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Magazine on Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture


ñÆ÷Å ê³ÜÅìÆ d;zpo 2017


ñÆ÷Å ê³ÜÅìÆ, d;zpo 2017 ^yq qoN pRxwlI q`k swfw &Iqw ik`Qy AY? vwqwvrx Anuswr iqAwr kIqy gey ^yq qoN JwV, poSx Aqy Awmdn qoN ielwvw iek ikswn prvwr hor vI keI &wieidAW dI vwFI krdw hY[ ies vwsqy vwqwvrn AwDwrq KyqI pRxwlI dy pRBwv ƒ mwpx vwsqy swƒ v`Kry mwpdMf vrqxy pYxgy[ v`K-v`K iksm dy mwpdMfW Anuswr vwqwvrn AwDwrq KyqI dy pRBwvW ƒ mwpx krky Bwrq, nypwl Aqy bMglwdyS dy ikswn iviBMnqw vwly KyqI pRxwlI pRqI auqSwhq hoey hn[ ê¶Ü é³: 5

ikswn Awpxy KyqW ƒ ikvyN pVHdy hn ij`Qy AwDuink KyqI ivc JwV ivc vwDy ƒ mu`K mMinAw jWdw hY, CotI ikswnI ivc ies ƒ pRBwivq krn vwly isr& iek q`q dy rUp ivc dyiKAw jw skdw hY[ Awpxy Kyq dw mulWkx krn vyly Cotw ikswn Awpxy Kyq dIAW ivSySqwvW qoN prHW jw ky aus kudrqI FWcy ijs dw ih`sw ausdw Kyq hY, smwj Aqy ijs ivc auh kMm krdy hn aus bwzwr Aqy Awpxy prvwr dIAW sMBwvnwvW Aqy sImwvW ƒ iDAwn ivc r`Kdw hY[ ieh g`l audoN vI EnI hI s`c huMdI hY jdoN Cotw ikswn kudrqI KyqI krdw hY[ ê¶Ü é³: 11

AYsAwrAweI nvInqw pRxwlI dy BweIvwlW T[Zso g{op d/ S'N/ fij/ ;{p/ fsqg[ok fty/ f;;Nw nkc o{N fJzN?A;hfce/PB (n?Z; nko nkJh) fJZe nfijh nkftPekoe gqDkbh ti'A fte;s j' fojk j?, fi; ftu fe tZy^tZy fjZsXkoe ;{p/ B{z u"bK gZy'A ;t?^fBoGo pDkT[D bJh fJeZm/ jB. fsqg[ok d/ nZ?; nko nkJh nkftPekoe gqDkbh s'A f;Zy/ rJ/ ;pe i/eo ;wkB c;bK ns/ ;zdoG ftu bkr{ ehs/ ikD sK fJj :ehBB ftek; ns/ y[Pjkbh bJh fpjsohB wkvb f;ZX j't/rk. ê¶Ü é³: 14

Coty ikswnW dIAW Anyk zrUrqW pUrIAW krnw }?o ;oekoh ;zrmB y/sh gko;fEseh B{z T[sPkfjs eoB ftu p/fw;kb jB. fe;kBK B{z ftek; ftu Gkrhdko pDk e/ ph J/ nkJh n?Zc B/ eoBkNek fty/ 505 fgzvK d/ 21000 fe;kBK dh nkwdB ;[oZfynk tXkJh j?. fJj ;kfps j' frnk j? fe phi, o'gD ;wroh, frnkB ns/ gq/oDk T[jBK dh w"i{dk }?o fNekT{ y/sh B{z fNekT{ y/sh tZb s'oB bJh ekch j?. ê¶Ü é³: 18

ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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fit/A^fit/A ;wK eotN b? fojk j?, d/; ftu fNekT{ y/sh dh bfjo I'o cV ojh j?. d/; d/ tZy^tZy e'fDnK y/sh B{z fe;kB gZyh ns/ tX/o/ fNekT{ pDkT[D bJh fe;kBK ns/ tZy^tZy ;z;EktK tZb'A nkgD/ gZXo ns/ fes/^fes/ E'Vh^pj[s ;oekoh ;jkfJsk Bkb pj[s jh gqGktPkbh ezw ehsk ik fojk j?. bhIk fJzvhnk d/ jEb/ gzikph ;z;eoD ftu n;hA gkmeK B{z T[go'es ekoiK ns/ T[jBK ekoD y/sh ns/ fe;kBK dh fizdrh u nkJ/ ;zs'PiBe pdbkT[ s'A ikD{ eotkT[D dk jhbk eo oj/ jK. gZfsqek d/ fJ; nze ftu T[go'es ;zdoG ftu e[ZbQ uko b/y gqekfPs ehs/ rJ/ jB. nzP{wB dk; d[nko fbfynk frnk gZfsqek dk gfjbk b/y, 'y/s s'A y/sh gqDkbh sZe ;kvk chsk feZE/ j?' e[dos Bkb fJZefwZesk ftu v{zxh ;wM, ;fjGkfrsk, otkfJsh frnkB dh o"PBh ns/ ftfrnkB d/ ;[w/b Bkb y/sh eod/ j'J/ fe;kBK dh nkwdB tXkT[D d/ ;cb nB[Gt Bkb ;kvh ;KM pDkT[Adk j?. :kB d'U tkB do gkb dh fbys gZfsqek dk d{ik b/y 'fe;kB nkgD/ y/sK B{z fet/A gVQd/ jB' fe;kBk d/ nkgD/ y/sK i[Vkn ns/ T[; ;dek y/sh u dog/P ;wZf;nktK Bkb BfiZmd/ j'J/ nkgDh y/sh B{z j'o fpjso pDkT[D dh ;'u Bkb i'Vdk j?. ;[fuokdhfgsk GZNkuoih ns/ ;otBB oki d[nko fbfynk frnk gZfsqek dk u"Ek b/y 'n?Z; nko nkJh nkftPekoe gqDkbh d/ GkJhtkb' fsqg[ok fty/ tZy^tZy fjZsXkeoK tZb'A ;zrfms j' e/ n?Z; nko nkJh seBhe sfjs u"bK dh y/sh eod/ j'J/ ekw:kph Bkb u"bK dk T[sgkdB tXkT[D d/ T[gokb/ s'A gkmeK B{z ikD{ eotkT[Adk j?. gZfsqek dk u"Ek s/ nzfsw b/y fijVk fe n?Zw nZ?B e[beoBh ns/ n?Z; n?Zw jho/wE dk fbfynk j'fJnk j?, fJZe }?o ;oekoh ;zrmB ph J/ nkJh nZ?c d[nkok eoBkNek fty/ 505 fgzvK d/ 21000 S'N/ fe;kBK dhnK nB/eK y[okeh b'VK g{ohnK eoB d T[d/P Bkb T[E/ o[Zy nkXkos c;b gqDkbh sfjs y/sh B{z w[V ftT[As e/ fwPos y/sh ;dek fe;kBK dh dPk pdbD dh pks gkT[Adk j?. nk; eod/ jK fe bhIk fJzvhnk dk jEbk gzikph ;z;eoD s[jkvhnK T[whdK 's/ yok T[Zsodk j'fJnk s[jkv/ bJh bkj/tzd f;ZX j't/rk. XzBtkd

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017


oKuh BV / / Je / hfes q MB ' / dk ys /

^yq qoN pRxwlI q`k

swfw &Iqw ik`Qy AY? -Á³ô±îé çÅÃ

vwqwvrx Anuswr iqAwr kIqy gey ^yq qoN JwV, poSx Aqy Awmdn qoN ielwvw iek ikswn prvwr hor vI keI &wieidAW dI vwFI krdw hY[ ies vwsqy vwqwvrn AwDwrq KyqI pRxwlI dy pRBwv ƒ mwpx vwsqy swƒ v`Kry mwpdMf vrqxy pYxgy[ v`K-v`K iksm dy mwpdMfW Anuswr vwqwvrn AwDwrq KyqI dy pRBwvW ƒ mwpx krky Bwrq, nypwl Aqy bMglwdyS dy ikswn iviBMnqw vwly KyqI pRxwlI pRqI auqSwhq hoey hn[ ijvyN ik mYƒ smJ AwieAw hY kudrqI KyqI pRxwlI pycIdw hY, pr guMJldwr nhIN hY[ jdoN mYN iek jMgl ivc dyiKAw qW pqw l`igAw ik ieh Bojn lVI dw iek jitl qwxwbwxw hY, ijs ivc Bojn dy jwl iek-dUjy ivc aulJy hoey hn[ pr ieh bhuq srl vI hY ikauNik ies dI bxqr byh`d mu`Fly inXm Anuswr bxI hoeI hY- sWJ dw inXm- nslW Aqy AwbwdI ivcwly sWJ Aqy nsl dI AMdrUnI sWJ, qW ik AwbwdI ivc vI sMquln bixAw rhy Aqy aUrjw dy Awaux-jwx dw sMquln vI bixAw rhy[ ieh sWJ pYdw krn leI, DrqI dy au~pr vI Aqy DrqI dy AMdr vI, jMgl dI bxqr bhu-mMizlI hY[ ieh bxqr ieMnI vDIAw bxI hoeI hY, jy ies bwhrI

qbdIlIAW jW qbdIlI krn vwly kwrk ies ƒ pRBwivq nw krn qW jMgl dI AwpxI smu`cI auqpwdkqw swfy v`loN bxweI geI iksy vI KyqI audpwdn pRxwlI nwloN ikqy vDIAw hY[ vwqwvrn AwDwrq KyqI kudrqI pRxwlI dy bhuq nyVy hY jo sWJIvwlqw, muV-vrqoN, bhu-prqI pRbMD, Anyk nslW/iksmW dy ju`t Aqy nsl A`gy vDwaux vrgy kudrqI inXm su`qy-is`D hI Apxw lYNdI hY[ Bwrq sstynybl ieMtIgRytyf &wrimMg isstm (is&z) rwhIN auqSwhq kIqI geI bwieE&wrm Xojnw Bwrq, nypwl Aqy bMglwdyS dy 9500 KyqW ivc kudrqI KyqI dy hyT ilKy iqMn inXmW ƒ auqSwhq krky icrMjIvI KyqI ƒ auqSwhq krn leI AzmweI geI[ a) sihkwrqw Aqy su m y l vwsqy rlIAWimlIAW/AMqr/kRmvwr &slW dI ibjweI rwhIN &slW dI qrqIb bdlxw[ islislw A`gy vDwauyx leI Aqy sihkwrqw leI &slI c`kr bxwauxw[ A) iek auqpwdn pRxwlI ivc bhu-prqI sQwn iqAwr krnw qW jo sihkwrqw Aqy muV-vrqoN ƒ lwzmI bxwieAw jw sky[ e) KyqW ivc auppRxwlI iviBMnqw ƒ vDwauxw, qW ik aUrjw dI muV vrqoN Aqy sihkwrqw su`qy-is`D hox l`g pvy[ pYmwieS dI cuxOqI ArQ-Swsqr dI auqpwdn sMbMD bwry smJ bhuq ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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is`DI huMdI hY[ jy AsIN iksy &sl, mMn lau Jony, dy isr& JwV ƒ hI lwhyvMd auqpwd mMnIey qW auqpwdn Aqy JwV dw lyKw-joKw krnw bhuq srl huMdw hY[ dUjy pwsy kudrqI KyqI ivc Jony dy JwV qoN ielwvw AsIN prwlI ƒ cwry/PUs dIAW C`qW/Gwh-PUs nwl pOidAW ƒ Awsrw dyx leI vrqxw, P`k ƒ cwry/bwlx, jVHW jo im`tI ivc Kwd dw kMm krdIAW hn, colW dy KyqW iv`c pIx vwly pwxI ivc pYdw hox vwly ndIn/JINgy/kykVy/CotIAW m`CIAW ƒ AsIN Bojn dy sroq Awid &wieidAW dy rUp ivc dyKdy hW[ ies dy nwl hI Jony dw Kyq zmIn hyTly pwxI ƒ qwzw dm krn ivc mhq`vpUrn BUimkw inBwauNdw hY[ ies leI swƒ kudrqI KyqI FWcy dy pRBwv ƒ mwpx leI v`KrI iksm dy mwpdMfW dI loV hY[ so, AsIN auqpwdkqw dw lyKw-joKw ikvyN krdy hW? Jony dI &sl zmInI pwxI dy p`Dr ivc suDwr jW bnspqIivMiBnqw sMBwl ivc ikhVI kudrqI BUimkw inBwauNdI hY? swfw ivSlySxI FWcw pUrw swl hr roz Bojn auplb`D krwaux vwly 40 qoN izAwdw iksm dIAW &slW vwly bwZ dI &slI qIbrqw nhIN mwp skdw[ swfy kol im`tI dI ishq mwpx leI AY~n., pI., ky. Aqy kudrqI kwrbn qoN Agly koeI sMkyqk nhIN hn[ AsIN smu`cI KyqI pRxwlI dI ishq au~pr it`pxI krn dy smr`Q nhIN hW- ikauNik ieh Swied ieMnI guMJldwr hY ik iksy gixq dy svwl nwl ies dw pqw krnw sMBv nhIN[ bwieE&wrm Xojnw ny smwijk, vwqwvrnI Aqy AwrQk mwpdMfw ivc qbdIlI dy AwDwr 'qy ies ivDI dI prK krn dI koiSs kIqI[ ies pirklpnw ƒ sQwipq krn leI iqMn swl dw smW bhuq QoVHw sI, pr ieh ruJwn dI idSw drswauNdw hY[ ies dI prK smUihk ingrwnI Aqy AMkiVAW dy ivSlySx rwhIN kIqI geI[ nqIjy mwpxw smUihk ingrwnI iksy Aml dI pVqwl krn Aqy ivc-ivcwly loVINdy suDwr krn dw purwxw sQwpq FMg hY[ ies dy nwl hI, AsIN shI idSw ivc jw rhy hW ieh lwzmI bxwaux leI, tIcw im`Qxw hmySw mddgwr swbq huMdw hY[ ienHW g`lW ƒ iDAwn ivc r`KidAW ikswnW ƒ kudrqI KyqI dy inXm Apxwaux ivc mdd krn leI c`ky vwlw ^wkw (vHIl ifzweIn) iqAwr kIqw igAw qW jo auh Awpxy tIcy Awp im`Q skx Aqy ingrwnI kr skx[ ieh c`kw siQqIAW ƒ idRStIgocr krn Aqy v`K-v`k ryitMgW/skorW dI qulnw krn ivc mdd krdw hY[ ds mwpdMfW dw iek ju`t bxwieAw igAw[ 1.

smUhk/sihkwrI srgrmIAW: ikswn smUhW ivc, smUihk toilAW ivc, smUihk srgrmIAW ivc Aqy sWJI zmIn au~qy iek`Ty KyqI krn vrgIAW srgrmIAW ivc iks p`Dr q`k srgrm hn[ smUh dy mwmly ivc mwpdMf pUry

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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smUh dI ishq au~qy lwgU huMdw hY[ DrqI hyTly pwxI dI sMBwl dIAW ivDIAW Apxwauxw: Kyq ivc zmInI pwxI dI sMBwl leI ikhVIAW ivDIAW vrqIAW jWdIAW hn- ijvyN ik Kyq ivc bMnH bxwauxw, mINh dy pwxI dI sMBwl, Gwh-PUs nwl pOidAW ƒ Awsrw dyxw, rUVHI vwlI Kwd dI vrqoN, ArD-golwkwr bMnH bxwauxw, ibnW juqweI dy KyqI, fwiemMf bY~f bxwauxw, GVy nwl isMjweI krnw, golkwr bY~f bxwauxw Awid[

fdUro d/ fgv z wdBgo [ d/ ekbh f;x z Bkb nfGnk; gfqen q k eod/ jJ ' / 3.

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sihpRxwlIAW dI igxqI: Kyq dI mlkIAq vwlIAW sihpRxwlIAW dI igxqI (bwieaufweIjYstr, murgI-pwlx, pSUDn, dr`^q, &slW, m`CI-pwlx) AMqr sih-pRxwlI sroqW dw gTjoV: v`K-v`K sihpRxwlIAW ivcwly AwpsI joV-myl (jo eykIkrn dw sMkyq idMdw hY) bwieaufweIjYstrW dI igxqI: bwieaugYs plWt, gMFoieAW dI Kwd vwlw toAw, rUVHI Kwd vwlw toAw, ig`lI rUVHI dI vrqoN, Kyq dy Ahwqy ivclI rUVHI Kwd Aqy hrI rUVHI Kwd Awid ies ivc Swml huMdy hn[ &slW Aqy &slW augwaux dIAW qknIkW dI iviBMnqw: iviBMnqw vwlIAW &slI q`qW dI mOjUdgI 'qy AwDwirq Kyq dI gRyfySn- &sl ivc P`ldwr iksmW, PlIdwr pOdy, p`qyvwr sbzIAW, Anwj, dvweIAW vwlI jVHI-bUtIAW, AwlU-gMFw Awid zmIn ivc hox vwlIAW &slW, mswly Awid[ &slI qknIkW ivc rlI-imlI KyqI, AMqr-KyqI, &slI c`kr, kRmvwr KyqI Awid Swml hn[ pRwpq isKlweI: ikswn Kyq skUl rwhIN swl Br dOrwn pRwpq hoeI isKlweI dIAW iksmW[ ies ivc ieh hunr isKwey jWdy hn: 1) mwnisk qnwA dw ivSlySx krnw, ruzgwr c`kr, sroq, smr`QwvW Aqy ienHW Anuswr Awpxy &wrm dw FWcw iqAwr krnw[ 2) im`tI dy poSk q`qW dy pRbMD dIAW v`K-v`K ivDIAW 3) pwxI dy pRbMD dIAW ivDIAW[ 4) Kyq ivc bxy Gr Aqy Kyq AMdr bwZbwnI dw


ih`sw 5) ipCly ivhVy ivc murZI pwlx pRbMD ijs ivc &If vI Swml hY 6) QoVHI igxqI ivc pSUDn pRbMD ijs ivc cwrw vI Swml hY 7) ivkws dy pVwvW dOrwn &slW/pSUDn dIAW ndInW/ibmwrIAW dw pRbMD 8) smUihk ivkws Aqy kImq lVI bwry koml hunr kudrqI KyqI ƒ mOsm Anuswr Flx vwlI pRikirAw mMinAw jWdw hY ikauNik ieh mOsm AwDwrq Awmdn sroqW qoN inrBrqw GtwauNdI hY, ies qrHW jo^m vI G`tdw hY[ 8.

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bwhrI ^urwkI invyS: bwzwr ivcoN ^rIdy gey bwhrI ^urwkI q`qW dI igxqI (sbzIAW, pRotIn- hr cIz jo sMqulq ^urwk leI loVINdI hY)[ bwhrI KyqI invyS: bwzwr ivcoN ^rIdy gey bwhrI ^urwkI q`qW dI imkdwr (ijvyN bIj Awid Swml huMdy hn) auqpwdW dI ivkrI qoN hox vwlI Awmdn: 'bwzwr nwl sMbMDq Awmdn' nZd rwSI dIAW zrUrqW iks h`d q`k pUrIAW krdI hY- musIbq vyly ivkrI ƒ ies ivc Swml nhIN kIqw jWdw[

hr Srq bwry (jo ikswnW ƒ 10 qsvIrW vwly sY~t dy rUp ivc id`qy gey sn) ikswnW ƒ 0 qoN 5 (G`t qoN bhuq izAwdw) q`k nMbr dyx leI ikhw igAw sI Aqy ies ƒ ^wky ivc id`qy gey jwl ivc joVn leI ikhw igAw[ ieh pRikirAw 6 mhIny bwAd dohrweI geI[ dyiKAw igAw ik nMbr dyx vyly kw&I izAwdw crcw Aqy bihs ho rhI sI, jo ik pUrI pRikirAw dw Aihm ih`sw sI[ id`qy gey nMbrW dy ipCly kwrnW dy rUp ivc kmIAW Aqy s&lqW dI inSwndyhI kIqI geI, ijs nwl AglyrI kwrvweI dI Xojnw bxwaux ivc mdd hoeI[ ieh do p`DrW au~qy AzmwieAw igAw- smUihk p`Dr au~qy Aqy iek`ly ikswn dy p`Dr au~qy[ ikswnW ƒ KyqW ivc hox vwlIAW gqIivDIAW, Kyq dIAW lwgqW Aqy aupjW ƒ inXimq rUp ivc drj krn dy Xog bxwieAw igAw- ijs dw bwAd ivc ivSlySx kIqw igAw[ ies ivc Su`D Awmdn Aqy dUjy AwdrS mwpdMfW dw lyKw-joKw vI Swml sI, pr AsIN aunHW mwpdMfW au~qy iDAwn kyNdrq kIqw ijhVy Kyq AMdrlI kudrqI KyqI dy p`KW dw mulWkx kr skdy sn[ JwrKMf qoN Bwv idEGr Aqy rWcI dy Kyq, p`CmI bMgwl qoN Bwv bIrBUm, bMkUrw Aqy prUlIAw izlHy Aqy phwVI ielwky qoN Bwv nypwl dw icqvn Aqy bMglwdyS dy icqgWg phwVI ielwky hY[ nqIijAW bwry crcw A`gy kIqI jw rhI hY: KyqI ivMiBMnqw mwpxw kudrqI KyqI ivc iviBMnqw sB qoN mh`qvpUrn vrqwrw mMnI jWdI hY[ aup-pRxwlIAW dI iviBMnqw dw ArQ

hY- swl ivc iek &sl 'qy inrBr iek vwr hox vwlI Awmdn au~qy zor dyx dI bjwie pUry swl dOrwn Awmdn dy smyN Anuswr Awmdn dy sroqW ivc iviBMnqw Awauxw[ aup-pRxwlIAW ivc &slI Kyq, bwZ, murZI^wnw, pSUDn, m`CI pwlx, bwieaufweIjYstr, jMgl/sWJy, dr`^q, kImq vwDy leI sWJy au~dm Awid sn[ ieh drswauNdw hY ik AOsqn p`Dr au~qy auppRxwlI iviBMnqw 3.5 rhI, jo ik p`CmI bMgwl dy mwmly ivc hOlI-hOlI v`D ky 8 ho geI, ijs ivc Swied pwxI ny bhuq mh`qvpUrn BUimkw inBweI Aqy Awmdn dy sroqW dy rUp ivc 5 aup-pRxwlIAW au~pr siQr ho igAw, JwrKMf Aqy phwVI ielwikAW dy mwmly ivc ieh kMm bwieEmws ny kIqw[ hwVHI dy mOsm ivc ieMJ hI hoieAw[ grmIAW ivc Awm qOr 'qy jo sMnmI zmIn huMdI hY, 2014 qoN bwAd aus ivcoN vI bwieaumws dw auqpwdn AOsqn 2.54 sroq irhw[ ies dw pRBwv JwrKMf dy 45 &IsdI KyqI irkwrfW ivc nzr AwieAw ijnHW ivc KyqI dw mOsm AwDwr ryKw ivc mOjUd 1 AMk qoN v`D ky 3 AMkW q`k phuMc igAw[ phwVI ielwikAW ivc ieh 89 &IsdI hY, jd ik p`CmI bMgwl dy mwmly ivc ieh 60 &IsdI hY[ do qoN izAwdw auppRxwlIAW ivc bwzwr leI Aqy vYsy vI vwDU bwieaumws pYdw hox dI g`l drj kIqI geI[ Awmdn dI vMf iek qoN izAwdw auppRxwlIAW hox krky Awmdn dI vMf dy qrIky au~qy vI Asr ipAw hY[ gOr kIqw igAw ik KyqW qoN prvwr ƒ hox vwlI Awmdn pihlW &slW Aqy sbzIAW qoN huMdI sI- jo is`Dy qOr 'qy mwnsUn 'qy inrBr krdIAW hn[ pr iqMn swlW dy AMdr hI pSUDn, murgI pwlx, m`CI pwlx Aqy hor sroq Swml hox nwl mOsm ADwrq sroqW au~qoN prvwr dI inrBrqw G`t geI[ audwhrx leI 2012 dy swauxI dy mOsm ivc phwVI ielwikAW AMdr Awmdn dI vMf ies pRkwr sI&slW qoN 32.26%, sbzIAW qoN 13.12%, pSUDn qoN 19.77%, murgI-pwlx qoN 1.32%, m`CI-pwlx qoN 14.91% Aqy kImq vDwaU auqpwdW qoN 18.60%[ smyN dy nwl pSUDn Aqy murgIpwlx ivc qr`kI hox dI hor izAwdw smr`Qw hY[ p`CmI bMgwl ivc m`CI-pwlx Awmdn pYdw krn ivc 34% q`k dI BUimkw inBwauNdw hY[ iehI iek kwrn hY ik kudrqI KyqI ƒ mOsm Anuswr Flx vwlI pRikirAw mMinAw jWdw hY ikauNik ieh mOsm AwDwrq Awmdn sroqW qoN inrBrqw GtwauNdI hY, ies qrHW jo^m vI G`tdw hY[ AMkiVAW dI sImw krky auppRxwlIAW dy vwDy nwl Awmdn ivc vwDy dw sMbMD qW sQwipq nhIN kIqw jw skdw, pr pUry swl dOrwn Awmdn dI swvIN vMf dyKI geI hY, ies leI pUry swl dOrwn nZd rwSI auplb`D hox ivc vI vwDw hoieAw hY[ ij`Qy &slI KyqW ivc G`to-G`t do-iqMn qoN lY ky v`D qoN ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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fdUro ftZu ;wd [ kfJe fBrokBh ;P ? B

v`D cwr-pMj q`k &slI iviBMnqw qbdIlIAW hoeIAW, au~Qy GrylU bZIicAW ivc AOsqn Cy-s`q qoN izAwdw dI iviBMnqw nzr AwauNdI hY[ bIjIAW jwx vwlIAW &slW ivc pRmu`K qOr au~qy cOl, kxk, moty Anwj vrgIAW Anwj &slW; kwly Coly, msr vrgIAW dwlW, kwly iq`l/sroN/AlsI vrgy qyl bIj Aqy AwlU/rlIAW-imlIAW sbzIAW Awid Swml hn- jo Kyq dy v`fy ih`sy ivc bIjIAW jWdIAW hn[ ies dw ^urwk dI iviBMnqw (hvwlw A`gy id`qw igAw hY) au~qy v`fw pRBwv pYNdw hY[ phwVIAW ielwikAW ivc ies dw pRBwv sB qoN izAwdw hY, aus qoN bwAd p`CmI bMgwl AwauNdw hY[ Bojn dI guxv`qw qoN ielwvw iviBMnqw ny imkdwr ƒ vI pRBwivq kIqw hY ikauNik rLy-imly iviBMn auqpwd p`ky qOr 'qy Aqy mOsmI sMnmI bIjy jWdy hn[ swFy Cy sO

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

hYktyAr sMnmI zmIn &slI zmIn ivc qbdIl kr id`qI geI hY Aqy iek &sl vwlI swFy A`T sO hYktyAr zmIn ƒ bdl ky do &slW vwlI kr id`qw igAw hY[ zmIn dI qwsIr bdlx leI dwlW ƒ qrjIh id`qI geI sI[ ^urwk dI iviBMnqw ^rwk dI iviBMnqw dI pVqwl Bwrq dy JwrKMf ivc 2014 ivc kIqI geI, ijs ny drswieAw ik 70% AOrqW G`toG`t 5 iksm dy Bojn smUhW dw syvn krdIAW hn- &lIAW Aqy mtr, mUMg&lI Aqy bIj, fyArI auqpwd, AWfy Aqy Pl, sbzIAW Aqy p`qydwr sbzIAW[ SurUAwq vwly swl, 2011 vyly, izAwdwqr prvwr lysdwr-rySydwr Bojn Kw rhy sn[


SwkwhwrI sUbw hox krky qr`kI Swndwr hY[ sihpRxwlIAW dIAW kVIAW ivcwly aUrjw/bwieEmws dy Awdwn-pRdwn ƒ drswauNdw AMqr-sihpRxwlIAW dw sumyl, smu`cy KyqI FWcy AMdr FWcy dy dwiery Aqy kwblIAq dw sMkyq idMdw hY[ Awm qOr au~qy ijMnIAW izAwdw kVIAW hoxgIAW FWcw aunW hI izAwdw guxkwrI hovygw[ 2011 ivc AOsqn kVIAW 1 qoN mwmUlI ijhIAW izAwdw sn, jo hOlI-hOlI v`D ky 3 swlW AMdr 8 q`k phuMc geIAW hn, ijs ivc v`D qoN v`D kVIAW dI igxqI 12 q`k drj kIqI geI[ p`CmI bMgwl dy mwmly ivc nqIjy ibhqr hn, Swied ies krky ik smwjk smUh KyqI AwDwrq prvwrW dw bixAw hoieAw hY[ phwVI ielwikAW ivc qulnwqmk qOr au~qy nqIjy bury hn, ikauNik Swied jMgl ivc bwieEmws dI auplb`Dqw bySumwr hY, ijs krky bwieEmws dI pUrqI vDwaux leI ikswnW ƒ kVIAW bxwaux dI loV nhIN hY[ prMqU kVIAW dy vDx nwl muV vrqy jw skx vwly bwieEmws dI mwqrw ivc vwDy dw ruJwn dyiKAw jw irhw hYBwvyN ik v`K-v`K sQwnW au~qy ies dI mwqrw v`K-v`K hY[ 2015 dI swauxI ivc auppRxwlIAW ivc muV vrqoN kIqy gey bwieEmws dI AOsq mwqrw 7738 iklo sI[ bwieE&wrm Xojnw ADIn pihlW vI AsIN aUrjw dy Awdwn-pRdwn ƒ kYlrIz ivc ilAw sI- pr ies vwr AsIN ies ƒ srl r`Kx dI koiSs kIqI hY, qW jo ies ƒ AwswnI nwl smiJAw jw sky[ muV vrqoN bwhrI vsqUAW dI vrqoN G`t krn ivc mdd kr hI hY[ ieh vI gOr kIqw igAw ik bwieEmws dI muV vrqoN swauxI dy mOsm ivc izAwdw ibhqr rhI- p`CmI bMgwl dy mwmly ivc ibhqrIn rhI[ AwDwr ryKw dOrwn bwieEmws dI muV vrqoN dy leI smwjk smUh isr& gwvW dy vwVy ivcoN gohw hI iek`qr kr rhy sn[ Xojnw dOrwn bieEmws dI pirBwSw moklI hoeI ijs ivc &slW dI rihMd-KUMhd, pSUDn dw gohw, ml-mUqr, murgIAW dw ib`TW, ndIn Awid Swml hoey[ ies dIAW pRikirAWvW ivc Fyr lw ky Aqy toey ivc kMmpost iqAwr krnw, bwieE pRikirAw rwhIN gohy qoN Kwd iqAwr krnw, AYn. ey. fI. pI. kMpositMg, gMfoeyAW dI Kwd iqAwr krnw, rUVI Kwd iqAwr krnw, Gwh-p`iqAW nwl pOidAW dw Awsrw iqAwr krnw Awid Swml hn[ jy ieMnI mwqrw ivc bwieEmws dI muV vrqoN nw kIqI jwvy qW ieh bwhroN KrIdxI pvygI jW KyqW ivc ienHW dI Gwt ho jwvygI[ 2012 dOrwn JwrKMf ivc 35% ikswn KyqW ivc pweIAW jwx vwlIAW 50% qoN G`t vsqW AMdrUnI sroqW qoN lY rhy sn, ijsdI mwqrw 2013 (swrxI 1) G`t ky 12% ho geI[ hOlI-hOlI Awqm-inrBr hox v`l jwx dI pRikirAw SurU hoeI, 5% ikswn KyqW ivc pweIAW jwx vwlIAW 90% qoN izAwdw vsqW Kyq ivc hI pYdw kr rhy sn[ ijs ivc kVIAW dI izAwdw igxqI dy nwl izAwdw bwieEmws dI muV vrqoN dy

mwmly ivc p`CmI bMgwl dy KyqW ivc ibhqr nqIjy dyKx ƒ imly[ ieh sp`St sI ik ikswn Awqm-inrBrqw v`l v`D rhy hn, BwvyN ik suDwr dI hwly bhuq izAwdw sMBwvnw hY[

;hHnZ?uHNhH, pr z bkdP / ftZu ;wd [ kfJe fBrokBh ;P ? B

Bojn Awqm-inrBrqw ivc vwDw izAwdwqr ikswn prvwr Bojn Asur`iKAw dy dwiery ivc sn, Bojn sur`iKAw dy nzrIey qoN cuxOqI ieh sI ik aunHW ƒ Awqm-inrBrqw dy p`Dr q`k iljwieAw jwvy Aqy vw&r leI auqSwhq kIqw jwvy[ 2013 ivc 48% ikswn vw&r p`Dr au~qy sn[ bwieEmws auqpwdkqw rvwieqI qOr 'qy ijvyN auqpwdkw ƒ pirBwSq kIqw jWdw hY, ausdw Bwv iek &sl qoN huMdw hY[ sMXukq ^yqI pRxwlI (ieMtIgRytyf &wrimMg isstm-AweIAY&AYs) pUry ^yq dI bwieEmws auqpwdkqw ijs ivc Awpxy Kwx/bwzwr leI Bojn, cwrw, bwlx Aqy muV vrqy jwx vwlw bwieEmws Awid sB ƒ Swml krdw hY[hwVHI dOrwn phwVI ielwikAW (2013 ivc 12000 iklo pRqI hYktyAr) Aqy JwrKMf (2013 ivc 9000 iklogRwm pqI hYktyAr) ivc ibhqr nqIjy swhmxy Awey jdik p`CmI bMgwl (8100 iklo) ivc swauxI dy nqIjy ibhqr rhy[ zmInI bwieEmws auqpwdn dy mwmly ivc iek idlcsp ruJwn dyKx ƒ imilAw ij`Qy ieh 2013 ivc 2012 qoN G`t igAw[ ies sMBwvq kwrn G`t sMnmI zmIn hoxw ho skdw hY, ikauNik sMnmI zmIn ivc AxvriqAw bieEmws izAwdw huMdw hY[ kuJ bMdSW pRmwixq AMkiVAW dI Gwt krky, prvwr v`loN KyqI dy kMm-kwr ivc ^rc kIqy gey smyN Anuswr mzdUrI dI auqpwdkqw dw lyKw-joKw krnw muSkl sI[ pr v`K-v`K mwmilAW dw ivSlySx krn 'qy ieh sp`St ho igAw ik kudrqI AwDwrq KyqI izAwdw mzdUrI mMgdI hY Aqy Aksr ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

9


ies dw dbwA prvwr dIAW AOrqW au~qy Aw jWdw hY, ikauNik KyqI ivc pSUDn dI sWB-sMBwl Swml huMdI hY[ ies leI pUrI Xojnw ivc ilMg pRqI sMvydnSIlqw dy ivcwr ƒ Swml krnw zrUrI ho jWdw hY[ ies leI KyqI dy idnW ivc bwhr mzdUrI krn dI bjwie prvwrk mYNbrW dI loV Awpxy KyqW ivc huMdI hY[ ijhVy vI ikswn s&l hoey hn, izAwdwqr ny iesy dlIl nwl mzdUrI dI vwDU loV ƒ hWp`KI d`isAw hY[

KyqI pRxwlI v`l jwx leI AwpxI soc hWp`KI bxwaux ivc mdd imlI[ ijnHW ny fwierIAW r`KIAW, Awpxy Kyq dI qr`kI dw inrIKx kIqw auh AsUlW nwl A`gy v`D rhy hn[ AMkiVAW dIAW guMJlW KolHx nwl ikswn AMkVy jutwaux, ivSlySx krn Aqy ienHW ƒ smJx dI pRikirAw leI auqSwhq huMdy hn, Swied iehI Kyq qoN KyqI pRxwlI v`l vDx dI kuMjI hY[

bdldI soc Awmdn qoN ielwvw v`K-v`K iksmW dy mwpdMfW dy AwDwr 'qy kudrqI KyqI dy pRBwv mwpx qo bwAd Asl ivc shwieqw pRwpq ikswnW ny mihsUs kIqw ik KyqI DMdy ivc iviBMnqw Apxwaux nwl auh Anyk &wiedy pRwpq kr skdy hn[ v`K-v`K mwpdMfW Aqy sMkyqkW dy irkwfr drj krn Aqy aunHW dw ivSlySx krn leI AwpxI smr`Qw dw inrmwx krn nwl ikswnW ƒ Jony dI iek &sl AwDwrq KyqI qoN iviBMnqw vwlI

AMSUmn dws pRogrwm mYnyjr vYlQMgrlweI& ieMfIAw eI-myl: Anshuman.Das@welthungerhilfe.de

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

Farm to systems: Where is our measuring tape? LEISA INDIA, Vol- 18, No. 3, September 2016.


ikswn Awpxy KyqW ƒ ikvyN pVHdy hn -Xwn doE vn dr pl

ij`Qy AwDuink KyqI ivc JwV ivc vwDy ƒ mu`K mMinAw jWdw hY, CotI ikswnI ivc ies ƒ pRBwivq krn vwly isr& iek q`q dy rUp ivc dyiKAw jw skdw hY[ Awpxy Kyq dw mulWkx krn vyly Cotw ikswn Awpxy Kyq dIAW ivSySqwvW qoN prHW jw ky aus kudrqI FWcy ijs dw ih`sw ausdw Kyq hY, smwj Aqy ijs ivc auh kMm krdy hn aus bwzwr Aqy Awpxy prvwr dIAW sMBwvnwvW Aqy sImwvW ƒ iDAwn ivc r`Kdw hY[ ieh g`l audoN vI EnI hI s`c huMdI hY jdoN Cotw ikswn kudrqI KyqI krdw hY[ CotI ikswnI dy kyNdr ivc inrIKx, ivAwiKAw, muVsmwDwn, mulWkx krn Aqy is`Kx leI Anyk guMJldwr Aqy Awqm-inrBr c`kr hn[ ikswn lgwqwr hor keI cIzW dy nwlnwl bIjW dy puMgrn, &slW dy vDx Aqy pSUAW dI kwrguzwrI au~qy nzr r`Kdw hY[ jo qbdIlIAW aunHW ƒ nzr AwauNdIAW hn, suBwvk hY aunHW dy mn ivc svwl aupjdy hn ikvyN Aqy ikauN, ijs qoN ipCly &YsilAW dy nwl-nwl bwhrI Aqy AMdrUnI q`qW dy ivSlySx dI SurUAwq huMdI hY[ ijhVw v`Cw bhuq hI ishqmMd nzr Aw irhw hY kI aus dw kwrn cox, sihvws Aqy hor swdI BwSw ivc jIv dy nsl vwDy dy kRm Anuswr hovygw? jW iPr ieh aus ƒ hux q`k imlI Kurwk krky hY? jW bImwrIAW nw hox krky? jW iPr nvyN, izAwdw sw&suQry qbyly krky? ikswn sjIv kudrq nwl jW KyqIbwVI nwl AwpxI is`DI muTByV dI cwl Aqy pRBwv ƒ do-prqI FMg nwl 'pVHdw' hY[ iek hY POrI jW q`qkwlI qrIkw, QoVHy smyN dw Aqy ieh sUKm p`Dr au~qy lwgU huMdw hY[ pr ikswn dIrGkwlI nzr vI r`Kdw hY, ijs ivc KyqW, mMfIAW Aqy vfyry smwj dy ivcwly AwpsI sMvwd dy nwl-nwl sihkwrqw dI BUimkw vI Swml hY[ ikswn KyqW ivc mOjUd kudrqI Aqy smwjk swDnW dI auplb`Dqw Aqy guxv`qw ƒ vDwaux dIAW sMBwvnwvW vI qoldw rihMdw hY Aqy ies vwsqy kI krnw cwhIdw hY, aus dw Anumwn vI lwauNdw rihMdw hY[ sroqW dI vrqoN Aqy sroqW dw ivkws dovyN g`lW iDAwn ivc r`KIAW jWdIAW hn[

nwl ikswn suDwr krdy Aqy nvInqw ilAwauNdy hn[ audwhrx leI, ieh dlIl bIzW Aqy jIvW dIAW nslW dI cox au~qy lwgU huMdI hY[ cox Aqy nslkSI (bRIifMg) AmlI suDwr v`l iljw skdI hY, ijvyN ik izAwdw JwV, G`t nukswn Aqy izAwdw qwkqvr jwnvr[ Aijhy suDwr ivSlySx leI jwxkwrI muh`eIAw krvwauNdy hn, pr keI inguxIAW qbdIlIAW vI nvIN sUJ idMdIAW hn[ ieh pRikirAw lgwqwr c`ldI rihMdI hY Aqy ies dw nqIjw is`Kx Aqy nvW igAwn hwsl krn dy rUp ivc inkldw hY[ jd ikswnI AinSicqqw dy smuMdr ivc hY qW rozwnw kMmW dI bMnHvIN qrqIb iek qwkqvr AOzwr hY[ jo pihly simAW ivc lwhyvMd Aqy BrosymMd swbq hoieAw hY auh A`j dIAW srgrmIAW dw idSwsUck bxygw[ pr iPr vI, rozwnw b`JvIN qrqIb dy nwl-nwl swfy AMdr hmySw cIzW ƒ ibhqr bxwaux dI ijigAwsw Aqy kdy nw mu`kx vwlI qWG rihMdI hY[ auqsukqw Aqy qWG cIzW ƒ ghu nwl q`kx, ivAwiKAw krn, qbdIlIAW krn, mulWkx krn Aqy is`Kx leI pRyirq krdI hY[ ieh g`l CotI ikswnI ƒ suDwr, nvInqw Aqy qr`kI dI sdw c`ldI rihx vwlI Koj bxw idMdI hY[ ieiqhwsk qOr 'qy CotI ikswnI dy KyqW ivc keI Coty-Coty suDwr audoN q`k juVdy gey jdoN q`k auqpwdn siQr Aqy lgwqwr hox l`g ipAw[ ieh audoN q`k nhIN hoieAw sI jdoN q`k CotI ikswnI v`fy p`Dr au~qy suMgVnI SurU hoeI Aqy ies dy ivkws dI smr`Qw horW v`loN hiQAw leI geI ik pUrI qrHW sMqwp nwl iGr jwx q`k ivkws dr G`t geI[

Axmu`k isKlweI iviBMnqw CotI ikswnI dw kyNdrI Durw hY[ ies iviBMnqw ƒ ghu nwl vyKx Aqy ies dw ivSlySx krn

b'eK ftu fpjso jkbks f;oiD dk nDEZe iIpk ns/ ifrnk;k jw/Pk jh ofjzdh j?.

o[ w d/ fe;kBK dh wkofeN dk fdq P ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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KyqI dI klw ghu nwl vyKx, ivAwiKAw krn Aqy qbdIlI krn dw is`Kx vwlw c`kr iek ivAkqI AwDwrq srgrmIAW nhIN hn[ ikswnW ivcwly Awdwn-pRdwn Aqy sMcwr nwl ienHW dw smwjIkrn ho jWdw hY Aqy Aksr aunHW ivc qulnw Swml ho jWdI hY jo iksy iek ivAkqI dy Kyq qoN bwhr dI g`l bx jWdI hY[ ies pRikirAw ivc kI ibhqr hY Aqy kI b`dqr hY ikswn ies mwpdMf ƒ prK vwsqy vrqdy hn[ ieh mwpdMf kdy vI iek prqI nhIN huMdy, blik bhuprqI huMdy hn[ audwhrx leI jy AwlUAW dI g`l krIey qW ikswn svwd, BMfwr kIqy jwx dI smr`Qw, id`qIAW geIAW kudrqI hwlqW ivc kwrZuzwrI, id`K, JwV Aqy kIt Aqy ibmwrI roDI smr`Qw Awid dw mulWkx krdy hn[ idlcsp g`l ieh hY ik suhj kuJ mhq`vpUrn mwpdMfW ivc Swml hY[ 'ishqmMd nzr Aw rhy' pOdy, 'sohxIAW' &slW, 'dwinSvr' Kyq, Aqy 'nyk' pSU ikswnW dy spSt sMklp hn[ ieh sMklp keI p`DrW au~qy vrqy jWdy hn[ kuJ KyqW Aqy pSUAW v`l dyKdy hn, kuJ hor smu`cy &wrm ƒ dyKdy hn Aqy kuJ hor smwj ƒ dyKdy hn Aqy keI vwr qW KyqI Aqy smwj dy AwpsI sMquln ƒ smu`cy rUp ivc dyiKAw jWdw hY[ pirvwr dy AMdr, prvwr Aqy Kyq ivcwly, zmIn Aqy pSUAW ivcwly, k`l, A`j Aqy Blk ivcwly v`K-v`K sMquln KyqW dy suhj ivc Xogdwn pwauNdy hn[ iek sMqulq Kyq iek Brosy v`joN kwrj krdw hY[ ieh Biv`K dw vwAdw hY Aqy jwxkwrIAW pRwpq krn dw sroq hY[ v`Kv`K p`Dr Aqy sMbMDq sMquln sp`St qOr 'qy iek dUjy au~pr inrBr hn[ v`K-v`K SrqW smu`cy rUp ivc 'CotI ikswnI dw nYiqk ArQcwrw' bxdIAW hn: aunHW dy nzrIey ivc ieh im`Qx leI ik cIzW ikvyN hoxIAW cwhIdIAW hn[ ieh mwpdMf audoN ^ws qOr 'qy srgrm ho jWdy hn jdoN cIzW bhuq h`d q`k aus qrHW nhIN huMdIAW ijs qrHW hoxIAW cwhIdIAW hn[ Anyk c`kr Aqy aunHW ƒ iek dUjy dy sMquln ivc ilAwaux dI smr`Qw hI 'KyqI dI klw' hY[ iek`Ty ho ky auh ibAwn krdy hn ik ikauN CotI KyqI ieiqhwsk qOr 'qy jwrI qr`kI Aqy ivkws dy aus nqIjy ivcoN swhmxy AweI hY, jo 'Awpxy Awp ivcoN pYdw hoieAw hY' jW dUjy SbdW ivc khIey qW ieh zwqI qOr dw ivkws hY[ ies qoN ieh vI pqw c`ldw hY ik CotI ikswnI Aksr AwkrSk ikauN huMdI hY: ieh Koj dw s&r hY, nvIAW sMBwvnwvW dI Koj Aqy jo mukq hox, A`gy v`Dx, Awpxy Awp ƒ srgrm Aqy igAwnvwn kwrj-krqw v`joN ivksq krn leI ies ivc ru`Jy hoey hn, ieh Aksr aunHW ƒ Aijhw krn idMdI hY[ AwDuink KyqI BwvyN audXogk KyqI ivc Aijhy c`kr pUrI qrHW ZYrhwzr nhIN huMdy, pr auh ikrq dIAW pRikirAwvW dy hwSIey au~qy

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

cly gey hn[ pihlI g`l, hux Kyq ivMiBMnqw vwly smu`c qoN

y/sh d/ tksktoD gqsh ;gPN ;wM, fJ;d/ fBohyD, fJ;dh ftnkfynk ns/ w[V nB[e{bD dh gqfefonk B{z ;wkfie gqfefonk pDk fdzdh j?. au~c p`Dr dI ivSySqw vwlIAW auqpwdn XUnItW ivc qbdIl ho gey hn jo mu`Fly rUp ivc bwhrI invySW ƒ Bojn Aqy Kudrw audXog leI ivSyS auqpwd ivc qbdIl kr idMdy hn[ CotI ikswnI dy ault, zmIn hux pRmu`K sroq nhIN rhI blik auh smwgm vwlI jgHw bx geI hY ij`Qy KyqI dw smwgm huMdw hY[ hux ikrq dI pRikirAw bwhrilAW v`loN ilKI geI ptkQw dw pwlx krdI hY[ qIsrI g`l, ivSyS`gqw Aqy imAwr kwiem krnw, jy pUrI qrHW ^qm nhIN hoieAw qW bhuq h`d q`k G`t igAw hY, Kyq dy AMdr Aqy KyqW ivcwly iv^mqw ny qulnw ƒ qW ivArQ hI bxw id`qw hY[ nqIjqn, ies iksm dI KyqIbwVI ivc ghu nwl vyKx, ivAwiKAw krn Aqy qbdIlIAW krn dI idlcspI hux nwmwqr hI rih geI hY[ qr`kI hux srvoqm hY[ ivkws hux bwhroN pYdw hox l`gw hY[ AwDuink KyqI bhuq h`d q`k pUMjI bwzwr ivcoN pRwpq kIqy sroqW, bwhrI qknIkW, hor QWvW 'qy ivksq kIqy gey igAwn, bwhrI pRbMDkI XojnwvW Aqy XojnwbMdI Aqy ie`QoN q`k ik bwhrI ikrq (mzdUrI) au~qy inrBr hY[ iksy iek &sl dy JwV ivc vwDw hI s&lqw dw sMkyq mMinAw jwx l`gw hY[ ies iksm dI KyqI qoN pYdw hox vwlIAW Anyk iksm dIAW sm`isAwvW qoN j`g jwxUM hY[ iblkul aus dy ault, jo audXogk KyqI qoN munw&w kmwaux vwilAW ny swƒ jcw id`qw hY ik audXogk KyqI ivc Kyq dw ivkws mukwblqn srl hY[ JwV, invyS dI vrqoN Aqy Awmdn nwloN-nwl c`ldy mMny jWdy hn[ bhuq izAwdw invyS v`D JwV dI mu`FlI Srq mMinAw jWdw hY Aqy izAwdw JwV nwl cMgI Awmdn hovygI bSrqy Kyq dw Awkwr coKw hovy[ ieh qrIkw v`fy p`Dr au~qy ijvyN mOjUdw sMswr dw ArQcwrw c`l irhw hY aus ƒ mw&k bYTdw hY ikauNik izAwdw JwV Bojn audXog, v`fy p`Dr dy pRcUn ivkryqw Aqy inrXwq krn vwilAW ƒ kw&I mwqrw ivc k`cw mwl auplb`D krvw idMdw hY, Aqy izAwdw invyS, bIj Aqy rwswiex audXogW vrgy vhwA dy ault c`lx vwly KyqI-kwrobwrW leI mMfI iqAwr krdw hY[ CotI ikswnI v`l moVw Aqy kudrqI KyqI audXogk KyqI dy nwl-nwl sMswr dy au~qr Aqy sMswr dy d`Kx ivc v`fw Aqy ivksq ho irhw CotI ikswnI dw iK`qw vI ivcrdw hY[ ies vwsqy kuJ h`d q`k kudrqI KyqI dw SukrZuzwr hoxw bxdw hY[ kudrqI KyqI kwSqkwrI ƒ bwhrI invySW qoN moV ky


ies au~pr Awpxw h`k jqw skdw hY[ 'suQry ih`sy' dw sMklp Coty ikswnW v`loN ivkisq kIqw igAw qW ik auh Awpxy KyqW Aqy mMfI ivcwly irSiqAW dw mu`lWkx Aqy inXMqrn kr skx[ ieh KyqW qy qbyilAW Aqy prvwr dI qMdrusqI dI gqI ƒ Awps ivc joVn dw kMm krdw hY[

;hwKs fe;kB pj[s jh fBokb/ Yzr Bkb g?;k ewk oj/ jB.

Peoez d h phid/ j' J /

ibhqr AMdrUnI sroqW v`l lY jWdI hY[ kudrqI KyqI, keI mwmilAW ivc, CotI ikswnI v`l muVn Aqy aus ƒ mzbUq krn dw mslw hY[ ieh ikswn &Ilf skUlW, ikswn v`loN ikswn dI isKlweI, KyqW dI PyrI, pRoXg krn Awid rwhIN spSt qOr 'qy ghu nwl vyKx, ivAwiKAw krn Aqy qbdIlIAW krn dIAW pRikirAwvW dw smwjIkrn krdI hY[ is`Kx dIAW AijhIAW ivDIAW nvINAW sm`isAwvW ijvyN ishq, pSU BlweI, mOsmI qbdIlI, ilMg smwnqw, auqpwd dI guxv`qw, pOSitkqw Aqy mMfIkrn Awid dy h`l leI vI ApxweIAW jWdIAW hn[ Kyq dy mulWkx leI CotI ikswnI ivc kI vwjb hY audoN hI ivSyS rUp ivc pRsMgk hY jdoN Cotw ikswn kudrqI KyqI krdw hY[ kudrqI KyqI qoN Bwv hY; pirvrqn, ieh qbdIlI dI, qbdIlIAW qoN is`Kx Aqy aunHW dy pRBwvW, lgwqwr v`Ddy ivSwl igAwn swgr Aqy nvyN qjribAW ƒ shwiek qbdIlIAW ivc bdlx dI su`qyis`D c`lx vwlI pRikirAw hY[ iek sohxw auqpwdn Aqy sMqulq Kyq vwjb ruzgwr, cMgI ishq Aqy Biv`K dIAW sMBwvnwvW pRdwn krdw hY[ vYsy qW Awmdn ies sB kuJ dw Ain`KVvW AMg hY, CotI ikswnI Awmdn ƒ iblkul v`Kry nzrIey nwl dyKdI hY[ aunHW dI idlcspI munw&y jW 'Su`D KyqI nqIijAW' ivc nhIN hY, ijvyN ik swDwrn KyqI lyKojoKy ivc k`FI jWdI hY[ rUsI ivdvwn cwXwnov v`loN id`qI geI sp`St dlIl Anuswr CotI ikswnI AwpxI Awmdn ƒ AwpxI ikrq (imhnq/mzdUrI) dI Awmdn v`joN dyKdw hY[ auh AwpxI imhnq Aqy Kyq ivcoN pRwpq hox vwly sroqW ƒ lwgq nhIN igxdy[ suQrw ih`sw Coty ikswn auqpwdkW leI vycy gey auqpwd Aqy KrIdy gey invyS ivclw &rk nukqy vwlI g`l hY; ies ƒ Aksr 'suQrw ih`sw' ikhw jWdw hY[ ies kmweI ƒ 'suQrI' mMinAw jWdw hY ikauNik ieh ikswn Aqy ausdy prvwr leI huMdI hY[ Gr leI pYdw hoeI Kurwk dy nwl hI ies ƒ nw koeI h`Q lw skdw hY Aqy nw ies

‘su`Qry ih`sy’ dw mulWkx krnw kudrqI KyqI dw qwkqvr AOzwr hY, ikauNik ieh dohrI srgrmI dy nqIjy pRgtwauNdw hY jo ik kudrqI KyqI dw Durw hY: bwhrI q`qW dy invyS dI vrqoN Aqy sMbMD lwgq Gtwauxw, jd ik Awpxy auqpwdW dw ibhqr mu`l pRwpq krnw[ ibhqr mu`l pRwpq krn vwlw kwrj kudrqI KyqI ikswn mMfIAW lw ky, guxv`qw Aqy gux vDw ky, sihkwrI sMsQw bxw ky kIqw jWdw hY[ Coty ikswn auqpwdk Aqy aunHW dy prvwr hmySw pu`Cxgy: ieh Awmdn jW 'su`Qrw ih`sw' swfy v`loN mzdUrI dI pRikirAw ivc invyS kIqy gey smyN, imhnq Aqy aUrjw nwl ikvyN juiVAw hoieAw hY? ieh 'suQrw ih`sw' smu`cy rUp ivc KyqIbwVI ivc qbdIl ho skdw hY: jy 'suQrw ih`sw' ikswnW ƒ mMzUr hovy, qW KyqI sYktr qMdrusq ho skdw hY Aqy ies ƒ AmoV sbsIfIAW dI loV nhIN pvygI[ ies dw ArQ hY KyqI AwpxI AglyrI qr`kI dw iv`q poSx Awpxy Awp krygI[ kudrqI KyqI dI qbdIlI ny Aijhy suQry ih`sy dy pYdw hox ƒ pRmwixq kr id`qw hY jo hr ikswn ƒ pRvwn hY Aqy smu`cy smwj ƒ lwB dy skdw hY[ jy nwgirk, smwjk sMsQwvW, Kojkwr Aqy nIqI GwVy v`K-v`K iksmW dIAW KyqI pRxwlIAW dI gqI Aqy pRBwvW dw mulWkx krn vyly iehI nzrIAw Apxwaux dy Xog ho jwx qW auh smu`cy smwj ƒ ieh sp`St krn dy kwbl ho jwxgy ik CotI ikswnI AwDwrq kudrqI KyqI nw isr& Brosw hY blik A`j Aqy Blk dI loV vI hY[ -Xwn doE vn dr plU {bIijMg siQq cIn KyqIbwVI XUnIvristI dy ihaUmYintIz AYNf fvYlpmYNt st`fIz kwlj dy 'KyqIbwVI smwj-swSqr' ivSy dy shwiek pRo&Ysr hn[ E-Mail:jandouwe.vanderploeg@wur.nl How peasants read their farm LEISA INDIA, Vol- 18, No. 3, September 2016. ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

13


AYsAwrAweI nvInqw pRxwlI dy BweIvwlW -suicrwdIpqw B`twcwrjI Aqy srvnn rwj

T[Zso g{op d/ S'N/ fij/ ;{p/ fsqg[ok fty/ f;;Nw nkc o{N fJzN?A;hfce/PB (n?Z; nko nkJh) fJZe nfijh nkftPekoe gqDkbh ti'A fte;s j' fojk j?, fi; ftu fe tZy^tZy fjZsXkoe ;{p/ B{z u"bK gZy'A ;t?^fBoGo pDkT[D bJh fJeZm/ jB. fsqg[ok d/ nZ?; nko nkJh nkftPekoe gqDkbh s'A f;Zy/ rJ/ ;pe i/eo ;wkB c;bK ns/ ;zdoG ftu bkr{ ehs/ ikD sK fJj :ehBB ftek; ns/ y[Pjkbh bJh fpjsohB wkvb f;ZX j't/rk. pRswr is`iKAw, mUl rUp ivc Koj, is`iKAw Aqy pRswr is`iKAw vwly 'igAwn iqkox' dw iek ih`sw mMinAw jWdw sI, ijs ny rUVHIvwdI soc ƒ qoV ky ikswnW ƒ Awpxy Awp ƒ sMgTq krn, ikswnW nUM mMfIAW Aqy kuJ pUrk q`qW ijvyN vwqwvrn Aqy ishq sUcnw syvwvW nwl joVn ivc mdd kIqI[ Koj pRxwlIAW dw nzrIAw ivkws, sUcnw pRswr Aqy ih`sydwrW dy AwpsI irSqy au~qy zor idMidAW igAwn au~qy inrBr hY[ KyqI Koj pRxwlI ivkws mwfl dI “nvIN pIVHI” hY, jo 1970ivAW

Aqy 1980ivAW dOrwn ivkisq dySW ivc hoeIAW nIqI bihsW ivcoN pYdw hoeI hY[ ieh v`K-v`K kwrkuMnW dy smUhW dw nY~tvrk hY jo svY-ie`Cw nwl sWJy rUp ivc qr`kI jW smwjk jW AwrQk pRikirAw jW auqpwdW ivc suDwr vwsqy igAwn Aqy hor sroqW dw Xogdwn pwauNdy hn[ BweIvwlW ivcwly byh`d v`fy dwiery dIAW srgrmIAW rwhIN Koj AwDwrq pRikirAw qoN sMvwd AwDwrq pRikirAw v`l jwx krky Koj dw sMklp hwlIAw simAW ivc kw&I qbdIl ho igAw hY[ mMinAw jWdw hY ik BweIvwl (stykholfr) m`d dI Koj 1960ivAW dI SurUAwq ivc jwx-bu`J ky SbdW dI Kyf dy rUp ivc jnqk kwrporySnW dy SyAr-Dwrk (stOkholfr) jW aus ivAkqI qoN hoeI jo ies Kyf nUM Kyfx leI koeI AwrQk joKm auTw ky invyS krdw hY[ BweIvwl auh ivAkqI jW Adwry huMdy hn ijnHW dw sMbMD jW idlcspI aus ivc huMdI hY ijs au~qy aunHW ny dwA lwieAw huMdw hY[pRojYkt qoN pRBwvq hox krky, aunHW

fe;kB n?Z;HnkoHnkJhH ftXh ftZu M'B/ dh btkJh bJh tor d/ fj;kp Bkb fBPkBhnK brkT[Ad/ jB

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017


kol aus ƒ nukswn jW lwB phuMcwaux dI qwkq huMdI hY Aqy aunHW kol nYiqk Aqy kuJ mwmilAW ivc nqIijAW ƒ pRBwivq krn dy bySrq AiDkwr jW swdI BwSw ivc pRojYkt ivc Swml hox dw lokqMqrI AiDkwr huMdw hY[ cwvl dy sMGxIkrn dI pRxwlI: iek smwijkqw AwDwrq Koj KyqI Koj pRxwlI ivc Koj ƒ smwijk Aqy AwrQk rUp ivc dyiKAw jWdw hY nw ik Su`D rUp ivc Koj jW kwF dy rUp ivc Aqy cwvl sMGxIkrn dI pRxwlI (isstm Aw& rwies ientYNsIi&kySn - AYsAwrAweI) iesy dI iek vDIAw audwhrx hY[ eyAweIAYs ivc ieh iek ivl`Kx nmUnw hY[ jysUt dy pwdrI v`loN ivksq kIqI geI, iek`ly ikswn Aqy KyqI qy ZYr-KyqI ip`TBUmI vwly smUhW duAwrw pRswrq kIqI geI AYsAwrAweI dI ies kwF bwry Koj, ies dy AiBAws dI SurUAwq qoN bhuq bwAd ivc hoeI Aqy ieh sB kuJ KyqI AiBAwskwrW, pRswr is`iKAw pySyvrW, KojI-ivigAwnIAW Aqy AYsAwrAweI nwl is`Dy jW Ais`Dy rUp ivc juVy hor kwrkuMnW v`loN pUrI qrHW AwpsI sMvwd dI pRikirAw dy rUp ivc hoieAw[ smu`cy rUp ivc BweIvwlW ny pUrI pRikirAw dOrwn mhq`vpUrn BUimkw inBweI Aqy ieh BUimkW Anyk p`DrW Aqy drijAW au~qy inBweI geI, ijs nwl AYsAwrAweI sMswr Br ivc s&l ho sikAw[ Bwrq ivc, AYsAwrAweI pihlI vwr sMn 1999 ivc d`Kx Bwrq dy ivc siQq pONfIcyrI dy isvl suswietI sMgTn, A`npUrnw &wrmz, ivc ilAWdw igAw[ sMn 2000 ivc lwiesw (loA AYkstrnl sstynybl AYgrIklcr) rswly ivc pRkwSnw rwhIN ies ƒ qwimlnwfU ilAWdw igAw ij`Qy ies dw pRswr mu`K qOr 'qy srkwrI eyjMsIAW dI AgvweI ivc hoieAw[ Bwrq dy krnwtkw sUby ivc, AYsAwrAweI dI jwxkwrI muh`eIAw krvwaux dI AgvweI kudrqI KyqI krn vwly ikswnW dy iek smUh dy nwl-nwl isivl suswietI ny kIqI Aqy AWDrw pRdyS ivc iek ikswn ny mh`qvpUrn BUimkw inBweI[ p`CmI bMgwl Aqy JwrKMf ivc, AYsAwrAweI ƒ mShUr krvwaux ivc isivl suswietI ny pRmu`K BUimkwvW inBweIAW[ iqRpurw ivc Apvwd dyKx ƒ imilAw ij`Qy srkwrI pRswr is`iKAw FWcy ny nw isr& AYsAwrAweI ƒ Awm GrW dIAW brUhW q`k phuMcwieAw blik nIqI GwiVAW dy myzW q`k lY ky jWdw[ iqRupurw dI AYsAwrAweI dI KyqI Koj pRxwlI 10, 492 vrg iklomItr ivc PYly Coty ijhy sUby, ijs dw kyvl 27% Kyqr hI KyqI ADIn hY, ijs ivcoN kyvl 4% hI isMjweI ADIn hY[ cOl ie`QoN dI pRmu`K &sl hY- auqpwdn dy ilhwj nwl vI Aqy aupBog dy ilhwj nwl vI Aqy izAwdwqr ikswnW dI rozgwr sur`iKAw iesy au~pr inrBr hY[

AYsAwrAweI ikauNik iqRpurw ivc lok-lihr dI Skl A^iqAwr kr cu`kI hY, mOjUdw AiDAYn sUby dy v`K-v`K BweIvwlW dI SmUlIAq Aqy Xogdwn ƒ smJx leI kIqw igAw, ijnHW ny AYsAwrAweI ƒ lok-lihr bxwieAw[ ies dy nwl hI ieh AiDAYn sUby ivc mOjUd shwiek FWcy ƒ smJx dI vI koiSs krdw hY ijs ny sUby AMdr AYsAwrAweI dI jwxkwrI dw pRswr krn Aqy BweIvwlW dI nvInqW dI Bwvnw vDwaux ivc mdd kIqI[ ies AiDAYn vwsqy cwr ivcoN do izlHy – p`CmI iqRpurw Aqy FlweI iqRpurw – ley gey[ KyqI Koj Aqy pRswr is`iKAw sMgTn dw hY~fkuAwtr hox krky Aqy sUby dI rwjDwnI Agrqlw ie`Qy siQq hox krky, p`CmI iqRpurw izlHy ivc cOlW dI KyqI ADIn rkbw Aqy AYsAwrAweI (ku`l AYsAwrAweI dw 42%) dI ih`sydwrI sB qoN izAwdw hY[ FlweI iqRpurw dI inSwndyhI dyS dy 250 sB qoN ipCVy hoey izilHAW ivcoN iek dy rUp ivc kIqI geI, ij`Qy cOlW dy KyqI Aqy AYsAwrAweI (kul AYsAwrAweI dw 7%) ADIn rkbw sB qoN G`t hY[ cOl ikauNik sUby dy mu`FlI &sl hY, ies dI KyqI iqMn mOsmw ivc huMdI hY, AOS (ApRYl-jUn), Amn (julweI-nvMbr) Aqy boro (dsMbr mwrc)[ p`CmI iqRpurw ivc cOlW dI KyqI qrjIhI qOr 'qy Amn Aqy boro dOrwn huMdI hY, jd ik boro dOrwn pwxI dI Gwt hox krky FlweI iqRpurw ivc AOS Aqy Amn ƒ qrjIh id`qI jWdI hY[ hr izlHy ivcoN iCAwhT ikswnW dy nwl-nwl Cy BweIvwl sMgTn AiDAYn ivc Swml kIqy gey[ v`K-v`K BweIvwlW nwl kMm krnw jnqk sMgTn, ikswn Aqy mIfIAw sUby ivc AYsAwrAweI Koj pRxwlI dy pRmu`K BweIvwl mMny jWdy hn[ iqRpurw srkwr dw KyqIbwVI mihkmw BwrqI cwvl Koj sMsQwn (AweIsIeyAwr-AweIAweIAwrAwr) qylMgwnw qoN pRwpq qknIkI shwieqw Aqy Bwrq srkwr dy KyqIbwVI mMqrwly qoN pRwpq iv`qI Aqy nIqIgq shwieqw nwl pRxwlI ivc mu`K BUimkw inBwauNdw hY[ sUby ƒ cwvl dI KyqI ivc Awqm-inrBr bxwaux vwly AOzwr dy rUp ivc AYsAwrAweI ilAwaux qoN bwAd, mihkmy ny ies ivDI ivc ^wsI idlcspI idKweI Aqy kw&I swry auplb`D sroqW ƒ sUby ivc AYsAwrAweI dy pRcwr-pRswr leI vriqAw[ sUby AMdr AYsAwrAweI dy pRmu`K pRcwrk KyqIbwVI mihkmy ivc byh`d pRBwvSwlI AMqr-sMgTn sUqr mOjUd hn[ ies dw Koj mihkmy (swrs) nwl vI cMgw irSqw hY[ iqRpurw srkwr dy sUbw KyqI Koj stySn (swrs) ny KyqW ivc AzmwieS krn nwl sUby ivc AYsAwrAweI dI SurUAwq kIqI Aqy auydoN qoN ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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hI Koj ivc pRswr is`iKAw FWcy rwhIN nmUny dw pRdrSn krnw Aqy pRswr is`iKAw sMcwlkW ƒ qknIkI shwieqw dyxw v`fy p`Dr au~qy Swml irhw[ swrs AYsAwrAweI dI Koj Aqy ivkws dw kMm dyKdw hY Aqy pRswr is`iKAw dy kwrkuMn AwpxI kwrj-pRxwlI ƒ hor vI ibhqr bxwaux leI swrs qoN bwkwiedw nvIAW sUcnwvW pRwpq krdy rihMdy hn[ AYsAwrAweI Koj pRxwlI ƒ loVINdI shwieqw dyx leI Aqy icrMjIvI bxwaux leI ies dw mu`K smrQk bxn ih`q, swrs Koj Aqy ivkws dI kwrvweI qoN ikqy A`gy lMG igAw hY[ iksy nIqI jW Xojnw ƒ lwgU krn vwsqy loV pYx 'qy mihkmw pIAwrAweIz ƒ bulwauNdw hY, ikauNik auh pyNfU lokW dy izAwdw nyVy huMdy hn[ ivkyNdrIikRq lokqWqirk pRSwskI XUintW, pMcwieqI rwj AdwirAW ny AYsAwrAweI ivc ivSyS idlcspI idKweI hY[ pIAwrAweIz dy KyqIbwVI mihkmy nwl cMgy irSqy hn ikauNik ieh v`K-v`K XojnwvW ƒ lwgU krn leI lwBpwqrIAW dI cox krdw hY[ pyNfU FWcy dw ih`sw hox krky ikswn Aqy sYl& hYlp gru`p, shwieqw leI pIAwrAweIz nwl nyiVauN juVy hoey hn[ AYsAwrAweI dy lwBpwqrIAW dI cox KyqIbwVI mihkmy dI bjwie ipMf dI pMcwieq v`loN kIqI jWdI hY, BweIcwrk pRswr is`iKAw kwimAW (ikswn im`qrW) dI cox vI pMcwieq krdI hY, sbisfI au~qy mSInW Aqy isMjweI dw pRbMD krn leI &Mf pIAwrAweIz rwhIN id`qy jWdy hn[ ipMf AwDwrq XUint hox krky auh siQqI Aqy ikswnW dIAW loVW bwry ibhqr jwxdy hn Aqy ies krky &Ysly lYx dI ibhqr siQqI ivc hn[ KyqIbwVI mihkmy dw Xojnw sYkSn pIAwrAweIz dy suJwA pRwpq krdw hY qW jo aunHW ƒ ipMf p`Dr 'qy lwgU kIqw jw sky[ KyqIbwVI mihkmw AYsAwrAweI ikswnW nwl pRswr is`iKAw kwrkuMnW rwhIN cMgy sMbMD bxw ky r`Kdw hY Aqy aunHW dIAW sUcnwvW Aqy sroqW dIAW loVW dw pUrw i^Awl r`Kdw hY[ p`CmI izlHy ivc mihkmy dy sYl& hYlp gru`pW nwl cMgy sMbMD hn. jdik FlweI ivc vI TIk-Twk hn[ies dw kwrn ieh hY ik p`CmI izlHy ivc sYl& hYlp iqRpurw dw FlweI KyqI ivigAwn kyNdr vI Awpxy mwlk Adwry KyqIbwVI fwierYktoryt ADIn FlweI izlHy ivc qknIkI igAwn dw pRswr krn leI bhuq mh`qvpUrn BUimkw inBw irhw hY[ BwvyN ik AYsAwrAweI Koj pRxwlI ivc ies ƒ QoVHI dyr pihlW hI Swml kIqw igAw hY pr ies dI BrpUr idlcspI ny ies ƒ sUby ivc ies pRxwlI dw mh`qvpUrn BweIvwl bxw id`qw hY[ KyqI ivigAwn kyNdr ƒ auplb`D krvwey gey sroq Adwry dIAW loVW muqwbk qksIm kIqy jWdy hn Aqy ley jwx vwly &YsilAW au~qy ies dw Awpxw pUrw inXMqrn huMdw hY Aqy ies g`l ny ies ƒ FlweI izlHy AMdr

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ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

gkDh d/ gquZbs ;kXBK tkb/ fe;kB n?Z; nko nkJh Bkb finkdk i[VQ oj/ jB. fJ; gqeko T[j ikDekoh bJh j'o fe;kBK, g;ko f;Zfynk eowukohnK ns/ whvhnk 's/ fBoGo jB. AYsAwrAweI Koj pRxwlI dw mh`qvpUrn BweIvwl bxw id`qw hY[ v`fy p`Dr 'qy jwxkwrIAW pRkwSq Aqy pRswrq krky mIfIAw svY-ie`Cw nwl lok-ih`q leI kMm kr irhw hY[ AYsAwrAweI dy (A^bwr, tI.vI. cYnl, AkwSvwxI Agrqlw ryfIau stySn) iek BweIvwl v`joN mIfIAw ny AYsAwrAweI bwry bhuq swrI jwxkwrI sWJI kIqI (mhIny ivc AYsAwrAweI bwry 2-3 lyK Cwpy; s&l ikswnW Aqy pRswr is`iKAw kwrkuMnW dIAW mulwkwqW CwpIAW Aqy tI.vI. rwhIN pRswrq kIqIAW; sUby dy s&l ikswnW dIAW khwxIAW CwpIAW Aqy AYsAwrAweI dy qknIkI, AwrQk qy icrMjIvI pihlUAW bwry lyK Aqy pRogrwm pyS kIqy[) ies nwl KyqIbwVI Aqy pyNfU ivkws pRSwskW (iqRpurw srkwr dy mMqrIAW Aqy A&srSwhI), nIqI GwiVAW (sUby dy swry pRSwskI p`DrW au~qy), isAwsI AwgUAW, pRswr is`iKAw kwrkuMnW Aqy ikswnW ivc jwgrUkqw pYdw hoeI[ BwrqI KyqIbwVI Koj kwauNsl dy AYneIAYc Kyqr dw Koj kyNdr, iqRpurw kyNdr vI SurUAwq ivc sUby AMdr AYsAwrAweI dI Koj Aqy igAwn pRswr ivc Swml sI, ikauNik hux ies Koj ny ikswnW ivc AwpxI lgwqwrqw vwlI Awqm-inrBr gqI bxw leI hY, so ieh kyNdr hux AglyrIAW KojW ivc ru`J igAw hY[ ikswnW dw dUjy BweIvwlW nwl irSqw ikswn sUby ivc AYsAwrAweI dy sB qoN mh`qvpUrn BweIvwl rhy hn[ BwvyN ik mUl rUp ivc auh isr& qknIk dy pRwpq krqw rhy hn, pr pUrI Koj pRxwlI ivc sB qoN izAwdw joKm aunHW dw hI sI, auqSwh qy pUry mn nwl sivkwr kIqy jwx krky AYsAwrAweI sUby ivc v`fy p`Dr 'qy s&l irhw[ ies dy nwl hI iqRpurw AMdr iek ikswn qoN dUjy ikswn rwhIN AYsAwrAweI dy igAwn dw pRswr hoxw ies muihMm ƒ gqI dyx dw sB qoN pRmu`K kwrk irhw ijs ny ies smwjk Koj sUby ivc iK`c dw kyNdr bxn ivc mdd kIqI[ jwxkwrI pRwpq krn leI ikswnW ƒ mihkmy, dUjy ikswnW Aqy pIAwrAweIz qoN kw&I izAwdw shwieqw imlI Aqy sYl& hYlp gru`pW qoN vI kuJ mdd imlI[ AYneIAYc Kyqr leI AweIsIeyAwr-AwrsI, iqRpurw kyNdr Aqy swrs nwl ikswnW dw irSqw bhuqw cMgw nhIN irhw[ ipMfW ivc vIAYlfblXUz ƒ AYsAwrAweI bwry jwxkwrI pRwpq krn dw sB qoN BrosymMd sroq mMinAw jWdw hY Aqy ikswn sUcnwvW


vwsqy aunHW 'qy inrBr krdy hn[ ies qoN ielwvw aunHW ƒ KyqIbwVI pRswr is`iKAw A&srW Aqy ikRSk bMDUAW qoN bhuq mdd imldI hY[ AYsAwrAweI dy lwBpwqrI ikauNik pMcwieqW v`loN cuxy jWdy hn, ies leI ikswn hr iksm dI shwieqw leI pMcwieqW nwl krIbI sMprk r`Kdy hn Aqy auh AMqrsiBAwcwrk kwrvweIAW leI loVINdIAW sbisfI 'qy imlx vwlIAW mSInW, isMjweI leI pMp sY`t Awid leI vI pMcwieq dI mdd lYNdy hn[ ies dy nwl hI ikswn h&qy ivc iqMn-cwr idn s`QW ivc iek`Ty bYT ky ZYr-rsmI FMg nwl Awps ivc jwxkwrIAW sWJIAW krdy hn[ FlweI dy ikswnW dw ikswn ivigAwn kyNdrW nwl in`Gw irSqw hY ikauNik ikswn ivigAwn kyNdr dy kwrkuMn ikswnW nwl sMprk bxweI r`Kx leI h&qy ivc do-iqMn gyVy aunHW dy KyqW ivc mwrdy rihMdy hn[ pr p`CmI iqRpurw dy ikswnW dw swrs nwl koeI is`Dw sMprk nhIN sI, auh pRswr is`iKAw dy kwrkuMnW nwl izAwdw nyiVauN juVy hoey sn[ izAwdw pVHy-ilKy ikswn h&qy ivc iek vwr Awp AYsAwrAweI Aqy KyqI dy hor pihlUAW bwry jwxkwrI lYx leI vIAYlfblXU d&qr Aqy pMcwieq dr&qr jWdy sn[ lgpg hr Swm auh hor ikswnW nUM iml ky aunHW nwl KyqI nwl sMbMDq SMky dUr krn leI g`lWbwqW krdy hoey dyKy jWdy sn[ ijnHW ikswnW kol pwxI dy sroq rozwnw auplb`D sn auh AYsAwrAweI pRqI izAwdw auqSwhq sn, ijs krky auh dUjy ikswnW, pRswr is`iKAw kwrkuMnW Aqy mIfIAw qoN jwxkwrIAW pRwpq krn leI izAwdw inrBr krdy sn[ ikswn v`K-v`K sMprk sroqW rwhIN nvIAW qknIkW, srkwrI XojnwvW Aqy ikswnW ƒ id`qIAW jwx vwlIAW sbsIfIAW bwry qwzw jwxkwrI hwsl krn leI auqsuk rihMdy sn[ izAwdwqr au~qrdwqw ikauNik pUrI qrHW KyqI au~qy inrBr sn, ies krky pRswr kwrkuMnw Aqy dUsry AYsAwrAweI Apxwaux vwly ikswnW nwl vDIAw sMbMD bxw ky AYsAwrAweI bwry jwxkwrI pRwpq krn dI qIbr qWG ivc rihMdy hn[ nIqI Aqy shwieqw FWcw AYsAwrAweI dI SurUAwq qoN hI nIqIAW Aqy shwieqw FWcy dI mOjUdgI ny ikswnW ƒ AYsAwrAweI Apxwaux leI auqSwhq kIqw[ pihlW qW aunHW ny soicAw ik AYsAwrAweI Apxwaux ivc bhuq v`fw joKm hY[ srkwr v`loN AYsAwrAweI vwsqy imlx vwlI mdd ivc vwDw hox krky, cwvlW dI KyqI izAwdw lwhyvMd ho geI, ies leI ikswn AYsAwrAweI Jony v`l jwx leI auqsuk ho gey sn[ iqRpurw srkwr dI idRstIkon Xojnw, KyqI ivc mYkro pRbMDn (AYmAYmey), kOmI KyqI ivkws Xojnw (AwrkyvIvweI) Aqy hwl hI ivc SurU kIqI geI kOmI Bojn sur`iKAw muihMm (AYnAYPAYsAYm) vrgIAW XojnwvW ny v`fw sihXog id`qw[ sUby

ivc AYsAwrAweI dy SurUAwqI dOr dOrwn 2008-09 ivc ies kwrj vwsqy AwrkyvIvweI qoN &Mf pRwpq hox qoN pihlW q`k Koj Aqy pRcwr leI &Mf AYmAYmey rwhIN pRwpq hoieAw[ 2011-12 qoN AYsAwrAweI leI AYnAY&AYsAYm &Mf dI vrqoN kIqI jw rhI hY[ is`tw sUby dy ikswnW ivc AYsAwrAweI bhuq qyzI nwl PYlI hY[ 2006 ivc 1000 ikswnW v`loN Apxwey jwx nwl v`fy p`Dr 'qy SurUAwq hoeI, jo isr& do swlW (A`pho&, 2008) ivc v`D ky 70 hzwr ikswnW q`k phuMc geI[ 2014-15 q`k 92, 341 hYktyAr rkbw AYsAwrAweI dy ADIn Aw cu`kw sI Aqy 2020 q`k 1 l`K hYktyAr q`k phuMcx dw tIcw hY[ AYsAwrAweI ny sUby ivc cOlW dI KyqI dw FMg pUrI qrHW bdl ky r`K id`qw Aqy pUrI pRikirAw ivc pRswr is`iKAw dy keI AmilAW, Koj Aqy zmInI p`Dr au~qy ivkyNdrIikRq pRSwsink AdwirAW dy auprwly ies ivc Swml sn[ iksy vI KojI pRxwlI ivc aus dy BweIvwl kyNdrI BUimkw inBwauNdy hn Aqy aunHW v`loN cu`ky gey kdm hI AMq ivc aus pRxwlI dI s&lqw jW As&lqw im`Qdy hn[ iqRpurw ivc AYsAwrAweI dy mwmly ivc, pRswr is`iKAw FWcw, zmInI p`Dr dIAW ivkyNdRIikRq pRSwsink XUintW Aqy mIfIAw AYsAwrAweI ƒ sUby AMdr iek s&l Koj bxwaux vwly pRmu`K BweIvwl rhy Aqy cOlW dI KyqI ƒ Awqm-inrBr bxwaux leI ieh v`fy mddgwr swbq hoey[

suicrwdIpqw B`twcwrjI KyqI pRswr Koj Aqy suDwr kyNdr ivKy mYnyj &Ylo, nYSnl ieMstIicaUt Aw& AYgrIklcrl AYkstynSn mYnyjmYNt (mYnyj) hYdrwbwd, Bwrq[ eI-myl: suchiradipta@hotmail.com srvnn rwj fwierYktr (AYgrIklcrl AYkstYnSn), nYSnl ieMstIicaUt Aw& AYgrIklcrl AYkstynSn mYnyjmYNt (mYnyj) hYdrwbwd, Bwrq[ eI-myl: saravananraj@hotmail.com Stakeholders in SRI innovation systems LEISA INDIA, Vol- 18, No. 4, December 2016.

ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

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Coty ikswnW dIAW Anyk zrUrqW pUrIAW krnw AYm AYn kulkrnI Aqy AYs AYm hIrymQ

}?o ;oekoh ;zrmB y/sh gko;fEseh B{z T[sPkfjs eoB ftu p/fw;kb jB. fe;kBK B{z ftek; ftu Gkrhdko pDk e/ ph J/ nkJh n?Zc B/ eoBkNek fty/ 505 fgzvK d/ 21000 fe;kBK dh nkwdB ;[oZfynk tXkJh j?. fJj ;kfps j' frnk j? fe phi, o'gD ;wroh, frnkB ns/ gq/oDk T[jBK dh w"i{dk }?o fNekT{ y/sh B{z fNekT{ y/sh tZb s'oB bJh ekch j?. bY& (bIeyAweIAY&) dI Coty Aqy m`Dly ikswnW ƒ Pldwr ru`KW, jMglI dr`^qW (cwry vwly ru`K, bwieEmws nslW, l`kV Aqy l`kV dy bwlx dIAW nslW), im`tI Aqy pwxI dy pRbMDn nwl (ru`K AwDwrq KyqI pRxwlI – tIbIAY&AYs) v`tW (bMnHW) au~qy cwrw lwaux nwl iek sUrq ivc iprox dI khwxI 1985 ivc SurU ho geI sI[ tIbIAYPAYs AzmwieSI rUp ivc mYsUr izlHy dy hMsUr q`Alkw dy cuxy hoey ipMfW ivc 1985 qoN 1990 ivcwly lwgU kIqI geI[ ru`K AwDwrq KyqI pRxwlI kI hY? ru`K AwDwrq KyqI pRxwlI (tIbIAY&AYs) ijs dw iek pRc`ilq nwm vwdI hY ijsdw gurjwqI ivc ArQ hY 'bZIcw' hY[ tIbIAY&AYs ivc G`t lwgq vwlIAW vwqwvrn leI lwhyvMd kwrvweIAW Swml huMdIAW hn, ijvyN ik bwZbwnI ru`K lwauxw, jMglI ru`K, cwry vwly ru`K, cwry leI Gwh, aupjwaU rUVHI Kwd bxwaux dIAW ivDIAW Apxwauxw, rogW Aqy ndInW dI rokQwm leI kudrqI ivDIAW rwhI dyKBwl, fyArI pSU pwlx, jugwlI krn vwly Coty pSU pwlxw, im`tI Aqy pwxI sMBwl leI kdm cu`kxw Awid[ ies pRikirAw ivc ikswnW ƒ 35 qoN 40 &ldwr nslW (AMb, iemlI, kwjU, AmrUd) Aqy 8 qoN 10 jMglI nslW pRqI eykV lwaux leI auqSwhq kIqw jWdw hY[ Pldwr pOdy &slW vwly Kyq ivc lwey jw skdy hn jW Kyq dy iknwirAW vwlIAW Aqy AMdrUnI v`tW dy nwl-nwl lwey jw skdy hn[ Pldwr ru`K 5vyN swl qoN Pl dyx l`gdy hn Aqy ikswnW ƒ aunHW qoN Awmdn hox l`gygI[ jMglI ru`K Kyq AMdrlIAW v`tW Aqy Kyq dy iknwirAW dy nwl lwey jw skdy hn[ jMglI ru`KW ivc ik`kr, dwlcInI, glIrIsIfIAw l`kV vwlIAW nslW ijvyN swgvwn, islvr Ek, mylIAw fubIAw, flbrjIAw Awid pRjwqIAW Swml hn, jd ik sysbinAw, ierIQrInw, sUbwbu`l, moirMgw Awid vDIAw iksm dw cwrw idMdy hn, ies nwl fyArI dy kMmkwj ivc mdd imldI hY[ jMglI pOdy cOQy swl AMdr bwieEmws Aqy bwlx vwlI l`kV dyx l`gdyhn[ jMglI pOidAW qoN imlx vwly bwieEmws ƒ gMFoieAW dI Kwd bxwaux leI hyTW ivCwieAw jw

18

ñÆ÷ŠdzâÆÁÅ, ê³ÜÅìÆ Ã³ÃÕðé, d;zpo 2017

skdy hn Aqy KyqW ivc vI pwieAw jw skdw hY[ ies nwl rswieixk KwdW dI vrqoN Gtwaux ivc mdd imldI hY, ijs nwl vwqwvrn ivc nwietRs AwksweIf dw inkws G`tdw hY[ pOdy l`gx qoN pMjvy swl bwlx leI kw&I mwqrw ivc l`kV imlx l`gygI[ ies nwl pirvwr dI bwlx dI loV pUrI hovygI Aqy jMgl au~qy dbwA G`tygw[ Xwin 5-6 swlW AMdr tIbIAY&AYs ADIn AweI su`kI zmIn vDI hoeI Bojn sur`iKAw, cwrw aupl`bD krvwaux vwly Aqy mOsmI qbdIlI dy pRBwvW dw moVw ktvwaux vwly iviBMnqW BrpUr Kyq ivc bdl jwvygI[ ieh dyiKAw igAw hY ik tIbIAYPAYs jW kudrqI KyqI ADIn im`tI 733-3000 iklogRwm kwrbn pRqI hYktyAr pRqI swl vwqwvrn ivcoN lY lYNdI hY[ mOsmI qbdIlIAW ƒ Gtwaux leI im`tI AMdr kwrbn jzb krnw iek Aihm pihlU hY[ AwDuink KyqI dI bjwie tIbIAYPAYs kwrbn jzb krn dI gqI vDw ky mOsm qbdIlI dy pRBwv GtwauNdw hY[ nvyN ivcwrW dw joV KyqI pRxwlI ivc r`uK joVnw &slW dy nukswn dI siQqI ivc iek bImy dw kMm krdw hY Aqy nwl hI vwqwvrn dI sMBwl ivc vI mdd krdw hY[ ies leI ru`K AwDwrq KyqI pRxwlI (tIbIAYPAYs) ikswnI BweIcwry Aqy vwqwvrn dovW dy ih`q ivc hY[ hwlWik ikswn ies qrHW nhIN socdy, ikauNik ru`KW qoN lwhw lYx vwsqy aunHW ƒ aufIk krnI pYNdI hY[ ies leI ikswnW ƒ tIbIAYPAYs Apxwaux vwsqy auqSwhq krn leI ies ƒ lwgU krvwaux vwlIAW eyjMsIAW dI byh`d mh`qvpUrn BUimkw bxdI hY[ ipMfW ivc bYTkW krky, ikswnW nwl is`Dw sMprk krky Aqy &oks gru`pW AMdr ivcwr-vtWdry dw AwXojn krky ies pRxwlI dy nwl hI ies dy AwrQk Aqy vwqwvrn nwl juVy hoey &wieidAW bwry d`isAw igAw[ tIbIAYPAYs Apxwaux vwly s&l ikswnW dy KyqW dI PyrI lvwaux nwl ikswnW ƒ Awps ivc igAwn vMfx Aqy is`Kx leI auqSwhq kIqw igAw[ ies qoN bwAd toey pu`tx, toey Brn Aqy pOdy lwaux dy FMgW dw pRdrSn kIqw igAw Aqy nwl hI hOdI bxwaux, CW krn, C`pr bxwaux Aqy bwAd ivc sWB-sMBwl dIAW kwrvweIAW bwry jwxkwrI id`qI geI[ smyN isr pOdy lgwey jw skx ies vwsqy cMgI guxv`qw vwly pOdy id`qy gey[ pOdy lwaux vwlI QW duAwly vwV lgvw ky id`qI geI qW jo Avwrw jwnvrW qoN ienHW ƒ bcwieAw jw sky[ ipMf p`Dr 'qy


www.leisaindia.org ivc ih`sydwrI pwaux l`g pey[ kuJ XojnwvW ivc aunHW ny 500 rupey pRqI eykV dw nZd Xogdwn id`qw Aqy kuJ mwmilAW ivc mzdUrI dy rUp ivc ih`sw pwieAw[ hux tIbIAYPAYs Apxwaux dI lwgq G`t ky 7 hzwr rupey pRqI eykV ho geI hY[ ies ivc mzdUrW Aqy pRSwsink lwgqW vI Swml hn[ AsIN aus p`Dr au~qy phuMc gey hW, ij`Qy, tIbIAYPAYs gMBIr invySW ijvyN ik cMgI guxv`qw vwly pOdy sbisfI au~qy dyxy, jwxkwrI q`k phuMc vDwauxI Aqy auqSwhq krnw Awid rwhIN ies dy p`Dr ƒ hor au~cw cu`ikAw jw skdw hY[ pUry krnwtkw ivc ieh pRxwlI vDIAw pRdrSn kr rhI hY Aqy ikswnW ny ies pRxwlI ies ƒ pRvwn kIqw hY[ nwbwrf ies pRxwlI ƒ pUry dyS ivc AwidvwsI ivkws &Mf ADIn lwgU krvw irhw hY[ bwks 2 rlI-imlI KyqI dIAW dwqW sRI gMgeIAw ivBUqImQ hvyrI izlHy dI svnUr qwAlukw dy ipMf mdnpur dw Cotw ikswn hY[ aus kol fyF eykV su`kI zmIn hY[ 2008 qoN pihlW auh crHI, m`kI, imrcW Aqy dwlW vrgIAW slwnw &slW bIjdw sI, jo mINh au~qy inrBr sn[ 2008 dOrwn aus ny KyqI iviBMnqw dI SurUAwq krn leI rlI-imlI KyqI ApxwauNidAW cIkU, AMb, inMbU, AmrUd Aqy krI p`qw bIijAw[ dySpWfy &waUNfySn ny smir`DI Xojnw ADIn aus ƒ pOdy lwaux leI sm`grI aupl`bD krwaux ivc mdd kIqI[ Bwrq srkwr dw AwidvwsI mwmilAW dy mihkmy ny bY& ƒ Bwrq dIAW kbIlweI p`tIAW AMdr vwdI lwgU krvwaux vwlI sroq sMsQw dI mwnqw id`qI hY[ SurUAwq ivc auh tIbIAY& Apxwaux qoN iJjk irhw sI ikauNik ausdw kihxw sI, 'AsIN swrw swl pOidAW dI dyKBwl nhIN kr skdy, ikauNik AsIN isr& Cy mhIny leI Kyq AwauNdy hW Aqy bwkI Cy mhIny mzdUrI krn cly jWdy hW[' pr Aw^r 2010 ivc aus ny Xojnw ivc Swml hox dw &Yslw kIqw[ Xojnw ADIn aus ƒ AMb dIAW klmW, jMglI Aqy cwry vwly pOidAW dy bIj vrgIAW byh`d loVINdIAW cIzW id`qIAW geIAW[ ier&wn ny pUrw iDAwn r`IKAw Aqy Amly v`loN id`qy gey suJwvW Anuswr AMb dy 120 bUitAW dw poSx kIqw[ auh GiVAW ivc ipMfoN pwxI ilAwauNdw Aqy grmIAW ivc isMjweI XkInI bxwaux leI aus ny pwxI dw tYNk ikrwey au~qy ilAw[ aus dI s^q imhnq ny rMg idKwieAw[ 2014 dOrwn aus ny cMgI guxv`qw vwly AMb bwzwr ivc vycy[ hr swl AOsqn 30 hzwr rupey auh Pl vyc ky kmwauNdw hY[ ies dy

o[Zy nXkfos y/sh gqDkbh Bkb gfotko

nwl hI auh KyqW ivc m`kI Aqy sbzIAW bIjdw hY[ hux tIbIAYP ny aus dIAW Biv`K dIAW aumIdW ƒ nvW rMg dy id`qw hY[ auh hr roz Kyq jWdw hY Aqy kihMdw hY, 'au~Qy hr roz krn leI kuJ nw kuJ huMdw hY Aqy mYnUM AwpxI zmIn ivc hirAwlI dyK ky ^uSI huMdI hY[' aus ny grmIAW ivc sMBwl leI isMjweI dw pRbMD krky pOidAW dI dyKBwl kIqI[ hux aus dI zmIn ivc 41 cIkU, 70 krI p`qw, A`T AMb Aqy Cy inMbU dy dr`^q hn[ auh Pu`l ausy zmIn ivc (qwrw Pu`l Aqy kxkMbrw), cwrw Aqy slwnw &slW dI vI pYdwvwr kr irhw hY[ bwZbwnI ru`KW ny 2013 qoN JwV dyxw SurU kr id`qw hY[ 2015 dOrwn aus ny cIkUAW Aqy AmrUd dI ivkrI qoN 10 hzwr rupey kmwey[ Pu`lW qoN aus dI AOsqn Awmdn 20 hzwr rupey pRqI mhInw hY[ auh mdnpur qo 10 iklomItr pYNdI svnUr mMfI ivc Pu`l vycdw hY[ swrw kuJ imlw ky aus dI slwnw Awmdn 1.8 l`K rpey hY[ ieh swl Br ivc dUjIAW &slW jo auh Gr ivc vrqdw hY nwloN v`KrI Awmdn hY[ “rlI-imlI KyqI ny cMgw munw&w kmwaux ivc myrI mdd kIqI ijs nwl mYN AwpxI bytI dy ivAwh dw ^rc kr sikAw”, gMgeIAw muskurwauNdw hoieAw d`sdw hY[ AYm AYn kulkrnI Aqy AYs AYm hIrymQ bY& kusumngr, DwrvwV, krnwtkw

Meeting multiple needs of small farmers LEISA INDIA, Vol- 18, No. 4, December 2016.

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Punjabi - Dec 2017  
Punjabi - Dec 2017  
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