ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: EARTH S1, 2016 SUBJECT STUDENT BOOK Leonie Csanki (840872) Danielle Mileo + ST15

Contents 1. THREE RELATIONSHIPS   

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3.3. CONCEPTACLE 

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1.1.  POINT / LINE / PLANE  

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3.4.  CONCEPT AND SKETCH DIGITISATION  

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1.2. MASS 

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3.5.  DESIGN DEVELOPMENT  

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1.3.  FRAME & INFILL  

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3.6.  FINAL DESIGN DRAWINGS  

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1.3.1. MODEL 

3.6.1.  SITE PLAN  

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3.6.2.  AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM  

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3.6.3. PLANS 

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2.1. MODEL 

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3.6.4. ELEVATIONS 

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2.2.  DRAWINGS AND DIGITISATION  

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3.6.5. SECTIONS 

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2.3. OUTCOME 

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3.6.6. PERSPECTIVES 

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3.  HERRING ISLAND  

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3.1. HISTORY 

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4. REFLECTION 

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3.2.  SITE ANALYSIS  

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5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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1.3.2. DRAWINGS  2. CONCEPT 

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3.7.  FINAL DESIGN MODEL  

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Far left: POINT/LINE/PLANE: Continuous line drawing completed in Week 1 Tutorial. Left:  FRAME & INFILL: Sketching to understand the frame in axonometric perspective Below:  MASS: Sketch exploring underground concepts to illustrate the mass tec(h)tonic.

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1.  THREE RELATIONSHIPS This book explores my the beginning of my journey into architecture through the exploration of the three tec(h)tonics and how they can relate to each other. These three tec(h)tonics are: 1. Point, Line and Plane; 2. Mass; 3. Frame and Infill. Through conceptual, haptic and visual exploration of these tec(h)tonics I came to realise how all architecture uses each, some or all to varying extents. It has become a game for me to try and spot the tec(h)tonics in buildings I see around me. My own living room has become the junction of infill elements meeting their frames, frames meeting planes, lines leading to points — even the high, 1970s angled ceiling has become the mass tec(h)tonic in how it creates negative mass through the shear volume of space it implies. The three exercises completed throughout the first half of semester were essential to developing my understanding of these fundamental aspects of architecture. Above:  Continuous line drawing to practice drawing what is seen.

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1.1.  POINT / LINE / PLANE Points, lines and planes are not unfamiliar to me, as they are components of visual and two-dimensional design. It is apt that the tec(h)tonic begins with point; as everything has starting point; then progresses to a line, then with multiple lines, a plane. Faced with the challenge of turning these two-dimensional ideas into a three-dimensional object, through the model-making process I found I was cutting up planes to make lines and points. What if I could create something that reverses the linear idea that a point forms a line forms a plane? I created an architectural park bench: one could sit, lie, stand on and around it, walk about it and do it again. The structure uses only planes, and yet lines are clearly seen in the tops of the vertical planes, and arbitrary points easily interpreted in the horizontal planes as points for sitting, lying or standing. It was suggested to me that in another scale, this final model could in fact be a building itself, not just a park bench. This model and suggestion planted the seed for my final concept.

Opposite page:  Haptic exploration of the point, line and plane tec(h)tonic through creating models with card, balsa wood, foam board and drawing pins. Top left:  Scale view photograph of completed 1:50 scale model. Left:  Aerial and perspective views of completed model.

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1.2.  MASS The mass tec(h)tonic struck me in its simplicity, which lead me to question if it is really that simple: a solid pile of a material. In a natural state, Uluru is a prime example. Like Uluru, there is more to mass than what is seen on the surface. Through architectural examples I researched for the blog, I explored this literal interpretation as well as a more subjective point of view. Through architecture, it is possible to give the idea of mass. Points, lines and planes can be used in combination to make an illusionary mass that is in fact hollow. Mass can also be conjured architecturally as an experience, whether it be through

the volume of a room or sensory immersion or deprivation. Developing my concept through sketching helped me decide that I wanted to explore mass in its solid state and through sensory immersion. I would achieve this through embedding the building in the ground and constructing a dark underground chamber with a fountain. Opposite page:  Sketches exploring the mass tec(h)tonic in is simplest form. Above:  Final section drawing of the developing concept. While I misinterpreted the style of section drawing required for the exercise, I believe I was still able to communicate the concept of space above, below and in the ground.

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1:  Draft construction of the frame model

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2:  Final construction of the frame model 3 to 6:  Draft construction of frame with infill element arrangement. 1:50 scale model. 7 to 10:  Final presentation construction of frame with infill elements. Coloured card corresponds to the elements in the accompanying drawing on pages 12 and 13.

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1.3.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; FRAME & INFILL The third tec(h)tonic seemed to be the most literal. I found that in many buildings I came across, point, line and plane and mass were easily identified and merged harmoniously with the overall design. Frame and infill on the other hand, was either esoteric or blatantly obvious. Window frames with glass infill panes were all too common, while a steel grid structure with elements in that grid looked not to far from the models we constructed in tutorials. When looking for esoteric frame and infill, I found more in structural components, such as building supports or doors and windows, or interior finishes, such as picture frames and Modernist four-poster beds.

1.3.1.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; MODEL I departed from the concepts I was brewing in the previous exercises. I came to think of model making as perhaps my most efficient way of communicating ideas in the early stages. After I constructed the specified infill elements, it was insightful to arrange them in the grid structure to create the most aesthetic and practical composition. It is one of my architectural values that architecture and landscape are one of the same experience. Thus, adding the tree as an extra element brings nature into the grid. The window cut-out on the second storey frames the landscape. Left:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Final presentation construction of the frame with infill elements and a tree.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Charcoal sketch of frame and infill system created during tutorials. Right:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Rough sketches of the grid frame to understand its composition in two-dimensions. Sketches to the bottom right of the image use an axonometric grid placed under the paper. Note the 1:50 scale notation is not accurate in this image.

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1.3.2.  DRAWINGS I had come to realise the importance of how drawings and models combine to communicate an idea. No single model or single drawing, no matter how well executed, could transfer an architectural idea in its entirety. A combination is required, or at least multiple drawings in differing styles. To illustrate how my frame and infill system, I realised that perspective drawings would be no less confusing than photographs. Section drawings would not show enough depth. I decided that a diagram would show my concept best, and chose an axonometric diagram on the basis that I had never drawn one before. I explored the frame through rough sketches and then traced over an axonometric grid. The way the cubes were stacked was still visually confusing, and I concluded that an exploded or stepped diagram was needed. The drawings on pages 12 and 13 show the 16 steps taken to compose the frame and infill system I have designed. The coloured cards used in my model marry the infill elements with their counterparts in the drawing: green for solids, red for a plane with three folds, blue for planes, yellow for a plane with one fold.

Left:  Axonometric sketches exploring ways to illustrate the composition. Next page:  Final presentation of stepped axonometric diagram showing composition of frame and infill system.

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Left:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Haptic exploration of concepts using models.

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2.  CONCEPT SECRETS WITHIN A THREE LEVEL STRUCTURE EMBEDDED IN THE LANDSCAPE, MERGING GROUND, SURFACE AND AIR, EACH LEVEL ACCESSIBLE BY RAMP OR SLOPED GROUND. During my career as a designer I have refined my design process. In a commercial environment, I learned to conjure ideas quickly, cull the unsuitable and quickly refine ideas that are. I knew early in the project that I wanted a building that merges architecture and landscape, and is accessible, useful and modern.

2.1.  MODEL Returning to my concept from the mass exercise, I constructed models with card to explore ideas. These models centred on how the three levels and access ramps might be composed. At the end of the session I created a rough conceptacle. I returned my thoughts to how the three tec(h)tonics influence in my design ­—the influence of point, line and plane was clear, and the frame and infill component was literal. At this stage I did not fully understand the esoteric ideas of frame and infill. I also saw this conceptacle failed to communicate mass: I relied on words to explain how the hill envelopes the building. Left:  Draft conceptacle model of the concept. While this model communicates the three layers and combining ground, surface and air, it does not communicate how the structure might be embedded into the landscape.

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June solstice December solstice Equinox (March and September) Annual variation Source: http://www.gaisma.com

Top left:  Concept plan on chosen site on Herring Island using watercolour pencils. Note that scale bar is not applicable. Top right:  Sun path diagram for Melbourne, Australia. Created using Adobe Illustrator CS. Bottom left:  Early concept perspective drawing using pencil and watercolour pencils. Bottom right:  Early concept sketch of toilet block using frame in infill ideas.

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2.2.  DRAWINGS AND DIGITISATION With my model failing to communicate an essential part of my concept, I began drawing to fill in the gaps. I was able to complete only a few hand drawings. The drawings I completed show the plan on site with an access ramp leading to the underground room, passing a toilet block that would use the frame and infill tec(h)tonic. I later abandoned this and integrated the toilet block to the main building. Another drawing shows the relationship of the ground floor and underground room. The underground room can only be seen from the ground floor, visitors must discover how to get into it to see what it contains.

Above:  A perspective cut-away drawing showing the placement of the main ground floor and underground fountain room. People standing on the ground ‘cattle-grid’ style areas would be able to see the fountain through glass floor slots.

In researching the site, I found the sun path for the coordinates of Herring Island and created this diagram. While interesting to note, I decided the path of the sun was not relevant to my concept, as the building is largely underground and not exposed to sunlight. To complete my drawings, I turned to Adobe Illustrator CS. I created all the elements from the design brief as elements on the blank canvas: toilet block, internal storage room, audio/visual room, etc. I could then quickly play with the composition of the building, like creating new shapes with tangram puzzle pieces. Building on the result of these puzzle pieces, I created a floor plan with landscape and topography lines that would form the basis of my final concept.

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Left:  Early concept plan showing four levels: Roof terrace, ground, ‘mid‑ground’ with toilet block, and underground room.

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2.3.  OUTCOME I have learned that it is a combination of models, drawings and diagrams that will fluently communicate architectural design ideas. In creating my models and drawings, I try to complete them to a level where they explain themselves. I judge the success of my efforts by how little I need to verbalise my ideas in order for another person to explain my own concept to me. I found this to be an amusing paradox: I was trying to expose all the nuances and secrets of my concept to another person without speaking. The more I explained through drawings and models, the more they would understand my idea, and yet my concept in its pure form would still be known only to me, for after the person has seen my drawings and models they will have created their own concept based on mine, and it will be their secret. Though satisfied with my conceptual progress, I was frustrated with my limited ability to communicate the extent of my ideas through models and drawings.

Left:  Site plan illustration showing early ideas of the building grounds, underground room and tunnel, path network, indicative landscaping and terrain. Light green areas are at higher altitude, dark green areas are lower altitude.

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3.  HERRING ISLAND Herring Island is a man-made island with recent cultural significance in Melbourne’s art communities. Its indigenous heritage spans much further back in time as part of the lands of the Wurundjeri people. The island’s native vegetation gives the site its natural Australian style. Secrets are discovered on its winding paths through sculptural artworks that appear hidden until stumbled upon. The tall gum trees and bushes further assist the hidden and mysterious nature of the grounds.

3.1.  HISTORY The island was created when a channel was cut through Richmond quarry in 1928 and became known as Como Island. In 1952, the island was renamed Herring Island after Sir Edmund Herring, who was the president of the Boy Scouts’ Association of Victoria for 23 years. In 1965, the scout hall in the northern corner of the building was built and it is still there today, and now functions as an art gallery. The scout group left the island in 1970 and the island is fell into disuse until 1994, when it became a public park. A community group began to restore Australian native vegetation to the island and make the island accessible for people of all abilities. The first of many artworks were installed on the island in 1997 and remain there today.

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3.2.  SITE ANALYSIS In preparing the site analysis, I realised how in-depth a site analysis actually is. To summarise it all to one small section of this book would not be possible. To this end, I took the term ‘site analysis’ to be more like ‘inspiration research’. I looked at several parts that would be covered in a real site analysis: site history, cultural significance, access, amenity, resources, weather, sunlight, geography, topology, fauna, vegetation, hazards including flood danger, existing structures, and community. My visits were to understand how the new building would fit into the island’s scheme. I decided that my new structure would replace the existing building. Adding an extra building would over-crowd the island and detract from the secretive experience that was already there. By replacing the existing building I could create a larger gallery and visitors centre that could also be used for picnics. Top left:  Tree lined path on Herring Island. Photograph by Leonie Csanki 2016. Middle left:  Art installation entitled “Falling Fence” by John Gollings with Samantha Slicer, 2001. Photograph by Leonie Csanki 2016. Left:  Art installation entitled “Stone House” by Andy Goldsworthy, 1997. Photograph by Leonie Csanki 2016.

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6 The art installations were of significant inspiration. I had not heard of the island before my first visit, and I found each bend promised a lovely scene and sometimes, and artwork as well.

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In particular, I draw inspiration from Andy Goldsworthy’s “Stone House”. Embedded into the hill, its underground room allows space for its only permanent resident: a large boulder. Goldsworthy’s original instruction to the island’s caretakers was to landscape the surrounding area with vegetation, so that the stone’s house would become increasingly difficult to find as the plants grew to conceal it. I also drew inspiration in small details of the island: in textures and the views between views. These small details influence the types of finishes that would be used on the building and how the experience of the building should manifest. Even when one is occupying the building, the overall experience should be natural and in tune with the island’s native flora and existing artworks.

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1.  View of sky through trees.  2. Detail from art installation entitled “Scaled Stem” by Robert Bridgewater, 1999.  3. Detail of bushes growing on side of path.  4. Natural leaf litter on path.  5. Detail of cladding on restaurant opposite Herring Island, near the public access dock and car park.  6. View of sky and sunlight through trees.  7. Detail from art installation entitled “Steerage” by Jill Peck, 1997.  8. Surface of water surrounding Herring Island. Photographs by Leonie Csanki 2016.

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Top left:  Final conceptacle model, front view. Top right:  Final conceptacle model, right side view. Bottom left:  Final conceptacle model, back view. Bottom right:  Final conceptacle model, left side view.

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3.3.  CONCEPTACLE In refining my concept and understanding of how to communicate different types of ideas, I created my final conceptacle to better communicate what the previous one could not. A key element of my concept is the building is embedded into the earth. Earth would be piled up and over the ground floor, and an underground room would be excavated below. I found this could only be communicated if the conceptacle included the surrounding terrain as well as the architecture.

Top Left:  Top perspective view of the final conceptacle. Left:  Front and aerial views of the final conceptacle.

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Top left:  Beginning to create a 3D concept model digitally in Rhino 5. This example was prior to scrapping the external toilet block. Bottom left:  Design development of the 3D concept model in Rhino 5. The frame and infill extension on top of the building was discarded as the concept was refined. Top right:  The final 3D model sketch in Rhino 5. The toilet block has been integrated to the main building and the platform will be removed in the next stage of concept development.

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3.4.  CONCEPT AND SKETCH DIGITISATION I had begun the concept plans in Adobe Illustrator CS but now found this would not be enough to illustrate my concept. To adequately show my concept, I would need to learn 3D modelling in Rhino 5. I expected this to be a challenge since I had never used a CAD program before. At first I created the 3D model as per the plans I made earlier. After some success with this, I found I was able develop my idea further in Rhino 5. During feedback in tutorials, I decided to integrate the toilet block into the main building. The path leading to the tunnel and underground room would remain as is. In the CAD program, I was able to speedily develop my concept and make the roof architecturally interesting by creating a roof terrace. Above:  The final 3D concept sketch model.

In losing the external toilet block I felt that I had lost the frame and infill component of my design. I began to play with ideas of using the grid system from the frame and infill exercise as some sort of playground equipment or viewing box. However, this felt too literal an interpretation and I sought a better way. Finally I began to understand the esoteric definition of frame and infill and realised I had already achieved this through my work so far — the frames for windows and doors were there, but I had also achieved frame and infill through the frame of the tunnel to underground room, and the frame surrounding the underground fountain.

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3.5.  DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Visits to Herring Island and researching the blog posts were essential in developing my concept. While I am not yet able to illustrate all aspects of my building that have come to mind, I have identified or be inspired by a few key images I had encountered through the blog writing. 1. THAM KHAO LUANG CAVE IN PHETCHABURI, THAILAND The filtered light falls into the cave creating grandeur and majesty. 7

2. LAMINAR WATER FEATURE AT DETROIT AIRPORT, BY WET DESIGN The edge of the water creates the frame, the falling water becomes a line that becomes the act of infill as it joins the mass of water below. The laminar quality of the water makes glass-like lines from point to point. 3. SVALBARD GLOBAL SEED VAULT BY BARLINDHAUG CONSULT AS The most important part of the building is concealed underground through a long tunnel. 4. PRIVATE RESIDENCE IN ENGLAND BY VAN DER STEEN HALL ARCHITECTS LTD Earth is piled on top of the building so that from one angle it cannot be seen, and from another angle it looks like a home. 5. SAIHŌ-JI GARDENS IN KYOTO, JAPAN Tree lined paths conceal the garden, revealed when a visitor wanders the paths, until the visitor is concealed. 6. FOLK IN A BOX BY EMILY BARKER AND DOM COYOTE Confined space and darkness is used to focus the senses on sound and create a deep experience — architecture creating mass as an emotion. 7. TROMSO KINDERGARTEN IN FINLAND BY 70°N Holes in the walls create seats and play stations for children, while adults may not realise the holes could be used that way.

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3.6.  FINAL DESIGN DRAWINGS Ideally, drawings, diagrams and models speak for themselves.

3.6.1.  SITE PLAN

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; A scale model of Herring Island exploring the topographical structure, path networks, artwork placement, landscaping, and structures. Existing artworks are represented with red circles, and the red card at the northern tip of the island represents the location of the new building.

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Left:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; The final plan of the new building placed on the site plan. New topographical features are illustrated with colour, with pale green being at higher altitude and dark green at lower altitude. The roof terrace conceals much of the building. The location of the underground room is illustrated with the dotted lines. New pathways would be constructed to access the building and these would join with the existing paths. Existing artwork locations are represented by the red circles.

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3.6.2.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM

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Opposite page, far left:  Axonometric diagram of the underground level. Opposite page, left:  Axonometric diagram of the ground level stacked on the underground level. Left:  Axonometric diagram of the underground, ground and roof terrace levels stacked to show how the structure is embedded into the surrounding landscape.

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Left:  Exploded axonometric diagram showing the three levels, with labels highlighting each aspect of the brief requirements and other notable features.

KEY 1 Roof terrace. A secret that may or may not be revealed: Will people realise they can access the roof? 2 Abstract safety bar using wood poles 3 Internal store room (4m²) 4 Technical store room (4m²)

14 Glass floor with view to underground fountain 15 Glass floor with view to underground fountain

5 Audio room for one family

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6 Hidden space with entry for small children

17 Path to underground fountain 18 Time capsule

7 Place where a small object can be viewed by one person at a time

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8 External store room (16m²)

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9 Cleaner’s store room 10 Accessible toilet 11 Female toilet 12 Male toilet

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13 Sheltered space for 3-4 families/Gallery and Multi-purpose space

20 Access ramp to fountain platform 22 Hidden space with entry for small children 23 Underground entrance to underground fountain

Left:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Exploded axonometric diagram showing the three levels, with the floor plans projected to each level above to illustrate how the different levelsÂ interact.

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3.6.3.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; PLANS

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COMPOSITE PLAN OF “SECRETS” GALLERY & VISITORS CENTRE

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UNDERGROUND FLOOR PLAN OF “SECRETS” GALLERY & VISITORS CENTRE

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ROOF TERRACE PLAN OF “SECRETS” GALLERY & VISITORS CENTRE

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3.6.4.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; ELEVATIONS

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NORTH-EAST-EAST ELEVATION OF “SECRETS” GALLERY & VISITORS CENTRE

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3.6.5.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; SECTIONS

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3.6.6.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; PERSPECTIVES

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; External elevated perspective showing path to underground tunnel.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Internal perspective of underground room showing laminar water fountain arrangement. The time capsule can be seen through the water while standing on the platform

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3.7.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; FINAL DESIGN MODEL

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Photograph of final 1:50 scale final model. A section of the tunnel used to access the underground layer can be seen on the right.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Photograph of final 1:50 scale final model with the Roof Terrace layer removed.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Photograph of final 1:50 scale final model with the Roof Terrace and Ground Floor layers removed.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Aerial view of ground floor section of scale model.

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Above:  Aerial perspective of the ground section of scale model.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Scale view looking through trees into multi-purpose room of scale model.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Scale interior view of multi-purpose room, with focus on family in a room for listening to an audio recording.

Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Scale view looking through trees at outdoor seating area on scale model.

Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Scale view of outdoor seating area with focus on a family of four people. The privacy screen at the back shields persons entering and exiting the toilets, and used fame and infill where plants grow inside the square cut-outs.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Aerial view of the underground floor. The blue area shows the water feature.

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Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Scale view into the underground fountain room looking from doorway.

Above:â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Scale view of a couple looking at the time capsule from the platform above the water feature in the underground room.

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4.  REFLECTION As a new student of architecture, this process has been a particularly insightful. I enjoyed adapting my well-rehearsed design process for a bigger project and am excited to eventually become part of an industry that can do so much for many people. I learned new ways of drawing, of making models and new ways of looking at buildings. I now see architecture not just as beautiful compositions of stone, steel, wood or concrete, but as any built structure made up of the architectural tec(h)tonics of point line and plane, mass, and frame and infill. I made a great effort to complete the work in this book. I have done the best I can for my current skill set and look forward to learning that which will make me a better designer. I am my biggest critic, but insofar as architecture I cannot criticise myself for what I do not yet know. Choosing architecture as my career change was an idea that has been slowly growing. In the months since then, and having completed this course, I now know that architecture is a field in which I will not only enjoy, but will be passionate about, excel in and contribute to. In designing a building that will never be built, I was reminded of the value of not being constrained by resources, knowledge, emotions, culture, even physics. An idea is simply an idea — and the ability to communicate that idea is one of a creative person’s most valuable skills.

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5.  BIBLIOGRAPHY

70° N 2008, Tromso Kindergarten, viewed 2 May 2016, <http://ounodesign.com/2008/08/27/ tromso-kindergarten/>

Parks Victoria 2016, Herring Island, viewed 18 March 2016, <http://parkweb.vic.gov.au/ explore/parks/herring-island>

Appleby, M.1991, Herring Island Management Plan, Herring Island Committee of Management and Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne, viewed 18 April 2016, <http://www.herringisland.org/91frames.htm>

Radford, A. Morkoç, S. Srivastava, A. 2014, The Elements of Modern Architecture: Understanding Contemporary Buildings, Thames & Hudson Ltd, London.

Bachelard, G. 1958, The Poetics of Space, Penguin Group (USA) LLC, New York. Barker, E. Coyote, D 2016, Folk in a Box, viewed 28 April 2016, <https://folkinabox.net/> Barker, S 2016, Herring Island, viewed 18 March 2016, <http://www.herringisland.org/> Brisbane City Council 2013, Public Toilet Design Guidelines, Brisbane City Council, Brisbane. Chatwin, B. 1987, The Songlines, Random House, London. Costanzo, D. 2016, What architecture means: connecting ideas and design, Routledge, New York.

Real Japanese Gardens 2015, Saihō-ji (Koke-dera), viewed 18 May 2016, <http://www. japanesegardens.jp/gardens/famous/000001.php> Simitch, A. 2014, The language of architecture: 26 principles every architect should know, Rockport Publishers, Massachusetts. Statsbygg 2008, Svalbard globale frøhvelv/Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, viewed 2 May 2016, <https://www.regjeringen.no/en/ topics/food-fisheries-and-agriculture/landbruk/svalbard-global-seed-vault/mer-om-det-fysiskeanlegget/id2365142/>

Di Lernia, N. Coad, S. Coleiro, C. 2005, Your House, The Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Sydney.

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Ducrou, D. Levett, K. 2014, Connecting with the Aboriginal History of the Yarra, City of Yarra, Melbourne.

Unwin, S. 2015, Twenty-five buildings every architect should understand, Second Edition, Routledge, New York.

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Wilson, W. 2012, Site Analysis Guideline, Lake Macquarie City Council, Lake Macquarie.

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WET DESIGN 2009, Laminar water feature at Detroit International Airport, McNamara Terminal, viewed 18 May 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSUKNxVXE4E>

Herring Island Festival 2016, Herring Island Summer Arts Festival, viewed 18 March 2016, <http:// www.herringislandfestival.org.au/>

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Architecture Design Studio: Earth Book S1 2016

A short book containing my work from an architectural design course at the University of Melbourne.