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,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017


yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo; This issue in Tamil is a translated version of LEISA India magazine. This includes selected articles from LEISA India, originally published in English. Address : ame Foundation No. 204, 100 Feet Ring Road, 3rd Phase, Banashankari 2nd Block, 3rd Stage, Bangalore - 560 085, India Tel:

+91-080- 2669 9512, +91-080- 2669 9522

Fax:

+91-080- 2669 9410

E-mail: leisaindia@yahoo.co.in

Leisa India Chief Editor : K.V.S. Prasad Managing Editor : T.M. Radha

yPrh vd;gJ Fiwe;j ntspapL nghUs; kw;Wk; epiyj;j Ntshz;ik vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;. Rw;Wr;RoYf;F cfe;j topfspy; cw;gj;jpiaAk;> tUkhdj;ijAk; ngUf;f tpUk;Gk; coth;fSf;F njhopw;El;g kw;Wk; r%f hPjpapyhd tha;g;Gfis cs;slf;fpajhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ cs;@h; ts Mjhuq;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;ifapd; Nghf;Ffis msTld; gad;gLj;jp Njitg;gLk; NghJ ghJfhg;ghd msT ntspaPL nghUl;fis jpwd;gl ifahs;tjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; coth;fis> me;j r%fj;ij Ragyk; kpf;fth;fshfTk;> rf;jp kpf;fth;fshfTk; khw;wp mjd;%yk; mth;fspd; vjph;fhyj;ij jq;fs; nrhe;j mwpT> jpwik>kjpg;gL P > fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; mikg;Gfis mikf;f cjTtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ khwptUk; #oy;fs; kw;Wk; NjitfSf;F Vw;g coth;fs; kw;Wk; ,ju gq;Fjhuh;fspd; jpwikfs;> gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwfs; %yk; gyg;gLj;JtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ ghuk;ghpa mwpitAk;> mwptpay; g+h;tkhd mwpitAk; ,izj;J mjd;%yk; nfhs;if cUthf;fj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp vjph;fhy tsh;r;rpf;F rhjfkhd #oiy cUthf;FtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ xU fUj;J> xU mZFKiw kw;Wk; tpNtfkhd nra;jp.

Translated by N. Lalitha Sakthivel Translation coordination Poornima Administration Rukmini G. G. Design and Layout M.S. Vasanth Christopher Printing L.S. Graphic Prints, Chennai Cover photo A farmer displaying bottle gourd grown on his mixed farm Photo: Abhijit Mohanty Different editions • Regional Editions Telugu, Hindi, Kannada, Marathi, Punjabi and Oriya • Farming Matters The Global edition in English • LEISA Revista de Agroecologia The Latin American edition in Spanish • LEISA India The Indian edition in English • AGRIDAPE The West African edition in French • Agriculturas, Experiencias em Agroecologia The Brazilian edition in Portuguese The editors have taken every care to ensure that the contents of this magazine are as accurate as possible. The authors have ultimate responsibility, however, for the content of individual articles. The editors encourage readers to photocopy and circulate magazine articles.

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Supported by MISEREOR, Published by AME Foundation yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

kpnrshpah; vd;gJ tsh;r;rp xj;Jiog;gpw;fhf> n[h;kdp ehl;by; cs;s fj; N jhypf; f ghjphpahh; f shy; 1958 Mk; Mz; b y; epWtg; g l; l Xh; epWtdkhFk;. kpnrshpah; fle;j 50 tUlq;fSf;Fk; Nkyhf Mg;gphpf;fh> Mrpah kw; W k; yj; j P d ; mnkhpf; f ehLfspy; Vo; i k xopg; g jw; f hd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jd;id mh;gzpj;J gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. kjk;> ehfhPfk;> ghypdk; vd;w ve;j NtWghby;yhky; kdpj Fyj;jpd; Njitf;F jdJ cjtpia mspj;J tUfpwJ. Vio kw;Wk; gpd;jq;fpa kf;fs;> jhq;fshf Jtf;Fk; ve;j xU Kaw;rpf;Fk; MjuT nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;GfpwJ. cs;@h; $l;lhspfSld;> Fwpg;ghf fpUj;Jt Nfhapy;fNshL njhlh;Gila epWtdq;fs;> muR rhuh epWtdq;fs;> r%f ,af;fq;fs;> Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fs; Nghd;wtw;NwhL ,ize;J gzpahw;Wtij tpUk;GfpwJ. gadhspfNshL ,ize;J> mjd; $l;lhspfs; cs;@h; ts Nkk;ghl;L Kiwfspy; cjtpAk;> jpl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jpAk; tUfpd;wdh;. ,t;topahfNt> kpnrshpah; jdJ $l; l hspfSld; ,ize; J njhlh; r ; r pahf khwptUk; rthy; f is vjph;nfhs;fpwJ. www.misereor.de; www.misereor.org V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Fiwe; j ntspapL nghUs; %yk; ,aw; i f ts Mjhuq; f s; Nkyhz; i kf; f hf ghuk; g hpa mwpitAk; > Gjpa fz; L gpbg; G njhopw; E l; g q; f isAk; xd; w pizj; J epiyj; j tho; t hjhug; gzpfis ngUf; F tjpy; <Lgl; L tUfpwJ. V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Ntshz; i kapy; khw;WfisAk;> mwpitAk; ngUf;FtjpYk;> gapw;rpfs; mspg;gjpYk;> tsh;r;rp gzpfspy; <Lgl;L tUk; epWtdq;fNshL njhlh;Gfis Vw;gLj;JtjpYk;> mDgtq;fis gfph;e;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> jf;fhz gPlg+kp gFjpfspy; rpW FW coth;fs; kj;jpapy; gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. V.vk;., epWtdk; Mh;tKs;s tptrhaf; FOf;fSld; gy fpuhkq;fspy; khw;W tptrha Kiwfis ngUf;fTk;> eilKiwg;gLj;jTk; gzp nra;J tUfpwJ. ,e;j gFjpfs; ,aw;if Ntshz; Kiwfis nfhz;Ltu Kaw;rpf;Fk; kw; W k; eilKiwg; g Lj; j p nfhz; L tUk; jd; d hh; t f; FOf; f s; kw; W k; $l;likg;GfSf;F fw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ,lq;fshfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. www.amefound.org

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,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; - 2017

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

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Nfo;tuF> gPd;]; kw;Wk; ntq;fhak; CLgapuhf rhFgb nra;tjhy; ,th;fspd; gaph; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpf; f pwJ. CLgapuhf rpWjhdpaj; i j rhFgb nra;j kuts;sp taypy;> tptrhapfs; Vf;fUf;F 170 fpNyh cw;gj;jp nra;tjdhy; 12 tpOf; f hL tUkhdk; mjpfhpj; J s; s J. kuts;spapy; gPd;]; CLgapuhf gaph; nra;jjpy;> Vf;fUf;F 140 fpNyh kf#y; fpilj;jjhy; 23 tpOf;fhL tUkhdk; mjpfhpj;jJ. kuts;spapy; gaWtif kw;Wk; rpWjhdpaq;fs; tsh;j;jjpy; Vf;fUf;F 110 fpNyh rpWjhdpaq;fs; kw;Wk; 80 fpNyh gaWtiffs; kf#y; fpilg;gjhy;> kuts; s p kl; L k; rhFgb nra; j epyj; i j fhl;bYk; 21.5% kf#y; mjpfhpj;jJ. kuts; s papy; ntq; f hak; rhFgb nra; j tptrhapf;F> Vf;fUf;F 300 fpNyh cw;gj;jpahdJ. ,jdhy; 60 tpOf; f hL FLk; g tUkhdk; mjpfhpj; J s; s J. fpoq; F tsh; r ; r pailAk; Kd;dNu rpWjhdpaq;fs;> gaWtiffs; kw;Wk; ntq;fhak; mWtil nra;ag;gLtjhy; kuts;sp kf#Yf;F ghjpg;G Vw;gLtjpy;iy. $Ljyhf> gaWtif gad;fs; kz;zpd; MNuhf;fpaj;jpy; mjpf gq;fspf;fpwJ. gy;NtW czT gaph;fshd rpWjhdpak; kw;Wk; gaWtiffs; mjpfkhf fpilf;fngWtjpd; %yk; cz;zg;gLtjhy; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Foe;ijfs; gad;gLfpd;wdh;. tUkhdk; <l; L tjw; F gy tUlq; f shf kuts; s papy; jdpg; gaph; rhFgb nra; J te;jdh;. Gjpa topahd CLgaph; rhFgbapy; Kjypy; Nfo;tuF>gpd;dh; gPd;]_k; mWtil nra; a g; g LfpwJ. kuts; s pia nghWj; j tiu mNj msT my;yJ mjw;F mjpfsT kf#y; fpilf;fpwJ. ,J vq;fs; FLk;gj;jpw;F $Ljy;

CLgaph;fs; %yk;> tptrhapfs; FLk;g cztpy; rj;Jf;fs; mjpfhpf;f nra;a Kbe;jJ> mjpf tUkhdk; <l;lTk; kw;Wk; twl;rp Nghd;w ,lh;fSf;F vjpuhf gz;iz Kiwfs; tYngw;W rPuiljy; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

5


czit mspf; f pwJ. ,jdhy; kuts; s p tUkhdk; czT thq;Ftjw;fhf rhh;ej ; pUg;gij Fiwf; f pwJ vd; W jhkiuFsj; i j Nrh; e ; j 28 taJ epuk;gpa ngz; tptrhapahd jpUkjp. fiynry;tp $Wfpwhh;.

r%f tpij tq;fp %yk; rPuiljy; ghuk;ghpa tpij mikg;Gfs; tYtope;jjhYk;> khepy kw; W k; njhopw; r e; i jfspy; tpij tpepNahfj;ij ek;gpapUg;gjdhy; ,e;jpahtpy; rpWrpW tptrha r%fq; f Sf; F jukhd tpijfs; fpilg; g J ngUk; g hYk; mhpjhf ,Uf; f pwJ. u.gp.vk; jpl; l k; %yk; tpij tq;fpfs; Jtf;fp mjpf kf#y; kw;Wk; tpUk;gpa gz; G fis cila cs; @ h; kw; W k; cah; e ; j ney; kw; W k; rpWjhdpa tpij ,ufq; f is mspf;Fk; Nehf;fj;jpy; cUthfpwJ.,e;j tpij tq; f pfs; tptrha rq; f k; kw; W k; ngz; f s; Ra cjtpf; FOf;fshy; Nkk;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. tpijfis fldhf thq; F gth; mjid mWtilf;Fg;gpd; ,uz;L klq;fhf jpUk;gp nrYj;jtJ tq;fpfspd; epiyj;jj;jd;ikf;F tpj;jpl;lJ.r%f cWg;gpdh;fs;> cah; ,ufq;fs; Njh;T nra;tJ kw;Wk; jukhd tpijfs; cw;gj;jp nra; t jpy; rpwe; J tpsq; F fpd; w dh; . tpij tq; f pfs; cUthf; f pajhy; tptrhapfSf; F jukhd tpijfs; Njitahd rkaj; j py; fpilf;fpwJ. tpijfis Njh;T nra;Ak; mstpw;F tphptile;Js;sJ> gaph; Nrjj;ij Fiwf;fpwJ kw; W k; gaphpd; kf#y; mjpfhpf; f pwJ. Gjpa kw; W k; cah; e ; j ,ufq; f s; ,Ug; g jhy; > ,e; j gFjpfspy; gaph; mikg; G fspy; gy; t ifik kw;Wk; kdpj jpwd; mjpfhpg;gjd; %yk;> ,e;j tpij tq;fpfs;> r%fq;fSf;F> ePzl ; fhyj;jpy; epiyj;jpUg;gjpYk; czT cj;jputhjj;jpw;F gq;fspf;fpwJ.

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

kuts;spapy;> ntq;fhsk; CLgapuhf rhFgb nra;tjhy; FLk;g tUkhdj;jpy; 60% cah;e;Js;sJ.

fUizf; f poq; f pw; f hd Kd; N dw; w gbfs; Nfushtpy; taehl; khtl;lj;jpy; ney; taiy jhprhf ,Uf; F k; gl; l j; j pd; NghJ> Mz; tptrhapfs; ghuk; g hpakhf xNu ,uf fUizf; fpoq;F gapiu rhh;e;Js;sjhy; mjpf cw; g j; j p nryT Vw; g LfpwJ. gq; N fw; G ld; $ba Muha; r ; r papd; %yk; > tptrhapfs; rpwe; j ,ufq; f is Njh; e ; n jLj; J > Fiwe; j nryTila njhopw; E l; g q; f shs Fiwe; j tpijasT> tpiutpy; Kisg;gjw;F gaph;fs; Nky; %lhf;F NghLjy; kw;Wk; njhOcuj;ij ,Ljy; Mfpatw;iw gpd;gw;wp> kf#y;> Neha; vjph; g ; G j; j pwd; > twl; r p jhq; F jpwd; kw;Wk; Kisg;Gj; jpwd; Mfpa fhuzpfspd; mbg;gilapy; tptrhapfs; fN[e;jpuh kw;Wk; taehl; cs;@h; ,ufk; Mfpa ,uz;L ,ufq;fis Njh; T nra; j dh; . Nkk; g Lj; j g; g l; l rhFgb njhopy;El;gq;fs; rhjhuz njhopy;El;gj;ij fhl;bYk; Fiwe;j cw;gj;jp nryT kw;Wk; kf#y; Rkhh; 30% (taehl; (cs;@h; ,ufk;)) kw;Wk; 24% (fN[e;jpuh) mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. Nfushtpy; > nrhe; j epyk; itj; j pUf; F k; FLk;gq;fs;> epykw;w ngz;fs; kw;Wk; FU tptrhapfsplk; > 6 khjj; j pw; F jhprhf tplg; g l; b Ue; j epyj; i j thlifapy; y hky; fUizf; f poq; F (m) FWfpa fhyg; g apiu nra;a gad;gLj;Jtjw;F mDkjpg;gh;. ,jdhy; epy chpikahsh;fSf;F ,lg;gl;l cuk;> gaph; fopTfs; kw;Wk; kz; coT ahTk; Nrh;e;J rpy gad;fs; mspg;gjhy; mLj;j ney; gapUf;F Cl;lkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpy; epykw;w ngz;fs; epyg;gzpahsh;fs; ,e;j epyq;fis gad;gLj;jp fUizf;fpoq;if jukhd tpijia cgNahfpj;J ,e;jpa &ghapy; 3000-13000 tiu MW khjj;jpy; tUkhdk; ngWfpd;wdh;. NkYk; mth; f s; ney; jhpir gytif fha; f wpfs; - jl; i lg; g aph; > fP i u tiffs; > ntz; i l>


kf;fhr;Nrhsk;> G+rzp kw;Wk; nts;shp Mfpait gaph; n ra; J nrhe; j gad; g hl; b w; F itj; J nfhs;fpd;wdh;.

KbT gq;Nfw;Gld; $ba Muha;rr ; p %yk;> tptrhapfs; mjpf kf#y; kw; W k; tUkhdk; mspf; F k; kuts;sp kw;Wk; fUizf;fpoq;F ,ufq;fis Njh;T nra;jdh;. mth;fs; NkYk; CLgaph;fspd; njhopy;El;gq;fis fw;wjhy; gaph; gy;tifik kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fspd; kjpg;G mth;fspd; czT $ilapy; mjpfhpj; J s; s J. tpij tq; f pfs; > tptrha rq; f k; kw; W k; ngz; f s; Ra cjtpf; F Of; f s; Nkk; g Lj; j g; g Ltjhy; > gz;izapy; Ntshz; caph; gy;tifik kw;Wk; twl;rpapypUe;J rpWFU tptrha FLk;gq;fis fhg; g hw; W k; mikg; g hf mikfpwJ. ngz; tptrhapfs; kw; W k; epykw; w gzpahsh; f s; Nkk;gLj;jg;gl;l Ntshz; njhopw;El;gj;jpypUe;J gad;ngWfpd;wdh; kw;Wk; jukhd tpijfs; fpilg;gJ Gjpa kw;Wk; gy;tif tho;thjhu Njh;it mspf;fpwJ.

ed;wp $Wjy; vk; . v]; . v]; Mh; . v‡g; > nfhy; y pkiy - n[. n[af;Fkhh;> [P. ntq;fNlrd;> gp.Atuh[; kw;Wk; vk; . v]; . v]; . Mh; . v‡g; > taehl; - jpU.gp.rp. u[P];> jpU. mUz;uh[;> jpU.Rgpd; kw;Wk; jpU Mrpah> el;rj;jpu tptrha rq;fk;> fPo; nrq;fhL> nfhy;ypkiy kw;Wk; V.gp.vk; - kuts;sp tptrha Muha;rr ; pf;FO. nfhy;ypkiy MfpNahh; mspj;j cjtpf;F ehq;fs; ed;wp etpy;fpNwhk; EDI Oliver King M S Swaminathan Research Foundation 3rd Cross Street, Institutional Area, Taramani Chennai 600 113, India E-mail: ediok151173@gmail.com

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> [_d; 2016> thy;a+k; 18> ,jo; 2

vq;fSld; tpsk;guk; nra;Aq;fs; epiyj;j kw;Wk; caph;r;#oy; ez;gh;fsha; Ntshz;ik tsh;r;rpapy; Mh;tk; cila 20>000 - jpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l kf;fis mile;Js;sJ> ,e;j yPrh ,e;jpah ,jo;. %d;W khjq;fSf;F xU Kiw mr;rbf;fg;gl;l kw;Wk; b[pl;ly; ,jo;fs;> mry; tay; mDgtq;fspy; Mh;tKila tptrhapfs;> njhz;L epWtdq;fs;> fy;tpahsh;fs;> Muha;rr ; pahsh;fs;> khzth;fs;> muR Jiwfs;> tq;fpfs; Nghd;NwhUf;F nrd;wilfpwJ. ,UgJ tUlq;fSf;F Nkyhf jahhpf;fg;gl;l ,e;j yPrh ,e;jpah ,jo;> cz;ik kw;Wk; jukhd fl;Liu> <h;fF ; k; tbtikg;G> tz;zkakhd gf;fq;fs;> rPuhd kw;Wk; Neuk; jho;jj ; hj jahhpg;G Mfpatw;wpy; rpwe;J tpsq;FfpwJ. Mq;fpyk;> `pe;jp> fd;dlh> njYq;F> jkpo;> xbah> gQ;rhgp kw;Wk; kuhj;jp Mfpa vl;L nkhopfspy; jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ikaq;fs;> epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; gy;fiyf; fofq;fs; jq;fSila Nritfs;> tpisnghUl;fs;> ghlq;fs; kw;Wk; epfo;rr ; pfis Ntshz;caph;r# ; oy; nfhs;ifAld; tpsk;guk; nra;tjw;F cq;fis miof;fpNwhk;. tpguq;fSf;F> jpUkjp. Uf;kpdp-ia leisaindia@yahoo.co.in vd;w ,izajsj;jpy; njhlh;G nfhs;Sq;fs;. yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

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Gw;fspd; nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; mjd; caphpay; mikg;G GJg;gpf;f ,izAk; iffs; uNk\; gl;b kw;Wk; n\sh;akha; jh]; gy;NtW epWtdq;fs; xd;W Nrh;e;J Nka; r ; r Yf; F cjTk; gzpahsh; f spd; r%ff; FOf; f s; cs; @ h; vUik ,ufk; kw;Wk; caphpay; mikg;ig ghJfhf;fpwJ. ,e; j gq; F jhuh; f s; ghy; re; i jfSf; F nrd;W ,e;j r%fk; gadile;J tUtha; <l;baJ. jw;NghJ mth;fs; r%fq;fNshL ,Ue;J muR chpikfis ngWtjw;F cWjp nra;fpwJ. muR> Kf;fpa ty;Yeh; ,Ue;jhYk; ,th;fs; $Wtij ftdpf;ftpy;iy. Rkhh; 500 tUlq; f Sf; F gpd; d h; > jw; N ghJ ky;jhhp];fF ; gd;dp xU tPlhf ,Uf;fpwJ. gd;dp> MrpahtpNyNa ,uz;lhtJ nghpa Gy;ntsp> ,J ,e;jpahtpy; kw;w Gy;ntspia fhl;bYk; kpf ed;F ,Uf;ff;$baJ. ,J 2500 r.fp.kp. gug;gstpy; tphptile; J s; s J. ,J gy; N tW jhtuq; f s; kw;Wk; tpyq;FfSf;F ,Ug;gplkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,d;W> 7000 FLk;gq;fSf;F Nky; gd;dpapy; tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;. ,jpy; ngUk;ghyhNdhh; ky;jhhpi] Nrh;e;jth;fs;. uh[h Ml;rp nra;Ak; fhyj; j pYk; > gd; d papy; Nka; r ; r y; chpikia ky; j hhp]; kf; f s; ngw; w pUe; j dh; . Nka; r ; r y; thpia nrYj;Jtij nghUj;Nj chpik Fwpj;J KbntLg;gh;. Gy;ntspapd; gad;ghL kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;bd; KbT ky;jhhp]; r%fj;ij Nrh;e;j jiyth;fs; vLf;fpd;wdh;. kw;Wk; KO r%fKk; rl;ljpl;lq;fs; midtUk; gpd;gw;Wfpd;wdh;. uh[h Ml; r papd; N ghJ> gd; d papy; 1856 Mk; Mz; L thq; f pa chpikfspd; Mtzq; f s; ,d;Dk; ky;jhhp]; kf;fs; itj;jpUf;fpd;wdh;. 1955 Mk; Mz; L gd; d p vd; w ,lj; i j ghJfhf;fg;g l;l fhlhf gphpf;f g;g l;lJ. ve; j Ma; T k; my; y J ,Ug; g pl nra; K iw me; j rkaj; j py; nra; a g; g ltpy; i y. md; W Kjy; Gy; n tspapy; muR chpikfs; Fog; g j; j py; ,Uf;Fk; rkaj;jpy; tUtha; Jiwapy; mYtyf fl; L ghL tdj; J iwf; F 1998 Mk; Mz; L khw;wg;gl;lJ. mg;NghJ gd;dp cl;gl;l gFjpapy; cs; s fpuhkq; f spy; epyj; i j Ma; T nra; J Kbf; F k; tiu tdj; J iw nghWg; N gw; f hJ vd;W jtph;j;jJ. Mifahy; tdj;Jiw kw;Wk; 8

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

ghuk;ghpakhf gd;dpfs; ky;jhhp]hy; Nkk;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

tUtha; Jiw ,uz;Lk; mYtyff; fl;Lghl;il epuhfhpj;jjhy;> ky;jhhp];> Kiwahd fl;LghL ,y; y hky; > Gy; n tspAk; mjd; ghuk; g hpa Kiwfis njhlh;e;J Nkk;gLj;jp eph;tfpj;J te;jdh;. gd;dp ky;jhhp];> tPhpa tpyq;F ,ufkhd gd;dp vUik> ,aw;ifNahL ,ize;jpUf;Fk; cwT kw;Wk; Kf;fpa fyhr;rhukhd ky;jhhpahj; Mfpatw;wpd; rpwg;gk;rj;jhy;> ,d;Wk; gpugykhf cs;sJ. vdpDk; nghUl;fs; midj;Jk; $batpiutpy; khWk; . 2008 Mk; Mz; L gd; d papd; gR Nksh> tUlhe;jpu tpyq;F jpUtpoh> gd;dpapd; ,ufq;fs;> fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; kdpj caphpay; Mfpa midj;Jk; nfhz;lhlg;gLtjw;fhd Nkilahf ,Ue;J khw;wq;fis cWjp nra;fpwJ. ky; j hhp]; ] pd; nghpNahh; f s; > mth; f spd; r%fj; j pd; tho; t hjhuj; i j kP l ; n lLf; f Tk; > gd; d p vUik ,ufj; j pd; mq; f P f huj; j pw; F gzpnra; a Tk; > Gy; n tspapd; r%f chpik gpur;ridfis jPh;f;fTk;> gd;dp Gy;ntspia ghJfhg; g jw; F jpl; l j; i j tFf; f Ntz; L k; vd;W czh;e;jdh; (md;dpa ehl;L rpw;wpdkhd g;NuhNrhgp]; [{ypgNshuh gutyhf tsh;e;jjhy; Gy;ntspfs; Ntfkhf mope;J tUfpwJ). Rkhh; 1200 ky;jhhp]; xd;W $b gd;dp ,ufngUf;f


rq;fk; xd;W cUthf;fp F[uhj; l;u];l; kw;Wk; nrhirl; b Mf; l ; fP o ; gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq; f hj; j d; vd; w ngahpy; 2009 Mk; Mz;L gjpT nra;J r%f Nehf;fq;fs; miltjw; F gzp nra; a Jtq; f pdh; . ,e; j rq; f k; Kiwahd tpjpfis tbtikj; J > 21 nray; cWg;gpdh;fs; FO Njh;T nra;J> mth;fs; %d;W tUl fhyj;jpw;F Nkk;ghl;L gzpfis nra;a Ntz;Lk;. nraw; FOtpy;> 19 gQ;rhaj;JfspypUe;J xU gpujpepjp kw;Wk; ,uz;L goq;Fbapd cWg;gpdh;fs; ,Ug;gh;. ,e; j rq; f k; > rQ; [ P t d; > cs; @ h; njhz; L epWtdj;Jld; ifNfhh;j;J> gd;dp vUikia gjpT nra;tjw;Fk;> Njrpa ghy;ts tsh;r;rp FOTld; ghy; nghUshjhuj;ij kPln ; lLg;gjw;F Kaw; r pfs; Nkw; n fhz; l dh; . muRld; Ngr; R thh;j;ij elj;jp ghuk;ghpa muR khjphpfs; %yk; gd;dpia ghJfhj;jy; kw;Wk; epyj;jpd; Nky; mth;fspd; Kiwahd chpikia kPl;nlLj;jy; Mfpa gpur;ridfis jPh;g;gjw;Fk; Jtq;fpdh;.

gd;dp vUik - fpilf;Fk; mq;fPfhuk; gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq; f hj; j d; > njhlq;fpajpypUe;J tho;thjhu gpur;ridfis jPh;g;gjw;F vLj;j Kaw;rpapy; jukw;w ntw;wpia re;jpj;jJ. gd;dp vUik vd;w ,uf kw;Wk; mjid cUthf;fpa Gw;fs;-,ufg; ghJfhtyh;> gd; d papy; gy jiyKiwfSf; F Kd; d hy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lJ. twl;rp vjph;g;Gj; jpwd;> Neha;fs; vjph;g;Gj;jpwd;> mOj;jkhd #o;epiyapYk; mjpf kf#y;> mikjpahd gz;G> kw;Wk; ,utpy; jhdhNt NkAk; jpwd; Mfpa jdpj;Jtkpf;f gz;Gfshy;> twl;rp kw;Wk; kpjtwl;rp rPNjh\dj;jpw;F cfe;jjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j rq;fk;> rQ;[{td; cjtpNahL> rh;jhh; f;U\pefh; Ntshz;ik gy;fiyf;fofk; kw;Wk; khepy fhy;eilj; Jiwapy; 2010 Mk; Mz;L ,e;j ,ufj;ij gjpT nra;jdh;.,e;jg; gjpT gd;dp ,ufj;jpw;Fk;> ,jid tsh;g;gtUf;Fk; mq;fPfhuk; fpilf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. Njrpa caph; gy;tifik mjpfhuk; kw;Wk; caph; tiy ,uf ghJfhtyh; vd;w tpUij `h[p %rh vd;w ky; j hhpf; F k; > gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq;fhj;jd; mikg;Gf;Fk; Nrh;jJ ; toq;fg;gl;lJ. ryPkkj; `y;Nghj;uh> gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd; jiyth;> vd;.gp.V.[P.Mh; mikg;gpd; eph; t hff; FO cWg; g pduhf mkh; j ; j gl; l hh; . gd;dp vUikfspd; Njit mjpfhpj;jJ. gjpT nra; A k; N ghJ ,Ue; j tpiyiatpl gd; d p vUikfspd; ruhrhp tpiy ,uz;L klq;fhf mjpfhpj;Js;sJ.

Rje; j puk; mile; j g; g pd; d h; ,e; j pahtpy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l Kjy; vUik ,ufk;> gd;dp vUik ,ufkhFk; mjd; gpwF> 29 Gjpa fhy;eil ,ufq;;fs; > vd;.gp.V.[P.Mh; vd;w mikg;gpdhy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;ld.

ghy; nghUshjhuk; mjpfhpj;jJ gd;dpapy; cs;s Gy;ntspapd; ghJfhtyh;fs;> cs;@h; Njitiatpl> ghy; cw;gj;jp mjpfkhf nra;tjhy;> mjd; tpiy 2008 Mk; Mz;L tiu Fiwe;Jnfhz;Nl nrd;wJ. ,e;j Neuj;jpd; Njitahf fr; gFjpapd; ntspapy; ghy; tpw;gjw;F ghy; gz;izia mikg;gNjahFk;. gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd;> Njrpa ghy;ts tsh;rr ; p FOTld; fye;Jiuahliy Jtf;fpdh;. ,e;j tsh;rr ; pf; FO> gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq; f hj; j d; mikg; G ld; ,ize; J nkhj; j ghy; Fsp&l; L k; ikak; > gd; d papy; cs; s fpuhkq;fspy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; Kbthf fle;j gj;J Mz;Lfspy; ghy; tpiy %d;W klq;fhf mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. ,jdhy; NkYk; ghy; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj;jJ. jw;NghJ gd;dpapy; 2008 Mk; Mz;L 60>000 ypl;lh; ghy;; cw;gj;jpapypUe;J> jw;NghJ jpdKk; 1>00>000 ypl;lUf;F Nky; ghy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpwJ.

ghuk;ghpa muR jpl;lq;fis kPln ; lLj;jy; ,e; j pahtpy; > td cUthf; f j; j pw; f hd epy tbtikg;G Nghl;b ePz;l ehl;fshf eilngw;W tUfpwJ . rkPg fhyj;jpy; ,e ;j N gh l ; b jPtpukile;Js;sJ. ghuk;ghpa kf;fs; kw;Wk; cs;@h; r%fq;fs; tho;tjw;F Njitahd> moptpd; tpspk; g py; cs; s td epyg; g ug; G > ghJfhg;G vd;w mbg;gilapy; khepy murhy; xUkpj; J nghWg; N gw; f pwJ. ,J nghJthd kw;Wk; cs;@h; r%fq;fs; ,e;j Mjhuq;fs; Nky; cs;s chpikfSf;Fk; Nrh;j;J KOf;;F Nghl;Ltpl;lJ. ghuk;ghpa kf;fs; kw;Wk; cs;@h; r%fq;fs;> ngUk;ghYk; nghJey epWtdq;fs; cjtpNahL r%f Mjhuq; f spy; jq; f spd; rhh;Gj;jd;ikia tpthpj;J nghJ kw;Wk; r%f Mjhuq;fs; Nky; cs;s chpikfis kPz;Lk; ngw Kaw;rpj;jJ. ,e;j Kaw;rpfspd; tpisthf goq; F bapd kf; f s; kw; W k; ,ju ghuk; g hpa tdtho; T (td chpikia mq; f P f hpg; g J) rl;lk; 2006 xd;W gpwg;gpj;jJ (vg;.Mh;.v) td chpik rl;lk;> Kd;Ndhh;fs; epyk;> r%f td Mjhuq; f s; kw; W k; ghuk; g hpa gpuNjrq; f s; Nky; cs;@h; r%fq;fspd; chpikfs; mq;ff P hpf;fg;gl;lJ. vjph;ghuhjtpjkhf> FOf;fs; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

9


kw; W k; jdpkdpjdpd; Mh; t j; j pdhy; td chpik rl;lk; nray;gLj;Jtjpy; topj;jilfs; re;jpj;jdh;. ,jdhy; tdchpik rl;l j; jpd; Nehf; f khd tho; t hjhu ghJfhg; G > td ghJfhg;ig tphptiljy;> cs;@h; Ra Ml;rpia tYgLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; ,ij nray;gLj;jpaJ Kjy; ntw;wpapd; tha;g;G Fiwe;Js;sJ. F[uhj; kw;Wk; fr; gFjpapy; cs;s #o;epiyapy; ve;j tpj;jpahrKk; ,y;iy. gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd;> muRld;> mth;fspd; chpikia Kiwahf fye; j hNyhrpj; j jd; %yk; > cauj; j pw; F Kd; N dwpaij cWjp nra;fpwJ. NkYk; ,e;j rq;fk; mjd; FwpNfhis ,d; D k; milatpy; i y. gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd; eNfhah g;nuhNlhfhy; 8n[ vd; w gphptpd; fP o ; cs; s gp.rp.gp.apy; cUthf;fpa r%f chpikfs; kw;Wk; topfis Kjypy; Mtzk; nra; t jpy; Jtf; f paJ. 2009 Mk; Mz; L tdj; J iw> gd; d papy; gutyhd gFjpia Ntyp NghLjhf xU nray; jpl;lj;ij nfhz;Lte;jJ. ,e;j nray; jpl;lk; r%fj;jpd; MNyhridapy;yhky; vLf;fg;gl;lJ. gd; d pf; F s; ,Uf; F k; eQ; i r epyq; f is> Gy; n tsp ghJfhtyh; f s; gad; g Lj; J tij jLg; g Jkl; L kpy; y hky; > xU tUl fhyj; j py; Gy; n tsp ghJfhtyh; Njitahd gy; N tW caphpay; mikg;G fSf;F nry;t ij jLj; J mth;fis FUlh;fshf;fpaJ. gd;dp ngUf;f rq;fk; jq;fspd; chpikia Nfhu Ntz;Lk; vd KbT nra;jdh;. Vndd;why;> nray; jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;Jtjpy; caphpay; mikg;G mth;fis epiyf;fnra;tjpy; mr;RWj;jyhf ,Uf;Fk; vd cWjp njhpfpwJ. ,J NkYk;> mth;fSila tho;thjhuk;> ,ufq;fs;> kw;Wk; fyhr;rhuj;jpy; jhf;fk; Vw;gLk;. ,dg; ngUf;f mYtyh; rq;fk; td chpik rl;lk;> gd;dpapy; Gy;Ntyp epyj;jpd; chpikia Kiwahf nray;gLj;j KbAk; vd;W czh;ej ; dh;. ghuk;ghpa Ml;rp mikg;Gfs; kPl;nlLg;gjw;fhd tha;gG ; ,J> Mdhy; chpikf;fhd Nghuhl;lj;ij njhlh;e;Nj ,J rhj;jpak;.

gd;dpapy; cs;s fpuhkq;fspy;> nkhj;j ghy; Fsp&l;lgl;l ikaq;fs; %yk; ghy; cw;gj;jp 1>00>000 ypl;lh; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ> me;j tifapy; fhy;eil kjpg;gl P L ; nghUshjhuk; tUlj;jpw;F ,e;jpa &ghapy; 110 Nfhbahf ,Uf;fpwJ. 10

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq; f hj; j d; > gd; d papYs; s 54 fpuhkq; f spy; Kfhk; f s; elj;jpaJ. ,e;j Kfhk; jw;NghJ ‘gd;dp nfh gd;dp uh`Nd Njh” vd;why; ‘gd;dp nghJthfNt ,Uf;fl;Lk;” vd gpugykile;Js;sJ. NkYk; Gy; n tspia ghJfhtyuhy; ghuk; g hpakhf gad;gLj;jp> ghJfhj;J kw;Wk; Nkk;gLj;jpa topia kPzL ; k; mikf;Fk; gzp nra;J tUfpwJ. gd;dpapy; cs;s fpuhkq;fspy;> nkhj;j ghy; Fsp&l;lgl;l ikaq;fs; %yk; ghy; cw;gj;jp 1>00>000 ypl;lh; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ> me;j tifapy; fhy;eil kjpg;gPl;L nghUshjhuk; tUlj;jpw;F ,e;jpa &ghapy; 110 Nfhbahf ,Uf;fpwJ. gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq; f hj; j d; > fpuhkq;fs; kw;Wk; gQ;rhaj;Jfspy; gy $l;lq;fs; elj;jpajw;F gpd;G mth;fis mq;fPfhpf;fhky; epuhfhpj;jijAk;> mth;fSila chpikfspd; tpopg; G zh; T Fwpj; J gug; g Tk; > tpiutpy; gd;dpapy; td chpik rl;lk; nray;gLj;Jtij $l;lhf Nfhu Ntz;Lk; vd;W KbT nra;jdh;. ky;jhhp]; r%fj;jpd; nghpath;fs; kw;Wk; gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd; gpujpepjpfs; njhlh;e;J goq;Fbapd; ey mikr;rh; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy; kw;Wk; td mikr;rfj;ij re;jpj;J fye;Jiuahly;fs; Nkw;nfhz;ldh;. goq;Fbapd ey mikr;rfk;> rq;f gpujpejpfsplk;> td chpik rl; l k; khepyj; j py; nray; g Lj; j Jtq; f paJ. gpw; g Lj; j g; g l; l gFjp my; y hj ,lj; j py; ( fr; Fiwe;j goq;Fbapd kf;fs; cs;sjhy;) td chpik rl;lk; nray;gLj;Jtjw;fhd kj;jpa Kfikapy; ,Wjp nra;ag;gltpy;iy>Mifahy; fr; gFjpapy; ,ij ,d;Dk; eilKiwgLj;j Ntz;Lk;. 2012 Mk; Mz;L> gzpj;jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;j Jtf;fpaJ tdj; Jiw. Ky;jhhp]; kf;fs; G[; gFjpapy; Ch;yk; Vw;ghL nra;J> fr; gFjp fnyf;lh; kw;Wk; khepy msT fz;fhzpg;Gf; FOtpw;Fk;> td chpik rl;lj;jpd; fPo; jq;fspd; chpikia ePzl ; fhykhf mq;ff P hpf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gjhy;> mjid vjph;j;J mikjp Ch;tyk; elj; j Nghtjhf kD mspj; j dh; . 2012 Mk; Mz;L [_d; 5Mk; ehs;> gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd;> Clfj;ij mioj;J> jhq;fs; Gy;ntspia ghJfhg;gij nra;Jfhl;b> Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd cjtpia Clfj;jpypUe;J ngw;wdh;.

khepy muNrhL Ngr;Rthh;j;ij gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq; f hj; j d; Ntz;LNfhspd; gb> gd;dpapy; cs;s fpuhk rghf; f s; td chpik FOf; f s; xt; n thU fpuhkj;jpYk; cUthf;fp gd;dpapd;Nky; cs;s


kw; W k; fz; f hzpg; G ) vd; w epWtdj; i j> Gy;ntsp epyq;fs; Ma;T> mjid ghJfhj;J kw;Wk; Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F Muha;r;rpapd; %yk; ,LnghUs; toq;Fjy; Mfpa ,U Nehf;fj;jpw;F cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

gd;dp vUik Gw;fs; ghJfhtyh;fshy; gd;dpapy; gy jiyKiwfshf ngUf;fk; nra;J> tsh;j;J te;jdh;.

chpikia Nfhu Jtq;fpaJ. ,e;j Kaw;rpfs; F[uhj; khepy muR ghh;itf;F nrd;wjhy;> khepyj;jpy; midj;J gpw;gLj;jg;gl;Nl ; hh; my;yhj khtl; l q; f spd; khtl; l Ml; r pah; f Sf; F > td chpik rl; l j; i j nray; g Lj; J khW fbjq;fs; mDg;gg;gl;lJ. khtl;l eph;thfk;> xt;nthU fpuhkj;jpYk; Kiwahf td chpik FOkq;fis cUthf;Ftjw;fhf> fpuhk rghf; f Sf; F miog; G tpLj; j J. ghuk; g hpa Nka;rr ; y; njhopy;El;gq;fs;> caph;r# ; o;e ; piyfs;> fhy; e ilia rhh; e ; j pUj; j y; > jhtuk; kw; W k; tpyq; F fs; caph; gy; t ifik Mfpatw; i w gq;Nfw;Gld; $ba gapw;rpapd; %yk; Mjhu tiug;gl jpl;lk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.,e;j r%f Nfhhpf;iffis v];.b.vy;.rp vd;w mikg;gpdhy; xg;Gjy; ngw;W> b.vy;.rp.vd;w mikg;G ,e;j xg; G jiy Vw; W nfhz; l J.cUthf; f g; g l; l 54 td chpik FOkq;fspy;> 48 FOkq;fs; gd;dpapy; cs;s nghJ chpikfs; ngWtjw;F tof; F jhf; f y; nra; a KbT nra; J s; s dh; . ,J> gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq;fhj;jd; mikg;gpw;F nghpastpy; rhjid. gd;dpapy; cs;s gFjpfis gad;gLj;Jtjw;fhf> Gy;ntsp ghJfhtyh; f spd; Njit gpujpgypf; f pwJ. ,k;khjphpahd nghpa r%fk; xd;W Nrh;e;J KO fhl;bd; chpikia nghJthd Nfhhpf;ifahf rkh;gpg;gJ ,JNt Kjy;Kiw. gd; d p gR cr; r uf; ky; j hhp]; rq; f hj; j d; rpwe;j Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fhd V.b.Mh;.<.< (ATREE)> vd;.rp.gp.v]; (NCBS) kw;Wk; mk;Ngj;fh; gy;fiyf;fofk; Nrh;e;J gzpGhpe;J> Mh;.V.vk;. gp.vy; . , (gd; d p epymikg; g py; Muha; r ; r p

gd; d p ky; j hhp]; Kaw; r pfs; > mth; f spd; Nfhhpf; i fia Kiwg; g Lj; J tjw; F fjTfs; jpwf;fg;gLtJ kl;Lky;yhky; ,ju r%fq;fs;> F[uhj;jpy; cs;;s gpw;gLj;jg;gl;Nlhh; my;yhj gFjpfspy; ,Uf;Fk; nghJ epyj;jpd; chpikfis NfhUtjw;Fk; toptFj;jJ. gd;dpapy; r%f chpikfis Kiwg;gLj;Jk; Kaw;rpfs; ,d;Dk; ele; J nfhz; b Uf; f pwJ. NkYk; G[; khtl; l Ml;rpah; kw;Wk; F[uhj; Kjyikr;rh; MfpNahhplk; jw;NghJ Ngr;Rthh;ji ; j ele;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ghpNrhjidfs; kw;Wk; mjph;Tfis nfhz;l gazj; j py; > ky; j hhp]; ] pd; xUq; f pize; j rf; j pNahL ,g; N ghJtiu midtiuAk; re;jpj;JtUfpwJ. nghJ chpikf;fhf midtiuAk; xd;W Nrh;j;j ,e;jpahtpd; xNu Gy;ntsp FO gd;dp ky;jhhp]; kl;LNk. gd;dp vd;w nghpa Gy;ntsp gFjpapd; epy chpikf;fhf r%fk; kw;Wk; muRf;F kj;jpapy; Ngr;Rthh;j;ij ele;Jnfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ,e;jpahtpd; nghJthd nrhj;JfSf;F> Kiwahd eph;thfkpy;yhjjjhy;> ePzl ; ehl;fSf;F Nrjkile;Js;sij cWjpahf njhpfpwJ. ky;jhhp];> gd;dp gR cr;ruf; ky;jhhp]; rq; f hj; j d; %yk; > gpur; r idia jP h ; g ; g jw; F xU Kiwia Kd;itj;jJ. ,J xl;Lnkhj;j ehl;bw;Fk; gpujpgypf;Fk;. chpikfspd; mq;fPfhuj;ij ngWtJ> ,e;jpahtpy; Gy; n tsp ghJfhtyh; f Sf; F kl; L ky; y hky; [dehafj; J f; F k; kpfg; n ghpa ntw; w pahf fUjg;gL fpwJ . gd;dpapd; chpi k f is mq;fPfhuk; ngw;wJ> ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s kw;w Gy; n tsp r%fq; f Sf; F Kd; D jhuzkhf itj;J mth;fspd; nghJ epyq;fs; gad;gLj;Jk; Nfhhpf;ifia gjpT nra;a Jtq;f Ntz;Lk;.  Ramesh Bhatti Programme Driector, Sahjeevan Bhuj, Kutch – 370001 www.sahjeevan.org E-mail: Rkb335@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2016> thy;a+k; 18> ,jo; 4

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nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af;jp Kiwfspy; ty;Yeh;fs; Rrpuhjpg;jh gl;lrhh;[p kw;Wk; rutzd; uh[;; rpwpa tlfpof;F ,e;jpa khepykhd jphpGuh> nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapypUe;J Af;jpKiwf;F tsh; ; e ; J s; s J. ,jw; F ney; cw; g j; j papy; khepyk; Rarhh;Gila gy;NtW ty;Yeh;fs; xd;W Nrh;e;jdh;. jphpGuhtpd; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af;jp KiwfspypUe;J fw;w ghlj;ij ,J Nghd;w gaph;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhl;ghLfis gpd;gw;wpdhy; tsh;rr ; p kw;Wk; nrOikf;fhd khjphpahf cWjpgLj;jKbAk;. mbg; g ilapy; tphpthf; f k; > Muha; r ; r p> fy; t p kw;Wk; tphpthf;fj;jpd; mwpT Kf;Nfhzj;jpd; mq;fkhf ,Uf;Fk; xd;iw cilj;J> tptrhapfs; mth;fNs xUq;fpizg;gjw;Fk;> tptrhapfs; re; i jAld; ,izg; g jw; F k; NkYk; rpy $Ljy; mq;fq;fshd Rw;Wr;#oy; kw; W k; MNuhf; f pa jfty; NritfNshL ,izg;gjw;Fk; cjTfpwJ. Af;jp Kiwfspd; nray;g hL> tsh;r ;r p> gug;G jy; kw;W k; mwpT gad; g hL Mfpa fhuzpfis nghWj; N j ,Uf;fpwJ. mNj rkak; ty;Yeh;fs; cwtpw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gLk;. 1970 kw;Wk; 1980 fspy; tsh;r;rp ehLfspy; nfhs;if tpthjq;fs; %yk; Ntshz; Af;jp Kiwapd; Gjpa jiyKiw tsh;r;rp khjphp cUthfpwJ. ,J mwpT kw;Wk; ,ju Mjhuq; f is jhdhf mspf; F k; gy ty;Yeh;fis nfhz;l ,izg;Gf;FO> ,jd; %yk; ,th; f s; ,izj; J r%f my; y J nghUshjhu Kiw my;yJ tpisg;nghUis tsh;fpwJ my;yJ cah;j;JfpwJ. rkPgfhykhf nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af;jpfs; vd;gJ Muha;r;rp KiwapypUe;J> ty;Yeh;fs; kj;jpapy; gutyhd nray;ghLfNshL fye;Jiuahly; Kiwf; F khw; w g; g l; l J. ty;Yeh;fs; vdg;gLgth; jdpahfNth my;yJ epWtdkhfNth mth; f spd; Mh; t Ks; s mDgtkpf;f Jiwfspy; cs;sth;fs; Mth;. jpl;lj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,th;fs; mr; R Wj; J tjw; F k; my; y J gyDs; s jhf jpl;lj;ij Mf;Ftjw;Fk; Mw;wy; ,Uf;fpwJ. mth;fs; epjpia ngw;wpUf;fyhk; rpy Neuq;fspy;> ntspghLfis <LgLj;Jk; tpthjkw;w chpikAk; my;yJ jpl;lj;jpy; <LgLk; [dehaf chpikAk; ,Uf;fpwJ. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb 12

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

nrk;ik ney; rhFgb taypy; tptrhapfs; khh;f;fiu itj;J ,ilntspia gpd;gw;Wfpd;wdh;.

- xU rKjha kw; W k; nghUshjhu hP j pahf ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfis Nghy GjpJ my;y. ,jw;F nrk;ik ney; rhFgbNa xU ey;y cjhuzk;. xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l hPjpapy; Ntshz; Af;jp Kiwfspy; ,J jdpj;Jtk; tha; e ; j jhFk; . n[#l; g; h P ] ; l ; vd; g tuhy; cUthf;fg;gl;L> Ntshz;; kw;Wk; Ntshz; rhuhj gpd;;dzpapy; gzpGhpAk; jdpkdpjd; kw;Wk; epWtdq;fs; %yk; gug;gg;gl;lJ. njhopy;El;gk; cUthf;fpa gpd;dh; nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapy; Muha;r;rp Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Ntshz;ik gpd; g w; W gth; f s; > tphpthf; f mYtyh; f s; > Muha;r;rp tpQ;Qhdpfs; kw;Wk; gy;NtW ,ju nray; G hpgth; f s; nrk; i k ney; rhFgbf; F NeubahfTk; > kiwKfkhfTk; ,Ug; g th; f s; Mfpath;fspd; kj;jpapy; KOikahf fye; J iuahly; nra; K iwahf ,Uf; f pwJ. ,it midj; j pYk; ty; Y eh; f s; > nkhj; j nra;Kiwfspy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wdh;. ,J ngUk;ghYk;> gy;NtW kl;lq;fspYk; kw;Wk; tpfpjhr; r huj; j pYk; cyfstpy; ntw; w pngw; w nrk; i k ney; rhFgb> ,e; j ty; Y eh; f spd; fye;Jiuahly; kw;Wk; gq;Nfw;Gk;jhd; Kf;fpa fhuzkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. 1999 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpahtpd; njw;F gFjpahd ghz; b Nrhpapy; cs; s MNuhtpy; md;dG+h;zh gz;izfs; vd;w kf;fs; ey rKjha epWtdj;jpy;jhd; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Kjy; Kiwahf mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 2000 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s jkpo;ehl;bw;F


nfhz;L nry;yg;g l;lJ. muR Kfikfshf gug;gg;gLk; yPrh ,e;jpah ,jopy; ,e;jj; jiyg;G Fwpj;J ntspaplg;gl;lJ. fh;ehlfh khepyj;jpy; ,aw; i f tptrhaf; FO kw; W k; kf; f s; ey r%fq;fs; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb gug;gg;gl;lJ. Me;jpuh khepyj;jpy; ,e;jg; gzpia xUtuhy; kl;LNk nra;ag;gl;lJ. Nkw;F tq;fk; kw;Wk; [hh;fz;l; khepyq;f spy;> kf;f s; ey r%fk; %yk; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb gpugyg;gLj;jpaJ. jdpj;Jtk; tha;e;j jphpGuh khtl;lj;jpy; khepy tphpthf;f mikg;G nrk;ik ney; rhFgbia fpuhk FLk; g q; f spy; fUtpw; F k; nfhs; i f cUthf;fk; NtiyapYk; vLj;Jnry;yg;gl;lJ.

jphpGuhtpy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Ntshz; Af;jp Kiwfs; 10>492 r.fp. gug;gsit nfhz;l rpwpa khepyj;jpy; nkhj;j gug;gstpy; 27% gFjp kl;LNk rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ mjpy; 4% gFjpapy; kl;LNk ghrdk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. khepyj;jpd; cw;gj;;jp kw;Wk; Efh;jy; vd;w hPjpapy; Kf;fpag; gapuhf ,Ug;gJ ney;. ngUk;ghyhd tptrhapfspd; tho;thjhu cj;jputhjk; ,ij ek;gpNa ,Uf;fpwJ. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb jphpGuh khepyk; nghpa khw;wj;ij cUthf;fpajhy;> jw;NghJ nrk;ik ney; rhFgbia kf;f s; ,af;f khf khw; w pa gy;NtW ty;Yeh;fspd; <LghL kw;Wk; gq;F Ghpe;Jnfhs;s Ma;T nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;j Ma;T khepyj;jpy; gug;Gtjw;fhf Gof;fj;jpy; cs;s cjtp mikg;Gfs; Ghpe;Jnfhs;sTk; Kaw;rp nra;fpwJ. NkYk; ty;Yeh;fspd; Af;jpfis mjpfhpf;f cjTfpwJ. Ma; T f; f hf> khepyj; j pd; 4 khtl; l q; f spy; ,uz;L khtl;lq;fis Njh;e;njLj;J - Nkw;F jphpGuh khtl;lk;> Ntshz; Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; tphpthf;f ikak; jiyik mYtyfk; kw;Wk; khepy jiyefuk; mfh;jhyhtpy; mjpf gug;gsT> ney; kw;Wk; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb fPo; cs;sJ. jyha; jphpGuh khtl;lk;> ehl;bd; 250 kpfTk; gpw;gLj;jg;gl;l khtl;lq;fspy; ,JTk; xd;whf fUjg;gLfpwJ. mhprp> khepyj;jpd; Kf;fpag;gaph; vd; g jhy; %d; W gl; l q; f Sf; F k; rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. M\; (Vg;uy; - [_d;)> Mkd; ([_iy - etk;gh;) kw;Wk; NghNuh (brk;gh; khh;r;) Nkw;F jphpGuhtpy; mhprpia Mkd; kw;Wk; NghNuh gl; l j; j py; rhFgb nra; a g; g LfpwJ. jyha; jphpGuhtpy; M\; kw;Wk; Mkd; gl;lj;jpw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. Vndd;why; NghNuh gl;lj;jpy; jz;zhP ; gw;whFiw ,Uf;fpwJ. MW ty;Ydh; epWtdq;fs;> xt;nthU khtl; l j; j py; 66 tptrhapfNshL Ma; T nra;ag;gl;lJ.

gy;NtW ty;Yeh;fSld; gzpnra;jy; nghJ epWtdq;fs; tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; Clfq;fs; MfpNahh; khepy nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af;jp Kiwfspy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpg;gJ ty;Yeh;fs; Mth;. Ntshz;ikj; Jiw> jphpGuh muR ,e;j Kiwapd; jiyik ty;Yeuhf nray;gLfpwJ. njhopy; E l; g cjtp ,e; j pa ney; Muha; r ; r p ikak; > njYq; f hdh> ,e; j pah> kw; W k; epjp kw;Wk; nfhs;if cjtp Ntshz; mikr;rfk;> ,e;jpa muR toq;FfpwJ. khepyk; mhprpapy; Rarhh;Gj;j ; d;ik mila nrk;ik ney; rhFgb xU fUtpahf mwpKfg;gLj;jpa gpd;dh;> Ntshz;ik Jiw mjpf Mh;tk; nfhz;L gy Mjhuq;fis khw;wp khepyj;jpy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhf nray;gl Jtq;fpaJ. Ntshz;ikj; Jiw> khepyj;jpd; ngUk;ghd;ik nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Cf;Ftpg;ghsuhf> kpfTk; ,d;wpaikahj epWtd ,izg;G ngw;Ws;sJ. ,J Muha; r ; r p fpisNahLk; ey; y cwit gfph;e;Jf;nfhz;Ls;sJ. khepyj;jpd; Ntshz; Muhar;rp ikak;> jphpGuh muR> khepyj;jpy; fs ghpNrhjidfs; nra;J> nra;Kiw tpsf;fq;fs;> tphpthf;f mikg;NghL nra;J ngUk;ghyhditfis Muha;rr ; papy; <LgLj;jp> tphpthf; f gzpahsh; f Sf; F njhopy; E l; g cjtpia mspf;fpwJ. ,e;j ikak; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; tsh;r;rp gzpfis ghh;j;Jnfhs;fpwJ. tphpthf;fg;gzpahsh;fs; ,e; j ikaj; j pypUe; J njhlh; e ; J $Ljy; jfty;fis ngw;W jq;fs; gzpfis Kd;Ndw;wg; ghijapy; nrYj;Jfpd;wdh;. Muha;rr ; p ikaj;jpd;> Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; tsh;r;rpg; gzpfis jhz;b nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af;jpKiwapy; Njitahd nfhs;if khw;wq;fis nra;tjw;F cjtpahf ,Ue;J epiyj;jpUf;f ,e;j ikak; xU tf;fy P hf khwpaJ. ve;j nfhs;if my;yJ epfo;r;rpia nray;gLj;Jtjw;F> Njitg;gLk;NghJ Ntshz; Jiw gQ; r haj; J uh[; mikg; i g <LgLj;jpnfhs;fpwJ> Vndd;why; fpuhk kf;fs; ,th; f Sld; neUf; f khf ,Ug; g jhy; j hd; . nghJAilikahf;fglhj [dehaf mikg;ghd gQ;rhaj;J uh[; mikg;G nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapy; Kf;fpa Mh;tk; vLj;Jnfhz;lJ. gQ;rhaj;J uh[; mikg;G> Ntshz;ik JiwAld; ey;y el;G gfph;e;Jnfhs;fpwJ Vndd;why; gy;NtW jpl; l k; nray; g Lj; J k; gadP l ; l hsh; f is Njh;e;njLf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j mikg;Gld; neUf;fkhf cwT itj;jpUg;gJ fpuhk cs;fl;likg;gpd; mq;fkhf ,Uf;Fk; tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; Ra cjtp FOf;fs; fpuhkq;fspy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb gadPl;lhsh;fis Ntshz;ikj; Jiwia fhl;bYk; fpuhk gQ;rhaj;Jfshy; Njh;T yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

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nra;fpwJ. r%f tphpthf;fg; gzpahsh;fisAk; gQ;rhaj;Jfs; %yk; Njh;T nra;ag;gLfpd;wdh;. khdpaj;jpy; fUtpfs;/,ae;jpuq;fs;> ghrdj;jpw;F Njitahd trjpfs; Nghd;wit gQ;rhaj;J uh[; ikak; %yk; epjpAjtp mspf;fpwJ. ,e;j ikak; fpuhk mstpy; cs;s mikg;ghjyhy; tptrhapfspd; #o;epiy kw;Wk; Njitfis ed;F Ghpe;J rpwg;g hf KbT vLf;f KbAk; . ,e;j ikaj;jpd; mwpTiufis> Ntshz;ik Jiwapd; jpl; l g; g phpT Vw; W nfhz; L fpuhk mstpy; mth;fs; nray;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. Ntshz;ik Jiwapd; tphpthf;f gzpahsh;fs;> nrk;ik ney; rhFgb tptrhapfSld; ey;y cwT Nkk;gLj;jp tUfpwJ. ,J mth;fSf;F Njitahd jfty; kw;Wk; Mjhuq;fis fhf;fpwJ. Nkw;fpy; Ntshz;ik JiwAld; Ra cjtp FO ey;y cwit itj;jpUf;fpwJ. jyha;apy; ,J Fiwthf cs;sJ. jyha; khtl;lj;ij fhl;bYk; Nkw;F khtl;lj;jpy; Ra cjtpf; FO vz;zpf;if kpf mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. jphpGuh muR> Ntshz; ,af; F eufk; vd; w jiyik epWtdj; j pd; fP o ; cs; s gz; i z mwptpay; ikak;> jyha; jphpGuh njhopy;El;g gutyhf;fj;jpy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af; j p mikg; G fs; rkP g j; j py; mwpKfgLj; j pajhy; > ,jd; mjpf Mh; t k; khepyj;jpy; Vw;fdNt Kf;fpa ty;Yeh;fshf khwptpl; l d. ikaj; j pd; Njitf; F Vw; g gz;iz mwptpay; ikaj;jpw;F Mjhuq;fs; xJf;fg;gl;lJ.,J KO fl;Lghl;bd; fPo; KbT vLf; f g; g LfpwJ. ,J jyha; nrk; i k ney; rhFgb Af;jp Kiwfspy; Kf;fpa ty;Yeuhf khwpd. Clfk; kw;Wk; mth;fspd; nrhe;j nghJ Mh;tk;> tphpthd ntspaPLfs; kw;Wk; xspgug;ghsh; %yk; gzp nra;fpwJ. Clfq;fs; (nra;jpj;jhs;fs;> njhiyfhl; r p> Mfh\thdp> mfh; j hyh thndhyp epiyak;)> nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Af;jp Kiw ty;Yeh;fspd; xUtuhf ,Ue;J> mjid tphpthf vLj;Jnry;yg;gl;lJ (xt;nthU khjKk; nrk; i k ney; rhFgbapy; 2-3 fl; L iufs; > ntspaPLfs; kw;Wk; ntw;wpngw;w tptrhapfs; kw; W k; tphpthf; f gzpahshpd; Ngl; b ia xspgug;Gjy;). khepyj;jpy; tptrhapfspd; ntw;wp fijfs; nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapd; njhopy;El;g kw;Wk; epiyj;jj;jd;ik Fwpj;j epfo;r;rpfs; kw; W k; fl; L iufs; xspgug; g g; g LfpwJ. ,J fpuhk kw;Wk; Ntshz; tsh;r;rp mjpfhhpfs;> nfhs; i f cUthf; F gth; > murpay; t hjpfs; > tphpthf;f gzpahsh;fs; kw;Wk; tptrhapfs; kj;jpapy; tpopg;Gzh;T Vw;gLfpwJ. 14

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

,e;jpa Ntshz; Muha;r;rp fofk;> tlfpof;F ,kakiy gFjpapd; Muha;r;rp ikak;> jphpGuh khepyj;jpy; Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; gug;Gk; nraypy; njhlf; f j; j py; <Lgl; l J> jw; N ghJ tptrhapfs; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Ra rhh;G epiy mile;Jtpl;ljhy; kw;w Muha;r;rpf;F khwpaJ.

tptrhapfs; > ,ju ty; Y eh; f Sld; ngw;w cwT khepyj;jpy;> tptrhapfs; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb kpf Kf;fpa ty;Yeh;fs; Mth;. mbg;gilapy; mth; f s; njhopy; E l; g j; i j Vw; W nfhs; S k; epiyapy; ,Ue; j hYk; > KOikahd Af; j p Kiwapy; mth; f spd; mDgtk; > Cf; f k; > cldbahf Vw; W nfhs; S k; jd; i k ,it midj; J k; nrk; i k ney; rhFgb Kiwia khepyj; j py; nghpa ntw; w pngw; w J. NkYk; tptrhaplkpUe; J tptrhapf; F tphpthf; f k; vd;w Kiwapd; %yk; jphpGuhtpy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb ,af; f j; i j nghpastpy; nfhz; L nry;Yk; ce;Jrf;jpahf ,Ue;J r%f Af;jpia khepyj;jpy; gug;Gtjw;F cjtpaJ. Ntshz;ik Jiw> ,ju tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; gQ;rhaj;J uh[; mikg;G> Ra cjtp FOtpd; cjtp MfpNahhpd; jplkhd jfty; cjtp tptrhapfSf; F fpilf; f pwJ. tptrhapfs; > ,e;jpa Ntshz; Muha;rr ; p ,af;fk; - tl fpof;F gFjpapd; Muha;r;rp ikak;> jphpGuh ikak;> kw; W k; khepy Ntshz; Muha; r ; r p epiyak; Mfpatw;Wld; Fiwe;j cwNt itj;jpUf;fpwJ. fpuhkj;jpy;> fpuhk msT gzpahsh;fs;> nrk;ik ney; rhFgb jfty; Mjhuj;jpd; ek;gfj;jd;ik cilath;fshf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. tptrhapfs; mth;fSf;F Njitahd jfty; ngw;Wnfhs;s ,e;jg; gzpahsh;fisNa ek;gpapUf;fpd;wdh;. ,ij jtpu Ntshz; tphpthf;f mYtyh;fs; kw;Wk; f;hp\hf; ge;J Mfpa mikg;GfsplkpUe;Jk; mth;fs; ngWfpd;wdh;. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb gadPl;lhsh;fis gQ;rhaj;J Njh;T nra; t jhy; > tptrhapfs; ve; j cjtpf; F k; gQ; r haj; j plk; neUf; f khf ,Ug; g h; . NkYk; ,ju Njitfshd khdpa ,ae; j puq; f s; > ghrdj;jpw;fhd gk;Gnrl;Lfs; Nghd;witAk; tptrhapfs; ngWfpd;wdh;. ,ij jtpu> xU thuj;jpy; xt;nthU 3-4 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw tptrhapfs; mkh;eJ ; fpuhkq;fspy; rhjhuzkhf $b jfty; f is ghpkhwpnfhs; t h; . tptrha mwptpay; ika gzpahsh;fs; thuj;jpy; xd;W my; y J ,uz; L Kiw tptrha tay; f is ghh;itapLtjhy; jyha; tptrhapfs; Nf.tp.Nf Tld; ey;y el;GwT itj;jpUf;fpwJ. tlf;F


jphpGuh khtl; l j; j py; cs; s tptrhapfs; > khepy Ntshz; Muha; r ; r p epiyaj; j pd; tphpthf;f gzpahshplk; mjpf neUf;fj;njhL <Lgl;bUg;gpDk; Neub ,izg;G ,y;iy. ed; F fw; w tptrhapfs; > fpuhk mstpyhd gzpahsh; mYtyfk; kw; W k; gQrhaj; J mYtyfk;> nr.ne.rh kw;Wk; ,ju gz;iz tpguq;fis Nrfhpf;f thuk; xU Kiw ghh; i tapLfpd; w dh; . fpl; l jl; l xt; n thU ehSk; ,ju tptrhapfNshL khiyapy; re;jpj;J gz;iz rhh;e;j Nfs;tpfis fye;JiuahLth;. njhlh;eJ ; jz;zhP ; Mjhuk; ,Uf;Fk; tptrhapfs; nr.ne. rhFgbNahL fye;jpUg;gh;. Mifahy; ,ju tptrhapfs; > tphpthf; f gzpahsh; f s; kw;Wk; jfty; njhlh;G Mfpatw;iw jfty;fis rhh; e ; j pUg; g h; . tptrhapfis Nehf; f khf nfhz; l Gjpa njhopy; E l; g q; f s; > kw; W k; muR jpl;lq;fs; khdpaq;fs; Fwpj;J gy;NtW Mjhuq;fspd; ,izg;Gfs; %yk; tptrhapfs; jfty; ngWtjpy; Mh;t khf ,Uf;f pd; w dh; . ngUk; g hyhd tptrhapfs; Ntshz; i kia kl;Lk; ek;gpapUf;fpd;wdh;.mjdhy; tphpthf;f gzpahsh;fs; kw;Wk; rf nrk;ik ney; rhFgb tptrhapfSld; ey;YwT Nkk;gLj;jp nr.ne. rh. Fwpj;J jfty;fis ngWtjw;F kpfTk; Mh;tkhf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.

nfhs;if kw;Wk; cjtp cs;fl;likg;G nrk; i k ney; rhFgb mwpKfg; g Lj; j pa ehspypUe;J khepyj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; nfhs;if kw;Wk; cjtp cs;fl;likg;Gfs; itj;J tptrhapfs; nrk;ik ney; rhFgbia ijhpakhf gpd;gw;wpdh;. Muk;gj;jpy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgbia nra;tJ nghpa rpukkhf ,Uf;Fk; vd vz;zpdh;. nr.ne. rhFgbf;F muR mjpfstpy; cjtp nra;jjd; %yk; ney; rhFgbapy; mjpf tUkhdk; ngw; w jhy; tptrhapfs; nr.ne.rh. Kiwf; F khWtjw; F Mh; t k; fhl; L fpd; w dh; . jphpGuh murpd; Kd;Ndw;wj; jpl;lk;> Ntshz; tphpthf;f Nkyhz;ik> uh\;Bhpah f;hp\p tpfh]; Nah[dh kw;Wk; rkPg fhyj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l Njrpa

tptrhapfsplk; Kiwahd jz;zh P ; Mjhuk; ,Ug;gjhy;> nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapd; Nky; tpUg;gk;nfhz;Ls;sdh;. Mifahy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Fwpj;j jftYf;F kw;w tptrhapfs;> tphpthf;f gzpahsh;fs; kw;Wk; Clfj;ij ek;gpAs;sdh;.

czT cj;jputhj mikg;G Mfpait khepyj;jpy; nrk;ik ne.rh. apd; Muk;g epiyapd;NghJ> Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; ghpe;Jiug;gjw;F Ntshz; tphpthf;f Nkyhz;ik Kjy; uh\;Bhpa f;hp\p tpfh]; Nah[dh tiu epjpfs; 2008-2009 Mk; tUlk; xJf;fg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. Njrpa czT cj;jputhj mikg;G epjp nrk;ik ney; rhFgbf;F 2011-2012 Mk; Mz;L gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb khepy tptrhapfs; kj;jpapy; kpf Ntfkhf gutp tUfpwJ. 2006 Mk; Mz;L 1000 tptrhapfSld; nghpastpy; Muk;gpj;J> ,uz;L tUlq;fspy; 70000 tptrhapfSf;F mjpfhpj;jJ. 2014 - 2015 Mk; Mz;L 92341 n`f;Nlh; gug;gstpy; nrk;ik ney; rhFgbf;F fPo; te;jJ. NkYk; 2020 Mk; Mz;bw;Fs; 1>00>000 n`f;Nlh; gug;gsT mila Ntz;Lk;. rhjhuz ney; rhFgbapypUe;J nrk;ik ney; rhFgbia khepyk; KOtJk; gpd;gw;wgl;lJ. tphpthf;fk;> Muha;rr ; p kw;Wk; nghJTilikapy;yhj mbkl;l mstpy; cs;s muR mikg;Gfs; Nghd;w gy;NtW mikg;Gfspd; Kaw;rp nkhj;j nray;Kiwapy; <Lgl;Ls;sJ. ve; j Af; j p Kiwfs; kw; W k; mth; f spd; nray;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ,Uf;Fk; ty;Yeh;fs; Kf; f pakhf ntw; w p my; y J Njhy; t pfis eph;zapg;gh;. jphpGuh nrk;ik ney; rhFgbia nghWj;jtiuapy;> tphpthf;f nray;ghL> mbkl;l mstpy; ,Uf;Fk; muR mikg;G kw;Wk; Clfk; Mfpait nrk;ik ney; rhFgb> khepyj;jpy; ntw;wpahd Af;jpahf Mf;Ftjw;F xU ce;J rf;jpahf ,Uf;fpwJ. mhprp jhdpaq;fspy; Ra rhh;Gj;jd;ik miltjw;F Kf;fpakhf cjtpaJ.  Suchiradipta Bhattacharjee MANAGE Fellow at Centre for Agricultural Extension Innovations and Reforms, National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE) Hyderabad, India. E-mail: suchiradipta@hotmail.com Saravanan Raj Director (Agricultural Extension), National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE) Hyderabad, India. E-mail: saravananraj@hotmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2016> thy;a+k; 18> ,jo; 4

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Ntshz; caph;r# ; oy; njhopy;El;gj;ij gug;Gjy; kQ;Rehj; n`hyhY fh; e hlfh> jtdfphp khtl; l k; `hp`uh jhYf; f h> Fk; g YU fpuhkj; i j Nrh; e ; j = V.vd;. MQ;rNeah xU ,sk; tptrhap. ,thpd; MNuhf; f pa gpur; r idfSf; F fhuzkhf ,Uf;Fk; Ntshz; ,urhadq;fis KOikahf mfw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,tiu kUj;Jtkidapy; Nrh; f ; f g; g l; l NghJ kUj; J th; f s; mwpTiu $wpAs; s dh; . Mifahy; 15 tUlq; f Sf; F Kd; ,th; ,aw;if topapy; rhFgb nra;Ak; Kiwf;F khwpdhh;. ,jw;F Kd;G> ,th; rhjhuz Ntshz; Kiwfis gpd; g w; w paNghJ gy ,urhadq; f s; kw; W k; G+r; r pnfhy; y pfis new;gapUf;F cgNahfg;gLj;jpdhh;. MQ;rNeah gaW tiffis rhFgb (Kf; f pag; g aph; f s; tpijg; g jw; F s; gRe; j hs; gaph;fis kz;zpy; klf;fp cOjy;) nra;tjw;F ce;Jjyhf ,Ue;jJ. mUNfAs;s khtl;lj;jpy;> \pfhhpGuh fpuhkj;jpy; trpj;JtUk; tptrhap> jpU.gp.vd;.ee;jp\; Mth;.Kd;djhf yPrh ,e;jpah gp.vd;. ee;jp\; \pd; gaWtif rhFgb mDgtj;ij nfhz; l fl; L iu ntspaplg; g l; l J. v]; . Nf.b.Mh;.b.gp> r`[h Nghd;w epWtdq;fNshL MQ;r ; Neah itj;jpUe;j njhlh;G %yk; gaWtif rhFgb Fwpj;J jftiy mwpe;Jnfhz;lhh;. MQ;rNeah ,jid nra;J ghh;j;jjpy;> ey; y KbTfs; fpilj; j J. mtiu fz; L gy tptrhapfs; > MQ; r Neahtplk; fpilj; j njhopy;El;g cjtp ngw;W gad;gLj;jpdh;. 2009 Mk; Mz;by; tptrhapfspd; Mh;tj;ij fz;L Ntshz;ik Jiw cs;@h; ,aw;if tptrhapfs; FO rudh Kj;jz;zh rtath F\pfhuh gyfhtpw; F cjtp mspj; j jd; %yk; ,e;j gFjpapy; mjpfstpy; gutyhf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. v];.vk;.v];.Nf.gp. gjpT nra;ag;gl;l ,aw;if tptrha FO caph;r# ; oy;; Ntshz;ik> Fwpg;ghf jdJ gz;izapy; ,Uf;Fk; MQ;rNeah

ghuk; g hpa ney; ,ufq; f s; gaphpLfpd; w dh; . ,e;jf; FO ,urhadk; ,y;yhj Ntshz;ik kw; W k; $l; L tpw; g idapy; Jtf; F tjw; F Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;lJ. Fk;gYU fpuhkj;jpy;> ,e;j FOtpy; Rkhh; 300 tptrhapfs; ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. ,e;jf; FO jw;NghJ ney; gjg;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; $l;L tpw;gid Nkw;nfhs;fpwJ. 2009 Mk; Mz; L > Ntshz; i k Jiwapd; cjtpNahL tptrha FOf; f s; nghpastpy; gRe;jhs; gaph; rhFgb nra;J te;jdh;. rzg;ig nty;ntl; gPd;];> ild;r;rh kw;Wk; gpy;ypngruh Mfpa Kf;fpa gaph;fs;; gRe;jhs; cukhf FO cWg;gpdh;fs; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. MQ;rNeah jdJ 4 Vf;fh; cth;j;jd;ikahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ney; gFjpapYk; tphptile;J gRe;jhs; gapiu rhFgb nra;jdh;. tUlj;jpw;F tUlk;> gRe;jhs; gaph; rhFgb gug;gsT mjpfhpj;J tUfpwJ. 2010 Mk; Mz;L 40 Vf;fh; epyj;jpypUe;J> 2011 ,y; 150 Vf;fUk;> 2012 ,y; 400 Vf;fUk;> 2013 Mk; Mz;L 600 Vf;fUk; kw;Wk; 2014 Mk; Mz;L 1200 Vf;fuhf tphptile;Js;sJ. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; tptrhapfshy; ,e;j;j njhopy;El;gk; rpwg;ghf Vw;Wnfhs;sg;gl;lJ. nkhj;j gzpAk; r.K.r.Nf.g. FOthy; nray;gLj;jp fz;fhzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. jw;NghJ fpuhkj;jpy; cs;s ney; tptrhapfs; tUk; Mz;by; 12000 Vf;fhpy; nra;ag;Nghtjhf Nfhhpf;if tpLj;Js;sdh;. ,e;jj; njhopy;El;gk; cw;gj;jp nrytpy; 20% tiu Fiwtjw;F cjTfpwJ. NkYk; kz; tsj;ij mjpfhpj;J mjd; %yk; kz; fdpkj; jd;ikAk; mjpfhpj;jJ. tptrhapfs; G+r;rp kw;Wk; Neha; jhf; F jy; Fiwe; j ij fz; l dh; . ,urhad cuq;fs; gad;ghl;il ngUkstpy; tptrhapfs; epWj;jpdh;. kpf Kf;fpakhf ‘MNuhf;fpa juk; fle;j 5 Mz;Lfshf cah;e;J tUfpwJ” vd;W MQ;rNeah kw;Wk; mtuJ FO cWg;gpdh;fs; njhptpj;jdh;. ,thpd; midj; J Kaw; r pfSf; F k; > f; h p\p gz;bl; vd;w tpUij khepy muR toq;fpaJ. NkYk; kf; f s; ey mikg; G fspypUe; J gy tpUJfis ngw;Ws;shh;.  Manjunath Holalu Organic farming consultant C/o Razaki building, Vinayaka nagar Savanur Road, Shiggaon-581 205 Haveri, Karnataka. E-mail: manjubaduku@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> nrg;lk;gh; 2016> thy;a+k; 18> ,jo; 3

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017


tay; ntspg; gs;sp gz;izapd; mwpit tsh;j;jy; mgp[pj; nkh`e;jp kw;Wk; uQ;rpj; rh`_ tptrhapfs; kw; W k; Mjhu ty; Y eh; f s; gu];guk; gapy;tjw;fhd Nkilahf> tptrha tay; ntspg; gs; s p mikfpwJ. tpthjq; f s; > fye; J iuahly; f s; kw; W k; nra; K iw gapw; r pfs; guhk; g hpa mwpit GJg;gpj;J> epiyf;f nra;tjw;fhd tha;g;ig mDgtpf;Fk; mNj rkaj;jpy; etPd mwptpay; %yk; Kd;Ndw;wq;fs; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s xbrh khepyj;jpd; njd; khtl;lq;fs;> ngUk;ghYk;> ruhrhpahf 12001400 kp.kP tUlhe;jpu kioasit nfhz;lJ. ,J kiyg;gFjpapy; cs;s khdhthhp epykhFk;. goq; F bapd r%fq; f s; > ,e; j g; gFjpapy; td mbg; g il tho; t hjhuq; f s; ghuk; g hpa rpWjhdpaq;fs;> gaW tiffs;> jhdpaq;fs; kw;Wk; vz;nza; tpj;Jg; gaph;fs; Mfpatw;iw khw;W rhFgb Kiwapy; ,izj;J gpd;gw;wp tUfpwJ. Mdhy; fle; j 20 Mz; L fspy; gy;NtW tzpf fhuzq;fSf;fhf tdg;gFjpfs; mopf;fgl;ljdhy;> ,e;j r%fq;fspd; tho;thjhuk; kpf Nkhrkhf ghjpg;gile;Js;sJ. khwptUk; kio fhyq;fs;> njhlh;eJ ; nra;ag;gLk; khw; W rhFgbAk; ,ize; J gutyhf kz; mhpkhdj;ijAk;> fPo; epyq;fspy; cg;G gbkz; Nrh;tJk; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. mjpfsT ,urhad cuq;fs;> G+r;rpnfhy;ypfs; gad;gLj;jpajd; tpisthf> kz;zpd; tsk; Fiwe;jNjhL rhFgb nryTk; mjpfhpj;jJ. tptrhapfs;> Fwpg;ghf gaph; ,og;G Vw;gLk;NghJ> mth;fs; fld;gl;lth;fs; vd;w nfh^u tl;lj;jpw;Fs; te;JtpLfpd;wdh;. ,e;j epiy ,d;Dk; NkhrkilAk; tifapy; ngUk; g hyhd Ntshz; tsh; r ; r p jpl; l q; f s; %yk; ,e;jg; gFjpapy; cs;s caph; gaph;fistpl murhy; Cf;fgLj;jg;gLk; gzg;gaph;fisNa rhFgb nra; a g; g LfpwJ. caph; gaph; f shy; caUk; cs; @ h; nghUshjhuk; > r%fj; j pd; czT kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fs; cj;jputhjj;ij cWjp nra;tij murhy; cjhrpdk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. xl;L ,uf tpijfs; kw;Wk; jdpg; gaph; rhFgb Kiw mjpfk; gad;gLj;Jtjhy;> rhFgb kw;Wk; tpij Mjhuq; f s; Fwpj; j ghuk; g hpa mwpT jw;NghJ moptpd; tpspk;gpy; cs;sJ.

xU gazk; xbrhtpy; thOk; goq; F bapd kw; W k; ,ju eyptile; j r%fq; f spd; tshr; r pf; f hf nghWg;Ngw;w mf;ufhkp vd;w mbjl;L epWtdk; > Ntshz; caph; r ; # oy; khjphpfs; %yk; r%fq;fspd; tho;thjhuk;> czT kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fs; cj;jputhjj;ij cWjp nra;tJ kw;Wk; caph; gy;tifikia ghJfhf;fTk; gzpfs; Nkw;nfhz;L tUfpwJ. ,e;j epWtdk; mwpit Nkk;gLj;Jk; Kiwahd tptrha tay;ntspg; gs;sp %yk; fhrPG+h; kw;Wk; jiky; uhk;g+h; Mfpa ,lq;fis Nrh;ej ; ,uz;L tl;lq;fspy; trpf;Fk; cs;@h; r%fq;fSld; gzpnra;J tUfpwJ. tptrhapfSld; gyKiw Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;l fye;Jiuahly;fs; %yk; tptrhaj;jpy; cs;s Kf;fpa gpur;ridfis Njh;T nra;J fye;Jiuahlg;gl;lJ. ntw;wpaile;j Ntshz;; caph;r# ; oy; khjphpfis mbg;gilahf nfhz;l gy;NtW FWk;glq;fs; kw;Wk; fy;tpr; Rw;Wyh %yk; fpilj;j Kjy; epiy gz;iz mDgtq;fs;> neUf;fkhf fye;JiuahLtjw;Fk;> tptrhapfs; kj;jpapy; khw;W fyhr;rhu fw;wiy mjpfhpf;fTk; tha; g ; g spf; f pwJ. ,e; j epfo; T fs; jfty; ghpkhw;wj;ij mjpfhpf;fpwJ> ghuk;ghpa tpijfs;> gz;iz rhFgb Kiwfs;> gy;tif czTfs; kw; W k; mjd; fyhr; r hu gof; f q; f s; Fwpj; j tpthjq;fSf;F tpj;jpLfpwJ.

gz;iz gs;spfspy; rkkhf cUthFk; mwpT fpuhk mstpy; Jtf;fg;gLk; tptrhapfs; tay; ntspg; gs;sp mwpT tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; Ntshz; caph;r; #oy; Fwpj;J ghpkhwpf; nfhs;tjw;F mUfhikapy; cs; s 4-7 rf fpuhkj; i j Nrh;e;j tptrhapfSld; fye;Jiuahb cs;@ Uf;F cfe;j jPh;Tfis fhZtjw;F cfe;j Nkilia mspf;fpwJ. kz;> jz;zPh; kw;Wk; rj;J Nkyhz;ikf;fhd ghuk;ghpa Kiw> tpij ,ufq; f s; > gaph; r ; rhFgb> G+r; r p fl; L ghL> Gy; kw; W k; jP t d Nkyhz; i k Mfpaitfs; Fwpj; J nra; K iw gapw; r p %yk; mth; f s; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

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fw;fpd;w mNjrkaj;jpy; caph; gy;tifikAk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. tptrhapfSld; fye;JiuahLtJ %yk;> gy ghuk;ghpa njhopy;El;gq;fs; Mtzg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. njhlh;r;rpahf tay; ntspg;gs;spfspy; tptrhapfisf; nfhz;L gy ghpNrhjidfs; nra;tjd; %yk;> ,itfs; kjpg; g plg; g LfpwJ. ,e; j KbTfis fz; L tptrhapfs; jdJ tay;fspy; rpy khw;wq;fSld; ghuk;ghpa njhopy;El;gq;fis gpd;gw;w Jtq;fpdh;. cjhuzj;jpw;F> Ntk;G ,iyfisf; nfhz;L jhdpaq;fSld; fye;J Nrkpf;fg;gLk; ghuk;ghpa Kiwia fh;eh[; kw;Wk; mkhhp Mfpa ,iyfis> G+Q;rhdk; kw;Wk; vWk;GfsplkpUe;J ghJfhj;J> rpwe;j kw;Wk; ePz;l fhyj;jpw;F Nrkpf;Fk; Gjpa njhopy;El;gj;ij tptrha tay; ntspg; gs;spapy; khw;wk; nra;J fw;Wj; jug; gLfpwJ. jfty; ghpkhw;wj;jpd; KOikahd fbdkhd tiy glk; 1 ,y; ntspg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F fw;wy; vd;gJ gy jpirfSf;F nry;Yk; jfty; kw;Wk; mwpthFk;. taJ mjpfKila ,ufq;fis kPl;nlLf;Fk; mOj; j jpd; Njitia czh; e ; J > Njh; T nra;ag;gl;l gaph;fshd ney; rpWjhdpaq;fs;> gaWtiffs; kw;Wk; fha;fwpfisf; nfhz;L tptrhapfs; fsg; ghpNrhjidfs; Nkw; n fhs; f pd; w dh; . tptrhapfs; > moptpd; tpspk;gpy; cs;s gy ,ufq;fis tpij ngUf;fk; nra;tjw;F <Lgl;Ls;sdh;. ghpNrhjidfSf;F Kf; f pa ,lj; i j Njh; T nra; t jd; %yKk; > caphpay; tiu glj;ij gad;gLj;jpAk;> Kf;fpa gz;Gfisf; nfhz;l thpiria Njh;en ; jLj;Jk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. tptrha tpohtpd;NghJ Ntshz; - caph;r;#oy; mDgtq;fis ghpkhwpf;nfhs;Sk; mwpT> rpy Kf; f pa tFg; G fis Nrh; e ; j tptrhapfis ftiyAw nra;Ak; gy gpur;ridfis Kiwahf Ma;T nra;tjw;F cl;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,e; j mwpT ghpkhw; w k; > tpQ; Q hdpfSf; F > tptrhapfspd; ntw; w p kw; W k; Njhy; t pfis

epyk; - ghpNrhjid $lk; - epyk; mZFKiwia tptrhapfSk; tpQ;QhdpfSk; xUq;fpize;J nray;gl;L> epue;ju njhlh;ig Vw;gLj;jpdhy; kl;LNk ,J rhj;jpakhFk;. 18

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

Ghptjw;F cjtpahf ,Uf;fpwJ. NkYk; jw;NghJ fpilf;Fk; cs;@h; Mjhuq;fis> tptrhapfspd; jpwd; kw;Wk; mth;fspd; nghUshjhu epiyia mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; L fsg; ghpNrhjidfspy; khw;wk; nra;jdh;. 180 fsg; ghpNrhjidfspy;> Nkl;L epyq;fspy; gy;NtW ghuk;ghpa ,ufq;fshd kl;bjhd;> Nghjpfhy;> gpujhd;> bg;gjhd; Mfpatw;wpy;> kl;bjhd; ,ufk; mjpf kf#y;> FWfpa fhy ,ufk;> G+r;rp kw;Wk; Neha;fs; vjph;g;Gj; jpwd; nfhz;l fhuzpfspy; cah;e;J epw;fpwJ. NkYk; Jtiuald; ,jid ,izj;J rhFgb nra;tjhy; kw;w ,izg;Gg; gaph;fisf; fhl;bYk; cah;e;J epw;fpwJ. fha;fwp fyg;G rhFgbapy;> fpoq;F tiffSld; gaW tiffis fye;J gaphpLtJ kw;wijtpl cah;eJ ; fhzg;gLtij tptrhapfis fz;ldh;. kf;fhr; Nrhsk; kw;Wk; gaWtiffs; ,izj;jJld;> ,Uf;Fk; <ug;gjj;Jld; ,uz;lhtJ gapuhf fLif gaphpLtJ ntw;wpile;Js;sJ. fsg; ghpNrhjidfspy; tptrhapfis <LgLj;JtJ> cah;e;j ,ufq;fis rhFgb nra;tJ kw;Wk; fyg;Gg;gaph; rhFgb ntw;wpia gpd;gw;wp kw;w tptrhapfis <h;f;Fk; Kiw tpQ;QhdpfSk; fw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;. tpij Nrkpg; g py; > ngz; f s; rpwe; j mwpit ngw;wpUg;gjhy; 15 fpuhkq;fspYk; jhdpa kw;Wk; tpijasit KbT nra; J > Nrkpf; f g; g Lk; ,ufq; f is Njh; T nra; t jd; tpisthf ney;> gaW tiffs;> rpW jhdpaq;fs;> fpoq;F tiffis kw;Wk; fha;fwp ,ufq;fis ghJfhf;fg;gLk; midj;J gzpfSk; jhdpa kw;Wk; tpij tq;fpfspy; ngz;fshy; Nkyhz;ik nra;ag;gLfpwJ. jhtu ,dg;ngUf;fk; Muha;rr ; p ikaj;Jld; jhdpa kw;Wk; tpij tq;fpfis ,izf; F k; Kaw; r pfs; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; L tUfpwJ.

tptrhapfSf;fhd Gjpa fw;wy;fs; jdpg; gaph; rhFgbapy; mjpf czT fpilg; g jhYk; > Fiwe; j my; y J ,aw; i f vjphpfs; ,y; y hky; ,Ug; g jhYk; > G+r; r p kw; W k; Neha; f s; mjpfk; jhf; F fpwJ vd; W tptrhapfs; fw;Wnfhz;ldh;. gaph; gy;tifik Fwpj; J k; > G+r; r p jhf; F jiy jLf; F k; rpy Fwpg; g l; l gaph; f is rhFgbapy; Nrh; g ; g jd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij fw;Wnfhz;Ls;sdh;. lhf;lh;. bNg\; gpurhj; ghb> mf;ufhkp epWtdj;Jld; Nrh;ej ; pUf;Fk; xU Njhl;lf;fiy epGzh;> mtiu nghUj;jtiuapy;> tsh;gG ; kw;Wk; fhl;L Gw;fis


fyg;G rhFgb Kiw %yk; ghuk;ghpa rpWjhdpaq;fis kPl;nlLj;jy;

gad; g Lj; J tjhy; Kf; f pa gapiu jhf; F k; jz; L Jisg; g hid Gw; f s; <h; j ; J nfhz; L ghJfhf;Fk;. nl];Nkhbak; Nghd;w nrbfis kf;fhr; Nrhsk;/Nrhsg;gaph;fspd; thpirf;F kj;jpapy; tpijj;jhy;> jz;L Jisg;ghd; tpul;Lk; xUtpj ,urhad thridia nl];Nkhbak; ckpo;tjd; %yk; ghJfhf;fg;gLk;. mwptpay; tpsf; f q; f is Ghpe; J nfhz; L tptrhapfs; cfe;j njhopy;El;gj;ij gpd;gw;Wtij tpQ; Q hdpfs; czh; e ; j dh; . may; kfue; j Nrh;f;if topahf Vw;gLk; czT cw;gj;jpAk;> G+r;rp jhf;Fjiy fl;LgLj;Jtjw;Fk; gy ed;ik nra;Ak; G+r;rpfspd; gq;F Fwpj;J tptrhapfSf;F gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;lJ. cjhuzkhf> kpUJthd cly; mikg;ig cila m];tpdp> nts;is <> ,iyg;Ngd; kw;Wk; fiuahd;; Mfpatw;iw cz;L gaph; Nrjj;ij jLf;Fk; nghwptz;il fz;lhy; tptrhapfs; kfpo; r ; r p milfpd; w dh; . mNj khjphp> kf;fhr;Nrhsk; kw;Wk; gaWtif gaph;fs; rhFgb nra; j gpd; > ,Uf; F k; <ug; g jj; i jf; nfhz;L ,uz;lhtjhf fLif gaph; nra;tJ tptrhapfSf;F tukhf mikfpwJ. kw;nwhU

Gwj;jpy; Njit kw;Wk; re;ij epytuq;fis mbg;gilahf nfhz;L tptrhapfspd; KbntLf;Fk; Kiwia tpQ;Qhdpfs; fw;Wnfhz;ldh;. jw; N ghJ tptrhapfs; irNkh&gh f; y hfh> gpd;Ndl;lh kw;Wk; Nfrpah Nlhuh Mfpatw;iw nfhz; L caph; gy; t ifik kw; W k; jP t dk; > vhpnghUs; Mfpait tphptilfpwJ. ,e;j Xug; gaph;fs;> fhw;W jLg;ghdhf nray;gLtjhy;> kz;zpd; <ug;gjKk; ghJfhf;fpwJ vd;gjhy; ,th;fs; ngUkpjk; nfhs;fpd;wdh;.

xd;W$b nray;gLtjd; Njit Ntshz; caphpay; mikg; G fs; Ez; z pa mwpTfs; epiwe;jit. cs;@h; epiyia Mo;eJ ; czh;e;J> r%fq;fSld; Vw;fdNt ,Uf;Fk; ghuk;ghpa mwpit tsh;g;gjw;F tptrhapfis mioj;jdh;. epyk; - ghpNrhjid $lk; - epyk; mZFKiwia tptrhapfSk; tpQ;QhdpfSk; xUq;fpize;J nray;gl;L> epue;ju njhlh;ig Vw; g Lj; j pdhy; kl; L Nk ,J rhj; j pakhFk; . yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

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jhdpa kw;Wk; tpij tq;fpapy; ngz;fs; gy ghuk;ghpa tpij ,ufq;fis Nrkpf;fpwhh;fs;

Muha; r ; r p Kiwapy; tptrhapfspd; kpfTk; Kf;fpak; Vndd;why; tpQ;Qhdpfs; ghuk;ghpa mwpT ngWtjw; F k; mth; f spd; Af; j pia kWtbtikg; G nra; t jw; F k; cjTfpwJ. ,e;j Kiwapd; ntspg;ghL tptrhapfSf;F rk; k e; j khf ,Ug; g J kl; L kpy; y hky; > eP z ; l fhyj;jpw;F epiyj;Jk; ,Uf;fpwJ.

ed;wp $Wjy; njhopy;El;g jfty; kw;Wk; Kf;fpa fUj;Jfis toq;fpajw;F epfo;r;rp mwpTiuahsuhd bNg\; gpurhj; gNj mth;fSf;F ed;wp. 

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 3 • nrg;lk;gh; 2017

Abhijit Mohanty Agragamee E-mail: abhijitmohanty10@yahoo.com Blog: developmentalternativesblog.wordpress.com Ranjit Sahu Research Associate University of Virginia, USA. E-mail: sahurk9@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> khh;r; 2016> thy;a+k; 18> ,jo; 1

Tamil - Sept 2017