen photograph, 9.5 x 7.5 in (244 x 194 mm), mounted to 12 x 10 in. Pierson Photo.: Muskogee, 1907. Photographer’s imprint in negative alongside title and date. Illegible pencil signature on verso. Born into enslavement in Arkansas, Reeves (1838-1910) was moved to Texas by his owner. When the Civil War broke out, his enslaver joined the Confederacy and brought Bass along with him. It is unclear how Reeves escaped, but he almost certainly fled to Indian Territory where he lived as a fugitive among the American Indian populations learning survival skills and languages in the process. After the war, he farmed back in Arkansas until 1875 when he was recruited as a US Deputy. He had likely scouted for the US Marshals during his farming years and became very valuable to the Marshals for his superior tracking, marksmanship, and language skills in addition to his intimate knowledge of the land. He is reported to have brought in over 3,000 outlaws and was never wounded.

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This photograph was taken in Muskogee, Oklahoma on the day of Oklahoma statehood and commemorating the last day of the “first federal family” of the Western District, as the newspapers referred to the U.S. Marshals in the region. Reeves is pictured at the far left wearing a large hat and Chief Deputy U.S. Marshal Bud Ledbetter the second from right in the first row. With statehood, most of the duties formerly performed by the marshal service were assigned to the new counties and municipalities across the state. The Western Age newspaper of the African American town of Langston, Oklahoma reported on January 10, 1908, that Reeves had found employment as a policeman in Muskogee, despite his advanced age (he was now 70), and “a bullet in his leg, received while in the government service, gives him considerable trouble. He is as quick of trigger, however, as in the days when gun men were in demand.” Another copy of this image is housed in the Oklahoma Historical Society and another sold from the Robert G. McCubbin Collection. $3,000-4,000

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115 California Stereoviews Featuring African American Subjects, circa 1870s Lot of 2 stereoviews featuring African Americans in California, comprising: Palace Hotel, S.F. Interior View. C.E. Watkins, San Francisco, n.d., circa 1877. From the series Pacific Coast Views on an orange mount, the image features eight African American staff standing in a large atrium in the landmark hotel. 84 - The Grizzled Giant 30 ft. in diameter. Mariposa Grove. E. & H.T. Anthony & Co.: New York, n.d., circa 1870s. From the series Mammoth Trees, California on a yellow mount, depicts several men, at least one African American, dwarfed by the size of the Giant Sequoia in Yosemite. $450-700

116 Tourists with Cacti, Tucson, Arizona, circa 1885 Cabinet card providing outdoor view of a group of African American and white tourists posed together near large, saguaro cacti. Willis P. Haynes: Tucson, Arizona, n.d., circa 1885. Photographer’s imprint on mount recto and applied paper label on mount verso. $300-500

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117 Florida, New Year’s Day in the Sunny South, Stereoview, 1886 Stereoview of a combination of African American and white subjects gathered together on a front porch. Florida, New Year’s Day in the Sunny South. George Barker: Niagara Falls, New York, 1886. A young African American boy dances in the foreground while an older fellow plays a fiddle behind him, and two men pose as if they are about to spar in the background. $100-200

118 Only Fish Scale House in the World, Real Photo Postcard, 1907 Real photo postcard, showing a man and a boy and the construction of a house. [W. J. Harris]: St. Augustine, Florida, 1907. Captioned in the negative: “Only Fish Scale House in the World Made By Albert B. Smith. Copyright -09 A.B. Smith.” Folk artist Albert B. Smith was photographed in 1907 in front of his two-story house covered entirely in drum fish scales. The precise location of the house, now demolished, is unknown. Records indicate that a St. Louis banker visiting St. Augustine, who was taken by the architectural oddity, offered to ship the entire house, along with Smith and his family, to the World’s Fair in St. Louis in 1904, also offering to split the gate receipts with him. $500-700

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119 Railroad Cabinet Cards Featuring African American Subjects, circa 1900 Lot of 3 cabinet cards featuring African American subjects taken by itinerant railroad photographers, comprising: Horizontal studio portrait of a handsome couple wearing elegant clothes. Drum: N.p., n.d., circa 1900. Photographers imprint on recto notes, “Rail Road Photo. Car.” Studio portrait of a gentleman holding a guitar. Drum: N.p., n.d., circa 1900, with same railroad imprint. Studio portrait of an extended family with a couple, likely their six children, and a woman who is probably his mother (sitting next to the father). P.L. Britain: n.d., n.d., circa 1900. With imprint on recto reading: “P.L. Britain’s Palace R.R. Photo Car.” Traveling photographers date from the beginning of the medium. Photographers visited camps and battlefields during the Civil War. As the lands east of the Mississippi became more settled, there were permanent photo galleries, and the itinerant photographers moved west to serve those growing communities. Oscar Drum (1860-1936) was born in Illinois, but he and his wife Lottie (1864-1946) and mother Harriet (1842-1904) photographed people throughout Indian Territory. One of his ads brags that he had more Native American photographs available than any other photo studio, men, women, and children. They would rent buildings, use the railroad car, or even set up a tent as needed to photograph people in remote settings, who like their more settled countrymen, still wanted their photographs taken. He seems to have focused on the rail car from 1900-1903. $500-800

120 Woodland Park Resort Ephemera, 1924-1925 Lot of 17 featuring ephemera related to Michigan’s Woodland Park Resort, a seasonal resort founded in 1921 specifically for African Americans. Lot includes the following: seven balance statements dating to 1924-25 issued by the resort to lot owners; three cancelled checks dating to 1924 and paid to the resort; a TLS dated June 18, 1924, on “Woodland Park Resort Co., Ltd.” letterhead; two return envelopes addressed to the resort; and two issues (May and July 1925) of The Midget, a newsletter published by Woodland Park Resort Company “in the interests of Woodland Park lot owners.” Items in the collection are identified to lot owners Lucy O. Maxey and Linna J. Maxey of Indianapolis, Indiana. Also included with the Woodland Park ephemera are a 1918 letter of recommendation written on behalf of Lucy O. Maxey by a representative of Marion Normal Institute in Marion, Indiana, along with a black and white photograph of an unidentified, young Black woman. Most notable in the collection are the issues of The Midget, a publication intended to inform lot owners about ongoing developments at the resort while also promoting sales of additional lots and increased resort attendance. Beneath the headline “Woodland Park the Beautiful,” the July 1925 newsletter describes the park in this way: “Its location is ideal. Attractively located, with all modern conveniences for comfort. Equipment in the cottages, Clubhouse and Royal Breeze Hotel the best. New cottages where the lounging and sleeping appointments are conducive to comfort every hour of the twenty-four....” Woodland Park Resort was established by Black businessman Marion E. Auther. At the time Auther was also a successful salesman for Michigan’s better-known Idlewild resort, a leading African American resort in the Jim Crow era. Arthur and his wife Ella Auther hoped to provide a place to vacation for middle-class African Americans but also intended that some residents would build permanent homes on their lots. Woodland Park was best known for its premier accommodation, the Royal Breeze Hotel. Like many all-Black resorts, visitation to Woodland Park declined in the decades following the Civil Rights movement as all-white facilities were opened to African Americans. $500-700 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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121 Female African American Tourists at Cheyenne Falls, Oversize Photograph, Colorado Springs, circa 1900 Albumen photograph 4.5 x 7.75 in. mounted to 5.125 x 8.875 in. Seven Falls Photo & Curio Co.: Colorado Springs, Colorado, n.d., circa early 20th century. Image numbered in the negative: “# 106.” Mount blindstamped “Seven Falls / South Cheyenne Canon.” Image shows three African American women, two on burros, at the base of the falls. Extensive description on verso describes Seven Falls and South Cheyenne Canon. Images of African American tourists are exceptionally scarce, especially during the nascent Jim Crow era of segregation and restriction. $800-1,200

122 African American Tourists at Balanced Rock Near Manitou, Colorado, circa 1900 Silver gelatin photograph, 4.5 x 7.625 in., mounted to 6 x 8.875 in., featuring a group of African American tourists posed in front of Balanced Rock in Colorado Springs. Paul Goerke & Son: Manitou, Colorado, n.d., ca 1900. Image number inscribed in the negative: “5875.” Imprint on verso advertising prices for duplicates and enlargements. The pictured tourists, all men, are posed atop burros arranged in rows before the large rock formation. Now one of the most famous formations in Colorado Springs’s Garden of the Gods, Balanced Rock was once owned by the opportunistic Goerke family, including Paul Goerke and his son, Curt Goerke. It is believed that Curt began taking photographs of tourists standing next to the rock when he was a teenager in the 1890s, leading his father to purchase the photogenic formation and the nearby Mushroom Park by the turn of the century. The father-son duo allowed people to tour their scenic property but reserved rights to photograph Balanced Rock, providing burros as props and selling the images as souvenirs. A similar image sold as Lot 149 in Part I of The Road West. $800-1,200

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123 African American at the California Beaches, circa 1910-1913 Lot of one studio portrait and 4 real photo postcards, comprising: Long Beach Studio Portrait of an African American woman. J. C. Haden: Long Beach, California, circa 1910. -- Couple at the beach, standing in the shallow surf. Real photo postcard. N.p.: San Diego, California, 1914. -- Five people seated on the beach, including three women and two men. N.p.: San Diego, California, 1914. -- Four people at the beach, including two men and two women, in the surf. N.p.: San Diego, California, 1914. -- Four people at the beach, including two men and two men, in the surf, more distant. N.p.: San Diego, California, 1914. African American leisure sites, established in the early 20th century, provided the African American community with opportunities unavailable at other areas due to segregation. Perhaps the best-known was Bruce’s Beach, established in 1912 adjacent to Manhattan Beach, California. Bruce’s Beach included a bathhouse and dining house for Blacks. Peck’s Pier, near Santa Monica, and the Pacific Beach Club in Orange County provided other access points to the beaches for African Americans.   $300-500

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124 African American Man with Hupmobile, Exeter, California, circa 1915 Postcard-sized photograph (4 x 6 in.) of a young African American man standing beside a Hupp Touring Car (circa 1914 Model 32). The Wood Studio: Exeter, California, n.d., circa 1915. Imprint blindstamped on recto. The Hupp Motor Car Company built roadsters and touring cars from 1909 to 1939. The Model 32 was the first car with an allsteel body. Verso with pencil note: “Exeter, Calif.” Cattle ranching and agriculture were the main industries of the central California town, reaching its peak at the early 20th century and attracting migrant workers. The 1910 Federal Census counted 1,458 residents, the vast majority of the whom were white, though there were 31 Japanese people, 36 Mexicans, 3 Chinese men, and 1 American Indian. Remarkably, there is only one Black person living in Exeter proper, a 12 years old adolescent by the name of Henry Page who worked as a servant in the home of Thomas Dungan on B Street. Though the population tripled by 1920, the African American population remained nearly non-existent. Exeter is in Tulare County, the same county as Allensworth, the allBlack community founded in 1908 by Allen Allensworth. $600-800

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125 Early Memoir of a Black Hairdresser, 1859 POTTER, Eliza (1820-1893). A Hairdresser’s Experience in High Life. Cincinnati: Privately Published, 1859. 8vo. (Spotting throughout, endpapers torn.) Original textured blue cloth, smooth spine gilt-decorated and lettered (light rubbing). FIRST EDITION. Potter was a freeborn Black woman who worked as a hairdresser and beautician in antebellum high society. In the preface, Potter muses: “nowhere do hearts betray themselves more unguardedly than in the private boudoir, where the hair-dresser’s mission makes her a daily attendant. Why, then, should not the hair-dresser write, as well as the physician and clergyman? She will tell her story in simpler language; but it will be none the less truthful, none the less strange.” In the employ of wealthy Cincinnatians, she traveled widely and recorded the social customs of New York, Saratoga, New Orleans, Paris, and London. Notably, Potter describes the gallery of Cincinnati’s renowned African American photographer, J.P. Ball (see Lots 53-56) in which he has displayed the work of his sometime collaborator African American landscape artist, Robert Duncanson: “The photographer J.P. Ball, who owns a magnificent daguerrean gallery, has a reputation that is known in nearly every State of the Union, and he has displayed on the walls of his gallery several of the finest landscapes painted by the accomplished artist Robert Duncanson.” Very scarce and even scarcer in such fine condition, with internet records indicating that no copies have sold in over 30 years. Howes P-511. $3,000-4,000

126 CDV of Three Young Chimney Sweeps, Savannah, Georgia, circa 1868 CDV studio portrait of three young African American chimney sweeps. Jerome Nelson Wilson: Savannah, Georgia, n.d., circa 1866-1876. Broughton & Whitaker Sts. imprint on verso. Cleaning chimneys was a necessity but a difficult occupation often performed by children as they were better able to navigate cramped chimneys. These three young sweeps, without shoes to better maneuver in the sooty environment, are wearing dark hats and work clothes. Though they are not pictured with their tools of the trade, their outfits are the same as those worn in other views of chimney sweeps captured contemporaneously by Wilson and others. Wilson (1827-1897) moved to Savannah from New York in 1865 and worked there as a photographer until his death in 1897. This image was taken at the location of his first studio at Broughton & Whitaker, which was in operation from 1866-1876. He is known for capturing vistas around Savannah, as well as occupational portraits and sympathetic portrayals of African Americans during Reconstruction. A stereoview of the same image, also with a J.N. Wilson imprint, was sold in these rooms in 2019. $400-600

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127 African Americans and 19th Century Railroads Lot of 3 boudoir cards of railroad scenes in the late 19th century, each including African American Railroad Porters, comprising: A group posed next to railroad tracks, trains, and mountains visible in the background. Captioned upper margin in a contemporary hand: “Agate Mountain 59 miles east of Salt Lake City / Denver & Rio Grande RR Aug 10th 8888 laid 28 hours / on act. of washout. W.H.B. where am I.”

A group posed in front of a station, Idaho Springs, with steam engine. Chas. Weitfle.: Central City, Colorado, n.d. Stamped on verso: “Compliments General Passenger Agt. Union Pacific Railway, Omaha, Neb.” A group next to a railroad car. Captioned on mount in a contemporary hand: “Reno, Nevada: Gov. Robie with head uncovered between two Indians.” With image on verso of a smaller group posed in front of a [Milwaukee?] and Saint Paul railroad car. Captioned on mount in a contemporary hand: “Piute Indians: Nevada.” $600-800

128 Colored Colonization Company Stock Certificate, 1893 Stock certificate for one share in “The Colored Colonization Company,” 10.5 x 7 in. San Diego: 1893. Partially-printed document certifies that “Mrs. E. L. Clay” owns one share of the capital stock. Signed by company representatives, Secretary James M. Fowler and President E. D. Wilson and embossed with company seal. Three illustrated agricultural vignettes are positioned beneath text reading, “Real Estate, 100,000 Acres in Sonora, Mexico.” Fine print below reads, in part, “The holder of this certificate shall have the right...to a deed to land...at the rate of $1.00 per acre...” James Fowler was a Black entrepreneur from San Diego who founded the Colored Colonization Company in 1893. He believed in the future of Mexico as an alternative for Blacks who suffered under Jim Crow laws in the United States. He aggressively promoted his venture boasting of the fertility of Mexico’s soil, the rich fishing opportunities and the presence of vast amounts of minerals. An ad for the company featured in the May 19, 1894 issue of The Freeman calls for “every man and woman of the Afro-American race to better their condition by joining the Colored Colonization Company. who purpose to colonize in Mexico on the Colorado River and the Gulf of California...Shares $1 each, each share a guarantee for one acre of land in the garden spot of America. Now is your time; take hold, as no such offer has ever been made to our people before and may never be again, and secure for yourselves and children homes which will be fortunes for the coming years.” $3,000-4,000

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129 C.F. Holmes, Editor of The People’s Recorder Trade Card, Orangeburg, South Carolina, circa 1905 Trade card, 3 x 5.25 in. (77 x 130 mm). The People’s Recorder: Orangeburg, South Carolina, n.d., circa 1905. The People’s Recorder advertised itself as “The Leading Race Paper in the State.” This was a weekly paper, “Published from It’s Own Two Story Building. Orangeburg, S.C.” from 1893 to about 1925. Its banner promoted it as being published “for the elevation of our race, and [as] an exponent of Republican principles.” Established by Samuel Hayward and the Reverend Clarence Fisher Holmes, pictured here, it was one of the few voices for African Americans in a southern state. In 1925 it merged with another African American paper, the Southern Indicator, becoming the Recorder-Indicator. The People’s Recorder included both local and national news and added weekly sermons and calls to push for education and voting rights, among other issues. It also was the official voice of the Grand United Odd Fellows of South Carolina, a fraternal organization, reflecting its connection with the Black business community. $100-200

130 U.S. Post Office Crew, Boley Okla., Real Photo Postcard, circa 1908 Real photo postcard, with “U.S. Poste [sic] Office Crew / Boley Okla.” Five men standing, one sitting. Postally used with Boley cancel on verso. Autograph note from a Boley resident named Mildred to her cousin Miss V. Baily, writing affectionately about “Mr. Mc, “ who seems to be her beau: “I’m having a jolly good time...I went out to a lawn social last night. Mr. Mc & I. Ha Ha. This is P.O Crew. The one standing in center is Mr. Mc.” In the 1910 census of Boley, there is a 23-year old man named Herbert McCormick whose occupation is listed as the “Asst. Post Master” at the Post Office, perhaps the man pictured here. Established in 1903 as a predominantly African American community, Boley, Oklahoma was a thriving town and was home to over 4,000 citizens in 1911. Booker T. Washington called it “the most enterprising and in many ways the most interesting of the Negro towns in the United States.” [See Lot 128 sold in Part I of The Road West]. $2,000-3,000

131 African American Man at Spokane Fruit Display, Oversized Photograph, Spokane, Washington, circa 1900 Silver gelatin photograph of a uniformed African American man standing beside a large and attractive fruit display, 4.25 x 6.25 in., on 8 x 10 in. mount. Loryea: Spokane, Washington, n.d., circa 1900. Photographer’s blindstamp on mount, at lower right. The subject wears a cap with band that reads, “Spokane Fruit,” and is shown wiping down one of the glasses included in the display. $200-300

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132 A Catalina Fish Boudoir Card, Catalina Island, California, circa 1900 Boudoir card with images on recto and verso, comprising: Outdoor posed portrait of an African American man with a fish that is longer than he is tall and outweighs him by a factor of 2 plus. Titled in the negative: “302 A Catalina Fish, 510 lbs.” alongside photographer identification “Waite Photo.” Penciled below image is “H.N. Smith,” who may be the man in the photo. Outdoor photograph of two white youngsters with a fish nearly their size. Titled in negative “367 Otto(?) Jew Fish, Catalina Isl.” Also by Waite. Fishing tourism was exceedingly popular in California from the 1890s to 1910, with quite a few professional photographers working at popular spots to document catches. This image here is exceedingly rare, with no other fishing photographs with African American subjects known. $800-1,000

133 Cod Fishing in the Strait of Belle Isle Cabinet Card Incl. Matthew Henson, 1909 Cabinet card, image 3.5 x 4 in., with manuscript label in lower margin “Cod Fishing in Strait of Belle Isle.” Instructions in red along left side to reduce the size a bit; along the right side, “Pt. 2 Ch. 1.” The renowned explorer Matthew Henson (1866-1955) is pictured second from right. Henson was born in Maryland to parents who were “free people of color” before the Civil War. He left school at twelve to work as a cabin boy and returned to Washington DC, taking a position as salesclerk in a department store. One of his customers was Robert Peary who hired Henson as a personal valet and assistant. They made their first Arctic expedition together in 1891-1892. During the 1908-1909 expedition, Henson claimed to be the first to reach the geographic North Pole. Peary’s location has been disputed, but it would have been a computational error, not an expedition failure, that kept them from reaching the pole. Along the way, both men studied the survival methods of the local Inuit. Henson published a memoir in 1912, A Negro Explorer at the North Pole. $1,200-1,800

134 Cotton Workers Real Photo Postcard, Near Ponca, Oklahoma, circa 1909 Real photo postcard showing four men in a cotton field. N.p.: n.p., circa 1909. Captioned in the negative: “In the Cotton Fields 14 Miles South Ponca OK.” A white overseer stands at center smoking a pipe and writing in a notebook. Three other men, two African Americans and a man who is perhaps Hispanic or American Indian, have large bags and hold handfuls of cotton. Autograph note stamped and signed on verso from Edith, Okarche, Oklahoma, to Mr. C. C. Pitzer, Patwin, Kansas, 22 February 1909. Cotton was first planted in Oklahoma by the Choctaw Nation in 1825, though production was halted at the end of the Civil War. By the mid-1870s, recovery was underway; tribal law forbade Native Americans from leasing their lands to outsiders, but several “employed” tenants cultivated 80 percent of the cotton farms in Indian Territory by 1900. In 1907, when Oklahoma achieved statehood, farmers in all but three Oklahoma counties grew cotton on nearly one quarter the state’s cultivated acreage.   $800-1,200 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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135 Loading Bermuda Onions in Texas, Real Photo Postcard, 1910 Real photo postcard showing five men posing with a carload of yellow Bermuda Onions. A. A. Nichols: Columbus, Texas, 1910. Captioned in the negative: “The Boettcher Co. of Weimar, Texas loading their 14th Car of yellow Bermuda onions this season 1910.” Autograph note stamped and signed on verso, W. J. Mc Clure, Bonner Springs, Kansas to Eugene Sollerman?, Kansas City, Missouri, 9 June 1911. Bermuda onions were first grown in south Texas in 1898. In 1907, 1,011 carloads of onions were shipped from south and southwest Texas; by 1909, 12 counties shipped 2,920 carloads.   $400-600

136 African American Milkman, Real Photo Postcard, 1912 Real photo postcard showing a man holding a milk bottle crate, standing next to a dairy cart, “Sanitary Milk & Cream,” which is pulled by two horses. Autograph note signed, James, Helena, Montana, to Frankie, sending Christmas greetings, 25 December 1912. $1,200-1,800

137 Pearl Laundry Real Photo Postcard, 1914 Real photo postcard showing the driver of a Ford Model T Pearl Laundry Company truck. St. Joseph, Missouri, 1914. Postally unused. $600-800

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138 Los Angeles African American Community Real Photo Postcards Seven postcards, including five real photo postcards and two printed cards. Real photo postcard with a woman identified as Lela Murray holding a heart with text reading, “The Little Daughter Ruler with the Great Big Heart. Hiawatha Temple No. 91 Los Angeles, Cal.” Smith: Los Angeles, n.d., circa 1920. Postally unused. Penciled on verso is the address of the temple and the subject’s name. The Hiawatha Temple was the home of the Improved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks (I.B.P.O.E.), with the Daughters being the female auxiliary. Lela Murray (1887-1949) was an African American businesswoman and co-founder of Murray’s Ranch in Bell Mountain, California, a popular destination for African American families and celebrities alike seeking recreation at “the only negro dude ranch in the world” (as reported by the California Eagle). Real photo postcard portrait of a railroad porter standing in front of his Santa Fe Railroad station. Used card with grandmother’s letter to her granddaughters in Wisconsin. Canceled in Los Angeles, 1919. Advertising postcard card showing a crowd of people, including Black and white men and women. Verso text boasts, “Thousands of these shoppers are looking for your services and products. 1000 cars a day stop at Fantastic Fair - Discount Department Store - in the Heart of Los Angeles....” Postally unused but addressed to San Gabriel, California. Color printed postcard of the employees of the Deloy Edwards, Real Estate Company, with printed advertising text on verso touting, “NEW ARRIVALS come in our office every day — with ready cash to buy.” Stamped address to “Occupant” at a Los Angeles address. Cancelled in Los Angeles, 197[?]. Real photo postcard showing Second Baptist Church of Los Angeles with an insert of Pastor Dr. T.L. Griffith. Photography credit (“Foto by Jordan”) and caption written in the negative. Verso with manuscript note indicating that this is the writer’s church and pastor. Thomas L. Griffith became pastor of Second Baptist in 1921 and spearheaded the effort to construct the new church building shown here, which was designed by young African American architect, Paul Revere Williams. Printed color card showing a “Partial View of the Henrietta School of Beauty Culture,” in Los Angeles, featuring mostly African American women styling hair, painting nails, etc. Benton 1 of 7 Postcard Co.: Los Angeles, n.d., circa mid-1930s. Verso with printed information about the school. Postally unused. Printed color card with text printed in margin reading, in part, “Home Office Building - Golden State Insurance Company, Los Angeles, Calif. / Guarantee Fund.” Further text indicates this company was incorporated in 1925 and is “Owned by Black Americans.” Postally Unused. $800-1,200

139 Bessie Coleman Aero News Vol. 1 Issue 1, May 1930, Signed by William J. Powell POWELL, William J. (1897-1942), ed. Bessie Coleman Aero News. May 1930, Vol. 1 Issue 1. Phoenix, Arizona: Bessie Coleman Aero Clubs, Inc. 9.25 x 12 in. Illustrated throughout. Original wrappers, staple bound. SIGNED and INSCRIBED BY POWELL on the front cover above the masthead: “H.W. Hatten, July 15, 1930 / By compliments of / Lieut. Wm. J. Powell.” William J. Powell (1897–1942) grew up in a middle-class African American neighborhood in Chicago before serving in World War I and earning a degree in electrical engineering. He then opened several successful automobile service stations, but inspired by Lindbergh’s transatlantic flight, decided he wanted to learn to fly. After being rejected from numerous flight schools because he was Black, Powell moved to Los Angeles where he gained admission to a flying school. By the early 1930s he had organized the Bessie Coleman Aero Club to promote aviation awareness in the Black community and named it after the pioneering African American aviatrix who had envisioned opening an aviation school for African Americans before her untimely death in 1926. Powell organized the first all-African American air show in 1931; he published the Bessie Coleman Aero News, and in 1934, he authored Black Wings, a fictional account of his own life [sold as Lot 52 in Part I of The Road West]. The cover image is of aviatrix Marie Dickerson (1906-1993) standing in front of the Oscar De Priest biplane. The plane was christened by Susan Hancock, an investor in Bessie Coleman Aero and Booker T. Washington’s mother-in-law, in honor of Illinois representative Oscar S. De Priest (1871-1951), the first African American to be elected to Congress in the 20th century and the first to be elected from a northern state. In each of his three terms, he was the only African American serving in Congress. He was a member of the Aero Club and visited Los Angeles in 1929 and was treated to a flight in the eponymous plane. An image of De Priest posing in front of the biplane is housed in the White House Historical Association. Powell was an enthusiastic advocate, anticipating a future where African Americans were the nation’s leaders in aviation. On page 5, Lieut. Powell address “the Negro Youth of America,” encouraging them to consider aviation: “Today, another great industry is just beginning - aviation - and there is more than a job and a future for you in aviation. There is a better job and a better future for you in aviation than in any other industry.” Exceedingly scarce, OCLC locates no copies, no records of any copies ever selling at auction, and only one copy located at the Mark E. Mitchell Collection of African American History. $2,000-3,000 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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140 James T. Phillips, First African American Lawyer in Pasadena, California, Photograph and Real Photo Postcards, 1923 Lot of 3 items related to attorney James T. Phillips, comprising: 2 real photo postcards of the Francisca building on 22-26 West Dayton Street in Pasadena, built by attorney James T. Phillips, circa 1923. One of the postcards features the building, the other shows Phillips and his female staff standing at the front door. Also includes a small 1.5 x 2 in. photographic portrait of Phillips. James Phillips started as a Professor at Virginia Normal & Industrial Institute (now part of Virginia State University), a Black land-grant college. He then became a pharmacist before reading law and becoming Pasadena’s first African American lawyer. He commissioned the Francisca building for occupancy by African American businesses including his law firm and real estate office. $300-500 1 of 3

141 African American Occupational Ephemera, Los Angeles, Early Twentieth Century Lot of 4. Business card for the Lincoln Motion Picture Company, considered the first allBlack movie production unit in the country. Founded in 1916 by Noble and George Johnson, the company was one of the first in the nation to produce Race Films. Though initially established in Omaha, Nebraska, the company moved to Los Angeles in 1917. This business card bears the name Clarence A. Brooks, Sec’y. Brooks was an African American actor who helped found Lincoln Motion Picture Co. and starred in over a dozen motion pictures spanning 1916-1951. The Lincoln Motion Picture Co. remained in operation until 1923. A Catalogue of Books about the Negro People. The Hugh Gordon Book Shop. 4310 South Central Avenue. Los Angeles, California. 1954. 8pp. 5 x 8 in. In the preface to the catalogue, written by the store’s proprietor Adele Young, it is noted that the book shop was “devoted and dedicated to the project of disseminating the literature of the Negro people to the communities of the West.” Young then continues, “We welcome your patronage to bring to the community of Los Angeles the truths of the full cultural contributions made by the Negro people in every field of endeavor in American life.” The founder of the book shop, Hugh Gordon, was an orator, writer, and community activist who advocated self-determination for African Americans. Upon his death in 1946 he left money in his will to open the bookstore. Additional items in the collection include a program for “Run Little Chillun,” a dramatic musical that featured an all-Black cast and opened at the landmark Mayan Theatre in Los Angeles as a Federal Theatre Production. Program circa 1930s. Also an advertising card for “S.L. Walker’s Job printing House,” 2225 Hooper Avenue, Los Angeles. Printing house established in 1931. $400-600

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142 John Wilson Prayer, African American Fireman, Los Angeles, Snapshots Photographic archive of John Wilson Prayer, a Black firefighter with the Los Angeles Fire Department, n.d., circa 1931-1940s. Includes 13 images, 2 (2 x 2.5 in.); 7 (3.5 x 5.75 in.); one (2.75 x 7 in.); one (2.5 x 4.5 in.); one (2.5 x 3.5 in.) and one (2.5 x 3 in.). Images include candid and posed shots including several of Prayer in uniform, often with other firefighters. One image shows three men, two in uniform, with manuscript labels “Jack - Lew - Cap. Taylor.” Another shows a fire truck driving down the street with seven brigade members visible. John Wilson Prayer was appointed in 1931 to the Los Angeles Fire Department which was then segregated. The Los Angeles Fire Department hired its first Black member, George W. Bright, on October 2, 1897. The Department, however, remained segregated until 1956 with the African American stations serving Black communities. Prayer is identified as part of Truck Co #30 in an inscribed note on the verso of one image. Prayer became the youngest African American fire Captain in Los Angeles in July 1940. $400-600

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143 1940 Los Angeles The Official Central Avenue District Directory VINSTON, Warren C., compilers. The Official Central Avenue District Directory: A Business and Professional Guide. Los Angeles: New Age Printing Company, November 1940. 8vo (152 x 232 mm). Illustrated profusely throughout, with stiff pink insert advertisement near center. Original publisher’s illustrated yellow wrappers (some spotting at wrapper edges). Central Avenue was the bustling commercial district for the African American community in Los Angles, often affectionately referred to as “the Beale Street of the West.” Includes a host of advertisements from a variety of Black-owned businesses. The guide also includes a “Map of Points of Interest” published by the Los Angeles Railway, several ads for actors with headshots and resumes including Ernest Whitman (18931954), Jesse Graves (1879-1949), Thaddeus Jones (1874-1960), choral arranger Hall Johnson (1888-1970), and Laura Bowman (1881-1957). Very scarce, only one copy located at UCLA. No copies have appeared on the market. $2,000-3,000

144 American Negro Exposition, 1940 Pinback American Negro Exposition pinback, 1940. Diam.: 1.25 in. (32 mm). Caption: “American / Negro / Exposition / July 4-Sept. 2, 1940 / Chicago, ILL.” surrounded by American flag stars and stripes motif. The Exposition celebrated the 75th anniversary of emancipation and was a comprehensive celebration of African American achievement. It featured over 92 installations from all over the country featuring art, music, theater productions, and more with notable African Americans including Langston Hughes involved. $200-300

145 75 Years of Negro Progress Exposition Pinback, Detroit, 1940 75 Years of Negro Progress Exposition, souvenir pinback. Diam. 1 in. An Exposition celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, celebrated May 10-19, 1940. The Exposition focused on wisdom, freedom, tolerance, enlightenment, and interracial dialogue. The Detroit celebration has been largely overshadowed by a similar exposition in Chicago during that summer which began on July 4th and has been called the “Negro World’s Fair.” $100-200

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146 Ramey Studios Photographers Handbill, Oakland, California, circa 1942, Featuring Image of Dorie Miller, Hero at Pearl Harbor Folded pamphlet, approx. 5 x 7.5 in., advertising the services of “Ramey Studios Photographers.” Berkeley: Tilghman Press, circa 1942-43. Pamphlet identifies the company photographers as the “Largest and Finest in the United States, owned and operated by Negroes.” Two locations indicated with one each in Oakland and Berkeley, California. One interior page with selected photographic portraits of Black men, women and children, and text “There is no difficult Subject where RAMEY is concerned, because our Artists know how, both young and old, can be made to appear at their best.” Opposite interior page with oval photographic portraits of Black service members and text below “In war and in peace, the name ‘RAMEY’ has stood for Good Photographs for a quarter of a century.” One service member in naval uniform identified in pencil on top of page as “Dorrie Miller / Center photo.” Doris “Dorie” Miller (1919-1943) was a Messman Third Class in the United States Navy serving aboard the West Virginia on December 7, 1941, when it was struck by nine torpedoes during the attack on Pearl Harbor. He helped move the ship’s injured captain Mervyn Bennion and then proceeded to man a Browning .50 caliber anti-aircraft machine gun, despite being untrained on the weapon. Once out of ammunition, Miller helped move injured sailors, commended in the Action Report as “unquestionably saving the lives of people who might otherwise have been lost.” Dorie was recognized as one of the “first US heroes of World War II” and was commended in a letter signed by Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox and following campaigning from the All-Southern Negro Youth Conference and the National Negro Congress, President Roosevelt approved the Navy Cross for Miller, which was awarded to him personally by Admiral Nimitz. Miller became the first African American to ever receive the award, the third-highest honor in the US Navy at the time. Miller went on a 1942 war bond tour and was featured on a 1943 Navy recruitment poster. He would go missing in action, presumed killed, during the Battle of Makin on November 20, 1943. Miller is featured in the pamphlet wearing the Navy Cross. It was announced early in 2020 that a future aircraft carrier would be named the USS Doris Miller. Due to be laid down in 2026 and launched in 2029, it will be the first US aircraft carrier not named for a former president. African American studio photographers represented an important industry in African American communities as they documented community and culture during a time of segregation and subjugation. This pamphlet is likely from a studio owned by Black photographer Oscar A. Ramey (18951976), a Louisiana native who Census records indicate was working as a photographer in the Oakland area by 1920. $400-600

147 Unveiling Douglass Monument, Rochester, N.Y., June 9th, 1899 Pinback Frederick Douglass Monument pinback button. Caption “Unveiling Douglass Monument / Rochester, N.Y., June 9th, 1899” surrounds photographic image of the Douglass monument as it appeared in its original downtown location at the New York Central train station in Rochester. Back paper with identification “The Whitehead & Hoag Co., / Newark, N.J., U.S.A.” circa 1899. Diam.: 1.75 in. A decade after his escape from slavery, Frederick Douglass settled with his family in Rochester, New York. From the basement of the city’s Memorial AME Zion Church Douglass began publication of his abolitionist newspaper The North Star in December 1847. His July 5, 1852, speech to the ladies of the Rochester Anti-Slavery Sewing Society known today as “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” is considered by many to be one of the greatest anti-slavery orations ever given. Following Douglass’s death in February 1895, Rochester wished to recognize its most prominent citizen with a monument. Unveiled to great fanfare in June 1899, the full-length bronze statue was commissioned by African American activist John W. Thompson. Writing in his 1903 monograph An Authentic History of the Douglass Monument, Thompson identified the statue as “the first monument erected by popular contribution, to the memory of an Afro-American statesman, and carried on to completion by one of his own race.” $600-800 82

148 Commemoration from the Douglass Monument, First Public Monument to an African American in the United States Commemorative card depicting Rochester, New York’s monument to Frederick Douglass. 4 x 9.25 in. (102 x 235 mm). Rochester, New York: circa 1899. Recto features a photographic portrait of Douglass with his life dates and information regarding the monument noting the location, date the cornerstone was laid (July 20, 1898), and when it was unveiled (June 9, 1899). A list of the Monument Committee members follows. The verso includes an illustration of the monument with a quote from Douglass: “Men do not live by bread alone; so with nations, they are not saved by art, but by honesty; not by the gilded splendors of wealth, but by the hidden treasure of manly virtue; not but the multitudinous gratifications of the flesh, but by the celestial guidance of the spirit.” Douglass is depicted as the great orator he was, with one hand extended the other holding a text. This differs slightly from the finalized monument, which has both hands extended. The monument had its origins in 1892 when Rochester’s Soldiers and Sailors Monument was erected and Douglass observed that the African American servicemen were omitted from the design. Local activist and community leader, John W. Thompson began fundraising

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for a monument to honor Rochester’s Black soldiers. After Douglass’s death and burial in Rochester in 1894, the project was reimagined to honor Douglass. Rochester was an appropriate place. It was a critical stop on the Underground Railroad, the home of Douglass’s anti-slavery newspaper The North Star, and his home for 25 years, longer than anywhere else. With partial funding by the Haitian government, the statue was sculpted by Sidney W. Edwards. Dedicated on June 9, 1899, the ceremony was attended by several notables including Douglass’s widow Helen Pitts Douglass, Theodore Roosevelt, and the governor of New York. W.E.B.

Du Bois recreated the statue on a smaller scale for his “Exhibit of American Negroes” at the 1900 World’s Fair in Paris. In 1941 the statue was moved to Highland Park and moved again in October 2019 to become the centerpiece of the newly-created Frederick Douglass Memorial Plaza. To commemorate Douglass’s 200th birthday in 2018, 13 statues of Douglass were created by sculptor Olivia Kim, who was inspired by the Edwards statue. During the tumultuous summer of 2020, one of these statues located in Maplewood Park was vandalized and removed from its base. $1,200-1,800

149 Emancipation Day Pinback, 1916 Emancipation Day pinback button. Caption “Emancipation Day / January 1 / 1863 Onward 1916” with cello jugate portraits of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. Back paper with identification “The Pettibone Bros. Mfg. Co. / Cincinnati, O.” n.d. Diam.: 1.25 in. Pinback commemorating the formal issuance on January 1, 1863, of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation which ended slavery in the Confederate States. January 1st thereafter become known as Emancipation Day in many African American communities and was celebrated annually with festivities often including song, dance, oratory, food, and prayer. Though participation in the celebrations declined after Reconstruction, Emancipation Day celebrations remained a significant part of the African American community well into the twentieth century. This rare pinback button was likely produced for an Emancipation Day celebration in 1916. $500-700

150 Douglass Hospital Sanitarium Broadside Advertisement, 1913-1915 Large black and white subscription flyer promoting the availability of real estate at Cape May, New Jersey, 10.25 x 22 in., “Douglass Hospital Sanitarium” “Beautiful Buildings and Grounds Secured at Cape May / A Wonderful Opportunity for every Colored Man and Woman.” n.p., n.d. circa 19131915. Featuring four large photographs “Douglass Hospital Sanitarium,” “Commodious Porch of Douglass Hospital Sanitarium at Cape May,” “Seagrove Avenue in Front of Sanitarium,” and “Bird’s-Eye View of Cape May Point, Photographed from the United States Lighthouse.” Advertisement directs further inquiries to J. Howard Weatherby (1873-1930) and Dr. Nathan F. Mossell (1856-1946), both of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Cape May, New Jersey, has a rich African American history including connections to Harriet Tubman, who is believed to have lived there from approximately 1848-1852, and to Stephen Smith, a former slave who went on to become one of the wealthiest Black men in America and a leader in the abolitionist movement. By the 1920s Cape May’s population was approximately 30% Black with large numbers of businesses in the main district owned by African Americans. In 1913, white Philadelphia lawyer J. Howard Weatherby purchased a large tract of land on Cape May. Hoping to capitalize on his real estate investment, he joined forces with Dr. Nathan Mossell, one of the first African American graduates of the University of Pennsylvania medical school and founder of Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School in Philadelphia. Together the men planned a real estate development which would give an opportunity for “the better class of colored people to obtain a real seashore home at a mere nominal cost.” The flyer describes the lots offered for subscription, with bold headlines declaring that “Every Colored Man and Woman Should Take Advantage of this Offer” and “Your Only Opportunity to Own a Real Seashore Home at a High-Class Resort.” The venture failed, and by 1916 Weatherby had moved on to promoting the land to investors as a potential seaside religious community. This appears to be an extremely rare promotional. Only one copy of this advertisement was located housed in the Black Print Culture Collection at Emory University. $400-600

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151 Booker T. Washington with Captain William T. Shorey and Distinguished Bay Area African American Citizens, Oversize Photograph, Jan. 14, 1903 Oversize albumen photograph of Booker T. Washington with prominent African Americans from the San Francisco Bay Area, 136 x 241 mm. Taber: San Francisco, [1903]. 121 Post St. imprint on verso. In 1903, Booker T. Washington traveled to San Francisco and was greeted by Captain William T. Shorey, T.B. Morton, T.A. Brown, and William F. Ford of the Afro-American Alliance when he arrived at 4:10 from Palo Alto on Thursday, January 8th. The gentlemen accompanied him to his hotel, the Russ House located on Montgomery Street between Bush and Pine Streets. Washington’s arrival and details are illustrated and covered in full on the front page of The San Francisco Call from the next day (January 9, 1903, Vol. XCIII No. 40). On January 14th, the last day of his visit, the esteemed educator met with 20 representative Black men from Oakland and San Francisco at the home of Captain William T. Shorey (1859-1919), one of the most prominent and wealthy Black citizens in the Bay Area. Originally from Barbados, he was a skilled whaler who emigrated to California. He became the only Black ship captain on the West Coast and was renowned for his leadership of his multiracial crews. Douglas Henry Daniels reports in Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco that, “The West Indian sea captain, William Shorey, and his family resided at 1774 Division Street. Their neighbors included an actor, marine engineer, and their families (at 1778); a Swedish-born boilermaker (at 1770); an English railroad car repairman and three lodgers (at 1768); and an English railroad foreman and his family. All were white.” (p.98). The “1774” visible in the transom window and other comparable pictures of Shorey and his family positively conclude that this image was taken during Washington’s visit on January 14th. Shorey stands at the front with on of his daughters next to Washington. Max Bennett Thrasher reports on the visit in An Account of Washington’s California Tour: “In speaking informally at the dinner, Mr. Washington repeated what I had already heard him say, the surprise and pleasure which he had felt to find colored people of the Pacific coast, as a general thing, so prosperous, so intelligent, and so well informed not only as to matters pertaining to the race in the country as a whole, but particularly as regarding the history and work of Tuskegee.” (published in Kraft, Barbara S., ed. Booker T. Washington Papers, Vol. 7 “19031904”, p.24) [With:] DANIELS, Douglas Henry. Pioneer Uranites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980. 8vo. Half-title, maps, tables, and black and white images. Publisher’s black cloth with dust jacket (small chip to dj, very minor toning to jacket). FIRST EDITION. $3,000-4,000

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152 An Address by Booker T. Washington Invitation Ticket, San Francisco, 1903 Invitation and ticket reading, “You are cordially invited to hear an address by Booker T. Washington.” On “Thursday Evening, January 8, at 8 o’ clock / Mechanics Pavilion.” San Francisco: N.p, 1903. A ticket from Washington’s January 1903 visit to San Francisco and Oakland. The ticket notes that “Mayor Eugene E. Schmitz will preside and president Benj. Ide Wheeler will make introductory remarks / The Knickerbocker Quartet will sing.” Wheeler (1854-1927) was a professor of Greek and comparative philology and Presiden of the University of California from 1899 to 1919. The ticket is completed in manuscript noting that the ticket bearer is a guest of “C.S. Nash, Member Calif. Min. Union.” The illustrated front-page article on the January 9, 1903 issue of the San Francisco Call reported on Washington’s arrival and address with the journalist noting that: “Mr. Washington was received with applause so generous and so lasting that he was kept bowing for several minutes before he could commence his address.” Washington spoke on his theories of racial improvement and the growth of Tuskegee University. The Call reports that he “received a royal welcome from members of the university community” at Stanford when he spoke there the morning of the 9th and also noting that he “will address colored people,” suggesting that many of his addresses were to majority or exclusively white audiences. $1,200-1,800

153 Booker T. Washington Memorial Pinback, 1915 Booker T. Washington pinback button. Caption “’Lest We Forget’ / Booker T. Washington / Died Nov. 14, 1915” surrounds photographic image of Washington. Back paper with identification “Western Badge & Button Co. / 109 Henne Bldg. / Los Angeles.” n.d. Diam.: 1.25 in. Washington was the preeminent African American educator, author, and leader of his time. This rare pinback button may have been produced contemporaneously with his death in 1915. $400-600

154 Photographic Views of the Great Springfield Race War, 1908 Photographic Views of the Great Springfield Race War, August, 1908: Depicting Work of Mob’s Violence in the Venting of Their Wrath on the Blacks. [Springfield, Illinois]: Press Illinois State Register, n.d., [circa 1908]. Oblong 8vo (227 x 148 mm). 17 pages of photographic illustrations. (Tears and hinges repaired with tape.) Original wrappers (some chipping, creases). FIRST EDITION of one of the earliest accounts of the mass racial violence committed by a mob of approximately 5,000 white people against the African American community in Springfield, Illinois. On August 14, 1908, a crowd of 3,000 white men gathered downtown to lynch two Black men who were accused of the rapes of white women. When they discovered that they had been removed from the city, the mob attacked the Black neighborhoods and lynched several community members. An extract from the Illinois State Register of Saturday morning, August 15, 1908, printed on the first page of this pamphlet reports: “Mob law, implacable, inexorable, with justice as its excuse and basing its depredations upon the theory that might makes right, held Springfield in the grasp all last night while a great mob of men, thirsting for revenge...foiled in their early attempt to get the negro prisoners charged with these crimes from the county jail, stoned the troops called out to resists them, defied police and sheriff’s deputies, wretched the restaurant and burned the automobile of Harry Loper because he aided in spiriting the negroes away from the city; fought a desperate battle with bullets and fire brands in the negro district, shattered plate glass windows, burned twenty houses before 3, o’clock this morning, and held a general reign of terror, leaving in the wake of riot a long list of dead and injured.” The introduction states that “the total dead to date numbers six and the wounded are innumerable. The property loss will exceed $200,000,” though some estimates put the fatalities as high as 16. The photographs reproduced in the booklet show scenes of where the violence occurred, the aftermath of destruction, people involved, and National Guard troops who came in to combat the violence. Very scarce, OCLC locates only 4 copies and no record of copies selling at auction. $300-500

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155 The New York Colored Mission Brochure, 1908 Lot of 2. ALS, 2pp, approx. 4.75 x 6 in., [New York, New York], November 3, 1908. “Alletta B.W. Lawrence” writes to Mr. George King with regard to the work of the New York Colored Mission. “As a member of the Board of Managers of the New York Colored Mission I have been requested to write you calling your attention to that work. The enclosed circular will give you a very good idea of what is being done but no words can tell of the many lives made happier and burdens lightened by the work of our Mission....” Accompanied by folded fundraising brochure, “The New York Colored Mission / 225-227 West Thirtieth St. / New York City,” 5.5 x 3.5 in., 4pp, n.d. Front page of brochure features silhouetted images of a young woman and a young man busily at work in a kitchen below which appears the caption: “We need $1500 to meet running expenses for the coming season. WILL YOU GIVE FIVE DOLLARS?” Interior features a photograph of a young Black child and another photograph of a group of Black women in a sewing class with statements on the work of the organization including providing trained nurses to care for “sick Mothers and Babies” and classes to teach their girls “to make their own dresses.” Back page of brochure lists a more complete description of the ministry along with the names of several of its officers. The President of the organization, listed as Joshua L. Barton (1849-1926), was a Quaker doctor and activist who worked for decades in New York on behalf of the African American community. The New York Colored Mission was established in 1865 by the Society of Friends to promote religious, social and training opportunities for New York City’s African American community with a goal to provide jobs and housing to those in need. The Mission had a lodging house, employment agency, and a district nurse. The Mission closed in 1966. $150-200

156 The Africo-Tubercular Sanatorium Pinback, Silver City, New Mexico, circa 1910 Africo-Tubercular Sanatorium pinback button. Caption “The Africo-Tubercular Sanatorium / Silver City, N.M. / For Our Colored People / Help the Cause / Near Ft. Bayard” surrounds illustration of a mountainous backdrop before which sit two larger buildings and over a dozen tent-like structures. Circa 1910. Diam.: 1.5 in. Starting in roughly 1899, Fort Bayard was operating as an Army Medical Department Sanatorium for veterans and service members with tuberculosis. In nearby Silver City, multiple sanatoriums were operating by the early 1900s. The Fort Sumner Review, of Fort Sumner, New Mexico, noted the opening of the Africo-Tubercular Sanatorium in a January 14, 1911, article, stating that the institution was “dedicated to the treatment of colored patients exclusively, and on this account it is probably the first of its kind to be established in this country.” An exceedingly scarce pinback. $200-300

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157 ALS from B.R. Orey, Proprietor of Afro American Hotel on Letterhead, Seattle, 1912 Orey, Bela R. (1870-1913). Proprietor of the Afro American Hotel in Seattle, Washington. ALS on Afro American Hotel letterhead, 1p, 8.5 x 11 in., Seattle, Washington. May 4, 1912. Addressed to Mrs. Agnese Davis of Portland, Oregon. Orey writes to Davis requesting assistance and instruction with regard to monetary and tax matters. He concludes saying that “Business is very quiet in this city and appears to get worse my business is not as good as it was 30 days ago trusting you are well and successful.” The hotel letterhead highlights amenities at the 35 room hotel including “Free Bath / Free Community Kitchens,” hailing its facility as the “Finest and Best Equipped Colored Hotel in the City.” Census records indicate that Orey was a Black male born in Missouri. By 1900 he had relocated to Seattle though he was not yet working as proprietor of the Afro American Hotel. He died the year after this letter was written, however, the hotel continued to operate in Seattle under this same name through at least 1921. African American travelers faced widespread discrimination in travel facilities, and hotels like the Afro American Hotel in Seattle offered a safe and hospitable environment for those passing through or in need of long-term accommodations. $500-700

158 Northern California Branch NAACP Year Book, circa 1918 Small booklet, “Year Book of the Northern California Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,” approx. 6 x 9 in., 30pp. Published by the Educational Committee of the Northern California Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. n.p. n.d. circa 1918. Front cover featuring photographic image of Moorfield Storey (1845-1929) of Boston, Massachusetts, founding president of the NAACP. Interior photographic images of E. Burton Ceruti (1875-1927), noted lawyer and founding member of the Los Angeles branch of the NAACP, as well as eight additional images of local officers representing the Northern California chapter of the organization. Book highlights advances made by NACCP in the California region as well as nationally, with particular focus on the landmark Buchanan v. Warley decision of the United States Supreme Court (1917) in which the court unanimously overturned a Louisville law that racially segregated Blacks by specific city blocks. Moorfield Storey served as lead counsel in the decision. $200-300

159 TLS from Organizer Mary Reed on California Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs Letterhead, 1929 Reed, Mary E. Organizer for the California Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs. TLS on Federation letterhead, 1p, 8.5 x 11 in., “Los Angeles, Calif.” January 7, 1929. Addressed to “Dear Friends.” Mary E. Reed, writing as an “Organizer” for the California Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs, writes to invite membership in the organization. Prior to the appeal and discussion of membership fees, Reed exhorts the readers to action. “With prejudice, segregation, humiliation etc. running rampant, cooperation is certainly the need of the Negro. / Our women organized. Have you ever thought of it. Have you ever realized it, what a power we would be?” She later continues that the women should “broaden and expand our contacts with one another in order that our lives may be made richer, bigger, stronger and more valuable by these relationships and in turn be of greater service to mankind.” The California Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs was an affiliate to the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, an organization founded to provide a way for African American women to make a greater contribution to society and to advocate for social reform as a way to fight racism and discrimination. These clubs played an important role for African American women who were excluded from white women’s social reform organizations. While Mary E. Reed could not be definitively identified, she is likely the same “Mary E. Reed” who wrote during the 1920s for the California Eagle, an African American newspaper published out of Los Angeles by Civil Rights activist Charlotta Bass. $200-300 88

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160 TLS from A. Dumas Watson, Director of Publicity of Negro Achievement Day Committee on Letterhead, 1935 Watson, A. Dumas. Director of Publicity for the Negro Achievement Day Committee of the California Pacific International Exposition. TLS on Negro Achievement day Committee letterhead, 1p, approx. 8.5 x 11 in., Los Angeles, California. August 1, 1935. Addressed to Dr. Charles S. Wesley, professor of history and modern languages at Howard University, later President of Wilberforce University (more typically known by the name Dr. Charles H. Wesley). Writing on behalf of the Negro Achievement Day Committee, Watson informs Dr. Wesley that the committee does not have the monetary resources to pay in full for transportation, presumably for Dr. Wesley to travel to the forthcoming celebration of “Negro Day, August 24, 1935.” “I hope you understand the situation as all monies coming to this committee for expenses of this day has to be raised by the committee. There has been no monies allotted this committee by the Exposition Officials for this day.” National Negro Achievement Day was an observance planned “to show the progress of the Negro throughout the United States in all fields of endeavor.” The day was celebrated throughout the United States often with fanfare including parades, speeches, and ceremonies. This celebration of Negro Achievement Day was part of the California Pacific International Exposition which opened in San Diego on May 29, 1935. $200-300

161 National Negro Congress and American Negro Labor Congress Pinbacks Lot of 2 pinbacks related to the recruitment of African Americans by the American Communist Party. American Negro Labor Congress, 1925. Approx. 3/4 in. lithograph pinback button. Verso with Greenduck Co. and Local #4 (Chicago, IL) Amalgamated Lithographers of America imprints. Pictures two outstretched arms with hands clasped. Helping To Build the National Negro Congress, 1936. Approx. 7/8 lithograph pinback button. Verso with Greenduck Co. and Local #4 (Chicago, IL) Amalgamated Lithographers of America imprints. Caption surrounds photographic image of Frederick Douglass. As the American Communist Party grew in the 1920s, it looked for ways to mobilize African American workers. Established in 1925 by the Communist Party as a way to advance both the rights of African Americans and its own political agenda, the American Negro Labor Congress held its first convention in Chicago in October 1925. Five years later the American Negro Labor Congress was replaced by a new communist-backed organization called the League of Struggle for Negro Rights, which in turn was replaced in 1936 by the National Negro Congress. Founded in 1936 at Howard University, the National Negro Congress continued the push for racial justice and an end to social inequities faced disproportionately by Black workers. Both of these early organizations offered opportunities and support for Black workers who were often excluded from major labor unions. The scarce pinbacks offered here were likely issued to attendees of the inaugural conventions for these organizations. $400-600

162 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and Freedom Democratic Party Pinbacks Lot of 3 pinbacks related to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, comprising: One Man / One Vote / FDP, diam. 1.5 in. -- One Man / One Vote / SNCC, diam. 1.5 in. -- Student Nonviolent / Coordinating Committee / Support Southern Students, diam. 2 in. All with black and white text. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was formed in 1960 as an outgrowth of civil rights actions such as sit-ins at restaurants in the South. Martin Luther King, Jr. hoped it would become the youth wing of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, but other student organizers thought it should remain autonomous. Initially, the organization focused on Gandhian nonviolent actions, such as “Freedom Rides” along the interstates of the South, and testing a Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation of interstate travel facilities unconstitutional. They then began voter registration drives throughout the South. Violent push-back from white segregationists was encountered along the way. During the summers, SNCC was joined by white college students from northern schools, especially for voter registration in the 1964 “Freedom Summer.” Unfortunately, several lives were lost in these efforts. In 1964, SNCC supported the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (FDP), in protest to the all-white Democratic Party in that state. $100-150

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163 Malcolm X and Black Muslims, Press Photographs, 1963-1966, and Magazine Lot of 25, with 24 press photographs covering Malcolm X and Black Muslims, each stamped “Received Examiner Reference Library” and stamp-dated to verso, comprising: An outdoor portrait of Malcolm X speaking upon his arrival at Washington D.C. on May 9, 1963. An in-negative typed caption from UPI Telephoto reads: “Malcolm X, a leader of the Black Muslims, arrives at national Airport from new York 5/9 to set up headquarters in the nation’s capital. he said the Black Muslims will sponsor a series of Negro-only meetings aimed at solving the District’s crime problems. He denied emphatically that the Muslims preach hate.” 6 images taken throughout 1963 of Black Muslims at the Nation of Islam national convention on February 26 and rallies in June and July. With several images of women in white robes and head coverings. Images from the February convention show large crowds listening to a speaker under a large banner reading: “There Is No God but Allah. Muhammad is His Apostle.” An image of a crowd of attentive women is captioned “ for release with Four-Part Series on “Black Muslims” June 17, 18, 19, and 20.” 14 photographs from February 23rd (11) and February 24th (3), 1865. Ten photos from the 23rd show a Black Muslim mosque in Harlem ablaze and the aftermath of the conflagration. The captions speculate that “an ‘explosive device’ was the possible cause. The explosion appeared to be the first act of retaliation for the assassination of Black Nationalist leader Malcolm X.” One from this series has editorial notations and the newspaper clipping it was used in. Another image from Chicago shows the Nation of Islam’s University of Islam with the caption: “City policemen guard Muhammad’s Temple #2 and the University of Islam here 2/23 to prevent possible damage to the structures in revenge for the slaying of Malcolm X in New York. A 24-hour guard has been placed on these buildings and several others belonging to Black Muslims.” Two more images from the 24th 1 of 25 show police examining the premises to search for possible explosive devices. Another from this date shows a Black police officer examining a briefcase with the caption: “Tight Security at Malcolm X Services --The briefcase of a visitor is closely inspected by a police sergeant last night before he is permitted to enter the Harlem funeral where the body of Malcolm X is displayed for public viewing. Two other New York police officers block door as strict security measures are enforced at the funeral home in the wake of this week’s slaying of Malcolm X and burning of a Black Muslim Mosque. The funeral for the Black Nationalist leader will be held Saturday.” This photo also shows editorial notations and has article affixed to verso. Also includes 2 images from the Nation of Islam national convention on February 26, 1966, with the inflammatory caption: “Members of the Black Muslim Cult gather here 2/26 for their annual convention. Highlight of the 2-day session well be speeches by Elijah Muhammad leader of the Muslim Cult.” With an additional image of an envelope from the Consul General of Peru, postmarked July 24, 1963, the address obscured except for “Mr. and Mrs.” and “San Francisco.” [With:] Accomplishments of the Muslims. N.p. [Chicago?]: n.p. [Muhammad Speaks Press?], n.d., circa 1973-1974. The glossy booklet illustrates the institutions and programs run by the Nation of Islam. Stamped with [San Francisco] Examiner Reference Library Stamps dated May 6, 1974. Scarce, OCLC locates only 4 copies. $400-600

164 Malcolm X Related Pinbacks Lot of 2 pinbacks related to Malcolm X. Memorial pinback button. Caption “Our Black Shining Prince” surmounts depiction of Malcolm X, flanked by his birth and death dates. Text below reads, “Malcolm X / Freedom By Any Means / Necessary.” [1965], approx. 2.5 in. diam. Face with some discoloration; verso somewhat oxidized. Black Panther Party pinback button. Caption “All Power To / The People” surrounds a depiction of Malcolm X. Union label below. Approx. 1.75 in. Verso oxidized. $100-150

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165 Martin Luther King, Jr. Related Large Pinbacks Lot of 3 pinbacks related to Martin Luther King, Jr. March on Washington pinback button. Caption “March On Washington / For Jobs & Freedom / August 28, 1963” surrounds image of clasped hands, with AFL-CIO Union logo below. Official button created for the march and rally which included King delivering his famous “I Have A Dream Speech.” [1963], diam. 3.5 in. Poor People’s Campaign pinback button. Caption “P.C.L.C. - S.C.L.C. / JobsIncome / Poor People’s Campaign 1968 / Washington, D.C.” surmounts photographic images of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy, with “‘I Have A Dream’” appearing below image. [1968], diam. 3.5 in. Rim of button with copyright identified to “L.H.”, civil rights activist Laurence Henry. Martin Luther King pinback button. Caption “I Have A Dream / Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.” surrounds photographic image of MLK with microphones in foreground. n.d. Possibly created as a memorial pinback following King’s 1968 assassination. Diam. 3.5 in. $250-300

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166 Watts Riots Related Pinbacks Lot of 3 pinbacks related to the Watts Riots, comprising: Burn Baby Burn!, diam. 1.25 in. Orange with black text. -- Sons of Watts, diam. 2.25 in. Red with black text. -- Watts Summer Festival 67’ Aug. 10, 11, 12, 13, diam. 2.25 in. Yellow with black text. The Watts Riots, sometimes known as the Watts Rebellion, broke out on August 11, 1965 in the predominantly Black neighborhood of Watts in Los Angeles. Lasting 6 days, the violence resulted in 34 deaths, 1032 injuries, and over 4,000 arrests. The powder keg of unrest was sparked after a minor traffic stop and rumors of police beating a pregnant woman but was the result of long-standing tensions between the police force and the Black community as well as other racial inequalities. The yellow pinback here is representative of several concerts and community events aimed at raising money for the Watts community. $100-150

167 CORE Pinbacks, circa 1964 Lot of 2 pinbacks related to the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), comprising: Freedom / Now / Core pinback, diam. 1.25 in. Text in contrasting black and white. -- CORE / Wants a FAIR World pinback, diam. 1.75 in. Black text surrounding a globe framework in black and white. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 in Chicago, Illinois, with a mission to “bring about equality for all people regardless of race, creed, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, religion or ethnic background.” Founded on Gandhian principles, CORE sought to challenge racial segregation using non-violent resistance. It participated in “Freedom Rides” throughout the South in the early 1960s, as well as housing reforms, desegregation of schools, employment opportunity in various cities, and more. Many of these were in cooperation with groups such as SNCC. CORE was a key organizer in the March on Washington in 1963, where John Lewis, then SNCC chairman, declared “We want our freedom and we want it now.” By the middle of the decade, however, it was beginning to embrace the “Black Power” philosophy that also drove groups such as the Black Panthers. In 1966 the Chicago Freedom Movement was led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and the SCLC as well as other community organizations and a more “power-oriented” CORE. $50-100

168 Panther Headquarters Window Smashed, Press Photograph, Oakland, California, 1968 Press photograph, 8.5 x 12.5 in. (214 x 319 mm), featuring the smashed window of the Black Panther Party National Headquarters in Oakland, California. Uncredited, n.p., n.d., circa 1968. Verso with adhered paper clippings featuring reproductions of the photograph in newsprint, along with partially obscured handstamp reading, in part, “[R]eceived Examiner / Refe[rence] Library / Sep 12.” Predominant in this image is an iconic Black Panther Party poster featuring Huey P. Newton, which was hanging in the window of the building on the night the vandalism occurred. That poster, along with another featuring Eldridge Cleaver, appeared to be the target of the assailants. The most widely recognized photograph of the shattered glass presents a broader view, including the Cleaver posters and several bumper stickers also hanging in the window. That image was taken by documentary photographer Pirkle Jones, though it is not clear if he is also responsible for the image featured here. $400-600

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169 Black Cause Pinbacks, Lot of 11, circa 1960s and 1970s Lot of 11 Black Power pinbacks, several in the red, black, and green colors of the pan-African flag. Includes a large 2.25 in. pin with the iconic quote by Eldridge Cleaver, “If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.” For a full list of pins, please visit cowans.com. $300-500

171 Black Cause Pinbacks, Lot of 30, circa 1970-1985 Lot of 30 pinbacks from a variety of Black causes, circa 1970-1985. Most approx. 2.25 in. Organizations include NAACP, AFL-CIO, National Student Coalition against Racism (NSCAR), Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO), Black Independent Political Party (BIPP), Economic Opportunity Commission of Nassau County, New York, and others. For a complete list of pins, please visit cowans.com. $300-500

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170 Black Cause Pinbacks, Lot of 28, circa 1970-1985 Lot of 28 pinbacks from a variety of Black causes, circa 1970-1985. Most approx. 2.25 in. Causes include reparations, anti-apartheid, affirmative action, integration, and more. For a complete list of pins, please visit cowans.com. $300-500

172 Affirmative Action Pinbacks, circa 1978 Lot of 2 Affirmative Action-related pinbacks, comprising: Anti-Bakke Decision Coalition pinback, diam. 2.25 in. Yellow with an illustration of 5 faces, one holds up a wrench in front of the sun. -Affirmative Action pinback, diam 2.26 in. St. Pierre Associations: Santa Monica, California, n.d., circa 1978. Blue with an illustration showing dozens of people across the United States map. The Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) resulted in a Supreme Court decision that upheld the use of race as one factor in college admission, but held that racial quotas were not permitted. Affirmative action, giving preference to minority students in schools or applicants in the workplace, was the outgrowth of a number of court challenges. Since many minority children attended inferior schools, they were not prepared to compete with their white counterparts in schools and occupations. Although Brown v. Board of Education (1954) desegregated schools, it took Green v. County School Board (1968) to force schools to actively desegregate (rather than let it happen by student choice), which resulted in bussing of children to sometimes distant schools, a practice upheld by Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1970). $50-100

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173 Los Angeles Riot Photo Album, 1992 Photograph album, approx. 5 x 6.5 in., black leather. Front with applied lettering “Los Angeles Riot Photo Album AAA.” Interior with 60 pages that hold two 4 x 6 images each. Robert Johnson: [Los Angeles], 1992. Images stamped on versos. Each page has typed label denoting location with 15 labeled “Florence & Normandie Ave.” A complete listing of locations is available at cowans.com. The images capture the affects of the rioting in the wake of the Rodney King building. The photographer captures several buildings on fire or distant smoke, structures reduced to rubble, destroyed cars, and broken windows. Includes a before and after images of 120th St & Avalon, showing the original building and the now-charred remains. Heavily armed Military Police are captured talking to reporters and getting photographed. One image shows a bedsheet is painted: “Hey Bush / Reparation / Freedom / Justice & / Equality is / What We Need / Not Handouts.” Another is painted with a figure kneeling and holding their head in despair with the phrase, “Stop the Violence / All Men Were Created Equal.” Inside front cover with an image of a blazing building; inside rear cover is a photo of a billboard: “’We Can Get Along’ / Rodney King.” On April 29, 1992, four Los Angeles police officers were acquitted of excessive use of force in the beating of Rodney King (1965-2012). King’s arrest and violent beating had been filmed and widely broadcast, and the acquittal was widely viewed as a miscarriage of justice and sparked riots across Los Angeles. A year earlier, Black teenager Latasha Harlins was fatally shot by a Korean-American shopkeeper, who was convicted of voluntary manslaughter. Despite the jury recommending the maximum sentence of 16 years in prison, the judge reduced his sentence to 5 years probation, community service, and a $500 fine. The officers’ acquittal lit a metaphorical powder keg of mistrust of the justice system and the existing racial inequalities. The riots, concentrated in South Central Los Angeles with much of the first day’s activities on Normandie Ave., pictures of which are included here. The violence lasted for 5 days and necessitated the deployment of the California National Guard, the United States military, and other federal law enforcement agencies. All told, the property damage was estimated at over $1 billion. The human toll counted 63 people dead, almost 2400 injured, and over 12,000 arrested. $1,500-2,500

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174 “He is a Blind Negro Boy 10 Years Old...” ALS from 1860 Describing Performance by “Blind Tom” ALS, 4 pp., 6.5 x 8 in., “Augusta Female Seminary,” December 13, 1860. Student Harriet E. McGuffin (1846-1937) writes to her sister Mary McGuffin describing a performance by musical prodigy Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins. Writing from Augusta Female Seminary (now Mary Baldwin University) in Staunton, Virginia, fourteen-year old Harriet “Hattie” McGuffin relays with exceptional detail a performance she attended featuring the famed nineteenth-century musician known as “Blind Tom.” She begins, “I went Saturday evening to see ‘bind Tom’ preform [sic] he is a blind negro boy 10 years old. He is from North Carolina his master is Mr. Oliver....” Though he did in fact exert enormous control over Tom, Mr. Perry Oliver was not Tom’s “master” but rather a concert promoter hired by James Neil Bethune, the plantation owner who purchased Tom and his family as a young child. Oliver toured extensively with Tom, earning himself and Bethune enormous sums of money in the process. Despite his incredible talent, Tom was viewed as an object of freakish wonder, still subhuman, as an object for display. McGuffin demonstrates this sentiment noting that “Mr. Oliver has been exhibiting him in every part of the United States....” McGuffin continues her letter describing for her sister how Tom’s talent came to be known by the family. She then describes how Tom sings

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in different languages, repeats poetry, and can say the “Lord’s Prayer” in Latin. She describes how he can play “Fishers hornpipe with one hand Yankee Doodle with the other and carry on a conversation with his master at the same time & not make a single mistake.” Tom was well-known for this type of feat, as well as others she describes at the performance such as mimicking the sound of a specific instrument or the sounds of rail cars starting out from the station. She describes how audience members could go upon the stage to play a long and difficult piece which Tom then could replay note for note. Full of wonder, McGuffin ends her report on the performance saying “these things I have just told you about are all true for I saw them all with my own eyes.” Born into slavery in Georgia, Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins (1849-1908) was purchased as a young child with his parents by James Neil Bethune (1803-1895). Blind at birth, Tom’s musical talent was recognized early and Bethune leased Tom to a Barnum-style spectacle producer at the tender age of 8. He performed as often as four times a day earning his enslaver over $100,000 a year. In 1860, he visited Congress and played for President James Buchanan, possibly the first featured performance by an African American at the White House. He almost certainly earned more than any other pianist of the day, though it is the tragic reality that his earnings went to neither him nor his family. Manuscript first-hand accounts of Blind Tom’s first years of performance are exceedingly scarce. For more details of Blind Tom’s life, please visit cowans.com. $2,000-3,000

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175 Blind Tom Brochure, New York, circa 1867, Plus Songs, Sketch of the Life, of Blind Tom The Marvelous Musical Prodigy, The Negro Boy Pianist. New York: French & Wheat, n.d., circa 1867-1870. 8vo (145 x 233 mm). Engraved portrait of Tom on front wrapper. (Evenly toned). Original printed wrappers (very minor wear to bottom edge.) The combination program and brochure includes a biography of Tom, testimonials, opinions from the international press, and a selection of lyrics. The rear wrapper prints his repertoire played at his concerts including a large selection of works by contemporary and classical composers, popular music, “Imitations” such as “[Immitation of a] Dutch Woman and Hand Organ,” and “Descriptive Music” which included his original compositions “The Rain Storm,” reportedly written when he was just 5 years old, and “The Battle of Manassas.” [With:] HUTTON, Laurence. Curiosities of the American Stage. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1891. 8vo. Profusely illustrated. (Light marginal toning.) Original red cloth gilt (wear to extremities, spine darkened). FIRST EDITION of Hutton’s history of theater and entertainment. Lists “Blind Tom” with an engraved portrait on p. 235. Includes a chapter titled “The American Stage Negro” chronicling Black roles beginning with Othello and an extensive history of blackface and minstrelsy. It includes a portrait of African American actor Ira Aldridge (1807-1867) as Othello, though the rest of the actors illustrated are white men who perform in blackface. $400-600

176 Blind Tom CDV by Germon, Philadelphia, circa 1868 CDV studio portrait of Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins. W.L. Germon: Philadelphia, n.d., circa 1868. Photographer’s Temple of Art, 914 Arch St. imprint on recto and verso. From the same sitting as a CDV sold as Lot 232A in Part I of this collection. $2,000-3,000

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177 Blind Tom with General James Bethune CDV, Brooklyn CDV studio portrait of Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins and “General” James Neil Bethune. Prof. Loud: Brooklyn. Photographer’s Photographic Art Studio, 191 Grand Street imprint on verso. Pencil inscription in unknown hand: “blind piano player.” Tom is seated in a chair wearing a suit, characteristically with his eyes closed. Bethune stands at his side, with his hand resting on the chair back. Taken in Brooklyn, New York likely during one of his annual summer stops in New York while touring. $3,000-5,000

178 Blind Tom Mother Dear Mother I Still Think of Thee Sheet Music, circa 1870s Sheet music. Mother Dear Mother I Still Think of Thee. London: Hopwood & Crew, n.d., circa 1870s. Original wrappers with a lithographed portrait by H.C. Maguire of Tom standing beside a Kirkman piano. The cover advertises that the song is “sung by Blind Tom, at his Popular Concerts, with the Greatest Success.” The rear wrapper lists the publisher’s other offerings including several pieces by minstrel acts including “The Christy’s Minstrels’ Favourite Songs” and “Buckley’s American Melodies.” Very scarce, OCLC locates only 2 copies and only 1 copy sold according to online records. $400-600

179 “Carolina Twins” Millie & Crissie, Early CDV of Millie-Christine McKoy, 1866 “Carolina Twins.” Millie & Crissie. CDV studio portrait of Millie and Christine McKoy/McCoy (1851-1912). Edward B. Rogers: Hamilton, [Ohio], n.d., circa 1866. Rogers’ Jackson Building imprint on verso; 1866 Maryland copyright statement on verso. A scarce early view of the women when they were only about 14 years old. They are wearing fashionable dresses with coordinating tiaras. One holds a small bouquet and the other a book or picture album. Born into enslavement on a plantation in southeastern North Carolina, they were sold several times while children and abducted twice, by people looking to exploit them. Eventually, they came to be enslaved by Joseph Smith who toured the sisters through the United States, Canada, and Europe. They were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation and continued to tour internationally. The talented singers were successful enough to purchase the property where they were born and build a grand home where they lived until their death. In early October 1912, Millie died after contracting tuberculosis. Christine was unable to be safely separated and died the next day. Though they had separate personalities, they were often referred to with one name, “MillieChristine” and are themselves quoted as saying, “Although we speak of ourselves in the plural, we feel as but one person.” $400-600

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180 Japanese Tommy in Drag CDV by T. North, Dublin, Ireland, circa 1868 CDV of Thomas “Japanese Tommy” Dilward in drag. Thomas North: Dublin, Ireland, n.d., ca 1868. 71 Grafton St. imprint on verso. Dilward, who was known to have frequently performed female roles, is captured wearing full drag. Wearing a lacy patterned dress, a jeweled necklace, white gloves, and a fan. He wears a wig styled into ringlets and decorated with flowers. Dilward traveled to Europe in 1866 with Sam Hague’s Georgia Slave Troupe and is reported in Irish papers in late 1868. Additional description available at cowans.com. $3,000-4,000

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181 African American Musicians, Beatrice, Nebraska, circa 1868 Cabinet card of two African American musicians, one with a banjo, the other with a guitar, in military-style uniforms. Campbell: Beatrice, Nebraska, n.d., circa 1886. 504 Court Street imprint on recto. The two are photographed playing their fine and expensive instruments. One musician is playing a five-string banjo in open A tuning (contrary to the standard G tuning of the time) and the other plays his guitar in the key of A. An article advertising the “Original Hampton College Students” in Beatrice’s Daily Democrat on November 15, 1886 reports that “this celebrated colored concert company will appear at the opera house for one night only, Monday, Nov. 22d. These are the only people who give a genuine negro entertainment.” Though we have no indication that these musicians are Hampton students, the appetite for “genuine negro entertainment” was evident. $2,500-3,500

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182 George Swaine Buckley CDV, circa 1861-1865 CDV studio portrait of blackface minstrel George Swayne (Swaine/ Swain) Buckley (1829-1879). Case & Getchell: Boston, n.d., circa 18611865. Photographer’s 299 1/2 Washington St. imprint on verso. A founding member of the family minstrelsy troupe Buckley’s Serenaders, originally New Orleans Minstrels, one of the most popular entertainment companies in the United States from the mid-1850s and 1860s. Consisting of the patriarch James Buckley and three brothers, Bishop, Fred, and George Swain who was the “light and eccentric comedian” and also played banjo. $200-300

183 New Orleans Minstrels, Canton, Illinois, 1869 CDV outdoor photograph of a large New Orleans Minstrels advertisement. J.W.Bays: Canton, Illinois, n.d., circa 1869. Imprint on recto. Verso inscription: “West Side of Square / Canton, Ills. 1869.” Beneath large text reading “New Orleans Minstrels” are several large broadsides advertising performers alongside large stereotypical depictions of African Americans. The New Orleans Minstrels were performing in central Illinois during 1869 with several advertisements placed in the newspaper of nearby Rock Island. The Rock Island Argus reported on March 23, 1869, that there was “A Full House. - Dart’s Hall was filled to its utmost capacity last night, by a fine audience, to witness the entertainment of the New Orleans minstrels. The nigger business is about ‘played out,’ and so, instead of finding a long row of cork-blacked nondescripts, as has been the wont, the public was greeted with but two blacks, at the overture, and these were the exceedingly salubrious end men. Negro dancing was afterwards introduced, however. Miss Stanley’s singing elicited great admiration and applause. The cornet band was a success. the programme embraced a variety, and all present seemed to be pleased. The minstrels hold forth again, this evening, with new songs and acts.” $300-500

184 Cabinet Card of a Blackface Performer, Marysville, California, circa 1885 Cabinet card full-length studio portrait of a white adult male wearing blackface and dressed as a racist caricature of a Black child, holding a doll. Philip William Griffiths: Marysville, California, n.d., circa 1888. Born in California in 1857 to Welsh parents, Griffiths had a gallery in Oroville by 1878, later active in Chico. He opened the Elite Gallery in Marysville on the southwest corner of D and Third Street in 1880 which operated until at least 1888. The Marysville Evening Democrat reported on March 19 and March 23, 1888, that Haverly’s Original Mastodon Minstrels would be performing the same week, touting that they “will eclipse any other minstrel performance we have had in this city. Founded by J.H. Haverly in 1877, the large show claimed to have 40 performers, most in blackface. It is possible that the subject here is one of those participants. $200-300

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185 Edmonia Lewis CDV by Rocher, Chicago, circa 1870 CDV studio portrait of Edmonia Lewis. Henry Rocher: Chicago, n.d., circa 1870. Photographer’s 88 N. Clark St. imprint on verso. The artist wears a dark jacket with elaborate toggles and fringe on the sleeves, resting her arm on a table draped with fabric. Rocher (1826-1887) captured several known views during the sitting, circa 1868-1870 in Chicago. The pose captured here, one of the more composed and serious of the series, is quite scarce with a known copy at Harvard Art Museums (2010.64). Edmonia Lewis (1844-1907) was a uniquely successful sculptor of both African American and Native American ancestry. She is considered the first African American sculptor to achieve national and international prominence. After an abbreviated education at Oberlin, Lewis moved to Boston in 1864 and studied under Edward Brackett, a noted portrait sculptor under whose tutelage she sculpted portraits of famous abolitionists including William Lloyd Garrison and the martyred John Brown. She then traveled through Europe, finally settling in Rome in 1865 along with many other American sculptors and artists. What set her apart was her insistence upon finishing all of her own work, and her willingness to explore themes inspired by her own heritage and ethnicity. One of her most poignant works, Hagar, brings new life to the Old Testament castoff, depicting courage and strength in the face of the Egyptian matriarch. $3,000-5,000

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186 Joseph White Afro-Cuban Composer & Violinist, CDV by Mora, New York, circa 1875-1877 CDV studio portrait of José Silvestre de los Dolores White Lafitta (18351918, also known as Joseph White). Mora: New York, n.d., circa 18751877. Photographer’s 707 Broadway imprint on recto. Contemporary ink inscription on verso identifies White. A heretofore unknown image of the virtuoso Afro-Cuban violinist and composer. White gave his first public concert on March 21, 1854, in his hometown of Matanzas accompanied by the renowned American pianist Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869) who helped him raise money and encouraged him to travel to Paris to further his practice. White was admitted to the Conservatoire de Paris about 1855 at the unanimous recommendation of the jurors after his audition. There he studied under great violinists of the age, notably Jean-Delphin Alard (1815-1888), and was awarded the coveted First Grand Prize (Premier Prix) on July 29, 1856. Regarded as one of the great violinists of his generation, he was held in high regard by the likes of Rossini and Gounod. In 1875-1877, White featured as a guest soloist at the New York Philarmonic and gave additional concerts in Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington DC. It was during this period of touring North America when this image was likely captured. Additional description available at cowans.com. $400-600

187 Mr. P.R. Jackson, Jubilee Singer Cabinet Card, Sacramento, California, circa 1880 Cabinet card studio half-length portrait of a seated gentleman. W. Reed: Sacramento, n.d., circa 1880. Imprint on verso. Subject identified by ink inscription to lower margin: “Mr. P.R. Jackson / Jubilee Singer.” W. Reed had a studio located at 117 J Steet in Sacramento from circa 1870-1880. $200-300

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188 Cabinet Card of a Giant, Pentz & Swords, York, Pennsylvania, circa 1885 Cabinet card portrait of an African American giant wearing a tall furry cap, furry boots, and a coat with ornate floral embellishment. He extends his right arm over the head of a gentleman standing beside him, who wears a top hat to emphasize the giant’s tall stature. Pentz & Swords: York, Pennsylvania, n.d., circa 1885. His extravagant outfit and height suggest that he may have been a sideshow performer. $300-500

189 The Colored Silver Tongued Orator and Humorist Rev. John H. Hector Broadside, Clinton, Massachusetts, circa late 1880s Printed broadside, 5.625 x 13.75 in., The Colored Silver Tongued Orator and Humorist. Boston: Geo. E. Crosby & Co., n.d., circa late 1880s. A printed portrait of Reverend John H. Hector of San Francisco is featured between text advertising a lecture to be given by him on the evening of October 31st at Clinton Town Hall. Below, press notices describe the success of similar events across the country, including an excerpt from the San Francisco Daily Examiner, reports: “Mr. Hector’s lecture sparkled with the most genuine humor, interspersed with pathetic descriptions of scenes in the life of his parents, their escape from slavery by the Abolitionists’ ‘underground railroad’ to Canada, and his own experience as a boy after the death of his father and mother on the same day of cholera. The dramatic action of the speaker and the naivete with which he detailed his own experiences up to the time when he blackened one of Sherman’s boots and left the other ‘unshined’ before the battle of Shilon [sic] were irresistible.” John H. Hector (d. 1914) was a notable speaker and Civil War veteran who served as pastor of AME Zion Church in York, Pennsylvania from 1883-1884, moving from there to Washington, DC, and from there to California in around 1887 before returning to York in 1890. Likely while in California, Hector made the acquaintance of Jason Brown, the son of legendary Abolitionist and martyr, John Brown. Jason Brown joined Hector for several speaking engagements in 1891, recounting moments from his childhood in Kansas amidst the Jayhawkers along and with the critical events at Harper’s Ferry. $400-600

190 Black Women Musicians, Cabinet Cards, Oakland, California Lot of 2 cabinet card portraits of African American women with musical instruments, comprising: Studio portrait of a woman holding a tambourine aloft. W.J. Smith: Oakland, n.d., circa 1885. 18th & Clay Streets imprint on recto. The subject wears a pleated dress and a dark corset with flowers tucked in the front. Her lively pose suggests the movement and vibrancy of her performance. Studio portrait of a woman holding a violin, ready to play. Arrowsmith: Oakland, n.d., circa 1905. Imprint on recto. The young woman holds her bow to the strings, wearing a tea-length white dress with dark stripes. $600-900

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191 California Jubilee All-Star Quartet Ephemera, Plus Lot of 4. Promotional pamphlet, 5.5 x 8 in., 4pp, heralding a coming performance of “Noted Colored Entertainers” the “California Jubilee All Star Quartet.” Includes short biographies of the four performers, S.S.R.S. Stewart, Ivan H. Browning, J.T. Hill, and John C. Payne. Payne, promoted as “The Double Voiced Concert Singer,” was notable for his ability to change his voice from baritone to lyric soprano, a talent he utilized for his impersonation of American soprano Sissieretta Jones, aka “Black Patti” in reference to Italian opera singer Adelina Patti. Alongside a photographic image of Payne dressed as the opera singer, the pamphlet notes that the evening’s performance would include Payne “appearing in female garb, imitating the celebrated ‘Black Patti.’” Two additional photographic images appear in the pamphlet, both of the quartet in performance attire. Pamphlet likely dates to circa 1912. Another promotional for the California Jubilee All Star Quartet, 6.75 x 4.75 in., features a trio of oval photographic images embellished with floral accents, each corner with an endorsement including 1 of 4 “Kings of Harmony,” “The Sweetest Music in all the World,” “Not a Dull Moment,” and “Four Successful Care Banishers.” A handstamp indicates a date of November 16, 1922. The paper promotional was mounted on black cardstock at a later date which obscures verso. Accompanied by a pamphlet, 5.5 x 8.5 in., 4pp, for an October 4, 1931, revival meeting held at the Alliance Gospel Tabernacle in Oakland, California. Revival meeting featured a performance of the “The Famous Colored Gospel Quintette” of Cleveland, Ohio. Interior of pamphlet states that “These Brethren have sung the Gospel to capacity audiences in the largest cities of the United States and Canada.” Also, an undated ticket to admit one to the “California Minstrels,” 4 x 2 in. Multiple performance groups operated under this name from the late 1800s and into the twentieth century, though this ticket may be from one of the more prominent troupes such as Ben Cotton’s California Minstrels or M.T. Skiff’s California Minstrels. $400-700

192 American Folk Songs as Sung by the Williams’ Jubilee Singers Music Booklet, circa 1920s “Williams’ Colored Singers: The World’s Greatest Harmonizing Octette.” Sheet music followed by a three-page collective biography of the singing group, 24pp, 7.5 x 10.75 in., Chicago: Williams’ Lyceum Bureau, circa 1920s. Front wrap featuring individual photographs of each singer; back wrap with one group photograph of the singers posed with luggage beneath the sign “Williams Jubilee Singers Touring Europe” and another photo of just the males singers in performance attire. The Williams’ Colored Singers, also known as the Williams’ Jubilee Singers, were organized in Chicago in 1904 by Charles P. Williams of Holly Springs, Mississippi. Williams had previously been associated with the Dixie Jubilee Singers. The group toured initially on the west coast before expanding their tour to include the rest of the country. They later embarked on a successful European tour which included England, Scotland, Holland, and Germany. This collection of scored music includes a mixture of traditional American folk songs and African American gospel and spirituals. Titles include “My Old Kentucky Home Good Night,” “Peter, Go Ring Dem Bells,” “Steal Away,” “John Brown’s Body,” and “Roll, Jordan Roll.” $100-200

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193 Paul Laurence Dunbar Cabinet Card, New York, circa 1900 Cabinet card portrait of Paul Laurence Dunbar. Rockwood: New York, n.d. [1900]. Gilt imprint on recto. Dunbar wears a serious expression and a pair of wire-rim eyeglasses. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) was born a free man in Dayton, Ohio, but drew upon his parents’ slave experience in Kentucky in his poetry and prose, which would earn him a place in history as one of the first influential Black poets in American literature. This legacy is summed up beautifully in the words of Dunbar’s friend and fellow writer, James Weldon Johnson, in his Book of American Poetry: “Paul Laurence Dunbar stands out as the first poet from the Negro race in the United States to show a combined mastery over poetic material and poetic technique, to reveal innate literary distinction in what he wrote, and to maintain a high level of performance. He was the first to rise to a height from which he could take a perspective view of his own race. He was the first to see objectively its humor, its superstitions, its short-comings; the first to feel sympathetically its heart-wounds, its yearnings, its aspirations, and to voice them all in a purely literary form.” Dunbar showed great promise at an early age, having poems published in the Dayton Herald at the age of fourteen, though due to his family’s financial situation he was unable to pursue a college education after high school. Dunbar settled for a job as an elevator operator in order to make ends meet, and continued working on his poetry in his spare time. In 1892 one of his former teachers invited him to address the Western Association of Writers, which won him praise and recognition from other writers as well as encouragement to publish his first major collection, Oak and Ivory, in 1893. As his readership widened and his name gained traction in the literary world, Dunbar continued writing and meeting other prominent Black figures, including Frederick Douglass, who called him “the most promising young colored man in America.” By 1895, (the same year he published one of his most groundbreaking works including his acclaimed dialect verse, Majors and Minors) Dunbar’s poems were being printed in the New York Times, and two years later he was setting out on a sixmonth reading tour of Europe. The following years were extremely prolific for Dunbar, marking the publishing of short stories, novels, and poetry collections including Folks from Dixie, The Uncalled, Lyrics of the Hearthside, and Poems of Cabin and Field. As his work flourished, unfortunately, his health and marriage deteriorated. After contracting tuberculosis, separating from his wife, and developing a drinking problem, his condition seemed irreparable. Though he continued to write and publish books of poetry, his body eventually succumbed to a string of prolonged illnesses at his mother’s home in Dayton, Ohio, in 1906 at the young age of 33. $2,500-3,500

194 Mixed Race Musical Quartet, Cabinet Card by M.B. Koll, Nebraska, circa 1900 Oversized cabinet card, 4 x 5.5 in., on 5.75 x 7 in. mount. M.G. Koll: Earling, Nebraska, n.d., circa 1890. A studio view of a musical quartet comprised of three African American men and one white man, each with stringed instrument in hand. A second white man who may be the director sits at the center of the group. $200-400

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195 Blind Boone and Retinue, Oversize Photograph, Norfolk, Nebraska, 1891 Oversize albumen photograph of John William “Blind” Boone (1864-1927) with his retinue, manager John Lange, secretary R.H. Lange, vocalist Stella May, and treasurer Eugenia Boone. Macy & Doughty: Norfolk, Nebraska, [July 6, 1891]. 8.75 x 6.5 in., mounted to 10 x 7 in. Verso of the mount features a printed biography of Boone and a list of his retinue including his manager and promoter John Lange. All of the subjects are lavished dressed wearing fur coats and velvet hats. Boone sits at center wearing a pinstripe suit with a watch fob, large tie pin, and medal on his lapel while holding a fine walking stick. Lange stands next to him holding Ed the parrot, who was known to announce concerts. John William “Blind” Boone (1864-1927) was born to a woman named Rachel, who had escaped slavery by working as a cook for Company I of the 7th Missouri Militia in the Union Army. Her former enslavers were descendants of pioneer Daniel Boone, and she used their surname for herself and her son, though John’s actual father was a bugler for the regiment she served. Mother and son went to live in Warrensburg, Missouri, where a brain swelling disease in John’s early years necessitated an operation in which his eyes were removed. John’s mother noticed his musical talent as a child, and worked to give him as many opportunities as she could, including an education at the Missouri School for the Blind. Boone first met John Lange, Jr. when he was invited to perform at a concert organized by Lange at Second Baptist Church in Columbia. Boone performed so well that he was invited again the next year to perform with “Blind Tom.” Lange and Boone formed a partnership in which Lange served as Boone’s manager. Lange promoted Boone to audiences with clever tactics including offering $1000 to anyone who could stump Boone with a song he could not play (a prize he never had to pay out). Boone’s career took off as he toured around 10 months each year from 1880-1915, performing for large crowds who showed up to hear him play a variety of genres from Classical to Ragtime, and songs from plantation/minstrel tunes to religious melodies. Boone completed his last major tour in 1920, performed his last concert in May of 1927, and died later that year of a heart attack on October 4th. $2,500-3,500

196 Jno. Lange and Jno. W. [Blind] Boone Trade Card, Kansas City, Missouri, 1914 Trade card for “Jno. Lange and Jno. W. [Blind] Boone,” 5.25 x 8.5 in. Kansas City: 1914. A large printed portrait of the two men wearing suits and coats features predominantly on the card, with text below excerpted from an issue of the Kansas City Sun describing the duo: “The most astute, dignified and successful manager of the race, and the greatest living musical prodigy, who have journeyed together in the Blind Boone Concert Company thirtyfive years...Both are philanthropic, generous and kind hearted to such a degree that they are loved by their race throughout the length and breadth of America.” $800-1,200

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197 Norice de la Roche the Magician Handbill, circa 1946 Handbill for a magic show by Prof. Norice de la Roche. [New York City]: n.p., n.d., [1946]. The recto features the “Magic in Harlem” show information and touts that “in front of your very eyes, without the aid of screens, curtains, or assistants will miraculously escape the jacket. A feat successfully performed only by the late Harry Houdini,” embellished with an illustration of the Professor bound in a straight jacket, chains, and leg bindings. Verso features an illustration of the magician in white tie and a magic wand conjuring a snake, white rabbits, and more. Signed in plate “F. Perry.” The “Town Topics” article in the Feb. 9, 1946 issue of The New York Age appears to reference the show advertised on this handbill: “It isn’t all business at the Combination Business School. Realizing that little play makes work interesting, the school is representing that famous magician, Prof. Norice de la Roche, in ‘Magic in Harlem’ sometime in February.” The dates listed on the handbill, February, Thursday 21st, Saturday 23rd, and Sunday 24th, correspond with the 1946 calendar. Norice de la Roche was the stage name of Norris F. Roach, the founder, and principal of the Combination Business School, as well as the Roche Magic Studio. The Manhattan 1949 City Directory lists the address and telephone number for the Music dept. for Roach, suggesting he was a professor of music. He was one of the only African American members of the International Brother of Magicians in 1955. $300-500

198 Black Herman’s Easy Pocket Tricks Which You Can Do, 1938 RUCKER, Benjamin (“Black Herman,” 1889-1934), attributed. Black Herman’s Easy Pocket Tricks Which You Can Do. N.p., n.d., circa 1930s. 8vo (5.75 x 8.5 in.). Illustrated profusely with photographic plates of Herman and his associates. (Very light marginal toning.) Original illustrated pink wrappers. (Front cover and spine lightly toned). “Fourteenth (deLuxe) Edition”. Benjamin “Black Herman” Rucker was the most well-known African American magician of the early 20th century, popular with both Black and white audiences. He apprenticed to and succeeded Prince Herman, taking the stage name “Black Herman” in his honor. He specialized in prestidigitation, the Asrah levitation, and a “buried alive” routine which lasted three days, beginning with his “internment” in “Black Herman’s Private Graveyard.” He would then rise from the grave and walk to the performance venue to perform the rest of his show. When Rucker actually died on stage in 1934, the audience refused to leave, believing this was part of his act. This book advertises the “latest and best pocket tricks. A two hour’s performance with one hour’s practice.” All known copies are printed as “Fourteenth (DeLuxe) Edition” with the exception of one copy housed at Bowling Green University listed as the 12th edition. Scarce, OCLC locates only 4 copies. $200-300

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199 Marian Anderson, San Francisco Opera House Program, 1938 Event program, “Peter Conley presents Marian Anderson.” Approx., 6 x 9 in., 8pp. San Francisco Opera House. February 25, 1938. Staple-bound with original paper boards. Front cover features stunning photographic image of Marian Anderson (1897-1993). The performance numbers listed in the program include classical pieces by Schubert, Handel, and others, as well as Negro Spirituals “Deep River,” “Heav’n Heav’n,” “Crucifixion,” and “My Soul’s Been Anchored in the Lord.” Anderson, one of the most renowned classical vocalists of her day, was a highly visible figure in the struggle of African American artists to overcome racial prejudice. The year after this performance in San Francisco, the Daughters of the American Revolution would deny Anderson the opportunity to perform before an integrated audience at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., igniting a social and political firestorm. $100-200

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200 Festival of Negro Music Program, San Francisco, 1940, Plus Lot of 2. Event program, “Festival of Negro Music.” 8.25 x 10 in., 8pp. Festival held as part of the Golden Gate International Exposition, a World’s Fair held at San Francisco’s Treasure Island in 1939 and 1940. Staplebound with original paper boards. The Festival of Negro Music ran from July 26-28, 1940. According to the Oakland Tribune newspaper of July 25, 1940, the festival would “bring together the top musical talent of the Negro race in this country....” The program indicates that there were five distinct sections to the performance: “Plantation Age (1830-1850)” which included Negro spirituals; “Age of Minstrels (1850-1895)” featuring music by Stephen Foster and others; “Age of Ragtime (1895-1918)”; “Jazz Age (19181926)”; and “Age of Swing (1926-1940).” In addition to the musical performances, the festival included a “Grand Movie Ball” attended by Hollywood stars from Paramount Pictures and Fox Studios. Accompanied by a souvenir program from the “Benefit Concert for Pasadena Municipal Band” which was held at the Rose Bowl, Sunday, September 28, circa 1927, “Under the Auspices of the Colored Citizens of Pasadena.” The program identifies the origin of the concert: “Learning that the only Profesional Community Musical Organization in Pasadena was making its final stage appearance owing to lack of funds, we the Colored Citizens of Pasadena, determined to give a benefit concert for the Pasadena Municipal Band as a matter of civic pride in our City.” $500-800

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201 Paul Robeson Portrait by James Allen, circa 1938 Portrait of Paul Robeson. James L. Allen, circa 1938. Image, 7.5 x 9.5 in. (192 x 238 mm); sheet, 7.75 x 10 in. (198 x 253 mm). Stamp-signed verso: “When publishing this photograph please give credit to James L. Allen.” Paul Leroy Robeson (1898-1976) was an American film and stage actor, notably known for his roles as “Joe” in the London production of Show Boat, and as Othello at the Shubert Theatre in 1943, for which he received a Donaldson Award; the run of Othello starring Robeson remained the longest-running production of a Shakespeare play until 2011. He became active in several social justice campaigns and eventually the Civil Rights Movement. Advocating for Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War, Robeson became active in the Council on African Affairs; later, his sympathies for communism and the Soviet Union and his criticisms of United States foreign policy caused him to be blacklisted during the McCarthy era. He received the Spingarn medal from the NAACP in 1945; his efforts to end Apartheid were posthumously recognized by the United Nations General Assembly in 1978. Robeson is a member of the College Football Hall of Fame and the American Theater Hall of Fame; he was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Grammy Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. James Latimer Allen (1907-1977) was an African American portrait photographer best remembered for his images of the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s and 1930s. According to New York Times art critic William Zimmer, Allen’s work showed “purposeful uniformity” that “underscored the emergence” of the “New Negro” philosophy. Called portraits of distinction, he deliberately captured his well-dressed subjects with a soft focus in a manner similar to intelligentsia portraits of the day. He worked with major figures of the Harlem Renaissance including Langston Hughes, Alain Locke, Carl Van Vechten, and Paul Robeson. $4,000-6,000

202 Signed Paul Robeson Ephemera, California Lot of 2. Invitation to a dinner honoring Paul Robeson, September 8 [n.y.], at the California Theatre Club, San Francisco, California. 5.5 x 4.25 in. (136 x 106 mm); sheet 10.75 x 8.25 in. (272 x 212 mm). Signed “Kind wishes / Paul Robeson.” Program for a performance of Paul Robeson sponsored by the University of California Committee on Music and Drama, n.d. circa late 1940-early 1941. 7 x 16 in. (178 x 404 mm). Signed “Paul Robeson.” $200-400

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203 African American Fashion Show Programs, Los Angeles, 1954-1955 Lot of 2. Event program, “The Royal Prince’s Social and Charity Club Presents ‘Fashionating Rhythm’ Revue of ‘54.” Approx. 6 x 9 in., 8pp. Los Angeles, California. September 26, 1954. Staple-bound with original paper boards. Event described as “An Extravaganza Featuring Stars of the Entertainment and Fashion World” with a mission to raise funds for the Exceptional Children’s Opportunity School, an institution dedicated to providing assistance to children “who because of their low mental IQ are excluded from public schools and from the hearts of people.” Event program, “Rubye’s Les Grandes Collections and Fashion Extravaganza.” Approx. 8.5 x 11 in., 8pp. Los Angeles, California. November 27, 1955. Staple-bound with original paper boards. Program provides lengthy list of acknowledgments for thanks, awards, stage and setting, and models, as well as participants in a fashion show featuring Ruybe Garrett’s collection of clothing for daytime, dining, and dancing. Both programs include advertising much of which is targeted to the Black community and/or highlighting Black-owned businesses. $200-400

204 Miss Bronze California Beauty Pageant Programs, 1963 & 1964 Lot of 2. Event program, “Miss Bronze Northern California Beauty Pageant.” Approx. 8.5 x 11 in., 32pp. San Francisco, California. June 22, 1963. Staple-bound with original paper boards. Event program, “Miss Bronze California Beauty Pageant.” Approx. 8.5 x 11 in., 28pp. Los Angeles, California. September 13, 1964. Staplebound with original paper boards. Both programs include names of the contest judges and committee members, a short biography on the pageant’s producer, and a photograph of each contestant posed in swimwear along with a short contestant biography. Programs also include an extensive amount of advertising much of which is targeted to the Black community and/ or highlighting Black-owned businesses. A five-paragraph essay in one program titled “Why A ‘Miss Bronze California’ Beauty Pageant” notes that, “Those who are associated closely with ‘Miss Bronze’ pageants consider it a part of the community and like to feel that it is more than just a beauty pageant - it is an opportunity to showcase the Negro woman in all the glory that she deserves.” Very scarce. $200-400

205 Pam Grier and Bernie Casey “Hit Man” Photo Stills, 1972 Lot of 3 press photographs for the 1972 film Hit Man starring Bernie Casey and Pam Grier. Each approx. 7.75 x 10 in. Published by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. Includes a posed image of Grier wearing a long black dress with her booted foot resting on stairs, her hand on her hip, a purse on her shoulder looking domineeringly at the camera. Also includes two action stills with Bernie Casey starring as the eponymous hitman Tyrone Tackett. In one he is pushing Grier’s character Gozelda down a street and the second shows him standing in front of a 1971 Ford Mustang pointing a handgun at a fleeing Grier. Hit Man was based on Ted Lewis’ 1970 novel Jack’s Return Home, also adapted into the film Get Carter. The film’s director George Armitage notes that “there was a great deal of improvisation by the actors, who were bringing me dialogue from the African-American community, and it really worked...the actors brought so much in terms of dialogue and honesty.” $500-700

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206 Lightnin’ Rod Hustler’s Convention Poetry Book, 1973 NURIDDIN, Jalal Mansur (“Lightnin’ Rod” 1944-2018). Hustler’s Convention. New York: Harmony Books, 1973. 8vo. Illustrated throughout. Original publisher’s illustrated wrappers (very light rubbing). FIRST PRINTING of Lightnin’ Rod’s narrative poetry adapted from his landmark funk album of the same title. Often referred to as the “Grandfather of Rap,” he spent part of his early life with the Fort Greene Chaplains gang in Brooklyn and consequently spent some time in prison. It was here that Nuriddin converted to Islam and learned “jail toasts,” a style of proto-rap which he called “spoagraphics” (“spoken pictures”). He was a founding member of The Last Poets group of musicians and poets that grew out of the Harlem Writers Workshop in the 1960s but departed before their 1967 album Right On. He released Hustler’s Convention in 1973, which tells the story of two fictional brothers, Sport and Spoon. The record featured Tina Turner and the Ikettes, Kool and the Gang, Billy Preston, and more. Hugely influential on the early development of hip hop, the album was a favorite of Grandmaster Flash and was sampled by the Wu-Tang Clan, the Beastie Boys, and others. Chuck D described the album as “a verbal roadmap for people trying to understand the ghetto they were in: ‘What is this life that ahead of me, and how can I actually figure out how to handle it?’ That’s what this record was.” This book presentation of the poems is scarce with few copies seen on the market. $800-1,000

207 Joe Gans, World’s Colored Lightweight Champion Cover, Baltimore, 1902 Used postal cover featuring Joe Gans. Postmarked from Baltimore, Maryland, Feb. 1, 1902. 6.5 x 3.5 in. With a photographic portrait of Gans and the caption: “Joe Gans, / World’s / Colored / Light-Weight / Champion, / Under the Management of / Al. Herford, / Baltimore, MD. / U.S.A.” Issued when Gans was recognized as the Colored Light-Weight Champion and just 3 months before he would claim the lineal World Lightweight Title from Swiss Frank Erne in a knockout in just 1 round, becoming the first-ever African American boxing champion. He would defend his title against 13 boxers before losing to Oscar Matthew “Battling” Nelson (1882-1954) twice in 1908 while suffering from tuberculosis. $300-500

208 Joe Gans vs. Battling Nelson, Goldfield, Nevada, 1906 Fight Postcards Lot of 2 postcards from the 1906 Goldfield, Nevada fight between Joe Gans and Oscar Matthew “Battling” Nelson, comprising: Postcard with photographic studio portraits of Nelson and Gans in suits titled in red: “The Greatest Gold Camp on Earth / Finish Fight / Purse, $30,000.00 / Goldfield, Nev. / September 3, ‘06.” 5.5 x 3.5 in. Postally unused. N.p., [1906]. Postcard with small photographic portraits of the opponents in action with illustrated frames. At center is a racist illustration titled the “Biggest Nugget Ever Taken from the Nevada Mines.” The “nugget” is shown with a caricature of each fighter’s face, with artist relying on racist tropes to depict Gans. Illustration signed in plate. Ben Michaels: San Francisco, 1906. $1,000-1,200

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209 Joe Gans vs. Kid Herman Lightweight Championship, Tonopah, Nevada, 1907, Fight Postcards Lot of 2 postcards related to the January 1, 1907 fight between Joe Gans and Kid Herman in Tonopah, Nevada, comprising: Postcard featuring photographic portraits of Gans and Herman alongside an aerial image of Tonopah captioned “(The Heart of the Land of Gold).” Titled in red: “Spend New Year’s Day, 1907 in Tonopah / Finish Fight / Lightweight Championship of the World.” Postmarked the day after the fight, Jan. 2, 1907 to Mr. Frank Show (1864-1943) in McCool Junction, Nebraska. N.p., 1907. Postcard with photographic images of Gans and Herman in fighting poses. Titled in red: “Spend New Year’s Day 1907 in Tonopah (the Heart of the Land of Gold) / Finish Fight for the Lightweight Championship of the World.” Postally unused. N.p., 1907. The bout with Herman “Kid Herman” Landfield (1883-1934) was the first fight for Gans after his victory over Battling Nelson on July 4th the previous year. The Old Master would quickly best the Canadian by TKO in 8 rounds. $1,000-1,200

210 Gans vs. Nelson Advertising Card, 1908 Advertising card for a match between Joe Gans and Battling Nelson, 6.75 x 3.25 in. San Francisco: 1908. A large photographic image of their last meeting in Goldfield, Nevada on Sept. 3, 1906, with Gans on the mat, captioned “42nd Round - The ending of their last contest.” The image capture Nelson’s disqualification. The fight here is advertised: “World’s Championship / Joe Gans vs. Battling Nelson / July 4th, 2:30 P.M. -- Coffroth’s Mission St. Arena / 45 Rounds / Will 45 Rds. be enough for them to settle their old dispute?” Gans continued to successfully defend his title the next two years after the Goldfield bout with Nelson. His last successful fight against Rudy Unholz on May 14, 1908. Decidedly suffering from the effects of TB, Gans would lose the title in the rematch with Nelson in Colma, California on July 4th advertised here. They would meet again on September 9 where Nelson would again triumph. $800-1,200

211 O! You Jeffries! Johnson vs. Jeffries, Reno, 1910 Jack Johnson versus James J. Jeffries pinback button. Caption “’O! You Jeffries! / Visible / July 4, 1910 / Reno, Nev.” surrounds illustration of a racist image of Johnson’s head being launched into outer space via a gloved hand and arm identified with the name “Jeff.” Back paper with identification “Walter N. Brunt Co. / Printing / 860 Mission St. / At 5th/ San Francisco” n.d. Diam.: 1.25 in. Pinback anticipates a resounding victory for white boxer Jim Jeffries, known as the “Great White Hope,” in the world heavyweight boxing championship bout between Jeffries and African American boxer Jack Johnson. Billed as the “Fight of the Century,” the July 4, 1910, boxing match was more than an athletic event - it was a national social phenomenon which laid bare the blatant racism of many whites who believed in their inherent supremacy both in the boxing ring and out of it. Johnson soundly defeated Jeffries in fifteen rounds. An exceptionally rare souvenir pin. $800-1,000

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212 Jack Johnson vs. Jim Jeffries 1910 Reno, Nevada Bout Postcards Johnson-Jeffries pre-fight postcard. 3.5 x 5.5 in. Caption identifies the fighters, each in fighting poses, with the amusing caption: “A Sure Bet - J.J. Will Win.” The sender of the postcard has amended the caption by circling “Will” drawing an arrow to jack Johnson and adding an “s” after “Win.” With an ink inscription below: “Didn’t lose any money! How about you? L.A. July 4/10 C.G.F.” With a short note written to Miss A. Seris in San Jose, California with a July 4, 1910 postmark. [With:] Real photo postcard showing the crowds outside the Official Fight Headquarters. 5.5 x 3.5 in. In negative caption: “Reno Nev. July 4th, 1910 - Day of Jefferies and Johnson Fight.” with imprint “W.E.C.” Postally unused. W.E. Cowen: Reno, Nevada, July 4, 1910. Taken from a slight elevation, throngs of fight attendees crowd the streets as more arrive via train and car. The far right of the Official Headquarters sign are visible, located in the heart of downtown Reno at the corner of Center Street and W. Commercial Row. $800-1,000

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213 Johnson vs. Jeffries World Championship Ticket-Trade Card, Reno, Nevada, 1910 Advertising trade card in the form of a pseudo-ticket from the 1910 Reno, Nevada Jeffries-Johnson fight. 165 x 68 mm. [Boston?], 1910. The card mimics a ticket with the fight information: “1910 July 4th 1910 / Jeffries-Johnson / World’s Championship, / Reno, Nevada” and faux seat information. The card advertises: “Before going send to / A.W. Chesterton Co. / No. 64 India Street, Boston / For a good stock of Engineer’s Supplies / You never can tell how long you will be gone! / Retain this coupon.” A.W. Chesterton was a steamboat and engineering supplies purveyor out of Boston, founded in 1884. The fact that they have used the blockbuster fight as an advertising opportunity in Boston is a testament to the national reach the bout had. $800-1,200

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214 Johnson and Wife Reno Nev., Real Photo Postcard, 1910 Real photo postcard of Jack Johnson with Etta Terry Duryea and trainers. 5.5 x 3.5 in. Postally unused. Captioned in negative: “Johnson and Wife Reno, Nev.” Cann: [Reno, Nevada], [1910]. An image of Johnson seated outside on stairs flanked on both sides and behind by his trainers and cornermen. His paramour Etta Terry Duryea sits affectionately in front of him, in between his legs. Though she is listed here as his “wife,” they were not yet married when this image was captured before Johnson’s blockbuster bout with Jim Jeffries in Reno, Nevada on July 4, 1910. Etta was a Brooklyn socialite who met Johnson at a car race in 1909 and though they had a tempestuous relationship, they would marry on January 18, 1911. In part due to their turbulent relationship, Etta would commit suicide on Sept. 11, 1912. $1,000-1,500

215 Champion Jack Johnson in Front of his Training Quarters, Real Photo Postcard, Reno, Nevada, 1910 Real photo postcard showing a confident Jack Johnson with his retinue. 5.5 x 3.5 in. Captioned in negative: “Champion Jack Johnson. In front of his Training Quarters” alongside an apparent date “Ju 10” in the lower left. Postally unused. N.p.: [Reno, Nevada], 1910. Johnson, a known racing aficionado and car enthusiast, stands on the front of a fine contemporary convertible, crossing his harms, and looking confidently at the photographer. A host of trainers, cornermen, and others in Johnson’s training camp. $500-700

216 Johnson Camp, Real Photo Postcard, Reno, Nevada, 1912 Real photo postcard of Jack Johnson and some members of his retinue. 5.5 x 3.5 in. Caption in negative: "Johnson Camp" along with an identification list and corresponding numbers on the figures: "1 Champ / 2 Burns / 3 Bennett / 4 Cutler / 5 Bedray / 6 Respress / 7 Fitzgerald / 8 Brown / 9 Jimmy." Photographer's imprints in negative twice: "C.E.d.C." Johnson, "Champ," is pictured at the center of the group of multiracial trainers holding the hand of a boy identified as "Jimmy." $500-700

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217 Johnson-Flynn, Las Vegas, New Mexico Pennant, 1912 Pennant from the 1912 Johnson-Flynn bout. L: 23 in., framed to 32.5 x 12.5 in. Blue felt pennant the location, “Las Vegas, N.M.” in large printed white letters and the caption: “The World’s Championship Bout. Johnson-Flynn. July 4th 1912” featuring a printed color vignette of the two pugilists in the ring. The fight was “Fireman” Jim Flynn’s (1879-1935) second attempt at the World Heavyweight Title and Johnson’s first fight since the blockbuster “Fight of the Century” versus Jim Jeffries two years earlier. Flynn was disqualified in the 9th round after repeated warnings against headbutting and never posed a threat to the formidable Johnson. Extremely scarce. $3,000-4,000

218 Jack Johnson vs Pat Lester Ticket Stub, Nogales, Sonora, 1926 Ticket stub from Jack Johnson vs Pat Lester boxing match, 83 x 80 mm. N.p., 1926. Ticket reads: “Jack Johnson / vs / Pat Lester / 15 Rounds / Sunda, May 2nd, 3:30 P.M. / Reserved $5.00 “X” / Nogales, Sonora, Bull Ring.” The fight took place on Sunday, May 2nd, 1926 in Nogales, Mexico where Johnson beat his opponent Pat Lester on points in the full 15 rounds. A fight in the twilight of Johnson’s professional career after already ceding the Heavyweight Title to Jess Willard in 1915. After this victory, Johnson would see 5 defeats in 7 bouts before retiring from professional prizefighting after his final win against Brad Simmons on April 28, 1931. $1,200-1,800

219 First Edition of Jack Johnson’s Autobiography, 1927 JOHNSON, Jack (1878-1946). Jack Johnson - In the Ring - And Out. Chicago: National Sports Publishing Co., 1927. 8vo. Frontispiece and 14 additional plates. (Light evening toning, very occasional chip.) Original publisher’s red cloth gilt (stain at joint); original publisher’s illustrated dust jacket (chipping and creasing at edges, light soiling). FIRST EDITION of Johnson’s second memoir. Penned by the first African American Heavyweight boxing champion with articles by Ed. W. “Tad” Smith, writer Damon Ruyon, and Johnson’s last wife, Irene Pineau. $100-200

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220 Henry Armstrong Portrait by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Silver gelatin portrait photograph of boxer Henry Armstrong. Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964): New York, July 15, 1937. 10.5 x 13.25 in. (sight), matted and framed to 18.25 x 21 in. Ink inscription to verso records the subject, dated print identification (“XL IIIK 17”). Taken in 1937, during Armstrong’s incredible achievement of winning 27 fights by knockout in a row, one of the longest knockout win streaks in the history of the sport. Just three months later, Armstrong claimed the World Featherweight Champion against Petey Sarron, knocking him out in six rounds on Oct. 29, 1937, at Madison Square Garden. He added the Welterweight Title after besting Barney Ross in a unanimous decision in 15 rounds on May 31, 1938. In his next fight on August 17, 1938, he added the Lightweight belt after defeating Lou Ambers by split decision in 15 rounds, becoming one of the few boxers to hold 3 different division titles simultaneously. He would unsuccessfully challenge for the Middleweight Title in a frustrating decision. He would spend most of his career in the welterweight division with 18 successful title defenses, retiring in 1945 with an official record of 152 wins (101 knockouts), 21 losses, and 9 draws.

[With:] The Referee and Announcer. San Francisco. Vol. 61 No. 16, September 12, 1935. With Henry Armstrong cover showing the boxer in a triumphal pose with the caption: “State Feather Champ / Henry Armstrong / Armstrong is California’s featherweight champ / and the No. 1 contender for the world’s / featherweight title.” The “Civic Auditorium Boxing” section of the Official Program is completed in pencil, including the Sept. 13, 1935, Armstrong bout versus Mexican Perfecto Lopez. Held at the Civic Auditorium, the fight was a draw in 8 rounds. Carl Van Vechten was well-connected to the people and places of the Harlem Renaissance at a time when racial segregation and Jim Crow laws were intense. Throughout the 1920s, he indulged in the parties and social scene of New York’s Black creative class, which he captured in his provocatively titled novel Nigger Heaven. When the Depression came, he stopped writing novels and began taking photographs, most notably of influential African Americans, taking iconic portraits of thought leaders, entertainment stars, sports figures, artists, writers of the Harlem Renaissance, and more. His collection of over 9000 images, mostly portraits, is held at the Beinecke Library at Yale University. $3,500-4,500

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221 Joe Louis Real Photo Postcards, Incl. Image with Martin Luther King Jr. Lot of 2 real photo postcards featuring Heavyweight boxer Joe Louis, comprising: Real photo postcard of Joe Louis wearing an army uniform with a fur coat draped on one shoulder and holding an Alaskan fur boot. Inscribed caption on verso: “Fairbanks, Alaska / 1944 / ‘Joe Louis’.” N.d.: [Fairbanks, Alaska], n.d., [1944]. In 1942, Louis began participating in charity fights to raise money for military Relief Funds. He enlisted and was assigned to a segregated cavalry unit at Fort Riley, Kansas. Rather than seeing combat, however, the Army would place him in the Special Services Division where he would tour with other celebrities. He would stage 96 boxing exhibitions before an estimated 2 million soldiers and was the focus of recruitment campaigns targeted at African American men. It was one of these tours in Alaska in 1944 that this image was taken. Real photo postcard of Joe Louis shaking hands with Martin Luther King, Jr. Titled “Two Champions.” Scenic South Card Co.: Bessemer, Alabama, n.d. [circa 1970s]. With a brief caption on the verso noting that the image is from “a benefit performance for the March on Washington.” $300-500 1 of 2

222 First Edition of Joe Louis Illustrated Boxing Manual, 1948 LOUIS, Joesph (1914-1981). -- MALLORY, Edward J., ed. How to Box. Philadelphia: David McKay Company, 1948. 4to. Profusely illustrated. Original publisher’s beige cloth; original publisher’s illustrated dust jacket (tear at lower corner, light scuffing, a few chips). FIRST EDITION of the “Brown Bomber’s” boxing guide for young readers, illustrated throughout with black-and-white photos and drawings. Penned by the Heavyweight titleholder shortly before his initial retirement. $100-200

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223 Joe Louis Portrait by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 Silver gelatin photograph of Joe Louis. Carl Van Vechten: [New York], Sept. 15, 1941. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint to lower left, verso with stamp and ink notations identifying Louis, the date of sitting, with Van Vechten number, “IX.V.9.” 7.75 x 10 in. An outdoor portrait of the boxer who looks intensely at the camera with a furrowed brow and hands on his hips. A broadside advertising the fight between Sugar Ray Robinson and Maxie Shapiro at Madison Square Garden on September 19, 1941, is posted on a fence behind Louis (Robinson would win by TKO in 3 rounds). The image captures the formidable boxer at the height of his career during his long run of successful Heavyweight Title defenses. His last, and only, loss at this point was the knockout in 12 rounds at the hands of German Max Schmeling on June 19, 1936.

Since the defeat, he had gone unbeaten in 26 fights, including a rematch with Schmeling on June 22, 1938. From January 1939 through May 1941, Louis defended his title 13 times, a frequency unmatched by a Heavyweight champion since the end of the bare-knuckle era with his opponents being given the collective nickname “Bum of the Month Club.” The most recent bout before this image was the highly-regarded contest with Billy Conn. He would next face Lou Nova on Sept. 29, 1941, at the New York City Polo Grounds where he would win by TKO in 6. He would have a total run of 25 successful title defenses before ceding the Heavyweight Title to Ezzard “Cincinnati Cobra” Charles on Sept. 27, 1950. $3,500-4,500

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224 Float Like a Butterfly, Sting Like a Bee, Muhammad Ali Rumble in the Jungle Pinback, 1974 Muhammad Ali pinback button. Caption “Float Like A Butterfly / Sting Like A Bee - ‘Ali’” surrounds illustration featuring a butterfly and a bee flanking the African continent in which appears a photographic image of Ali and the date “Oct. 29th ‘ 74.” Diam.: 3 in. Though this pin dates the momentous bout to October 29, 1974, the boxing match pitting undefeated world Heavyweight champion George Foreman versus former Heavyweight champion Muhammed Ali actually occurred one day later in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo). Known as the “Rumble in the Jungle,” this historic boxing bout was one of the most anticipated and watched sporting events of the twentieth century. Pinback features one of Ali’s most famous quotations, and the Pan-African colors of red, black, and green. Ali bested foreman by knockout just before the end of the 8th round and regained the Heavyweight Title. $800-1,200

225 Black Dynamite 5 Volume History of Black Boxing, 1938-1947 FLEISCHER, Nat (1887-1972). Black Dynamite: The Story of the Negro in the Prize Ring from 1782 to 1938. New York: The Ring Magazine, 19381947. 5 volumes, 8vo. Each with a frontispiece and numerous plates and illustrations throughout. (Light toning.) Original publisher’s vivid orange cloth with black titles, vol. I without spine titles (very minor bumps to corners). FIRST EDITION of a series of five volumes on the history of Black prizefighters written by noted American boxing writer Nat Fleisher. Volume I focuses on the early boxers, notably the bare-knuckle boxer Tom Molineaux (1748-1818) and his contemporaries. The next three volumes are focused on the main figures of early boxing with the subtitles: Vol. II: “Jolting Joe”: The Amazing Story of Joe Louis and His Rise to World Heavyweight Title; “Homicide Hank”: The Socking Saga of Henry Armstrong; Vol. III: “The Three Colored Aces”: George Dixon “Little Chocolate; Joe Gans “The Old Master”; Joe Walcott “The Barbados Demon” and others.; and Vol. IV: “The Fighting Furies”: Story of the Golden Era of Jack Johnson, Sam Langford and Their Contemporaries. The last volume is another survey titled, Sockers in Sepia: A Continuation of the Drama of the Negro in Pugilistic Competition. $600-800

226 Brown Race Pictures, 1968-1970 Multi-ring binder with tooled leather cover, titled GOT Brown Race Pictures among acanthus leaves; rear with Native American in full headdress; front and back covers with inside pockets. Nineteen pages, each with a photo of a winning racehorse, owned by C.C. or Elizabeth Brown. All but one trained by African American trainer H.G. Bass; all but one with African American jockey W. Gillum aboard. Each of 16 race photos shows the finish, the horse with jockey and owners, trainers, etc.; a few have the start photo. These races occurred at four Texas tracks between 1968 and 1970: Columbus Race Course (Columbus), Crosby Downs (Crosby), La Bahia Downs (Goliad), and L.I.F.E. Downs (Laredo). There are three color images of horses in front of the track sign interspersed (two at Columbus, one at La Bahia). Horses include: Hy Motion, Sue’s Billy Joe, Brownie’s Chick, Sue’s Barbett, Flashie, Cinco’s Flashey, Flashie Sis, and Olympia Chick. African Americans have made significant contributions to horse racing from its inception, with Black jockeys dominating winner’s circles for much of its history. The first running of the Kentucky Derby was won by a 19 year old Black man named Oliver Lewis aboard Aristides. $600-800

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227 First Edition Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African, 1782 SANCHO, Ignatius (circa 1729?-1780). Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African. In Two Volumes. To Which are Prefixed, Memoirs of His Life. London: J. Nichols: 1782. 2 volumes, 12mo (115 x 173 mm). Engraved frontispiece portrait by Francesco Bartolozzi after Thomas Gainsborough with additional Bartolozzi frontispiece in vol. II. (Dampstain to lower edge of vol. I frontispiece, light even toning, light spotting in vol. II.) Early 19th-century tooled calf by Aldritt, smooth spine gilt-stamped, 2 gilt-lettered black morocco spine labels, marbled edges, bookbinder’s label on vol. I (a few light scratches, minor wear at joints). Provenance: Mrs. William Ward to Thomas Wolleston? (inscriptions to front flyleaves, [18]31); Charles David Ablett (ownership note to front flyleaves, 1926). FIRST EDITION. Ignatius Sancho was born on a slave ship, en route from Guinea to the Spanish colony of New Granada. He was orphaned shortly after birth and was taken by his enslaver to England and given to three unmarried sisters. He lived with them in Greenwich from around 1731 to 1749 where he had the opportunity to meet John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (of the first creation, 1690-1749) who encouraged Sancho to read and lent him books from his personal library. Sancho escaped and ran away to the Montagu House in 1749 and was able to find employment with the family as a butler and later a valet. It was here that he cultivated a love of literature, art, theater, music, and more. In 1786, while the artist was painting Lady Montagu, Thomas Gainsborough also painted a portrait of Sancho, which is the basis for the frontispiece engraving in Vol I. The original painting is now housed at the National Gallery of Canada (58). During the height of the debate regarding slavery, Sancho wrote to author Laurence Sterne encouraging him to lobby for the abolition of the slave trade. Sterne’s response on July 27, 1766, was widely published and became part of the canon of 18th-century abolitionist literature. It also elevated Sancho as a man of letters. in 1774, Sancho opened a shop in Westminster where he was able to socialize, share his enjoyment of the arts, and write, frequently submitting letters to newspapers under the pseudonym “Africanus” and publishing musical commentary. He qualified to vote in the parliamentary elections of 1774 and 1780, making him the first person of African origin known to have voted in Britain. Published and edited two years after his death, this is one of the earliest accounts of African slavery written in English by a former enslaved person. Blockson quotes Vernon Loggins, “his letters...form a work not equaled perhaps in charm and literary merit by another butler, white or black, before Sancho’s day or since. The more than one thousand subscribers listed in the volume include many of the nobility and other persons of prominence.” The work was extremely popular and at least 5 additional editions were issued by 1802. Blockson concludes: “any edition of his work is indispensable to the study of black literature.” Blockson 101, 11; ESTC T100345; Sabin 76310. $2,500-3,500

228 First American Edition of Grégoire’s An Enquiry Concerning the Intellectual and Moral Faculties, and Literature of Negroes, 1810 GRÉGOIRE, Henri (French, 1750-1831). An Enquiry Concerning the Intellectual and Moral Faculties, and Literature of Negroes. Brooklyn: Thomas Kirk, 1810. 8vo (126 x 208 mm). (Occasional toning, ink stain on fore-edge.) Contemporary marbled calf, smooth spine in 6 compartments gilt, with black morocco gilt-lettered spine label (very light rubbing to extremities). FIRST AMERICAN EDITION of this important early defense of the intellectual capacity and capabilities of Black individuals by humanist and revolutionary leader Henri Grégoire, familiarly known as Abbé Grégoire. An ardent abolitionist and advocate of universal suffrage, he was a prominent member of the Society of the Friends of Blacks (Société des amis des noirs), and it was on his motion that in May 1791 the Constituent Assembly passed a law allowing some free men of color the same rights as whites in French colonies. Originally published in Paris in 1808 and translated into English by D.B. Warden. Grégoire dedicates the book: “To all those men who have had the courage to plead the cause of the unhappy blacks and mulattoes, whether by the publication of their works or by discussions in national assemblies, etc.” Blockson notes that “this now scarce volume set the standards by which most biographical and historical works on gifted blacks were written during the following decades. Grégoire’s book was an important and authoritative contribution to Afro-American historicity.” Blockson 101, 18; Sabin 28728. $1,500-2,500

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DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO 119


229 1873 California Published Slave Narrative WILLIAMS, James. Life and Adventures of James Williams, A Fugitive Slave, With a Full Description of the Underground Railroad. San Francisco: Women’s union Book and Job Printing Office, 1874. 8vo (142 x 223 mm). 8 pages of allegorical engravings (light even toning.) Contemporary plain wrappers, front wrapper inscribed “Los Angeles / Feb. 18th, 1875” (light scuffs, wear to corners). Originally published economically in 1873 in Sacramento, an edition expanded to 108 pages was printed later the same year in San Franciso by the Women’s Union Print. This edition is expanded further to 124 pages. The work details his early life and escape from slavery, reuniting with his fugitive mother in Pennsylvania. At the age of 16, he began working the Underground Railroad. His devotion to freeing his fellow man is evident as he includes the stories of several other escaped slaves in this book. The work also follows his move to California, trips to Mexico and British Columbia, the transcontinental railroad, his work with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Spiritualism, the Gold Rush, the Modoc War, and more. An interesting chapter “About Bigamy” briefly and sympathetically mentions Brigham Young and the burgeoning Mormon community in Salt Lake City. He also expresses progressive opinions upon both the Chinese and Irish populations in California, remarking, “Drive them out? Ah, my learned friends, are you not aware that California is a free country? It is part of the United States of America, and America throws open her doors for all nations.” An invaluable document of life in the western frontier. Very scarce. Howes W-456. $2,500-3,500

230 Very Scarce Book of Poetry and Music by Formerly Illiterate Author Thomas Young, 1897 YOUNG, Thomas (1860-?). Afro-American Freeman’s Light: A Book of Original Poems and Songs. Denver: H.D. Mann & Co., [1897]. 8vo. Frontispiece portrait, with music throughout. (Light even toning.) Original cloth-backed light green boards (very light spotting). FIRST EDITION. Born in enslavement in Mississippi in 1860, Young had few opportunities for education. He labored throughout the south and west and began to learn how to write in order to be able to write letters home to his family. In 1892, he moved to Colorado Springs and was hired as a manager at the Antler’s Hotel. In his own words: “when my work was done in the servants’ hall I would vote all my spare

time to studying and writing, sometimes for publication and sometimes for essays. I began to feel my talents growing, so I commenced writing poetry,” later adding musical composition to his repertoire. He continues, “I found that I could compose them so fast that I decided to compose a book.” He also details the details of his religious convictions noting that he joined the M.E. in 1875 and would later join an AME church in Australia, Mississippi. The slim volume contains forty-two poems and ten musical compositions, most are of a religious nature, Young draws on his personal history of hard, agricultural labor which personalizes many of the works. A near-pristine copy of a very scarce work: OCLC locates only four copies with no records of copies ever sold at auction. $6,000-8,000

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231 Bibliography of an Early Black Bibliophile, circa 1906 ADGER, Robert M. (1837-1910). Catalogue of Rare Books on Slavery and Negro Authors on Science, History, Poetry, Religion, Biography, Etc. From the Private Collection of Robert M. Adger. Philadelphia: Robert M. Adger, n.d. [1906?]. Slim 12mo (110 x 198 mm). (Some pencil marginalia). Original wraps, staple bound (light soiling, wrappers detached). FIRST EDITION of the bibliography of Robert M. Adger, a prominent African American bibliophile and businessman who was the director of the Philadelphia Building and Loan Association, one of the first African American mortgage companies. During the Civil War, he joined the Black Enlistment Committee to assist in recruiting Black soldiers and organized the Fraternal Society in 1860. In 1865, he was a delegate at the first state conference in Harrisburg to discuss the creation of a Pennsylvania Equal Rights League. He would help to found the AfroAmerican Historical Society which would house his collection of rare books and ephemera. His collection, listed here, includes rare titles on slavery and abolition, as well as early works by Black and African American authors. Scarce, OCLC locates only three copies. $800-1,200

232 Only Known Copy Spreading Joy, Uplift History of African Americans in Los Angeles, 1937 FOWLER, John. Spreading Joy. Los Angeles: [California Eagle?] 1937. 4to (230 x 306 mm). Profusely illustrated. (Some toning.) Original publisher’s wrappers (spine broken and repaired with tape, light creases, some chips to edges). FIRST EDITION of a collection of articles focusing on the history of the African American community in Los Angeles, originally published under the same title in The California Eagle, The California News, and other periodicals. Charlotta A. Bass, the founder and editor of the Eagle notes in the Foreword, “So thoroughly has the sentiment expressed in ‘Spreading Joy’, permeated the thinking of the people of this community that its author, John Fowler, has been asked to put it in book form... and well on its way to the book shelves of every California Negro family. I recommend ‘Spreading Joy’ as the 1937 mental remedy for dispelling gloom.” The plate titled Belles of the Gay Nineties (facing p.12) is included in the Miriam Matthews Photograph Collection at UCLA. The full publication, however, was not located in any collections or online auction records. ONLY KNOWN COPY. $2,000-3,000

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233 Paul R. Williams Los Angeles Architecture Books, 1945-1946 WILLIAMS, Paul R. (1894-1980). Lot of 3 architecture books, comprising: The Small Home of Tomorrow. 1945. Original illustrated wrappers. -- The Small Home of Tomorrow. 1945. Original green cloth. -- New Homes for Today. 1946. Original buckram; original illustrated dust jacket. -- Together 3 works in 3 volumes, 4to, all published Hollywood, California: Murray & Gee, Inc., with profuse illustrations and architectural diagrams, condition generally fine. Paul R. Williams was a renowned architect who studied at the Los Angeles School of Art and Design, the Los Angeles branch of the BeauxArts Institute of Design Atelier, and after a stint as a landscape architect under Wilbur Cook, Jr., he earned his degree in architectural engineering at the University of Southern California. When he became a certified architect in 1921, he was the first African American architect west of the Mississippi and in 1923 was the first African American member of the American Institute of Architects (1923), and later Fellow. He was highly decorated in his career and achieved widespread recognition allowing him to design over 3,000 structures, including designs for the Los Angeles County Courthouse, First AME Church, and was part of the LAX planning and design team. Notably, he also designed homes for celebrities including Frank Sinatra, Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz, Barbara Stanwyck, and others. $400-600

234 African Americana Bibliography, circa 1947 HEARTMAN, Charles F. (1883-1953). Americana: Printed and in Manuscript: A Most Interesting Collection While there is an Emphasis on the Subject of Negro and Slavery...Biloxi, Mississippi: Charles F. Heartman, n.d., circa 1947. 8vo. Facsimile titles throughout, (occasional pencil marginalia.) Original printed brown wrappers (light creating, minor rubbing at corners). An important catalogue from an influential bookseller and an important testament to his legacy of African-Americana. The collection listed includes 2282 items with occasional facsimile title pages, and includes important titles on abolition, slavery & assiento, manumission, the 13th Amendment & emancipation, Haiti, early Black authors including Olaudah Equiano, Nat Turner, Reconstruction, and more. Heartman had large selections of African Americana that are now housed at Xavier University in New Orleans and Texas Southern University in Houston. $600-800

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235 All-Negro Comics Issue #1, 1947 with Editorial by Orrin C. Evans All-Negro Comics. Issue #1. [Philadelphia]: All-Negro Comics Publications, June 1947. Original glossy illustrated wrappers. Copy of issue #1 of the first known comic magazine written and drawn exclusively by African Americans. The inside front cover features an editorial by pioneering journalist and comic book publisher Orrin C. Evans (1902-1971). In his 1971 New York Times obituary, he is credited as “the first black writer to cover general assignments for a mainstream white newspaper in the United States.” As a passionate advocate for racial equality, he felt he could reach a wide audience through the medium of comics. He formed the All-Negro Comics, Inc. publishing company in 1947 with Harry T. Saylor, Bill Driscoll, and two others, printing the first issue of All-Negro Comics. In the opening editorial, he proudly states that “every brush stroke and pen line in the drawings on these pages are by negro artists.” The inside back cover has an advertisement for issue #2, but it was never published as Evans was unable to purchase more newsprint. There are several allegations that he was blocked from purchasing the required material from prejudiced distributors as well as by white-owned publishers attempting to publish their own Black-focused titles. The comic includes “Ace Harlem,” a detective story by John Terrell with an African American police detective. Evans writes of their aims: “we hope dramatically to point up the outstanding contributions of thousands of fearless, intelligent negro police officers engaged in a constant fight against crime through the United States.” Also includes “Lion Man,” by George J. Evans, Jr., through which the publishers hoped “to give American negroes a reflection their natural spirit of adventure and a finer appreciation of their African heritage.” A very scarce comic, especially in such fine condition. OCLC locates only five copies with few coming to market. $4,000-6,000

236 Black Laughter, Issue #1, Nov. 1972 DIXON, James M. (20th century). Black Laughter. Issue #1. Toledo, Ohio: Black Laughter Publishing, Nov. 1972. Original illustrated wrappers. Story, cover and art by James Dixon, “a soul brother,” with the first appearance of Mr. Habeas Corpus, a cigar-smoking lawyer. The rear wrapper adverises the next issue scheduled for December 2, 1972, but it appears to have never been published. Not listed in Overstreet. $100-200

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DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO 123


237 Carl Van Vechten Self-Portrait, 1933 Silver gelatin self-portrait. 6.75 x 9 in, mounted to 8..5 x 11 in. Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964): New York, October 4, 1933. Signed (“Carl Van Vechten”) in blue ink to lower right margin, verso with pencil inscription on verso with date and number “Ve.” The photographer captures the back of his head as he sits in a somewhat tattered chair with a geometric patterned backdrop. Carl Van Vechten was well-connected to the people and places of the Harlem Renaissance at a time when racial segregation and Jim Crow laws were intense. Throughout the 1920s, he indulged in the parties and social scene of New York’s Black creative class, which he captured in his provocatively titled novel Nigger Heaven. When the Depression came, he stopped writing novels and began taking photographs, most notably of influential African Americans, taking iconic portraits of thought leaders, entertainment stars, sports figures, artists, writers of the Harlem Renaissance, and more. His collection of over 9000 images, mostly portraits, is held at the Beinecke Library at Yale University. $800-1,200

238 Carl Van Vechten TNS to Ballet Dancer Hugh Laing on Van Vecten Self Portrait Real Photo Postcard, 1941 Typed note signed (“Carlo!”) by Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964) to ballet dancer, Hugh Laing (1911-1988). New York City, postmarked Sept. 14, 1941. On real photo postcard self-portrait of Van Vechten. Carl Van Vechten: New York, n.d., circa 1941. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint. A bust-length portrait of the photographer who looks away from the camera, a geometric pattern behind him. Van Vechten writes to his friend regarding an upcoming dinner party: “Please will you have awfully simple food on Tuesday, if its not too much to ask. My stummick is kinda upset...but we are both looking forward to seeing you both! l and k, Carlo!” Laing, born in Barbados is regarded as one of the most important dramatic ballet dancers of the 20th century. At 20, he moved to London to study art but soon switched his focus to ballet, studying with Olga Preobrajenska, Margaret Craske, and Marie Rambert, joining her experimental Ballet Club in 1933. Here, he met his long time partner, choreographer Antony Tudor. The pair moved to New York in 1939 to participate in the first season of the Ballet Theater (later the American Ballet Theater) where they both achieved acclaim. Laing moved in the same social circles as Van Vechten, with the photographer taking several portraits of the dancer, both candidly and in studio settings. $300-500

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239 James Baldwin Portrait by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 Silver gelatin portrait photograph of James Baldwin (1924-1987). Carl Van Vechten: New York, September 23, 1955. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint to lower left, verso with stamp and ink notations identifying Baldwin, the date of sitting, with Van Vechten number: “XV NN 2.” 6.75 x 10 in. A half-length portrait of the pioneering author wearing a terrycloth polo shirt, his arms crossed. Taken shortly before his first non-fiction book, Notes of a Native Son, was published. $3,500-4,500

240 Diahann Carroll Portrait by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 Silver gelatin portrait photograph of Diahann Carroll (1935-2019). Carl Van Vechten: New York, March 14, 1955. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint to lower left, verso with stamp and ink notations identifying Carroll, the date of sitting, with Van Vechten number “XII. MM. 7,” 7.5 x 10 in. A three-quarter length portrait of the 20-year old actress and singer wearing a high-necked, form-fitting lace dress with three-quarter length sleeves and a drop waist full skirt. Taken just a year after film debut in Carmen Jones (1954) in which she was a friend to the lead character played by Dorothy Dandridge. The same year she starred in House of Flowers on Broadway. Her storied career saw success in movies (nominated for the Best Actress Academy Award in Claudine, 1974), theater (winning the 1962 Best Actress in a Musical Tony for No Strings), music (winning the 1963 Grammy for Best Musical Theater Album, also for No Strings), and television (winning the 1968 Golden Globe Best Female TV Star for Julia). $300-500

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DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO 125


241 1950 California Eagle Bound Volume California Eagle, June 5-October 19, 1950, Bound Volume. The California Eagle was a weekly African American newspaper founded in 1879 and from January 31, 1914, was owned and edited by African American civil rights activist and editor Charlotta Bass (1874-1969). She was the first African American woman to own a newspaper in the United States. She was also the first African American woman nominated for Vice President when she ran on the Progressive Party Ticket in 1952. She retired from the newspaper business in 1951. The paper focused on the African American community. This volume contains headlines such as: “Leimert Park Residents Organize to Prevent Negroes From Buying Homes” (June 5); “’American’ Bar Refuses Drinks to Negroes” (July 21); “Traveler Tells of Jim Crow He Experienced” (July 28); “Mississippi Organization Demands That U.S. Negroes Be Sent to Africa” (Aug. 4); “Board Asks Investigation of ‘Trigger Happy’ Cops” (Aug. 25); “Southern Leader Sees Threat to Integration in Marshall” (Sept. 21); “Discrimination Ban Not Urgent Says Judge Fox” (Oct. 12); “Police Beat, Arrest Youths” (Oct. 19), and more. Uplifting articles are also present including: “New York Pythians End Jimcrow” (Aug. 11); “Mrs. Bass Accepts Candidacy for Congress,” and “Dr. Du Bois Honored” (Oct. 5); and a man who had been given a life sentence was released from prison because of “cruel and inhuman treatment” while in a Mississippi prison (Sept. 14). The paper covers all the news, including social events, school graduations, men in service in the Korean War, sports, and more. Danky-Handy 1342. $400-600

242 Iceberg Slim Books, 1969-1977 BECK, Robert. (“Iceberg Slim,” 1918-1992). A group of novels and memoirs by former pimp and author Iceberg Slim, comprising: Pimp: The Story of My Life. 1969. -- Trick Baby: The Story of a White Negro. 1969.-- The Naked Soul of Iceberg Slim. 1971. FIRST PRINTING. -- The Naked Soul of Iceberg Slim. 1971. -- Mama Black Widow. 1969. -- Death Wish. 1977. -- Together, 7 works in 7 volumes, 2 copies each of Trick Baby and The Naked Soul, small 8vo, all published in Los Angeles by Holloway House, all in publisher’s bindings, condition generally fine. According to Beck’s memoir Pimp, he began pimping at age 18 and continued until he was 42. After spending some time in prison, he retired from sex work and was later encouraged by his partner to novelize his life story. He published Pimp in 1967, giving many of the characters pseudonyms in an effort to “not snitch.” Following the success of Pimp, he published an autobiography and novels, selling over six million books. All published by Holloway House in Los Angeles. Founded by Bentley Morris and Ralph Weinstock in the 1950s, they originally published Playboy-style magazines and pulp fiction. In the late 1960s, however, they became a center of the developing Black literary underground, epitomized by Iceberg Slim. $100-200

243 African Americans in Los Angeles, Lot of 13 Books Lot of 13 books relating to African Americans in Los Angeles, California, many by Black authors, comprising: JACKSON, Aurilda (20th Century). Untangled. New York: Vantage Press, 1956. Original lime green cloth, original dust jacket. FIRST EDITION, SIGNED by the author. -- PHILLIPS, Gary (b.1955). Violent Spring. Portland, Oregon: West Coast Crime, 1994. Trade paperback. FIRST EDITION, SIGNED by the author. -- SCHULBERG, Budd (1914-2009), ed. From the Ashes: Voices of Watts. New York: The New American Library, 1967. Original boards, original dust jacket. Second printing. -- MOSLEY, Walter (b.1952). A Red Death. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991. Original boards, original illustrated dust jacket. FIRST EDITION. -- WOODS, Paula L. (b.1953). Inner City Blues. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999. Original boards, original dust jacket. FIRST EDITION, SIGNED. -- Together, 13 works in 13 volumes, all FIRST EDITIONS except where noted, 8vo, all in publisher’s bindings with dust jackets except where noted, all in very fine condition. A complete list of titles is available at cowans. com. $200-400

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WELCOMING CONSIGNMENTS

African Americana February 18, 2021 Chicago | Live + Online

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Exceedingly Rare Photograph of Formerly Enslaved African American Freedom Seekers with Abolitionists Levi Coffin and Jonathan Cable Sold for $81,250 DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO 127


AUCTION INQUIRIES | AMERICAN HISTORICAL EPHEMERA AND PHOTOGRAPHY

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INDEX Subject, Lot Number 9th Cavalry, 18-21, 27, 29, 31-32, 35, 37, 39, 42, 44-45 10th Cavalry, 21, 23-24, 27-28, 31-34, 36, 37, 41, 43-46 24th Infantry, 22, 40, 44, 47 25th Infantry, 17, 20, 30, 47 Abolition, 3-5, 9, 11, 16, 110, 147-148, 150, 185, 189, 227-228, 231 African Methodist Episcopal Church, 88, 108, 230 Agriculture, 134-135 Allen, James Latimer, 201 Ali, Muhammad, 224 Architecture, 233 Arizona, 21-25, 27, 36, 46, 87, 116, 139 Arkansas, 2, 114 Armstrong, Henry, 220 Art, 11, 118, 185, 227, 235 Aviation, 139 Ball, J.P., 53-56 Baseball, 44, 85 Bass, Charlotta, 159, 232, 241 Beauty & Cosmetology, 125, 138, 203-204 Bibliographies, 231, 234 Black Liberation movement, 162-171 Black Muslims, 163-164 Black Panther Party, 164, 167-168 Blind Tom, 174-178 Boley, Oklahoma, 130 Boxing, 207-225 Brown, John, 3, 12, 16 Buffalo Soldiers, 17-47 California, 10, 15, 87, 108-111, 115, 123-124, 128, 132, 138-143, 146, 151-152, 158-160, 166, 168, 172-173, 184, 187, 189-191, 202204, 210, 229, 232-233, 241-243 Civil War, 6-15 Cleaver, Eldridge, 168-169 Colorado, 23, 38, 47, 103, 121-122, 127, 230 Comics, 235-236 Cowboys, 94, 101 Crime & Punishment, 112-114 Delany, Martin, 9 Directories, 143 Douglass, Frederick, 4, 67, 147-150, 161, 193 Du Bois, W.E.B., 37, 148, 241 Education, 67, 76-85 Entertainment, 174-206 Flags and patriotic textiles, 11, 28 Flipper, Henry Ossian, 41 Florida, 117-118 Fly, C.S., 22 Freeman, Daniel, 75 Gans, Joe, 207-210 GAR and other veteran organizations, 13-15 Harlem Renaissance, 201-202, 220, 237-240 Housing, 98, 100, 105, 128, 150 Howard University, 8, 81, 85, 160-161 Illinois, 7, 90, 94, 154, 167, 183 Indian Territory, see Oklahoma Jackson, William H., 102 Johson, Jack, 211-219 Journals, 139 Kansas, 3, 16, 21, 90, 189, 196 King, Jr., Martin Luther, 165, 221

Los Angeles, 109, 111, 138-143, 158-160, 166, 173, 203-204, 229, 232-233, 242-243 Louis, Joe, 221-223 Magic, 197-198 Malcolm X, 163-164 Masons, 97 Medical, 8-9, 29, 48, 58, 150, 155-156 Mexico, 45, 109, 128, 218, 229 Minstrelsy, 180-184 Missouri, 3, 21, 89, 91, 135, 137, 157, 195-196 Montana, 17, 32-33, 55-56, 88-89, 106-107, 136 Mormons, 86, 229 Music, 186, 190-192, 194-196, 199-202 Nebraska, 20-21, 32, 181, 194-195 New Mexico, 23-24, 34, 45, 88, 156, 216-217 New Orleans, 10, 62, 74, 125, 182-183 Newspapers, 110, 129, 241 Newton, Huey P., 168 Nevada, 110, 127, 208-215 North Dakota, 33, 87, Oakland, 110, 146, 151-152, 168, 190-191, Occupational History, 125-143 Oklahoma, 19, 26, 85, 87, 95-96, 113-114, 119, 130, 134 Philippine-American War, 29, 43-44, 47 Pinback Buttons, 16, 144-145, 147, 149, 153, 156, 161-162, 164167, 169-172, 211, 224 Poetry, 230 Race Riots, 154, 166, 173 Redpath, James, 3 Religion, 108, 111, 138, 189, 230 Robeson, Paul, 201-202 Sacramento, 110, 187, 229 San Diego, 109, 123, 128, 160 San Francisco, 15, 37, 44, 109-110, 115, 151-152, 163, 189, 199200, 202, 204, 208, 210-211, 220, 229, Slavery, 1-3, 6, 16, 229 South Dakota, 30, 104-105 Spanish-American War, 31, 37-38, 40, 42-43 Texas, 10, 23, 30, 34, 39, 42, 82, 87, 97-100, 135, 226 Tijuana, 109 Tourism and Recreation, 109, 116, 120-123, 132 Truth, Sojourner, 5 Underground Railroad, 4-5, 148, 189, 229 USCT, 7-11, 13-15, 87, 104, US Military academy, see West Point Utah, 40, 86 Van Vechten, Carl, 201, 220, 223, 237-240 Washington, Booker T., 139, 151-153 Watts Riots, 166 West Point, 31, 37, 41 Wilberforce University, 37, 41, 160 Women, 5, 24, 49, 53-54, 56, 58-59. 61-62, 64-66, 71-75, 82-84, 86, 88, 89-91, 96, 103-107, 111, 115, 119, 121, 123, 125, 139, 179, 185, 190, 192, 199, 203-205, 214, 240-241 World’s Fairs and Expositions, 144-145, 148, 160, 200 World War I, 37-38, 46-48, 139 World War II, 146 Wyoming, 35, 86, 88, 102 Yellowstone, 102 Young, Charles, 31, 37

Labor, 161 Lincoln, Abraham, 8, 149

SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO 129


TERMS AND CONDITIONS By registering and bidding in an auction conducted by Cowan’s LLC (“Cowan’s”), Bidders (whether present in person, by telephone, by agent, by written or telephone absentee bid instruction, or through a live internet connection) agree to be bound by these terms. These are the complete and only terms and conditions on which all property is offered for sale. Cowan’s retains the right to bar any Bidder from participating in any auction and to exclude or reject any bid. 1) ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS Bidding on any item, whether in person, by phone, by absentee bid or via a live internet auction indicates the Bidder’s agreement to be bound by these Terms and Conditions for Bidders. Any right of Bidder under this agreement shall not be assignable and shall only be enforceable by the original buyer. The rights and obligations of the parties shall be governed by the laws of the state of Ohio. All Bidders submit to the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in Hamilton County in the State of Ohio. 2) REGISTRATION All Bidders must register their name, permanent street address (no P.O. Boxes), and telephone number prior to the auction. Unless known to Cowan’s, all registrants are required to present two forms of identification, at least one of which must include a current photograph. Bidders may be required to present a valid credit card. By registering with Cowan’s or submitting an absentee bid form, registrant authorizes Cowan’s to obtain a copy of his or her consumer credit report and authorizes Cowan’s, at its sole discretion, to use the information contained therein to make business decisions regarding the registrant’s participation in the bidding process. Any Bidder unknown to Cowan’s may be required to submit a bank letter of credit prior to the auction, or, using a credit card, deposit with Cowan’s a fee equaling 50% of the absentee bid or 50% of the low estimate, whichever is higher. 3) TERMS OF SALE Announcements made the day of auction take precedence over any previous communication. The auctioneer reserves the right to withdraw any lot at any time before its final sale and to reject any bid for any reason. The highest Bidder for each lot acknowledged by the auctioneer shall be the “buyer”. If any dispute arises as to any bidding, or between two or more Bidders, at the sole discretion of the auctioneer, the successful Bidder will be determined or the disputed lot shall be put up again at the last undisputed bid and resold. 4) BUYER’S PREMIUM The Auctioneer will collect and retain from the Buyer an additional commission (“Buyer’s Premium”). This Buyer’s Premium is not subject to negotiation from the Seller, nor is it a portion of the commission collected by the Seller. (a) Buyer’s Premium for Live “Historic Firearms and Militaria” and all “Coins and Currency” auctions: The Auctioneer will collect and retain from the Buyer, as additional commission, a premium equal to 20% of the Sale Price of each Lot up to and including $250,000, 15% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $250,000, and 12% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $3,000,000. (b) Buyer’s Premium for all other types of auctions: The Auctioneer will collect and retain from the Buyer, as additional commission, a premium equal to 25% of the Sale Price of each Lot up to and including $250,000, 20% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $250,000, and 12% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $3,000,000. (c) Lots purchased through any fee-based online bidding platform to which the Auctioneer might subscribe may be subject to additional Buyer’s Premium. Such additional pass-through fees will be collected by the subscriber and are not subject to negotiation from the Seller, nor is this additional commission due the Seller. (d) Live “Historic Firearms and Militaria” auctions: In-person buyers paying via cash, wire transfer, money order, or pre-approved check will receive 2% Buyer’s Premium discount day-of sale only. Discounted purchased items must be removed from Cowan’s day-of sale. 5) ESTIMATES AND RESERVES Presale estimates are intended to be guides and may or may not reflect the ultimate hammer price of a lot. Cowan’s retains the right to change estimates on any lot up to time of sale. A reserve is a confidential minimum price agreed upon by the Seller of the lot and Cowan’s. In the case of reserved lots, the Seller has authorized Cowan’s to bid on Seller’s behalf until the reserve price is reached. In no case will the reserve be higher than the low presale

estimate. Unless otherwise stated, Cowan’s standard house reserve on all property at auction is one-half of the low estimate. 6) WARRANTIES AND DISCLAIMERS Cowan’s makes a limited warranty only to the original buyer of record concerning the authenticity of each lot for a period of 14 days after the close of the auction. If a buyer is not satisfied that the lot purchased is genuine, the buyer may, at his or her own expense, obtain the written opinion of two mutually agreed upon recognized experts in the field of the disputed lot. If these experts determine that the item is not genuine, the buyer’s sole and exclusive remedy shall be the rescission of the sale and refund of the amount paid for the item. It is specifically understood and agreed that the rescission of the sale and refund is exclusive and in lieu of any other remedy which might otherwise be available as a matter of law or in equity, and such remedy is conditioned upon the buyer returning the property in the same condition as at the time of sale. Cowan’s shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential damages. All sales are final, with no returns or refunds except as provided in this limited warranty. Except as provided in the immediately preceding paragraph, EVERY LOT IS SOLD “AS IS”, without any representations or warranties by Cowan’s or the Seller as to merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, condition or value of the property, or the correctness or completeness of the catalogue or other description of the property, and no statement, whether written or oral, shall be deemed such a representation, warranty or assumption of liability. Cowan’s makes no representation or warranty that the buyer of manuscript material, photographs, prints or works of art will acquire any copyright or reproduction rights. Cowan’s does not guarantee the working order of any clock, watch, electronic or mechanical device. Dimensions given in the catalogue descriptions may be approximate. 7) INSPECTION Prospective buyers are advised to personally examine any lots in which they are interested prior to the auction. All lots are available for inspection prior to the auction. Condition reports for most items can be found online at Cowan’s website, cowans.com, and prospective Bidders are encouraged to contact Cowan’s directly for additional information regarding the condition of any lot. Cowan’s does not warrant the condition of any item. The absence of a condition statement does not imply that the lot is in perfect condition or completely free from wear and tear, imperfections or the effects of aging. Buyers interested in the condition of an item are encouraged to contact Cowan’s and, to the best of our ability, we will document for the prospective Bidder the condition status on any lot. Condition is always a subjective evaluation and final responsibility rests with the buyer to assess the condition of any item sold by Cowan’s. 8) DEFINITIONS OF AUTHORSHIP “By” or “Maker/Artist” — in our opinion, the work is by the artist or maker stated “Attributed to” — in our opinion, the work is probably, but not definitely, by the artist or maker stated “Signed” or “Marked” — in our opinion, the signature or mark is that of the stated artist or maker “Bearing the signature (or mark) of” — in our opinion, the signature or mark is probably, but not definitely, that of the artist or maker stated “Circle of” — in our opinion, the work is of the period and by an artist or maker closely associated with the stated artist or maker “School of” — in our opinion, the work is by a pupil or follower of the stated artist or maker “Manner of” — in our opinion, the work is of the period and done in the style of the stated artist or maker “After” — in our opinion, the work is a copy of a work by the stated artist or maker ABSENTEE, TELEPHONE AND INTERNET BIDDING Absentee and telephone bidding is offered as a free service to our customers and prospective Bidders. Cowan’s shall not be responsible for any errors or failures in executing bids, either absentee, telephone or via the internet. Cowan’s cannot warrant or guarantee any phone or absentee bids made or altered on the day of the auction. All bids must be placed in U.S. Dollars and reflect the bid increments as defined by the Auctioneer.

130 THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART II

BID LIVE ONLINE

COWAN’S live!


9) ABSENTEE BIDDING Absentee bids are accepted via phone, fax, email and on Cowan’s website. Such bids will be posted with the time and date of arrival, with ties being awarded to the earliest Bidder. Absentee bids that are faxed or emailed need to be received by the Cowan’s office at least 2 hours before the sale begins. All absentee bids are executed competitively by a member of the auction staff. The auction staff will try to purchase the lot for the lowest price possible and will bid up to the amount designated by the absentee Bidder only if necessary. Cowan’s does not accept “buy bids,” or absentee bids which have no limit. In the event of a tie bid between a floor and an absentee Bidder, the floor bid will be honored. 10) TELEPHONE BIDDING Bidding live via the telephone is available on a first come, first served basis. In order for Cowan’s to efficiently serve the needs of those who wish to bid by phone, please note the following: (a) To participate in the auction by telephone, potential Bidders must complete and sign the bid form and check “I WISH TO BID BY TELEPHONE” for the designated lots. Potential Bidders may also reserve a phone line on Cowan’s website. If faxing or emailing requests for phone bidding, they need to be received by the Cowan’s office at least 2 hours before the sale begins. Once the auction begins, bids left on Cowan’s website or emailed may not be retrieved by the staff. (b) As a registered telephone bidder, Bidders are aware the bidding begin at the minimum of one half of the low estimate. (c) Telephone Bidders are advised to indicate an “insurance bid”, which amount will become an absentee bid, pursuant to the absentee bidding process set forth above, if Cowan’s cannot reach the Bidder by telephone for a particular indicated lot. (d) Telephone Bidders must disable any caller ID or other call blocking mechanism. (e) Cowan’s sells about 75-100 lots per hour, so telephone Bidders should plan accordingly. Cowan’s will attempt to reach each telephone Bidder, but Cowan’s is in no way responsible for missed calls. 11) INTERNET BIDDING Internet bidding is available through our website; additionally, Cowan’s may post certain auctions on third party bidding platforms. At its discretion, Cowan’s may restrict select lots from internet bidding; restricted lots can be bid upon directly with Cowan’s via phone or absentee bidding. There may be terms which apply solely to internet bids that should be reviewed online at the time of sale. Cowan’s is not responsible for any failure to execute a bid and shall have no liability to any Bidder for any technical or other failure associated with an internet auction. 12) BIDDING INCREMENTS The following increments are used at the auction. Absentee bids must fall within these increments. Cowan’s will automatically adjust any absentee bid to the closest increment if the bid falls outside the published range of increments. For Bids Falling Between Bidding Increment $0-500 $25 $501-1,000 $50 $1,001-3,000 $100 $3,001-5,000 $250 $5,001 and up $500 or at the discretion of the auctioneer Cowan’s reserves the right to modify increments at any time during the auction. AFTER THE AUCTION 13) BUYER’S RESPONSIBILITY Upon the fall of the hammer, title to the offered lot shall pass to the buyer and the buyer immediately (a) assumes full risk and responsibility for the lot, including liability for loss or damage and (b) is liable for payment of the Purchase Price (as defined below) to Cowan’s. It is the buyer’s responsibility to ask specific questions on condition related concerns prior to the auction. Cowan’s will not rescind sales with buyers that have disputes regarding firearm’s bore condition. 14) PURCHASE PRICE AND PAYMENT The “Purchase Price” for each lot shall equal the hammer price, buyer’s premium, sales tax and, if applicable, all packing, handling, insurance and shipping costs. Buyers who are present at the auction must pay the full Purchase Price at the time of the sale. Buyers who bid by telephone, by internet, or who are

absentee Bidders will be invoiced within 5 days after the close of the auction and must pay the full Purchase Price for each purchased lot within 14 days after the date of the auction. If no alternate payment has been arranged, Cowan’s may apply any balance due to the Buyer’s payment method on file after 14 days. No property will be released by Cowan’s unless the Purchase Price has been paid in full and the payment has cleared. Payments must be made with cash, personal or traveler’s check, money order, credit card or wire transfers. Returned checks are subject to an additional $45 return fee. Bidders from outside the continental United States are required to pay via wire transfer unless previously known to Cowan’s. For Fine Jewelry, Coin and Currency, and Fine Silver auctions, Bidders previously unknown to Cowan’s may purchase up to $1,000 via credit card with the remaining balance settled via cash, personal or traveler’s check or credit card or wire transfers. PLEASE NOTE: A surcharge of 3% will be assessed to all credit card transactions. This surcharge is not greater than our cost of acceptance. Institutional billing may be available, and should be arranged prior to the auction. Cowan’s may impose late charges of 1.5% per month (18% APR or the highest interest rate allowed) on any amount owed to Cowan’s that remains unpaid after 30 days. Buyer shall be liable for any collection costs or attorney’s fees incurred by Cowan’s to collect payment, to the extent permitted by law. 15) SALES TAX Buyers are required to pay any applicable state and local sales tax. 16) SHIPPING At the request of the buyer, Cowan’s will authorize the shipment of purchased items usually within two weeks after payment has been received. Shipment is generally made via UPS or Fed-Ex Ground. Unless buyer gives special instructions, the shipping method shall be at the sole discretion Cowan’s Auctions. Cowan’s is in no way responsible for the acts or omissions of independent handlers, packers or shippers of purchased items or for any loss, damage or delay from the packing or shipping of any property. ADVICE TO INTERNATIONAL BUYERS Cowan’s will not ship any package containing a firearm to any location other than within the United States. Buyers outside the United States must make their own shipping arrangements taking full risk for the transportation of any firearm. Property made of or containing certain plant or animal materials, such as coral, crocodile, ivory, whalebone, baleen, tortoiseshell, etc., may require a license or certificate before exportation from the United States and importation to another country. If a purchase contains these materials, the Buyer must check the government wildlife import requirements in the countries from which and to which the item is being shipped prior to bidding. Since the export and import licenses are independently issued by the countries of origin and destination, obtaining one does not guarantee that you can obtain the other. Purchasers are responsible for making timely payments on items won at auction, even if a license is delayed or denied. 17) SHIPPING CHARGES Buyers are required to pay for all packing, shipping and insurance charges. Overseas duty charges are the responsibility of the successful Bidder. Be aware that for larger and/or valuable items, shipping charges can be substantial. 18) REMOVAL AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY AND CANCELLATION OF SALE It is the responsibility of the Buyer to remove purchased property. If purchased property has not been removed, or Cowan’s has not received shipping instructions within 60 days after the auction date, Cowan’s may, at its option, cancel the sale, retaining as liquidated damages any payments made by the buyer, and/or resell the property at auction or by any other commercially reasonable means, for the account and at the risk of the buyer, and in such event, buyer shall be liable for the payment of all deficiencies plus all of Cowan’s costs, including but not limited to storage and costs of both sales. This right of cancellation is in addition to any and all other remedies available to Cowan’s. Copyright © 2020 Cowan’s LLC

SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

DECEMBER 3, 2020 CINCINNATI, OHIO 131


6270 Este Avenue Cincinnati, 6270 Este AvenueOhio 45232 ph: 513.871.1670 Cincinnati, Ohio 45232 fx: 513.871.8670 ph: 513.871.1670 info@cowans.com fx: 513.871.8670 cowans.com info@cowans.com cowans.com

BID FORM

REGISTRATION NO.:

☐ PHONE ABSENTEE BID☐FORM ☐ PHONE ☐ ABSENTEE

REGISTRATION AUCTION:NO.: AUCTION: DATE/TIME RECEIVED: DATE/TIME RECEIVED: ☐REG:

☐REG:

☐CONF: (FOR☐ OFFICE USE ONLY) CONF: (FOR OFFICE USE ONLY)

NAME (please print) NAMEADDRESS (please print) ADDRESS CITY CITY PHONE (1)

STATE

ZIP

STATEPHONE (2)

ZIPEMAIL

Bids(1) must be received at least 24 hours in advance PHONE of the start(2) of the auction. Cowan’s will confirm all registered PHONE EMAIL bids by email as received. I authorize Cowan’s LLC 24 (“Cowan’s”) (i) enterof bids the of following lots upCowan’s to the price indicated in the “Absentee column; or (ii) reserve a telephone line for Bids must be received at least hours in to advance theonstart the auction. willI have confirm all registered bids by Bid” email as received.

telephone bidding. I request that if Cowan’s is unable to reach me for telephone bidding, that Cowan’s enter bids up to the price indicated in the “Insurance Bid” column. I I authorize Cowan’s that LLCCowan’s (“Cowan’s”) (i) enter bids on the following lots up to Ithe priceunderstand I have indicated in the “Absentee column; or and (ii) reserve a telephone lineasfora convenience for understand will to execute bids competitively on my behalf. further that Cowan’s executesBid” absentee bids allows telephone bids telephone bidding. Iand request that if Cowan’s is unable to for reach me to forexecute telephone that Cowan’s up to theorprice indicated in the Bid” column. I bidding at half customers that Cowan’s is not responsible failure bidsbidding, or for errors relating enter to thebids submission execution of my bids.“Insurance The auctioneer will open understand that estimate Cowan’s and will execute bids according competitively on increments my behalf. Ilaid further understand executes absenteeorbids and allows bids asincrements a convenience forrounded the low will advance to the out in our Termsthat andCowan’s Conditions. Any absentee insurance bids telephone placed at invalid will be customers that Cowan’s is notincrement. responsible for receive failure to execute for errors to theprice, submission execution of will my take bids.precedence. The auctioneer willcase openofbidding at half up and to the nearest bidding If we more than bids one or absentee bidrelating at the same the firstorone received In the a disputed bid, the the low estimate and will have advance increments out in our Terms and Conditions. Any absentee or insurance bids placed at invalid increments will be rounded auctioneer shall soleaccording discretion to in the determining thelaid purchaser. up to the nearest bidding increment. If we receive more than one absentee bid at the same price, the first one received will take precedence. In the case of a disputed bid, the I agree be bound by the Terms and Conditions for Bidders printed in the auction catalog and listed on Cowan’s website www.cowans.com and I understand that I am auctioneer shallto have sole discretion in determining the purchaser. responsible for determining the condition and authenticity of any lot prior to the auction, and that all items are sold AS IS with no returns or refunds. I agree to be bound by the Terms and Conditions for Bidders printed in the auction catalog and listed on Cowan’s website www.cowans.com and I understand that I am responsible for determining the condition and authenticity of any lot prior to the auction, and that all items are sold AS IS with no returns or refunds.

LOT NO. LOT NO.

INSURANCE BID BID BY ABSENTEE BID PHONE (phone bidders only) INSURANCE BID BID BY ABSENTEE BID $ $ PHONE ☐ (phone bidders only)

DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION

$ $ $ $ $ $ $

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐

☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

☐$ $ ☐$ ☐ $ ☐$ ☐ $ $ report and authorize Cowan’s,☐ $ By submitting this Bid Form, I authorize Cowan’s to obtain a copy of my individual consumer credit at its sole discretion, to use the information

contained therein to make business decisions regarding my participation in the bidding process. For all new and international bidders, Cowan’s may also authorize credit cards By submitting Bid Form, I authorize Cowan’s a copy my to individual consumer credit and authorize with a this nominal hold for up to 7 days prior to obtain the auction in of order determine the validity of report the card and bidder. Cowan’s, at its sole discretion, to use the information contained therein to make business decisions regarding my participation in the bidding process. For all new and international bidders, Cowan’s may also authorize credit cards If my bid is successful, I understand thatauction the purchase for each the lot will be the of the hammer with a nominal hold for up to 7 days prior to the in orderprice to determine validity of sum the card and bidder.price, the buyer’s premium, sales tax and all packing, handling, insurance and shipping costs (the “purchase price”). I understand that I will be invoiced within 5 days after the auction and that I will be responsible for paying Cowan’s the full purchase price If my bidimmediately is successful, I understand thatinvoice. the purchase price forbe each lot by willcash, be the sum of thetransfer, hammerorprice, buyer’s premium, sales tax and allsurcharge). packing, handling, insurance upon receipt of the Payment can made check, wire creditthe card (credit cards are subject to 3% By signing this bid form I and shipping costsCowan’s (the “purchase price”). I understand thatbelow I will be within 5 days thelot auction and my thatbid I will be responsible for paying Cowan’s full purchase price authorize to charge the credit card listed for invoiced the full purchase price after of each for which is successful, unless payment in full orthe alternative payment immediately upon receipt of the invoice. Payment can made bythe cash, check, transfer, or credit (credit are subject 3% surcharge). signing this bid I instructions are received by Cowan’s within 14be days after date of thewire auction. Cowan’s maycard impose latecards charges of 1.5%to per month (or the By highest interest rateform allowed) on any authorize Cowan’s to charge the credit card listed below for 30 thedays. full purchase price of each lot for which my bid is successful, unless payment in full or alternative payment amount owed to Cowan’s that remains unpaid after instructions are received by Cowan’s within 14 days after the date of the auction. Cowan’s may impose late charges of 1.5% per month (or the highest interest rate allowed) on any amount owed to Cowan’s that remains unpaid after 30 days.

CARD NUMBER:

EXP:

CARDNAME NUMBER: ON CARD:

EXP: BILLING ZIP:

NAME ON CARD:

BILLING ZIP:

BIDDER SIGNATURE:

CVC:

CVC:

DATE:

BIDDER SIGNATURE:

DATE:

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The Steve Turner Collection of African Americana, Part II  

The Steve Turner Collection of African Americana, Part II