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,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017


yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo; This issue in Tamil is a translated version of LEISA India magazine. This includes selected articles from LEISA India, originally published in English. Address : ame Foundation No. 204, 100 Feet Ring Road, 3rd Phase, Banashankari 2nd Block, 3rd Stage, Bangalore - 560 085, India Tel:

+91-080- 2669 9512, +91-080- 2669 9522

Fax:

+91-080- 2669 9410

E-mail: leisaindia@yahoo.co.in

Leisa India Chief Editor : K.V.S. Prasad Managing Editor : T.M. Radha

yPrh vd;gJ Fiwe;j ntspapL nghUs; kw;Wk; epiyj;j Ntshz;ik vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;. Rw;Wr;RoYf;F cfe;j topfspy; cw;gj;jpiaAk;> tUkhdj;ijAk; ngUf;f tpUk;Gk; coth;fSf;F njhopw;El;g kw;Wk; r%f hPjpapyhd tha;g;Gfis cs;slf;fpajhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ cs;@h; ts Mjhuq;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;ifapd; Nghf;Ffis msTld; gad;gLj;jp Njitg;gLk; NghJ ghJfhg;ghd msT ntspaPL nghUl;fis jpwd;gl ifahs;tjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; coth;fis> me;j r%fj;ij Ragyk; kpf;fth;fshfTk;> rf;jp kpf;fth;fshfTk; khw;wp mjd;%yk; mth;fspd; vjph;fhyj;ij jq;fs; nrhe;j mwpT> jpwik>kjpg;gL P > fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; mikg;Gfis mikf;f cjTtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ khwptUk; #oy;fs; kw;Wk; NjitfSf;F Vw;g coth;fs; kw;Wk; ,ju gq;Fjhuh;fspd; jpwikfs;> gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwfs; %yk; gyg;gLj;JtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ ghuk;ghpa mwpitAk;> mwptpay; g+h;tkhd mwpitAk; ,izj;J mjd;%yk; nfhs;if cUthf;fj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp vjph;fhy tsh;r;rpf;F rhjfkhd #oiy cUthf;FtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ xU fUj;J> xU mZFKiw kw;Wk; tpNtfkhd nra;jp.

Translated by N. Lalitha Sakthivel Translation coordination Poornima Administration Rukmini G. G. Design and Layout M.S. Vasanth Christopher Printing L.S. Graphic Prints, Chennai Cover photo Women in cultivation of Cumbu Napier (CN Co4) fodder grass in Attapallam village Photo: J. Krishnan, AMEF Different editions • Regional Editions Telugu, Hindi, Kannada, Marathi, Punjabi and Oriya • Farming Matters The Global edition in English • LEISA Revista de Agroecologia The Latin American edition in Spanish • LEISA India The Indian edition in English • AGRIDAPE The West African edition in French • Agriculturas, Experiencias em Agroecologia The Brazilian edition in Portuguese The editors have taken every care to ensure that the contents of this magazine are as accurate as possible. The authors have ultimate responsibility, however, for the content of individual articles. The editors encourage readers to photocopy and circulate magazine articles.

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Supported by MISEREOR, Published by AME Foundation yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

kpnrshpah; vd;gJ tsh;r;rp xj;Jiog;gpw;fhf> n[h;kdp ehl;by; cs;s fj; N jhypf; f ghjphpahh; f shy; 1958 Mk; Mz; b y; epWtg; g l; l Xh; epWtdkhFk;. kpnrshpah; fle;j 50 tUlq;fSf;Fk; Nkyhf Mg;gphpf;fh> Mrpah kw; W k; yj; j P d ; mnkhpf; f ehLfspy; Vo; i k xopg; g jw; f hd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jd;id mh;gzpj;J gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. kjk;> ehfhPfk;> ghypdk; vd;w ve;j NtWghby;yhky; kdpj Fyj;jpd; Njitf;F jdJ cjtpia mspj;J tUfpwJ. Vio kw;Wk; gpd;jq;fpa kf;fs;> jhq;fshf Jtf;Fk; ve;j xU Kaw;rpf;Fk; MjuT nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;GfpwJ. cs;@h; $l;lhspfSld;> Fwpg;ghf fpUj;Jt Nfhapy;fNshL njhlh;Gila epWtdq;fs;> muR rhuh epWtdq;fs;> r%f ,af;fq;fs;> Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fs; Nghd;wtw;NwhL ,ize;J gzpahw;Wtij tpUk;GfpwJ. gadhspfNshL ,ize;J> mjd; $l;lhspfs; cs;@h; ts Nkk;ghl;L Kiwfspy; cjtpAk;> jpl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jpAk; tUfpd;wdh;. ,t;topahfNt> kpnrshpah; jdJ $l; l hspfSld; ,ize; J njhlh; r ; r pahf khwptUk; rthy; f is vjph;nfhs;fpwJ. www.misereor.de; www.misereor.org V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Fiwe; j ntspapL nghUs; %yk; ,aw; i f ts Mjhuq; f s; Nkyhz; i kf; f hf ghuk; g hpa mwpitAk; > Gjpa fz; L gpbg; G njhopw; E l; g q; f isAk; xd; w pizj; J epiyj; j tho; t hjhug; gzpfis ngUf; F tjpy; <Lgl; L tUfpwJ. V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Ntshz; i kapy; khw;WfisAk;> mwpitAk; ngUf;FtjpYk;> gapw;rpfs; mspg;gjpYk;> tsh;r;rp gzpfspy; <Lgl;L tUk; epWtdq;fNshL njhlh;Gfis Vw;gLj;JtjpYk;> mDgtq;fis gfph;e;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> jf;fhz gPlg+kp gFjpfspy; rpW FW coth;fs; kj;jpapy; gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. V.vk;., epWtdk; Mh;tKs;s tptrhaf; FOf;fSld; gy fpuhkq;fspy; khw;W tptrha Kiwfis ngUf;fTk;> eilKiwg;gLj;jTk; gzp nra;J tUfpwJ. ,e;j gFjpfs; ,aw;if Ntshz; Kiwfis nfhz;Ltu Kaw;rpf;Fk; kw; W k; eilKiwg; g Lj; j p nfhz; L tUk; jd; d hh; t f; FOf; f s; kw; W k; $l;likg;GfSf;F fw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ,lq;fshfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. www.amefound.org

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r%f Kaw;rpapd; %yk; czT 18 cj;jputhjkpd;ikapd; rthiy re;jpj;jpy; b.Nf. Xkdh jpwd; kw;Wk; ek;gpf;ifia tsh;g;gjd; %yk; ngz;fis rf;jptha;e;jth;fshf Mf;Fjy;> ,Uf;Fk; jpwd;fis gad;gLj;JtJ> Njitahd ,lj;jpy; cjtp mspg;gJ kw;Wk; kWRow;rp %yk; midj;J gz;iz nray;ghLfis xUq;fpizj;jy; Mfpa fhuzpfs; ahTk; > Nfushtpy; cs; s ,e; j Vio ngz; f is tWikapypUe;J ntspnfhzh;ej ; J.

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

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jhf;fj;ij gug;Gjy; fpuhk Neub epfo;r;rpapy; gq;FNfw;w gpd;dh;> gpufh\;> mtUila fpuhkj;jpy; gpugykile;jhh;. NkYk; Rw; W r; # oy; gpur; r idfs; Fwpj; j mthpd; Mo;ej ; mwpit fz;L kf;fs; mtUf;F khpahij mspj;jdh;. jw;NghJ gz;iz rhh;e;j re;Njfq;fis> midj;J taJila kf;fSk;> ,thplk; mwpTiu ngWfpd;wdh;. gpufh\;[p> vd;idAk;> vd; rNfhjhpfisAk; vq;fs; tPl;by; kuq;fs; eLtjw;F Cf; f g; g Lj; j path; f spy; xUth; vd; W mNj fpuhkj;ij Nrh;e;j gg;sp vd;w 20 taJ ngz; $wpdhh;. ,d;Dk; $Ljyhf gg;spapd; je;ij> gpufh\; u[hthpy; cs;s xt;nthU tptrhapf;Fk;> xU cjhuzkhf> jfty; Mjhukhf> MNyhrfuhf kw;Wk; Ma;thsuhf jpfo;fpwhh;. ,th; ,e;j fpuhkj;jpd; xt;nthU tptrhapapd; khw;wj;jpw;Fk; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jhh;. gpufh\pd; fpuhkkhd> u[hth; EioAk;NghJ> kiyabthuj; j py; cs; s gr; i rgNrnyd ,Uf; F k; tay; f spy; kf; f s; Mh; t j; J ld; gzpnra;J nfhz;bUg;gij fhzyhk;. Foe;ij gUtj;jpypUe;Nj tptrhak; nra;JtUk; fpuhkthrpahd> re;Njh\; F\;th`h vd;gth; ‘vq;fs; epyk; Kd;G tskhf ,y;iy> NkYk; ghiw epyk; > Fiwe; j kioasT nfhz; b Ug; g jhy; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

5


kz;GO cuk; jahhpj;J Njhl;lj;jpy; ,lg;gLfpwJ. kPzL ; k;> fha;fwp cw;gj;jpapypUe;J fpilf;Fk; tPzhd jiofis kWRow;rp nra;J kz;GO cuk; jahh; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ve;j gaph; tsh;g;gJk; kpf fbdkhf ,Uf;Fk;. mjdhy; tptrhak; ,q;F Rygkhd gzpahf ,y;iy vd;W $wpdhh;. jw;NghJ> re;Njh\; jdJ tay;fis fhl;Lk;NghJ mtuJ Kfk; re;Njh\ j; j py; xsph; f pwJ. NkYk; > mk; U j; kpj; j pia taypy; gad;gLj;jpa gpd;dh; epyj;jpd; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj;Js;sJ vd;W $wpdhh;. re;Njh\; kw;Wk; kw;w tptrhapfSk; mth;fSila epyj;jpd; rpW gFjpia mk;Uj; kpj;jpia gad;gLj;jp Kjypy; xU gaph; gl;lj;jpw;F ghpNrhjid nra;jdh;. mk; U j; kpj; j pia gad; g Lj; j pa ,lj; j py; jz;zPh; Njit kpf Fiwthf cs;sJ> NkYk; jhdpaq; f s; MNuhf; f pakhfTk; ,Ug; g ij mth; f s; fz; l dh; . ,d; W u[hthpy; cs; s Rkhh; 90 rjtpfpj tptrhapfs; mk;Uj; kpj;jpia jdJ tay;fspy; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. mk;Uj; kpj;jpia gad;gLj;Jtjpdhy;> ghrdj;jpw;F Njitahd jz;zPhpd; msT FiwtNjhL> gaphpd; cw;gj;jp juk; tphpTgLj;JfpwJ vd;W tptrhapfs; $Wfpd;wdh;. ,J NkYk; ,urhad cuq;fspd; nryT Fiwg;gjw;Fk; cjTfpwJ. ,e; j nryNt Kd; G tptrhapfSf; F mjpf gz;iz nrythf ,Ue;jJ. ,Jkl;Lkpy;yhky;> jw;NghJ> ,e;j fpuhkj;jpy; Kd;G tsh;ff ; ,ayhj> jz; z P h ; mjpfk; Njitg; g Lk; gaph; f shd fha;fwpfs; tay;fspy; tsh;f;f KbfpwJ. u[hthpy; cs;s kf;fs; kuq;fs; tsh;g;gjw;Fk;> mth;fSila nrhj;jpw;Fk; cs;s

6

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

rk;ke;jj;jpid Ghpe;Jnfhz;ldh;. ey;y kio nga;tjw;F Njitahd kuq;fis eLtJ Kjw; nfhz;L> gaph; Row;rp njhopy;El;gk; tiuapy; gad;gLj;jf;$ba mk;Uj; kj;jp> kw;Wk; ,ju KiwfSk; kf;fshy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L ,aw;if jhAldhd cwT mh;jj ; Ks;sjhf Mf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j rpwpa fpuhkj;jpd; ntw;wp> ngUikg;gLk; tptrhapfspd; Kfj;jpy; gpujpgypf;fpwJ. Mifahy; > u[hth; fpuhkk; xd; W Nrh; e ; j khw;wj;jpd; nray;Kiw %yk; rpwe;j Kiwapy; tsh; r ; r pia Nehf; f p nry; t ij nra;J fhl;bAs;sJ. r%f thndhyp> ,q;F> jfty;fis jdp kdpjh;fSf;F toq;Ftjpy; ntw; w p fz; l Jkl; L kpy; y hky; > gUt epiy khw;wj;jpd; gpur;rpidfSf;Fk; ,e;j r%fj;jpy; fye;JiuahLk; mstpw;F Kd;NdwpAs;sJ. ,e; j nray; g hl; b d; khw; w k; xUthplkpUe; J Jsph;e;J> kw;w r%f kf;fSf;F nrd;wile;J> r%f mstpyhd jhf; f j; i j ngw; w J vd; w tifapy; ,e; j fpuhkk; xU Mh; t Kila khjphpapd; gpujpepahf jpfo; f pwJ. NkYk; fpuhk Neub epfo; r ; r p> ,e; j nray; K iwia Jtf;Ftjw;F Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jJ.  Shweta Prajapati Deputy Manager, Development Alternatives GazalaShaikh Assistant Programme Director Development Alternatives B-32, TARA Crescent Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi - 110 016 %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> khh;r; 2015> thy;a+k; 17> ,jo; 1


ney; tay;fspy; ngz;fs; gzpGhpfpd;wdh;

tptrhapfshf mq;fpfhuk; ngWjy; Nfushtpy; xd;W$ba ngz;fspd; ntw;wpf;fij gp.v];. fPjhFl;b tptrhaj;jpy; ngz;fspd; ntw;wpia tpj;jpahrkhf glk;gpbj;J fhl;bapUf;fpwJ Nfus khepyk;. ngz;fs; FOf;fspd; xd;W$ba rf;jp> cs;@h; Ra muRfspd; xUq;fpizg;G> kw;Wk; jpl;lk; nray;gLj;Jtjw;F Kd; mspf;Fk; epjpAjtp epykw;w ngz;fSf;F mth;fs; th;j;jf ,aw;if tptrhapfshf Nfushtpy; cUntLj;Js;sdh;. ngz;fs; jw;NghJ ngU tptrhapfshf> FO mbg;gilapy; mjpf gFjpfspy; ney;> fha;fwpfs;> thiog;gok; kw;Wk; fpoq;F tiffs; Mfpatw;iw rhFgb nra;tij khepyj;jpy; fhz KbfpwJ. ,e;j ngz;fs; FOf;fs; %yk; ngz;fs; mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; tptrhapfshf mq;fPfhuk; ngw;W tUfpd;wdh;. fle;j Kg;gJ Mz;Lfspy;> r%f nghUshjhu khw;wq;fspdhy;> Nfushtpy; mjpfsT rhFgb nra;ag;gl;l ney; tay;fs; midj;Jk; rhFgb my; y hj kw; w nray; g hLfSf; F gad; g Lj; j g; g l; l J. mjpfhpj; J tUk; $yp nryTfs; > rpwe; j re; i j cjtp ,y; y hik> Fiwe;j tUkhdk; kw;Wk; njhlh;e;J khwptUk; gUt epiy Nghd;w fhuzpfs; ahTk;> nrhe;j epyk; itj; j pUf; F k; tptrhapfs; kj; j papy;

njhlh;e;J rhFgb nra;tjw;F Mh;tkw;w epiy cUthfpAs;sJ. gutyhf ney; tay;fs; jhprhf tplg;gl;lJ. ,J> tptrhaj;jpy; cs;s Ntiy tha;gG ; Fiwe;jjhy;> ngz; $ypahl;fs; kw;Wk; mth;fsJ FLk; g q; f Sk; nghpJk; ghjpf; f g; g l; l dh; . ghuk; g hpakhf> Nfush Ntshz; mikg; g pd; Kf; f pa gq; F jhuh; f s; > ngz; f Ns. ,jpy; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

7


FLk;g=apd; fPo; ngz;fs; $l;L rf;jpia ngw;Ws;sdh;. NkYk; tptrhak; nra;tjw;F Fiwe;j tl;bapy; flDjtpAk; fpilj;jJ. ,it epykw;w ngz;fs;> tptrhapfshf khw;wpajw;F Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jd. ngUk;ghyhNdhh; nrhe;j tay;fspy; gzpahw;Wk; $yp ngwhj $ypahl;fshfNth my;yJ kw;w tay; f spy; gzpahw; W k; $ypahl; f shfNth ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. nghJthf khepyj;jpy; gutyhf> ngz; f s; FOf; f s; re; j pf; F k; Kf; f pa gpur; r idfspy; xd; w hf ,Ug; g J> tptrhak; nra; t jw; f hd epyk; ,y; y hik. epy chpikahsh; f s; jd; nrhe; j epyj; i j Fj;jiff;F tpLtjpy; jq;fsJ epy chpikia ,oe;JtpLNthNkh vd;w mr;rk; mth;fsplk; ,Ue;jJ. Nfushtpy; cs;s epy chpikahsh; rl;lj;jpd; xU gFjpahf> rhFgb nra;tjw;F epyj;ij Fj;jiff;F tpLtJ KOikahf jil nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; gy;NtW tifahd Kiwaw; w topapy; Fj; j iff; F tpLtJ Gof;fj;jpy; ,Ue;;jJ. ,k;khjphpahd Kiwaw;w Fj;jif Vw;ghLfspy; $l> ngUk;ghyhd epy chpikahsh;fs>; jq;fsJ epyj;jpy; ngz;fs; FO tptrhak; nra;tjw;F mDkjpf;f jahuhf ,y; i y. ,JNt> tptrhaj; j py; ngz; f spd; gq;Nfw;ig epiyj;jj;jd;ik ngWtjpy; ghjpg;G Vw;gl;ljpy; ,JNt gpur;rid. ngz;fis xJf;fg;gl;l Ntshz; tho;thjhuq;fs;> xU Kf;fpa tha;g;ghf Nfus muR fUJfpwJ. ngz;fs;> FOthf rpW epjp cjtpia gad; g Lj; j p> cs; @ h; f spy; cs; s jhpR epyj; i j Fj; j iff; F vLj; J > murpd; FLk;g= jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; tptrhak; nra;tjw;F Cf;fg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

FLk;g= jpl;lk; FLk;g= vd;gJ khepy Vo;ik xopg;G mikg;G> 1998-y; Nfushtpy; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e; j jpl; l k; > r%f-nghUshjhu tsh; r ; r p kw;Wk; ngz;fis rf;jpkpf;fth;fshf;Ftjd; %yk; Vo; i kia xopg; g jw; F cs; @ h; Ra muRfSld; ngz; f spd; r%f mstpyhd FOf;fs; Nrh;e;J gzpGhptjw;fhf khepyj;jpy; gutyhf cUthf;fpAs;sdh;. xt;nthU cs;@h; 8

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

Ra muR mikg; g hd - fpuhk gQ; r haj; J my; y J efu cs; @ h; mikg; g py; > FLk; g = %d;W kl;lj;jpy; $l;likg;ig mikj;Js;sJ. mjhtJ> mf;fk;gf;fk; cs;s ez;gh;fs; FO> gFjp tsh;r;rp ikak; kw;Wk; cs;@h; r%f tsh;r;rp ikak;. xU gFjpapy; thOk; nghUshjhuj; j py; eyptile;j gj;J Kjy; ,UgJ FLk;gq;fs; xd;W Nrh;eJ ; mbkl;l ez;gh;fs; FOthf gjpT nra;ag;gl;lJ. xt;nthU njhFjpapy;> xU gFjp tsh;r;rp ikak; cs;s cs;@h; r%f FOtpy;> xt;nthU gFjp tsh;r;rp ika gFjpf;Fl;gl;l xt; n thU ez; g h; f s; FOtpypUe; J Ie; J cWg;gpdh;fis nfhz;lJ xU nghJf; FO. FLk;g=apd; cah; kl;l mikg;G> mjhtJ r%f tsh;r;rp ikak;> cs;@h; Ra muR mikg;gpd; mLj;j kl;l ,lj;jpy; cs;sJ. FLk; g = jpl; l j; j pd; fpuhk gQ; r haj;J mstpyhd xUq;fpize;j mikg;ghd cs;@h; r%f tsh;r;rp ikak;> xl;Lnkhj;j mikg;ig nray;gLj;Jtjw;F rpwe;j gq;F tfpf;fpwJ. ,e; j mikg; G fpuhk gQ; r haj; J mstpy; FLk;g= jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; ngz; cWg;gpdh;fis xUq; f pizj; J $l; L nghWg; G FOit cUthf;FtJ> ngz;fs; FOf;fSf;F fld; ngWk; gbtj;jpw;F Njitahd Mtzq;fs; jahhpj;jy;> 250 Kjy; 300 tiu cs;s $l;L nghWg; G f; F Of; f is ed; F ghh; i tapLjy; > mth;fSila nray;ghLfSf;F cjtpGhpjy;> fpuhk gQ;rhaj;J kw;Wk; Ntshz;ikj; JiwAld; el; G wit Nkk; g Lj; j p tsh; r ; r p jpl; l q; f is nfhz; L tUtJ> gaph; Nkyhz; i k Fwpj; j njhopy;El;g gapw;rpfs; topelj;Jjy; NkYk; flid FOf;fshy; fhyk; jtwhky; jpUk;g nrYj; j g; g Lfpwjh vd; g ij fz; f hzpj; j y; Mfpait FOf;fshy; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. r%f tsh; r ; r p ikak; kw; W k; cs; @ h; Ra murpd; Kf; f pa rhuhk; r k; vd; d ntd; w hy; > gq; N fw; N ghL$ba murpayikg; G r%fj; Njitfspd; tsh;r;rpia mbkl;lj;jpypUe;J cah; t jw; F xUq; f pizg; g J kw; W k; ,J cs; @ h; Ra murpd; fUtpahf gad; g Lj; j p gy;NtW Mjhuq;fspypUe;J cs;@h; tsh;;r;rp kw; W k; Vo; i kia xopg; g jw; f hf Mjhuq; f s; midj;Jk; xUq;fpizg;gNj MFk;. eghh;l; tq;fpapd; fPo; ,aq;Fk; $l;L nghWg;Gf; FO jpl;lj;jpy; tl;bapy;yhky; FO tptrhaj;jpw;F epjpAjtp ngwg;gl;lJ. F.ngh.F jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; FOit mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; L epjpAjtp ngw;W tptrha nray;ghLfis ehd;F Kjy;


Ie;J ngz;fs; nfhz;l FO nra;jJ. Njrpa fpuhk tho;thjhu mikg;gpd; fPo; cs;s> kfpsh fprhd; rrf; j pfud; ghpNah[dhtplkpUe; J Fiwe;j tl;btpfpjj;jpy; FLk;g= cjtpAld; epjpAjtpf;F khdpak; ngw;wjw;F kpf Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;J> ngz;fspd; fdit edthf;fpaJ. Fiwe;j tUkhdk; ngWk; FLk;gq;fis Nrh;e;j 2.8 yl;rj;jpw;Fk; Nkyhd ngz; cWg;gpdh;fs; 61836 $.ngh.F- yhf xUq;fpize;J> jw;NghJ jhpR epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;JtUfpd;wdh;. elg; G Mz; b y; > $.ngh.F tptrhak; %yk; khepyj;jpy; 38706 n`f;Nlh; epyg;gFjpfSf;F nfhz; L tug; g l; l J. ,J NkYk; ngz; f s; tptrhaj; i j kP z ; L k; 39000 n`f; N lh; gug;gstpy; ngUk;ghYk; ,aw;if tptrhaj;ijNa Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ vd;Wk; Ghpe;Jnfhs;syhk;. ney;> (10934 n`f;Nlh;)> thio (10648 n`f;Nlh;)> fpoq; F fs; (8686 n`f; N lh; ) > fha; f wpfs; (8476 n`f;Nlh;)> kw;Wk; ,ju gaph;fs; (14433 n`f;Nlh;) Mfpa gaph;fs; rhFgb nra;ag;gl;lJ

,aw;if rhh;e;j FO tptrhak; ngUk;ghyhd ngz; FO cWg;gpdh;fs; Fiwe;j ,urhad ,LnghUl;fSld;> ,aw;if rhh;e;j tptrhaj; i j gpd; g w; W fpd; w dh; . ,th; f Ss; mjpf vz; z pf; i fapy; ngz; f s; ,aw; i f tptrhaj;ij KOikahf gpd;gw;w KbfpwJ. ,aw;if vUtpw;F ,th;fSs; rpyh; gRQ;rhzk;> Nfhop vU> kz;GO cuk;> fhl;L nrb vU> njd;id ehh; cuk; Nghd;witfis cgNahfg;gLj;jp jdf; F Njitahd nrhe; j cuj; i j jahh; nra;Jnfhs;fpd;wdh;. G+r;rp Nkyhz;ikf;F> ngz; FOf;fs; mjpfkhf jahhpf;fg;gLk; caph; ,LnghUl; f isNa rhh; e ; J ,Uf; f pd; w dh; . nryT kw;Wk; $yp Mfpa ,uz;Lk; mjpfk; Njitg;gLk; ,aw;if rhh;e;j tptrhaj;jpy;> jq; f sJ tpisnghUl; f Sf; F epahakhd tpiy fpilf;ftpy;iy vd;W tUe;Jfpd;wdh;. Mdhy; rpy ngz;fs>; cs;@h; r%fq;fspNyNa Fiwe; j tpiyapy; fpilf; F k; ghJfhg; g hd czT mspg;gjw;fhd tha;g;G fpilj;jjw;F jpUg;jpaile;jij ntspg;gLj;jpdh;. rpy ngz; FOf;fs;> mth;fsJ tpisnghUl;fis gjg;gLj;jp> mjid kjpg;G $l;lg;gl;l nghUl; f shf tpw; g jw; F Mh; t %l; l g; g l; l J. myk;Nfhl; kw;Wk; njd;dy;y gQ;rhaj;Jfs; jq;fSila GJikahd jiyik gz;Gfis nra;Jfhl;bAs;sd. mit ngz; FOf;fshy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l ney;iy Nrfhpg;gJ> cs;@h; mhprp Miyfspy; miuj;jy; NkYk; njd;dy;y

re;ijf;F mhprp %l;ilia jahhpf;Fk; cWg;gpdh;fs;

mhprp kw; W k; Myk; N fhl; Gj; j hhp ,aw; i f mhprp vd;W nrhe;j ngahpy; tpw;fg;gLfpwJ. gy;NtW mhprp tpisnghUl;fshd mty;> mhprp khT> cile;j mhprp Nghd;witfSk;> ,e;j ,uz;L ngz; tptrha FOf;fs; re;ijf;F mwpKfk; nra;jJ. eghh;l; tq;fpapd; cjtpAld; vLf;fg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs; ahTk; ngz; tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jp epWtdq;fs; cUthtjw;F cjtpaJ.

jhf;fk; ‘jw;NghJ ehq;fs; tptrhapfs;> gzpahsh;fs; my;y” vd;dhy; vd; Foe;ijfSf;F cah;e;j fy;tpia toq;f KbfpwJ”> “vd; kfs;fspd; jpUkzj;jpw;F vd;dhy; jq;fk; thq;f KbAk;”> ‘ehd; ,Urf; f u thfdj; i j nrhe; j khf itj;jpUf;fpNwd;”> ‘vd;dhy; vd; ngahpy; epyk; thq;fp Gjpa tPL fl;l KbAk;”> ‘vd;dhy; vdJ fztUf;F ,U rf;fu thfdk; thq;f KbAk;> NkYk; mtUila njhopiy tphpTgLj;Jtjw;F cjtTk; KbAk; ” > ehd; cw; g j; j p nra; j ney; i y vd; d hy; Nrkpj; J itf; f KbAk; > ‘,J tUlk; KOtJk; vd; FLk; g j; j pw; F Njitahd mhprpia ngw Kbe; j J. gzk; <l;Lk; cWg;gpduhf fUjp vdf;F khpahij nrYj; J fpd; w dh; . NkYk; vd; FLk; g j; j py; midj; J KbntLf; F k; tp\aq; f Sf; F k; vd; MNyhridia Nfl; f pd; w dh; ” > ‘vd; fzth; epjpAjtpf;fhfTk;> ez;gh;fs; tsh;r;rp jfty;fis gQ;rhaj;J mYtyfj;jpypUe;J ngWtjw; F mZFfpd; w dh; ” . ,it ahTk; ngz;fspd; rpy Fuy;fs; jpl;lj;jpd; jhf;fkhf mth;fs; tho;tpy; gpujpgypf;fpwJ. md;dkdlh (jpU#h;)> Myj;J}h; (ghyf;fhL) > Myk;Nfhl; kw;Wk; njd;dy;y (ky;yGuk;) Mfpa Njh; e ; n jLf; f g; g l; l fpuhk gQ; r haj; J fspy; > yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

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gQ;rhaj;J mstpyhd FLk;g= mikg;Gfis cs;@h; gQ;rhaj;J kw;Wk; Ntshz; mYtyfk; cjtpNahL Vw; g Lj; j p> mjd; % yk; rhFgb nra; a Kbahj epy chpikahsh; f splkpUe; J ngw;W ‘epy tq;fp” vd;w Kjw;fl;l mikg;gpd; %yk; > ngz; f s; FOf; f Sf; F Njitahd Fj; j iff; F tpLk; epyq; f s; mth; f Sf; F cWjpahf fpilf; F k; g b nra; f pd; w dh; . epy chpikahsh;fSf;F tpopg;Gzh;T $l;lq;fs; elj;jg;gl;ld. ,jpy; epyj;ij rhFgb nra;tjw;fhd Njit > Fj;jif tptrhaj;ij vLg; g jw; F ngz; f s; FOf; f spd; jahh; epiy> NkYk; Ntshz; mYtyfk; %yk; epyj; i j Fwpg; g pl; l fhyj; j pw; F mjhtJ %d; W tUlq; f s; > Fj; j iff; F vLf; F k; topKiw Mfpa fhuzpfs; tpopg; G zh; T Vw; g Lj; j pajd; %yk; epy chpikahsh; f s; mth; f sJ epyj; i j ngz; tptrhapfSf; F Fj; j iff; F mspg; g J ghJfhg; g hdJ vd; W czh;e;Js;sdh;. kpfTk; Mh;tkpf;f Myk;Nfhl; kw; W k; jd; d y; y gQ; r haj; J fis Nrh; e ; j ngz; jiyth; f s; gjN\fuh FOkq; f spd; xUq;fpizg;ghsh;fshfTk; nray;gLfpd;wdh;. (Ntshz;ik Jiw Vw;gLj;jpa cs;@h; ney; tptrhapfspd; FOkk;). fle;j fhyj;jpy; ngz;fSf;F flDjtp mspf;f Mh;tkpy;yhj tq;fp Kfikfs;> jw;NghJ gy ngz;fs; FOf;fSf;F mjpf fld; mspf;fpwJ. $l;L nghWg;Gf; FO jpl;lk; %yk; nray;ghl;bw;F Kd; mspf;fg;gl;l flDjtp kw;Wk; ngz;fs; FOf;fs; rpwg;ghd Kiwapy; nra;j Nkyhz;ik Mfpait Nfushtpy; cs;s ngz;fis njhopy; tptrhapfshf khw;wpa fw;fshf ,Uf;fpwJ.

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

ed;nra; epy caph;r;#oy; mikg;gpd; ghJfhtyh;fs; cWjpahf ,LnghUl;fs; kw;Wk; Mjhuq;fs; fpilg;gjdhy; Viog; ngz;fs; tptrhaj;ij nra; f pd; w dh; . NkYk; mth; f is gzk; <l; L gth; f shf khw; W fpwJ> mjd; g pd; d h; mth;fspd; FLk;gq;fs; kw;Wk; r%fq;fs; kj;jpapy; kjpg;gplg;gLk; cWg;gpdh;fshf khWfpd;wdh;. FLk; g =apd; fP o ; ngz; f s; $l; L rf; j pia ngw; Ws; s dh; . NkYk; tptrhak; nra; t jw; F Fiwe;j tl;bapy; flDjtpAk; fpilj;jJ. ,it epykw;w ngz;fs; tptrhapfshf khw;wpajw;F Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jd. ePzl ; fhykhf jhprhf tplg;gl;l ney; tay;fspy; epiyj;j ney; rhFgb nra;jjdhy;> Nfushtpy;> ngz;fs; FOf;fs; ,aw;ifahfNt ‘ed;nra; epy caph;r;#oy; mikg;gpd; ghJfhtyh;fshf cUthfpAs; s d. Nfushtpy; cs; s ngz; tptrhapfs; ghJfhg;ghd kw;Wk; ey;y jukhd czT cw;gj;jp nra;J> cs;@h; kf;fSf;F mspf;f KbfpwJ vd ngUkpjk; nfhs;fpwhh;fs;. mNj rkaj;jpy; fTutkhd tUkhdk; ngw;W> ey;y jukhd tho;f;if thoTk; KbfpwJ.  Geethakutty P S Professor and Project Co-ordinator Centre for Gender Studies in Agriculture Kerala Agricultural University Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala E-mail: geethakutty@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2015> thy;a+k; 17> ,jo; 4


tho;tpw;F kjpg;G $l;Ljy; gp. mdpjhFkhhp kw;Wk; tp. fpU\;zFkhh; tPlL ; j; Njhl;l tptrha mikg;G> Nfushtpy; cs;s FLk;g rhFgbia GjpjhfTk;> ,Uf;Fk; epiyf;F jFe;jhw;Nghy; nray;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; kpf rpwg;ghd tha;gG ; fis mspf;fpwJ. rhFgb Kiwia cjhrpdg;gLj;jg;gl;l epiyapy;> jw;NghJ Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;ej ; ikaq;fspd; cjtpNahL> gz;iz mstpyhd kjpg;G $l;Ljy; Kd;Ndw;w ghijf;F nry;fpwJ. vjth ngz;fspd; rq;fk; mth;fspd; $ypf;F Vw;w fdpfis mWtil nra;Ak; mNjNeuj;jpy; cw;gj;jp jpwd; nfhz;l gz;iz rhh;e;j nray;ghLfspy; <LgLfpd;wdh;. Nfushtpy; cs;s KOikahd tPl;Lj;Njhl;lk; vd;gJ tskhd kz;> ey;y rPNjh\z epiy> rkkhf nga;Ak; kio kw;Wk; rpWFW epyg; gug;gsT Mfpa gz;Gfis jhq;fpapUf;fpwJ. njd;id kw;Wk; gid kuq;fs; gytUlg; gapuhf cUthfp> Jiz gaph;fis mjDld; tsh;ff ; ,ilntsp mspf; f pwJ. CLgaph; f is Njh; e ; n jLj; j y; > tpisnghUl;fis gad;gLj;JtJ rke;jkhd KbTfs; > FLk; g j; Njitfis re; j pj; j y; > rpW njhopy; gjg;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; kpFjpahf cs;s tpisnghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;jy; Mfpatw;wpy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpg;gJ ngz;fNs. nghJthf> fha; f wpfs; (tUlk; KOtJk; rj;Jf;fs; my;yJ tPl;Lj; Njhl;lk;) fpoq;F gaph;fs; (fUizf; fpoq;F> Nridf; fpoq; F > cUisf; fpoq; F fs; Nghd; w it FLk; g gad; g hl; b w; f hf xU tUlj; j pw; F Nrkpf;fg;gLfpwJ) kw;Wk; thiog;gok; (gy;NtW ghfq;fshf ,Uf;Fk; fha;fwpfs; kw;Wk; goq;fs;) Mfpait CLgaph;fshf tsh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. NkYk; tP l ; b y; gaph; f s; Njh; T nra; t jpy; ngz; f Ns KbntLf; f pd; w dh; . gy tUl gaph;fshd KUq;if> fwpNtg;gpiy> fPiufs; Mfpa gaph; f isAk; njd; i d Njhl; l j; j pd; ,ilapy; tsh;f;fyhk;. gad; g hL kw; W k; tUkhdk; Mfpatw; w pd; mbg;gilapy; fyg;G gad;ghL cila gaph; f isNa ngUk; g hYk; Njh; e ; n jLg; g h; . gy;NtW nray;ghLfis nra;tjw;Fk;> FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fSf;F ghJfhg;ghd czTj; Njitia jP h ; g ; g jw; F k; > mth; f s; xj; J NghFk; > Rygkhf ,Uf; F k; kw; W k; xd;Nwhnlhd;W rhh;e;j pUf;F k; fhuzpfis

kjpg;G $l;lg;gl;l nghUl;fis ghh;itf;F itf;Fk; cWg;gpdh;fs;

xUq;fpizf;fpd;wdh;. Rkhh; 30% FLk;gq;fs; Nfhop my;yJ thj;J> gz;izia rpwpastpy; (10-20 gwitfs;)> fhy;eil> MLfs;> Nkk;gLj;jp te;jdh;. ,jpy; 90 rjtpfpjj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd nray;ghLfs; ngz;fNs nra;fpd;wdh;.

gz;iz mstpyhd kjpg;Gf; $l;Ljy; I.rp.V.Mh;- kj;jpa kug;gaph;fs; Muha;rr ; p ikak;> gz;iz mstpy; kjpg;G $l;Ljiy cah;j;j 2010-2014 tiu ngz;fs; gq;Nfw;Gld; $ba jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;jpaJ. ,Uf;Fk; gz;iz Mjhuq; f is tP z hfhky; gad; g Lj; j Tk; > gz;iz FLk;gj;jpd; tUkhdj;ijAk; kw;Wk; gz;izapy; ngz;fspd; <LghL mjpfhpf;fTk; nra;tNj ,jd; Nehf;fkhFk;. jw; N ghija #o; e piyia Ghpe; J nfhs; s jpUtde;jGuk; khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s vjth fpuhk gQ;rhaj;jpy; tay; mbg;gil Ma;T elj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;j Ma;tpy; 70 rjtpfpjj;jw;Fk; Nky; ngz;fs; xU ehisf;F 1.5 - 2 kzp Neuq;fs; cw;gj;jp nray;ghLfSf;F nrytpLfpd;wdh;. ,th;fspy; ngUk; g hyhNdhh; Kf; f pakhf ngz; f s; Ra cjtp FOf; f spd; cWg; g pdh; f s; my; y J mYtyf nghWg;ghsh;fshf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. ngz;fis nghUj;jtiuapy;> FLk;gj;jpw;F Njitahd rj; j hd kw; W k; ghJfhg; g hd czit cw;gj;jp nra;tJk;> rpW njhopy;fs; %yk; tUkhdk; ngWtJk; > tptrhaj; j pd; Nehf;fkhf fUJfpd;wdh;. ,e;jf; fhuzpfis yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

11


ngz;fis nghUj;jtiuapy;> FLk;gj;jpw;F Njitahd rj;jhd kw;Wk; ghJfhg;ghd czit cw;gj;jp nra;tJk;> rpW njhopy;fs; %yk; tUkhdk; ngWtNj> tptrhaj;jpd; Nehf;fkhf fUJfpd;wdh;. fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> tPl;Lj; Njhl;lj;jpypUe;J ngWk; tpisnghUl; f is> gz; i zapNyNa kjpg;G $l;Lk; nray;ghl;il xUq;fpizj;J> xU jpl;lk; tbtikf;fg;gl;lJ. Ntshz;ikj; Jiw> njhopy; Jiw> Ntshz; njhopy;El;g Nkyhz;ik Kfik kw;Wk; tq;fpfs; Mfpa mikg; G fsplkpUe; J epjpAjtpAk; > nghUSjtpAk; ngwg;gl;lJ. gQ; r haj; J mstpy; xt; n thU gl; l j; j pYk; fpilf;Fk; gz;iz nghUl;fspd; msT Fwpj;j jftiy Nrfhpj;J> mjd; mbg;gilapy; kjpg;G $l; L jy; njhopiy jpl; l kpl; L > gQ; r haj; J mstpy; KbT nra; a g; g l; l J. Njq; f ha; (10 nghUl;fs;)> gyhg; gok; (23 nghUl;fs;)> fpoq;F tiffs; (4 nghUl; f s; ) > fhshd; f s; (Gjpa kw;Wk; 2 nghUl;fs;) gz;iz mstpy; gr;ir epw G+Q;rhzk; ngUf;Fk; mikg;G gy;NtW kjpg;G $l;Ljy; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;F MW ngz; tptrhapfspd; cg-FOf; f s; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ - njd;id gapiuj; jhf;Fk; Kf; f pa G+r; r pfspd; xd; w hd fhz; l hkpUf tz;Lfspd; ,dngUf;f ,lj;ij mopf;Fk; caph;f; nfhy;yp> kz;GO cuk; (nghl;lykpl;lJ) kw;Wk; rhzk; (csu itj;J> nghl;lykpl;lJ) Mfpait cw; g j; j pf; f hf cUthf; f g; g l; l J. ,e;jf; FOf;fs;midj;Jk;> gjpT nra;ag;gl;l

vjth ngz;fspd; rq;fkhf> 2010 Mk; Mz;L $l;likf;fg;gl;lJ. gy ty;Yeh;fsplkpUe;J tptrhak;> mij rhh;e;j nray;ghLfs; kw;Wk; nghUl;fis nghJTilikahf;fg;gl;l tpw;gid Mfpait vjth ngz;fspd; rq;fk; vLj; j nray; g hLfspy; rpytw; N whL Gjpa ,izg;Gfs; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

jpwd; tsh;j;jy; fpuhkj;jpy;> vjth ngz;fspd; rq;f cWg;gpdh;fs;> Gjpa fpuhk gapw;rp ikaj;jpd; %yk; gz;iz tpisnghUl;fis kjpg;G $l;lg;gl;l nghUl;fs; Fwpj;J nray; gapw;rpaspg;gjw;fhfNt MFk;. Jtf;fj;jpy; I.rp.V.Mh;-d; fPo; kj;jpa kug;gaph;fs; Muha;r;rp ikak; kw;Wk; Ntshz; Jiw gy;NtW gapw;rpfs; elj;jpaJ. gy;NtW ikaq; f spd; ty; Y eh; f s; > gjg; g Lj; J jypy; GJik gilj; j th; f s; MfpNahiu jfty; Mjhuq;fshf gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. gz;iz tpisnghUl;fis kjpg;G $l;Ljy; Fwpj;J gy;NtW jpwd;fspy; Rkhh; 200 ngz; tptrhapfSf;F KOikahf gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;lJ. mth;fspy;> MW gphpTfspy; kjpg; G $l; L jypy; Njh; e ; j 100 tptrhapfis> cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; nghUl;fspd; juk;> tplhKaw;rp> xd;wpize;J nray;gLjy;> <LghL kw;Wk; Mh;tk; Mfpatw;wpd; mbg; g ilapy; > Njh; e ; n jLf; f g; g l; l J. ,e; j tptrhapfspy; > Kjph; e ; j gapw; r pahsh; f shf MW ngz;fis Njh;e;njLj;J> mth;fSf;F njhlh;G nfhs;Sjy;> xUq;fpizj;jy; kw;Wk; tpw;gid Fwpj;j jpwd;fs; Fwpj;J ahTk; rpwg;G gapw;rpfs; %yk; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. mth;fs; Kjph;e;j gapw;Wdh;fshf> Nfushtpy; cs;s VO khtl;lq;fspy; ,Uf;Fk; 6000 j;jpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l tptrhapfSf;F gapw;rpaspj;jdh;. Kjph;e;j gapw;Wduhf mth;fspd; Nghf; F tuj; J fSk; > r%f epiyAk; jfty; NjLk; Mh; t j; N jhL cah; e ; j J. ‘vq; f shy; njhlh;G nfhz;L ,j;jid tptrhapfSf;F kjpg;G $l;Ljy; Fwpj;J gapw;rpaspg;Nghk; vd;W ehq; f s; vd; W Nk epidj; j jpy; i y. vq; f s; vjth ngz; f s; rq; f j; j pd; %yk; ehq; f s; cz;ikahfNt ngUikailfpNwhk;”> vd;W xU gapw;Wdh; $Wfpwhh;.

ntspg;ghLfs;

ey;y re;ijf;fhf gyhg;goq;fis gjg;gLj;Jk; ngz;fs; 12

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpd; ntw;wp midj;J FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fs; kw;Wk; ez;gh;fs; ahtUk; ,e;j FOf; f spd; mq; f khf khwptpl; l dh; . rq; f


cWg; g pdh; f Sf; F tUlk; KOtJk; gFjp Neu Ntiy (&. 600-3500/- xU khjk; xU cWg;gpdUf;F) kw;Wk; r%fj;jpd; ghuhl;Lk; fpilf;fpwJ. kjpg;G $l;Ljy; %yk; Njq;fha;fF ; &. 2-20/-> gyhtpw; F &. 80-300/- kw; W k; fhshDf;F &. 10-30/- tiu ngWfpd;wdh;. ,e;j ikaq;fspypUe;J fpilf;Fk; ,aw;if fopT kz;GOthf khw;wp mjid xU fpNyhtpw;F &.12 /- vd tpw;fg;gLfpwJ. tUkhdj;jpy; cs;s nkhj;j cah;T 30-40 rjtpfpjk; MFk;. cs;@h; Ra muR epiyj;jj;jd;ikia cWjpgLj;Jk; tifapy; tpw;gidf;F Njitahd nghUl;fis tsh;f;f cjtpaJ. ngz; FO cWg;gpdh;fs; gz;izapNyNa GJ Af;jpia gad;gLj;jp> 45% nryit Fiwj;Jk;> 30% cw;gj;jp Neuj;ij Fiwj;J gr;ir epw G+Q;rhzj;ij tsh;f;f Kbe;jJ. ‘,e; j khjphpfs; ngz; f Sf; F Vw; w J. rpW FW tPl;Lj; Njhl;lj;jpy; cw;gj;jp nghUl;fs; mjpfkhf kP W tjpy; i y> Mdhy; fpuhkg; gFjpfspy; cs;s kjpg;G $l;lg;gLk; ikaj;jpw;F> rpwpJ rpwpjhf Nrfhpj;J Njitahd mstpw; F mspf; f yhk; . ngz; tptrhapfs; tpisnghUl; f is Nrfhpg; g jw; F Rygkhf nghWg;Ngw;f Njhs; nfhLj;jdh;” vd;W jpUkjp. RNyfh> vjth ngz;fs; rq;fj;jpd; jiyth; $Wfpwhh;. vjth ngz;fs; rq;fj;jpd; ntw;wp Fwpj;J midj;jpe;jpa thndhyp> J}h;jh;\d;> ,ju njhiyf;fhl;rp Nrdy;fspYk; kw;Wk; mr;R Clfj;jpYk; gug;gg;gl;lJ. ,aw;if Mjhuq;fs; kw;Wk; gz;izapy; cs;s gaph;fs; kw;Wk; tpyq;Ffs; Mfpatw;wpypUe;J ngWk; fopTfis nfhz;L kWRow;rp nra;J>

mjd; %yk; ghJfhg; g hd czT cw; g j; j p nra;ag;gLfpwJ. gRe;jio cuq;fs;> kf;F kw;Wk; njhO cuk; mjDld; rhk;gy; Mfpa midj;Jk; rikayiwapypUe; J Rygkhf fpilg; g jhy; ngz;fs; ,tw;iw Njh;T nra;fpd;wdh;. gy;NtW fhuzpfis xUq;fpizg;gjhy; rikayiw fopTfs; FiwtNjhL Rw; W g; G wr; # oy; J} a;ikahf ,Uf;fpwJ. tPl;ilr; Rw;wp ed;whf jpl; l kpl; L mlh; t hf rhFgb nra; A k; ,e; j Kiw> ngz;fSf;F kpf rpwg;ghd Kiwapy; Neu Nkyhz;ik nra;tjw;F tha;g;gspf;fpwJ. tPl;L Ntiyfis nra;Jnfhz;Nl gaph;fs;> tpyq;Ffs; kw;Wk; gwitfis fz;fhzpj;jy;. Gjpa gz; i z cw; g j; j p nghUl; f is> gy ikapy; f s; nry; y hky; ghJfhg; g hd czT jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ.  Anithakumari P Principal Scientist (Agricultural Extension) ICAR - Central Plantation Crops Research Institute Regional Station, Krishnapuram P.O. Kayamkulam- 690 533, Kerala. E-mail: anithacpcri@gmail.com V Krishnakumar Head, ICAR - Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Regional Station, Krishnapuram P.O. Kayamkulam- 690 533, Kerala. E-mail: dr.krishnavkumar@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2015> thy;a+k; 17> ,jo; 4

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Ntshz; caph;r# ; oy;tpay; - tsj;jpw;F top jh; k Ghp khtl; l j; j py; > ngd; d hfuk; tl; l j; j py; > ey;yk;gl;b fpuhkj;jpy; thOk; jpUkjp. Nutjp> xU ,sk; tptrhap. ,tuJ FLk;gj;jpw;F tptrhak; xU Kf; f pa tho; t hjhuk; vd; w hYk; > ,thpd; fzth; mUfpy; cs;s rpWefhpy; Xl;Lduhf gzpGhptij Kf;fpakhf vz;Zfpwhh;. Vndd;why; xU Vf;fh; khdhthhp epyj;jpy; fpilf;Fk; tUkhdk; FLk;gj;jpw;F Nghjtpy;iy. epyj;ij jhprhf tpl kdkpy;yhky;> Nutjp jdJ xU Vf;fh; khdhthhp epyj;jpy; rhFgb nra;J te;jhh;. rhjhuz Kiwapy; rhFgb nra;J te;j mtUf;F> ngUk;ghYk; xU gapiu ntw;wpfukhf kf#y; vLg; g jw; F gy gpur; r idfis re; j pj; J te; j hh; . ntspapL nghUl; f is rhh; e ; j pUg; g jhy; cw;gj;jp nryTk; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJ. cw;gj;jp jpwd; ghjpf;fg;gl;L> kz;zpd; MNuhf;fpaKk; ehsiltpy; Fiwe;Jtpl;lJ. 2011 Mk; Mz; L > V.vk; . ,. epWtdk; Vw; g hL nra;jpUe;j tptrha tay;ntspg; gs;sp jpl;lj;jpy; gq;FngWtjw;fhd tha;g;G> Nutjpf;F fpilj;jJ. Jtf; f j; j py; 20 ,sk; ngz; f s; nfhz; l FO xd; W xUq; f pizf; f g; g l; l J. ,e; j g; ngz; f s; Vw;fdNt Ra cjtpf; FOtpy; <Lgl;L Nrkpj;Jk;> fld; ngw;Wk; tUfpd;wdh;. Kjypy; ngz;fSf;F epiyj;j Ntshz;ik Fwpj;j gapw;rp mspf;fgl;lJ> gpd; d h; tptrhapia topelj; J dh; f shf; F tjw; F gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;lJ. tptrha tay; ntspg;gs;spapy; fw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ> jd;Dila taypy; Nutjp gy caph;r;#oy; njhopy;El;gq;fis nray;gLj;jpdhh;. kio ePiu Nrkpf;Fk; Nehf;NfhL rhpTf;F FWf;Nf coT nra;jhh;> kz; tsj;ij mjpfhpg;gjw;F gRe;jhs; cuj;ij klf;fp coT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;fhf Kf;fpa gaph; rhFgb

nra;tjw;F Kd;> rdg;ig tpijia> ,iyjiofs; cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;F tpijj;jhh;. mth;> cap&l;lg;gl;l njhOcuj; i j iuNrhgpak; > gh]; N ghghf; B hpah> vjph;caphpahd l;iuNfhnlh;kh tphpb Nghd;witfis fye;J taypy; ,l;lhh;. G+r;rpfis fl;LgLj;Jtjw;F> Fwpg;ghf epyf;fliyapy; ngUk; Nrjk; Vw;gLj;Jk; rhW cwpQ;Rk; G+r;rpahd> vgpl;]; <h;f;f> Fiwe;j nryTila kQ;rs; xl;L nghwpia fz; L gpbj; J taypy; epWtpdhh; . rhW cwpQ;Rk; G+r;rpfis jLf;f Nrhsg;gapiu Xug;gapuhf tsh; j ; j hh; . GOf; f s; gapiu jhf; f hky; jLf; f > Mkzf;F gapiu Xug;gapuhf tsh;j;jhh;. ,jdhy; G+r;rpnfhy;ypfis epWj;jpdhh;. Jtiu kw;Wk; fhuhkzp Mfpatw;iw epyf;fliyf;F CLgapuhf tpijj;jjdhy; rhFgbapy; gy;tifikia Vw; g Lj; j pajhy; gpur; r idfisAk; Fiwj; j hh; . gz;izapy; cs;s gy;tifik> mth;fsJ gz;iz kw; W k; tho; t hjhuq; f spy; tise; J nfhLf; F k; jd;ik cah;tJ kl;Lkpy;yhky;> ey;y kf#y; ngw;W tUkhdKk; mjpfhpj; j J. ek; g Kbahj mstpw; F khdhthhp epyj;jpy;> Nutjp &.85000 <l;lKbe;jJ. cw;gj;jp nryTk; &.3450 tiu Fiwe;jJ. Nutjp> jd;Dila gz;izapy; gy ,ju gz;iz rhh;e;j njhopy;El;gq;fs; nra;J te;jhh;. mth; 13 tifahd fha;fwpfis tpijj;J mjd; %yk; thuj;jpw;F &.1000 kjpg;Gs;s tpisnghUl;fis mWtil nra;jhh;. jPtd tq;fp kw;Wk; mNrhyh tsh;g;G fhy;eilf;F njhlh;e;J jPtdk; mspj;J te;jJ. ,uz;Nl gLf;if mikj;J Nutjp fhshd; tsh; g ; i gAk; nra; ; a Jtq; f pdhh; . fha;fwpfs;> ghy; kw;Wk; fhshd; ahTk; MNuhf;fpakhd rj;Jf;fs; epiwe;j czit mspf;fpwJ. msTf;F mjpfkhf fpilg;gij tpw;W njhlh;e;J tUkhdKk; <l;bdhh;. Nutjp> mtu; vLj;j Kaw;rpfSf;F mth; ngUikgLfpwhh;. jdJ gz;izia epiyj;jjd;ik mile; j jw; F k; > MNuhf; f pak; kw; W k; rj; J f; f s; epiwe;j czit mspj;jjw;Fk;> fhy;eilfSf;F jPtdKk; kw;Wk; tPl;bw;F tUkhdKk; fpilj;jjpy; ntw; w p ngw; w jhf epidf; f pNwd; . ,thpd; jpwd; kw;Wk; tpopg;Gzh;it nfhz;L> jw;NghJ caph;r;#oy; Ntshz;ik gapw;Wduhf ,Uf;fpwhh;. This article has been developed by J. Krishnan. He can be contacted at josephkrish@rediffmail.com Smt. K Revathi can be contacted at Door.No. 3/1A, Nallampatti village, B. Agraharam, Pennagaram taluk, Dharmapuri district, TamilNadu - 636 813

 tPl;bd; gpd;Gwj;jpy; tsh;f;Fk; jPtdg;gaph;fSld; Nutjp. 14

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2015> thy;a+k; 17> ,jo; 4


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tho;thjhuj;jpw;F Ntshz;ikiaNa gpujhdkhf ek; g pAs; s J. fpU~; z fphp xU Gjpa khtl;lkhFk;. gpd;jq;fpa khtl;lkhd jh; k Ghp khtl; l j; j py; ,Ue; J gphpf; f g; g l; l khtl; l khFk; . ,f; f puhkk; fP o tug; g s; s p mizf; f l; b y; tUk; Maf; f l; L gFjpia rhh;ej ; Jk; (ngz;izahh; MW) mq;F ney; gapNu Kjd;ikahd gapuhf gaphplg;gl;Lk; tUfpwJ. rhjfkhd jl;g ntg;g #o;epiyfs; fhuzkhf new; g aph; kl; L ky; y hky; fha; f wp gaph; f Sk; gaphplg; g LfpwJ. ,q; F s; s tptrhapfs; nkhopthhpahf ikdhhpl;b kf;fshfTk;> XNu rKjhaj;ij Nrh;e;jth;fshfTk; ,Ug;gjhy; xUtUf; n fhUth; VjhtJ xU topapNyh my;yJ kw;w topapNyh cwT nfhz;Ls;sdh;. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Kiwapy; kpfTk; fbdkhd gFjp vd;dntd;why;> ,s taJ ehw;Wf;fis tsh;j;njLg;gJk;> mtw;iw 14-15 ehl;fspy; gwpj; J rJu tbtpy; 25 nr.kP . f; F 25 nr.kP . ,ilntspapy; eLtJkhFk; . gioa Kiw ney; rhFgb Kiwapy; mq;Fkpq;Fkhf 25-30 ehl;fs; taJila ehw;Wf;fis xU Fj;jpy; 8 Kjy; 10 ehw; W f; f is eLtJ tof; f k; . ,k;Kiwapy; xU n`f;NlUf;F Njitg;gLk; tpij Njit 8 fpNyh kl;LNk. Mdhy; gioa Kiwapy; tpijg; g jw; F xU n`f; N lUf; F Njitg;gLk; tpij msthdJ 70 Kjy; 80 fpNyh tpij MFk;.; fy;tpawpT Fiwthd kw;Wk; Muk;gf; fy;tpawpT kl;LNk nfhz;l ngz; $ypahl; f s; > gioa Kiwapy; ehw; W f; f is eLtjpy; gof;fk; mjpfk;. nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Kiwapy; ehw;Wf;fis eLtjw;F gof;FtJ kpfTk; fbdkhd Ntiyahf ,Ue;jJ. Fiwe;j ts Mjhu FLk;g gpd;dzpapy; ,Ue;J te; j ngUk; g hyhd $yp tptrhapfSf; F yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

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ftug;gl;L> mLj;j gUtj;jpy; kw;wth;fSf;F top fhl;Lk; egh;fshf nrk;ik ney; rhFgbapy; Njh; r ; r p ngw; w Kf; f pa egh; f is nfhz; l FOtpdh; tpsq; f pdh; . Mf nrk; i k ney; rhFgb KiwahdJ> kf;fs; jhq;fs; tpUk;Gk; czT kw;wk; Ntshz; rhFgb Kiwfisj; Njh;e;njLf;fTk;> epiyj;j jd;ik nfhz;l topapy; czT ,iwahz;ikia cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sTk; topNfhypaJ. fisfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j “NfhNdhtPlh;” vd miof; f g; g Lk; fisnaLf; F k; fUtpia 4 Kiw gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ ehw;Wfs; elg;gl;l gpwF 15 Mk; ehspy; ,Ue;J 45 Mk; ehs; tiu 10 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,k;Kiwapy; fisfs; gpLq;fg;gl;L kz;zpNy jpUk;g mKf;fg;gLtjhy; kz;Zf;F fpilf;f Ntz;ba ,aw;if jiofs; nfhLf; f g; g l; L kz; tsg; g Lj; j g; g LfpwJ. fisfs; ed;F guhkhpf;fg;gLtjhy; xt;nthU Fj;jpYk; gaDs;s rpk;Gfs; mjpfk; tUtjw;F cjTfpwJ. fisnaLf;Fk; fUtpfs; mjpfk; gad; g Lj; j g; g Ltjhy; typikahd Gjpa ntz;zpw Nth;fs; cw;gj;jpahfp mit nrbf;F Njitahd rj; J f; f is rpwe; j Kiwapy; vLj;Jf; nfhLf;f cjTfpd;wJ. gz;izapy;

cs;s ngz;fs; NfhNdhtPlh; fisnaLf;Fk; fUtpia ,af; F tjpy; fw; W j; Njh; t jhy; fisnaLf; F k; gzpAk; vspjhfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; fisnaLg;gjpy; Vw;gLk; nrytpy; 30 tpOf;fhL FiwfpwJ.

ed;wp: ,f;fl;Liuapd; Mrphpah;fs; cyf tq;fpapd; cjtpNahL gy Jiwfs; rk;ke;jg;gl;l jkpo;ehL - Iak;thk; jpl;lj;jpy; gzp Ghpgth;fs; Mthh;. jkpo;ehl;by; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb gutyhf ey;y mbj;jsk; mikj;Jf; nfhLj;j ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpw;F jq;fspd; ed;wpia njhptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. NkYk; ,j;jpl;lj;ij ntw;wpfukhf nray;gLj;j cjtpa jkpo;ehL Ntshz; gy; f iyf; f ofj; j pw; F k; jq; f spd; ed;wpia njhptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;.  Dr. V.K.Ravichander, Dr. K.R.Jagan Mohan and Dr. B.J.Pandian TamilNadu Agricultural University TamilNadu - IAMWARM Project (World Bank fund) Email: vkr9999@yahoo.com

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2009> thy;a+k; 11> ,jo; 4

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r%f Kaw;rpapd; %yk; czT cj;jputhjkpd;ikapd; rthiy re;jpj;jpy; b.Nf. Xkdh jpwd; kw;Wk; ek;gpf;ifia tsh;g;gjd; %yk; ngz;fis rf;jptha;e;jth;fshf Mf;Fjy;> ,Uf;Fk; jpwd;fis gad;gLj;JtJ> Njitahd ,lj;jpy; cjtp mspg;gJ kw;Wk; kWRow;rp %yk; midj;J gz;iz nray;ghLfis xUq;fpizj;jy; Mfpa fhuzpfs; ahTk;> Nfushtpy; cs;s ,e;j Vio ngz;fis tWikapypUe;J ntspnfhzh;e;jJ. Nfushtpy; ngz; tptrhapfs;> ney;> fpoq;Ffs; kw;Wk; fha;fwpfs; Mfpait KOikahf rhFgb nra;tjpy; <Lgl;bUe;jdh;. 1970 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; tho;f;if gaph;fshd - ney; kw;Wk; fUizf; fpoq; f pypUe; J > gzg; g aph; f shd fU kpsF> fhg;gp> ,Q;rp kw;Wk; ug;gh; Mfpatw;wpw;F ngUk; khw;wkile;jJ. Fiwe;j kz; kw;Wk; jz;zPh; Nrkpg;G njhopy;El;gq;fNshL ,izj;J njhlh;eJ ; Ntshz; i k nra; j jdhy; Ntshz; cw; g j; j p Fiwe;jJ. fle;j gj;J Mz;Lfspy;> mjpfhpj;j G+r; r p jhf; F jy; > Neha; f s; kw; W k; rhpe; J tUk; tpiyfs; midj;Jk;> mjpfhpj;j cw;gj;jp nryTk; Nrh;e;J cs;@h; rhFgbapy; gpur;rid Vw;gl;L ,jdhy; tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; ,ju gzpahsh;fs; njhlh;e;J tWik epiy milfpd;wdh;. 2004 Mk; Mz;L> u];jh vd;w mikg;G> taehL khtl; l j; j py; cs; s ,uz; L gQ; r haj; J fspy; (cs; @ h; eph; t hfg; gFjp) Ma; T elj; j paJ> mjpy; czT gaph;fspy; 90 rjtpfpjg; ngz;fs; $ypahl; f shf gzpahw; W fpd; w dh; vd; W fhl;LfpwJ. Mdhy; rhFgbapy; czTg; gaph;fspypUe;J (ney;) gzg;gaph;fSf;F (thio) khwpajd; tpisthf ngz; $ypfspd; epiyAk; khwpaJ. taehL khtl;lj;jpy; u];jh mikg;gpdhy; rkP g fhy kjpg; g P L fhl; b aJ vd; d ntd; w hy; ney; rhFgb 40000 n`f; N lhpypUe; J 12000 n`f; N luhf RUq; f pa gpd; d h; > ngz; f s; xU gl;lj;jpy; fpl;ljl;l 1>500>000 gzp ehl;fs; ney; rhFgbapd;NghJ njhiyj;jdh; vd;gJjhd;. ngz; f s; > Ntshz; gzpfis ehsiltpy; Fiwj; j jdhy; > mth; f spd; rhh; G j; j d; i k mjpfhpj; J > mjdhy; mbg; g il nghUshjhu NjitfSf;Fk; jq;fsJ fzthplNk vjph;gg ; hh;ff ; Ntz; b a epiy Vw; g l; L s; s J. ,J NkYk; FLk; g mstpy; czT cj; j puthjkpd; i kia cUthf;fpAs;sJ. rkPgfhykhf tptrha jw;nfhiyfs; mjpfhpj;J tUtjdhy; ngz;fspd;

Kjy; Kiwahf ,e;j FLk;gq;fSf;F ghy; ,Ug;G ,Uf;fpwJ> NkYk; cWg;gpdh;fspd; MNuhf;fpak; cah;ej ; pUf;fpwJ. 18

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

Njhs;fspy;> FLk;gj;ij Nkk;gLj;JtJ> Foe;ijfspd; fy;tp kw;Wk; ,ju FLk;g Njitfs; Mfpa nghWg;Gfs; Rkf;Fk; epiyAk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. rf;jptha;e;j ngz;fshf;Fjy; u];jh epWtdk; taehL khtl;lj;jpy; 1987 Mk; Mz;bypUe;J fpuhk kf;fspd; gpur;ridfis jP h ; T fhZk; gzpapy; > Fwpg; g hf ngz; f s; > ghuk;ghpa r%fq;fs; kw;Wk; FW tptrhapfspd; gpur;ridfSf;F jPh;T fhZk; gzpapy; <Lgl;L tUfpwJ. ngz;fs; jpwd;kpf;fth;fshf Mf;FtJ> ,e;j epWtdk; Kf;fpa rthy;fspy; xd; w hf Jtf; f pa ehspypUe; N j fUJfpwJ. Jtf;fj;jpy; fpuhk kw;Wk; goq;Fbapd ngz;fis xUq; f pizg; g jw; f hf ‘Nrkpg; G kw; W k; fld; toq;Fk; FOf;fs;” u];jh epWtdk; %yk; 1990 Mk; Mz;L cUthf;fp> gpd;dh; Ra cjtpf; FOf;fshf khtl; l j; j py; 12000 Viof; FLk; g q; f Sf; F gutyhf gug; g g; g l; l J. 10-15 ngz; f s; xd; W $Ljy;> ngUk;ghyhNdhh; xNu vz;zj;Jld; ,Ug; N ghh; > xNu nghUshjhu gpd; d zpapy; cs;sth;fs; Nghd;w fhuzpfisf; nfhz;L Ra cjtpf; FOf;fis xUq;fpizj;jy;. ,th;fs; thuk; xU Kiw $b Nrkpg; G > mth; f Sila chpikfs; kw;Wk; vjph;fhyj; jpl;lq;fs; Fwpj;J fye;Jiuahb> fw;Wnfhs;fpd;wdh;. ,uz;L Kjy; %d;W Mz;LfSf;Fs; FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fs; kj; j papy; jplkhd jiyik gz; G fs; kw; W k; xd;Wgl;l nray;fs; cUthfpwJ. NkYk; ,e;j xd;Wgl;l rf;jp> cWg;gpdh;fSf;F> ngUk;ghYk; Gjpa my;yJ khw;W tho;thjhu nray;ghLfs; njhlq; F tjw; f hd topfhl; b ahf mikfpwJ. tUlq; f s; nry; y nry; y Ra cjtpf; FO mZFKiw> ngz;fis rf;jptha;e;jth;fshf Mf; F tjw; F k; > fpuhkq; f spy; cs; s tsh; e ; J tUk; czT cj;jputhjkpd;ik gpur;ridf;F jPh;T fhZtjw;F kpf VJthf ,Ue;jij ehq;fs; fz; N lhk; . Kjd; i k tho; t hjhu Jiwahd> Ntshz;ikapy;> gy gpur;ridfis re;jpg;gjhy;> u]; j h epWtdk; ,jw; F mjpf Kf; f paj; J tk; mspj;J> epiyj;j Ntshz; cw;gj;jp Kiwfs;> mwpT ghpkhw;wk;> fs tphpthf;f gzp kw;Wk; gaph; gy; tifik Mfpatw; wpy; gapw; r paspj; J ,e;j gpur;ridf;F jPh;T fz;ldh;.


czT cj;jputhjkpd;ik kw;Wk; Ntiyapd;ik Mfpa gpur; r idfSf; F jP h ; T fhz ngz; tptrhapfis xUq;fpizj;J $l;lk; elj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; gpur;ridia jPh;g;gjw;F ngUk;ghyhd cWg;gpdh;fs; jdpj;Jtk; tha;e;j xd; i w Jtf; f Ntz; L k; vd; W MNyhrid $wpdh; . Ra cjtp FOf; f is Nrh; e ; j Ie; E } W goq;Fbapd kw;Wk; ,ju FW tptrhapfspd; Viof; FLk; g q; f s; ,e; j j; jpl; l j; j pd; xU gFjpahf ,Uf;f Kd;te;jdh;. tpij ghpkhw;wj; jpUtpoh FLk; g czTf; $ilapy; fha; f wpfs; ngUk; gq;F tfpf;fpd;wJ. gy Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu fha;fwp rhFgb> gzg;gaph;fs; rhFgbf;F khwpaJ. ,e;j njhopy;El;gk; kWcUntLf;f> xU tpij ghpkhw;wj; jpUtpoh Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;lJ. tpij ghpkhw; w j; jpUtpoh vd; g J fpuhkj; j py; cs; s ngz; tptrhapfs; mth;fsplk; cs;s tpijfis kw;w tptrhapfNshL ghpkhwpf;nfhs;tNj ,jd; Nehf; F khFk; . Fiwe; j J xU tpijahtJ ngw; w pUe; j hy; kl; L Nk tptrhapfs; ,e; j jpUtpohtpy; gq;Fngw mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ. njhlf; f j; j py; > Kg; g J FOf; f s; (300 ngz; tptrhapfs;) ,e;j tpij ghpkhw;w jpUtpohf;fspy; <LgLj; j g; g l; l dh; . tpij ghpkhw; w jpUtpoh> brk; g h; khjk; ney; mWtil nra; j clNd elj; j g; g LfpwJ. jpUtpohtpw; F gpd; d h; > 5-10 cWg;gpdh;fs; nfhz;l ngz; FOf;fs; Nrh;e;J fha;fwpfs; rhFgb nra;th;. ,aw;if cuq;fs;> kf;F kw;Wk; kdpjdhy; fl;LgLj;jg;gLk; G+r;rpfs;. jtph;f;f Kbahj #o;epiyapy; kl;LNk mth;fs; Nrhg;G kw;Wk; Gifapiy fyitia gad;gLj;Jth; - xU caph;r;#oYf;F cfe;j G+r;rp fl;LgLj;Jk; Kiw. xU khjj;jpw;Fs; mth;fs; mWtil nra;a Muk;gpj;J tpLfpd;wdh;> Kjypy; fPiw tiffspy; Muk; g pj; J > gpd; d h; kw; w gaph; f is mWtil nra; t h; . kpFjpahd fha; f wpfs; r%fj; j pw; F Neubahf tpw;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J ,ilj;jufh;fis tpyf;fp> ngz;fspd; FOf;fSf;F cWjpahf mjpf tpiy fpilf;fpwJ kw;Wk; mjpf jukhd ,aw;if fha;fwpfs;> ,urhad G+r;rpnfhy;ypfspypUe;J tpLjiy Mfpag; gad;fs; fpuhk r%fq;fSf;F fpilj;Js;sJ. ,e;j nray;ghL tPl;by; czT ,Ug;G mjpfhpj;Js;sJ> NkYk; ntsp czit rhh;e;jpUj;jYk; Fiwe;Js;sJ. mWtilapd; NghJ rpwg;ghd jukpf;f tpisnghUis tpijnghUshf Nrfhpj; J > ghuk;ghpa Kiwfspy; ghJfhj;J mLj;j tpijj; jpUtpohtpy; mjid gfph; e ; J nfhs; s g; g Lk; . Mifahy; ghuk;ghpa ,ufj;ij Nrkpg;gjw;Fk;> gug;Gtjw;Fk; xU ghuk;ghpak; cUthf;fg;gLfpwJ. fhy;eil nfhzh;jy; fhy;eil thq;Ftjw;F> Rkhh; 530 cWg;gpdh;fs; jyh &.20>000 rpW fld; ngw;wdh;. ngz;fs;

cWg;gpdh;fs; $l;lhf rhFgb nra;Ak; fha;fwpfs;

FOthf mZfpajhy;> ve;j gj;jpuKk; ,y;yhky; fld;fs; fpilj;jJ. ,q;F FO nghWg;Ngw;fpwJ> ,e;j FONt cj;jputhjk; mspf;fpwJ. ,J cs;@h; nghUshjhuj; j pw; F k; > Vio FLk; g q; f Sf; F k; rpwe;j Cl;lkhFk;. mjpf ghy; cw; g j; j p mspf; F k; gRf; f is Nkk;gLj;JtJ Fwpj;J ngz;fSf;F nray;ghl;L gapw; r p mspf; f g; g l; l J. ,e; j g; gFjp ,aw; i f tsq;fs; epiwe;j gFjpnad;gjhy;> ,wf;Fkjp cztpd; rhh; G j; j d; i k kpff; FiwthfNt cs;sJ. NkYk; gz;izf; fopTfs; jPtdkhf gad; g LfpwJ> Mifahy; gaph; cw; g j; j pNahL fhy;eilAk; xUq;fpizf;fg;gl;lJ. ruhrhpahf> xU gR xU ehisf;F15-20 ypl;lh; ghy; cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ. kpy;kh vd;w muR ghy; tpdpNahf epWtdj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ghy; $l;LwT rq;fj;jpd; %yk; ghy; Nrfhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ngz;fs; xU ehisf;F &.600 tUkhdk; ngw;wdh;. fhy;eilfis tsh;g;gjw;fhd nryTk;> fld; jpUk;g nrYj;Jtjw;Fk; ,J NghJkhdjhFk;. fhy;eil tsh;g;G ,e;j ngz;fSf;F tUkhdk; <l;Lk; ey;y jpl;lkhf cs;sJ. fhy;eil tsh;g;G FLk;gj;jpw;F gy topfspy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ. rhzk; gad;ghL fha;fwp kw;Wk; ney; rhFgb cah;fpwJ. kf;F vUtpw;F kpf Fiwthd msNt gad; g Lj; J tjhy; > kP j Ks; s rhzk; caph; vhpthAtpw; F gad; g Lj; j g; g l; l J. gz; i z tP L fSf; F xU caph; vhpthA njhl; b w; F &. 5000 (Rkhh; 50%)ed;nfhilahf mspf;fg;gl;lJ. kP j pAs; s njhif $ypahl; f s; my; y J Ra cjtp FOf;fsplkpUe;J fld; vLf;fg;gl;lJ. caph; vhpthA fyd; f is tpwF cgNahfk; FiwtNjhL> ntsp Mw;wy; tpdpNahf rhh;Gj; jd; i k Fiwe; J s; s J. caph; vhpthA fopT kWRow;rp nra;J gaph;fSf;F vUthfpwJ.

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

19


tpij jpUtpohtpy; gq;Nfw;Fk; ngz;fs;

nrk;ik ney; rhFgb %yk; ney; cw;gj;jpia kWkPl;nlLj;jy; Ie; J ngz; f s; nfhz; l Rkhh; 40 FOf; f s; nrk;ik ney; rhFgb Kiw %yk; 200 Vf;fh; epyj;jpy; ney; rhFgb nra;jdh;. ,e;j Kiwapy; mjpf kf#y; fpilg;gjw;F> rhjhuz Kiwia tpl 50% Fiwthd tpijfSk;> 40-50% Fiwthd jz;zPUk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. fd;dpak;ngl;l gQ;rhaj;ij Nrh;ej ; ghuk;ghpa ngz; tptrhapahd> jq;fk;kh> xU Vf;fh; epyj;jpy; 3500 fpNyh mhprp cw; g j; j p nra; j ,th; > kw; w tptrhapfSf; F ce;Jjyha; ,Ue;jJ. gRQ;rhzk;> kf;F cuk; kw;Wk; caph; vhpthA fopT Mfpa midj;Jk; fpilg;gjhy;> cw ;g j ;j p K i w KOt Jk ; , a w; i f a hfNt gpd;gw;wg;gl;lJ. fha;fwpfis NghyNt> ngz;fs; kpFjpahf ,Uf;Fk; mhprpaidAk; kw;w cs;@h; thbf;ifahsh;fSf;F ey;y tpiyf;F tpw;fTk; KbfpwJ. KbT jpwd; kw; W k; ek; g pf; i f tsh; g ; g pd; %yk; ngz;fs; rf;jp tha;e;jth;fshf;Fjy;> ,Uf;Fk; jpwd;fis gad;gLj;Jjy;> Njitahd ,lj;jpy; cjtp mspj;jy;> midj;J nray;ghLfisAk; xUq; f pizj; j y; > mjpy; xU nray; g hl; b d; fopTfs; > kw; w nray; g hl; b w; F ,LnghUsha; MfptpLjy; Mfpa fhuzpfs; ,e;jj; jpl;lk; ntw;wp ngw;wjw;fhd Kf;fpa fhuzk;. Mjhuk; kWRow;rp

20

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2017

nra;tjdhy; cw;gj;jp nryT FiwfpwJ> NkYk; ntsp Mjhuq;fspd; rhh;Gj;jd;ikAk; FiwfpwJ. rj; J f; f s; cj; j puthjj; j py; Mr; r hpa%l; L k; khw;wk;> ,e;j FLk;gq;fspd; Foe;ijfs; kw;Wk; ngz;fspd; epiyjhd;> ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpd; rpwe;j jhf; f q; f spy; xd; W . Kjy; Kiwahf ,e; j FLk;gq;fSf;F ghy; ,Ug;G ,Uf;fpwJ> NkYk; cWg;gpdh;fspd; MNuhf;fpak; cah;e;jpUf;fpwJ. cuj;jpw;F gad;gLj;Jk; gRQ;rhzk; Nghd;w cg nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; kjpg;G $l;lg;gl;l nghUl;fshd caph; vhpthA Mfpait Ntshz; ,LnghUl;fs; Nky; tptrhapfspd; ghh;it khwpaJ. kpf Kf;fpakhf> r%fj;jpw;Fs; ngz;fspd; epiy kw;Wk; mth;fspd; Ra ek;gpf;if mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. jw;NghJ> cs;@h; muR gQ;rhaj;J uh[; ikaKk; ,e;jj; jpl;lj;ij vLj;J khepyj;jpy; gutyhf elj;jg;gl;L tUfpwJ.  T K Omana Director, Rural Agency for Social and Technological Advancement (RASTA), Kamblakad.P.O.,Wayanad District., Kerala – 673122 www.rastaindia.org E-mail: t.k.omana@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2015> thy;a+k; 17> ,jo; 4

Tamil - March 2017  
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