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tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k o ikfjfLFkfrdh iks"k.k

çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚU w®v}

dqyLokeh txUukFk tsuk 5 tSfod [ksrh dks c<+kok nsus ds fy, laxBuksa dk ,d lkFk vkuk ,l- oYyky dUue~] ih- vkuUnk fiz;k ,oa ih- rfeylsYoh

9 tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k o ikfjfLFkfrdh iks"k.k dqyLokeh txUukFk tsuk

Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh [ksrh dks LFkkbZ cukus dk ,d ek/;e gSA ;g gfjr ØkfUr rFkk thu ØkfUr }kjk O;olkf;d Ñf"k ekMy dks c<+kok nsus dk Hkh ,d ek/;e gSA rduhdksa ds vfrfjDr] fo'o ds [kk| mRikfnr djus okys yksxksa ds fy, ,d U;k;ksfpr [kk| iz.kkyh rS;kj djus dh n`f"V ls Hkh Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh egRoiw.kZ gSA

13 NksVs fdlkuksa dh cgq vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djuk ,e-,u- dqyd.khZ ,oa ,l-,l- ghjseFk

17 vÑf"kr [kk+| % Nqik gqvk [kt+kuk va'kqeku nkl

NksVs fdlkuksa dh cgq vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djuk ,e-,u dqyd.khZ ,oa ,l-,e- ghjseFk

Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh dks c<+kok nsus esa LoSfPNd laxBuksa dh izeq[k Hkwfedk jgrh gSA fodkl ds dk;ksZa esa fdlkuksa dks lgHkkxh cukdj] ck;Q us dukZVd ds 505 xk¡oksa ds 21000 fdlkuksa dh vkthfodk lqj{kk dks mUur fd;k gSA blls ;g fl) gksrk gS fd eq[; fuos”kksa tSls cht] jksi.k lkefxz;ksa ,oa tkudkjh vkfn ij igqap c<+kdj vLFkkbZ [ksrh dks LFkkbZRo dh vksj ys tk;k tk ldrk gSA

vÑf"kr [kk| % Nqik gqvk [ktkuk va'kqeku nkl cgqr ls dkj.kksa dh otg ls >kj[k.M esa igkfM+;k vkfnokfl;ksa ds Hkkstu ls taxyksa ls feyus okys [kk| inkFkksZa dk fgLlk de gks pyk gS] ftlls mudh [kk| lqj{kk ,oa iks"k.k ij O;kid vlj iM+k gSA vÑf"kr [kk| inkFkksZa dh lqj{kk] laj{k.k] izlaLdj.k vkfn fofHkUu izdkj dh igyksa ds ek/;e ls mUgsa iqu% eq[; /kkjk esa 'kkfey djus rFkk leqnk; dh [kk| fofo/krk dks mUur cukus esa enn feyh gSA lkFk gh lkFk Hkw[k ,oa dqiks"k.k dh leL;k ls fuiVus esa Hkh lgk;rk feyh gSA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 3


ØãU ¥¢·¤... yht+k bf.M;k fgUnh] fnlEcj] 2017 dk vad vkids le{k izLrqr gSA y?kq ,oa lhekUr fdlkuksa dks ty&taxy&tehu tSls izkÑfrd lalk/kuksa ls nwj djuk eryc mUgsa muds thou ls nwj djuk gSA blfy, ;g vko”;d gS fd ty&taxy&tehu dks lajf{kr djus ds fy, bu y?kq ,oa lhekUr fdlkuksa dks gh rS;kj fd;k tk;sA rS;kj djus dk ;g ftEek] ukxj lekt laxBuksa] ljdkjksa ,oa vU; cqf)thoh oxZ dk gSA dqN bUgha fo"k;ksa ij vk/kkfjr bl vad dk igyk ys[k ,l- oYyky dUue] ihvkuUnfiz;k ,oa ih- rfeylsYoh }kjk fyf[kr ^^tSfod [ksrh dks c<+kok nsus ds fy, laxBuksa dk ,d lkFk vkuk** gSA bl ys[k esa ys[kdksa us tSfod [ksrh ds ek/;e ls y?kq ,oa lhekUr fdlkuksa dh vkthfodk o Ñf"k esa LFkkbZRo lqfuf”pr djus ds fy, ljdkjh ,oa xSj ljdkjh nksukas laxBuksa dks ,d lkFk vkus dh egÙkk crkbZ gSA ys[k esa Li"V :i ls ;g of.kZr fd;k x;k gS fd tSfod Ñf"k ,oa fdlkuksa dks izksRlkfgr djus ds fy, iz{ks= izn”kZu ds lkFk&lkFk tkx:drk vfHk;ku pykuk Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSA if=dk dk nwljk ys[k ^^Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh % tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k o ikfjfLFkfrdh iks"k.k** gS] ftls dqyLokeh txUukFk tsuk us fy[kk gSA bl ys[k esa ;g n”kkZ;k x;k gS fd mM+hlk dh vxzxkeh uked laLFkk us ,dhÑr [ksrh ds fofHkUu fl)kUrksa o rduhdksa dks viukdj ikfjfLFkfrdh Ñf"k dks c<+kok nsrs gq, NksVs [ksfrgj leqnk;ksa dh Ñf"k vk/kkfjr vkthfodk dks LFkkbZRo iznku djus dk dke fd;k gSA blds lkFk gh bl ys[k esa [ksrh esa efgykvksa ds ;ksxnku dks Hkh n”kkZ;k x;k gSA ,e-,u- dqyd.khZ ,oa ,l-,e- ghjseFk }kjk fyf[kr rhljs ys[k ^^NksVs fdlkuksa dh cgq vko”;drkvksa dks iwjk djuk** esa o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dh rduhdksa ,oa mlls gksus okys cgqr ls Qk;nksa ds ckjs esa ltho fp=.k fd;k x;k gSA ys[k ds ek/;e ls ;g crk;k x;k gS fd Ñf"k ds lkFk&lkFk lkekftd&okfudh dks viukdj NksVs&e>ksys fdlku viuh vkthfodk esa LFkkbZRo yk ldrs gSa vkSj vius thou dh cgq vko”;drkvksa dks iwjk dj ldrs gSaA if=dk dk pkSFkk vkSj vfUre ys[k va”kqeku nkl }kjk fyf[kr ^^vÑf"kr [kk| % Nqik gqvk [ktkuk** gSA bl ys[k esa ys[kd us taxy ,oa taxy vk/kkfjr mRiknksa dh mi;ksfxrk dks Li"V djrs gq, muds laj{k.k ij cy fn;k gSA ys[kd us ;g Hkh crk;k fd igkfM+;k tutkfr dh vkgkj O;oLFkk ls foyqIr gks pqds iks"k.k ls Hkjiwj bu taxyh mRiknksa o [kk| inkFkksZa dks lajf{kr djus esa ukxj lekt laxBuksa o leqnk; ds usr`Ro nksuksa dh lgHkkxh lk>snkjh vko”;d gSA ys[k esa bl ckr ij Hkh cy fn;k x;k gS fd ;qok ih<+h dks bu ijEijkvksa] laLÑfr;ksa o mRiknksa ls ifjfpr djkus gsrq nLrkosthdj.k izfØ;k vfr vko”;d xfrfof/k ds rkSj ij “kkfey dh tkuh pkfg,A vUr esa] ;g dguk vf/kd rdZlaxr gksxk fd yht+k if=dk esa izdkf”kr lHkh ys[k fdlkuksa ds vius Lo;a ds vuqHkoksa ,oa laLFkkvksa }kjk fd;s tk jgs iz;klksa ds Åij vk/kkfjr gksrs gSa] tks fgUnhHkk"kh cM+s ikBd oxZ ds fy, O;ogkfjd vuqHko dk ,d ek/;e gksrs gSaA bUgha ds lkFk if=dk ds ys[kksa ,oa mudh mi;ksfxrk ij vkids lq>koksa dh izrh{kk esa ---lEiknd e.My

4

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|


UÁñçß·¤ æðÌè ·¤æð ÕɸUæßæ ÎðÙð ·ð¤ çÜ° ⢻ÆUÙæð´ ·¤æ °·¤ âæÍ ¥æÙæ °â. ßËÜæÜ ·¤‹Ù×, Âè. ¥æÙ‹Îæ çÂýØæ °ß¢ Âè. Ìç×ÜâðËßè

;|fi fd Hkkjr ds vUnj tSfod mRiknu vkSj foi.ku dh vlhe laHkkouk,a gSa] fQj Hkh fofHkUu dkj.kksa ls mRiknu izek.khdj.k vkSj fo”ks"kKrk ij gekjh miyfC/k vHkh Hkh cgqr de gSA bu dkj.kksa dks ge fuEu fcUnqvksa ds vUrxZr ns[k ldrs gSa&  fof”k"V ekudksa ds lkFk mRiknu ij mi;qDr f”k{kk dk vHkko  tSfod i)fr;ksa] vko”;drkvksa vkSj :fp j[kus okys fdlkuksa ds fy, cktkj ls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh rd igq¡p u gksuk  tSfod [ksrh vkSj tSfod [kk| ij csgrj miHkksDrk lwpukvksa dk vHkko  forj.k dh ykxr vf/kd gksuk  “kks/k ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa ds nLrkosthdj.k rFkk fdlkuksa ,oa lykgdkjksa ds chp mu ifj.kkeksa ds izlkj dk vHkko  “kks/k ds O;ogkfjd mUeq[khdj.k dh vi;kZIrrk ih0vkj0,0 vkSj dsfUnzr lewg ppkZ ds nkSjku] d:j ftys esa tSfod fof/k ls [ksrh djus okys fdlkuksa ds lkeus vkus okyh leL;kvksa tSls& de mRikndrk] Ñf"k vif”k"Vksa dk vuqi;qDr iqupZØhdj.k] de ykHkdkjh

QksVks % ys[kd

Ñf"k ij dke djus okyh laLFkk,a lg;ksxh igy ds ek/;e ls tSfod Ñf"k dks c<+kok nsus esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgh gSaA d:j esa Ñf"k foKku dsUnz vius cgqlaLFkkxr n`f"Vdks.k dks viukdj d:j ftys ds fdlkuksa dks tSfod fof/k ls [ksrh djus esa lg;ksx iznku dj jgh gSA blds lkFk gh og fdlkuksa dks viuh 'kq) vkenuh c<+kus rFkk [ksr ij vkthfodk miyC/k djkus ds vfrfjDr mUgsa vkRefuHkZj cukus esa Hkh enn dj jgh gSA

tSfod mRiknksa ,oa rduhdksa dh izn'kZuh

ewY;] cktkjksa dk vHkko] tSfod Ñf"k ij lwpukvksa ,oa tkudkjh dk vHkko vkfn dks d:j Ñf"k foKku dsUnz us fpfUgr fd;kA tSfod [ksrh dks izksRlkfgr djus ds fy,] mRikndrk dks c<+kus ds fy, vkSj lewg ds rkSj ij NksVs fdlkuksa dh lgk;rk djus ds fy, Ñf"k foKku dsUnz d:j us {ks= esa fdlkuksa ds lkFk dke djuk izkjEHk fd;kA HkkSxksfyd fudVrk vkSj [ksrh iz.kkyh esa ,d:irk ds vk/kkj ij xkaoksa dks DyLVj esa ,df=r fd;k x;kA yxHkx 4 DyLVjksa esa 63 lewgksa dks xfBr fd;k x;kA bu lHkh DyLVjksa esa /kku] xUuk] dsyk] ewaxQyh ,oa eksVs vukt vkSj vkS|kfud Qlyksa tSls lfCt+;ka] Vkfivksdk o dsyk eq[; Qly ds :i esa mxk;h tkrh FkhA

laLFkkxr n`f"Vdks.k Ñf"k foKku dsUnz] d:j ftys esa laLFkkxr n`f"V ds ek/;e ls tSfod [ksrh dks c<+kok ns jgk gSA ds0oh0ds0 d:j mRiknu ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ij tkudkjh ds fy, jkT; Ñf"k fo”ofo|ky;ksa rFkk “kks/k dsUnzksa ds lkFk] foÙkh; lg;ksx ds fy, us”kuy ls.Vj vkWu vkxsZfud QkfeZax ds lkFk] ekudksa ,oa xq.koÙkk fu;a=.k ds fy, ,ihbMh, ds lkFk rFkk foi.ku lEcU/kh lwpukvksa] ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 5


[kjhn&fcØh ds fy, foi.ku laxBuksa ds lkFk o rduhdksa ds izlkj.k ds fy, DyLVj Lrj ij ukxfjd laxBuksa ds lkFk dke dj jgh gSA izR;sd laxBu ,d fof”k"V Hkwfedk dk fuokZg dj jgk gSA

{kerk vfHko/kZu Kku ,oa n{krk c<+kus ds mn~ns”; ls izf”k{k.kksa ,oa izn”kZfu;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA e`nk moZjrk izcU/ku] tSfod [ksrh ds fl)kUrksa ,oa vH;klksa] tSfod fuos”k mRiknu rduhdksa] izkd`frd lalk/kuksa vkSj ns”kt Kku] tSfod [ksrh ,oa izEkk.khdj.k esa nLrkosthdj.k] Qly dVkbZ ds ckn dh rduhdksa vkfn fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij fdlkuksa dks izf”k{k.k fn;k x;kA ;g izf”k{k.k Ñf"k foKku dsUnz ds izkax.k esa rFkk iz{ks= izn”kZu nksuksa ek/;eksa ls fd;k x;kA 2006&08 ds nkSjku yxHkx 3402 fdlkuksa dks Ñf"k foKku dsUnz ds ek/;e ls izf”kf{kr fd;k x;kA tSo fuos”kksa vkSj ck;ksxSl vo”ks"kksa ds mi;ksx ij izn”kZuksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA ,ulhvks,Q] xkft+;kckn ds foÙkh; lg;ksx ls oknklsjh] vpZeiV~Vh vkSj eqFkqykbZiV~Vh xk¡oksa esa /kku] fHk.Mh vkSj dsyk ds Qlyksa esa tSo fuos”kksa ij izn”kZu fd;k x;kA blls tSfod mRiknu rduhdksa ds Åij fdlkuksa dk fo”okl tek vkSj mUgksaus bls viuk;kA lkFk gh vU; fdlkuksa us Hkh bu rduhdksa dks Lohdkjrs gq, FkksM+s {ks= ij bldh [ksrh izkjEHk dhA tSfod [kknksa ,oa tSfod dhVuk”kdksa ¼,tksLihfjyqe] QkLQkscSDVhfj;k] L;wMksekWl ,oa VªkbdksMekZ½] tSo fu;U=d ¼VªkbdksMekZ tSiksfude] VªkbdksMekZ fdyksful½] gjh [kkn ¼lubZ] <Sapk] dsyksVªkfil] vojkbZ] dksfyUth½ ,oa tkuoj vk/kkfjr [kkn ,oa o`f)dkjd (iapxO;] ve`rikuh] oehZdEiksLV] oehZok”k] eNyh vehuks ,flM] Qyksa ds vo”ks"k)] tky] ouLifr;ksa ,oa vU; le`) [kknksa dh vkiwfrZ fdlkuksa dks dh x;hA ck;ksxSl Lyjh (ck;ksxSl ls fudyus okys irys ?kksy) ds iks"k.k egRo dks crkus ds fy, ikap LFkkuksa ij fry] lwjteq[kh ,oa ewaxQyh dh Qlyksa esa bldk mi;ksx fd;k x;kA ck;ksxSl Lyjh ukbVªkstu fQfDlax ,oa iks"kd lksyqfcykbftax cSDVhfj;k o Qqaxh ls le`) Fkk vkSj bl rduhd o blds mi;ksx djus ds rjhds dk izn”kZu djus ds lkFk gh fofo/k tSfod fuos”kksa ds mi;ksx dks Hkh crk;k x;kA dqyhrykbZ ,oa dknkoqj fodkl[k.Mksa ls iqyqFksjh] lhFkkiV~Vh] oknklsjh]

6

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|

FkjxeiV~Vh ,oa vkj0Vh0 eykbZ xk¡oksa ds fdlku bu izn”kZuksa esa “kkfey FksA

O;kid iSekus ij tkx:drk cM+s iSekus ij tkx:drk mRiUu djus ds fy, izn”kZuksa] ekWl ehfM;k dk;ZØeksa rFkk iz{ks= Hkze.kksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA 2006 ls 2008 ds chp dqy 14 iz{ks= Hkze.kksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;k] ftlesa 760 ls Hkh vf/kd fdlkuksa us tSfod Ñf"k ds fopkjksa dks ns[kk o le>kA o"kZ 2006&2008 ds chp fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij yxHkx 21 izn”kZfu;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;k] ftlesa yxHkx 20000 fdlku] [ksfrgj efgyk fdlku] xzkeh.k ;qok ,oa izlkj dk;ZdÙkkZvksa us viuh lgHkkfxrk fuHkkbZA bu izn”kZfu;ksa ds tfj;s d:j ,oa vkl&ikl ds ftyksa esa [ksfrgj leqnk;ksa ds chp tSfod [ksrh ij cM+s iSekus ij tkx:drk mRiUu dh x;hA lkFk gh tSfod [ksrh djus okys rFkk tSfod mRiknksa ds miHkksDrkvksa ds chp ,d csgrj usVodZ Hkh fodflr fd;k x;kA Bhd blh izdkj] vf/kdkf/kd yksxksa rd igq¡p cukus ds fy, ekWl ehfM;k tSls& Vhoh] jsfM;ks ,oa lekpkj i=ksa dk Hkh lgkjk fy;k x;k vkSj QksYMj] cqdysV ,oa eSuqvy ds :i esa cgqr ls izdk”ku Hkh fudkys x;sA tSfod [ksrh ls lEcfU/kr uohu tkudkfj;ksa rFkk rjhdksa dks lk>k djus ds fy, ^^tSfod fjuk;lsUl** uke ls ,d =Sekfld lekpkj i= dk izdk”ku fd;k x;kA lSEiy fdlkuksa ds lkFk ,d bEiSDV LVMh Hkh dh x;h] ftlls fudyh izkfIr;ksa ds vk/kkj ij dgk tk ldrk gS fd yxHkx 83 izfr”kr mÙkjnkrk tSfod [ksrh ds lHkh igyqvksa tSls tSfod [ksrh ds fl)kUrksa] e`nk moZjrk mUur djus] tSfod [ksrh gsrq Hkwfe p;u] dhV ,oa O;kf/k izcU/ku] dVkbZ ds ckn lqjf{kr Hk.Mkj.k ,oa nLrkosthdj.k vkSj izek.khdj.k izfØ;k vkfn ls lEcfU/kr mPp tkudkjh ls lEiUu gSaA ;g vkadM+k 2005 esa izkIr vkadM+ksa dh rqyuk ls nqxquk FkkA o"kZ 2005 esa ek= 42 izfr”kr mÙkjnkrkvksa dks gh mijksDr lUnHkZ esa vPNh tkudkjh FkhA Ñf"k foKku dsUnz }kjk fu;fer vUrjky ij vk;ksftr fd;s tkus okys vf/kd la[;k esa izf”k{k.kksa] izn”kZuksa ,oa vU; izlkj dk;ZØeksa dh otg ls gh yksxksa dh tkudkjh ,oa tkx:drk ds Lrj esa o`f) laHko gks ldh gSA VsDuksØsV~l ds :i esa fdlkuksa us tSfod Ñf"k vH;klksa dks viuk;k v/;;u ls ;g ik;k x;k fd yxHkx 85 izfr”kr mÙkjnkrkvksa us iz{ks= p;u ls ysdj dVkbZ&eM+kbZ o foi.ku rd lHkh dk;ksZa esa oSKkfud rjhds ls tSfod Ñf"k


iathÑr fdlkuksa dks tSfod [ksrh ds fy, fof”k"V {ks= vkoafVr fd;s x;sA bu NksVs&NksVs {ks=ksa esa fdlkuksa us Ñf"k foKku dsUnz ds lg;ksx ls tSfod [ksrh djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA o"kZ 2006 esa 532 iathÑr fdlkuksa us 116-82 gsDVs;j esa tSfod fof/k ls [ksrh dh vkSj /kku] dsyk] fry] lwjteq[kh] ewaxQyh] puk] mnZ vkfn Qlysa mxkbZ x;haA o"kZ 2007 esa tSfod fof/k ls dh x;h [ksrh dk {ks=Qy c<+dj 2269-63 gsDVs;j gks x;kA

vkRe&lEeku esa o`f) vf/kdka”k tSfod fuos”k LFkkuh; Lrj ij gh mRikfnr gksus ds dkj.k fdlkuksa dh fuHkZjrk ckgjh fuos”kksa ij ?kVhA tSfod [kkn ds rkSj ij lokZf/kd mi;ksx oehZdEiksLV dk gqvkA dk;Z{ks= ds dqy 44 fdlkuksa us miHkksDrkvksa ds chp tkx:drk fuekZ.k ds mn~ns'; ls fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij tSfod mRiknksa dh izn'kZfu;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA bl izdkj tSfod mRiknksa ds foi.ku ds fy, foi.ku izksRlkgdksa ds lkFk ,d csgrj usVodZ Hkh LFkkfir gks x;kA

QksVks % ys[kd

vH;klksa dks viuk;kA o"kZ 2006 esa 27] 2007 esa 47 ,oa 2008 esa 22 tSfod mRiknd lewgksa dk xBu fd;k x;kA yxHkx 1930 fdlku bu lewgksa esa iathÑr gks pqds gSaA izR;sd lewg esa loZlgefr ls ,d lewg usr`Ro dk p;u dj mUgsa tSfod fof/k ls [ksrh djus] nLrkosthdj.k vkSj izek.khdj.k o foi.ku dh izfØ;k ds Åij izf”kf{kr fd;k x;kA bl rjg ls lewg ds usrkvksa dks VsDuksØsVl ds rkSj ij rS;kj dj rduhdksa dk izlkj fd;k x;kA ;s lewg usrk nLrkosthdj.k rFkk ekudksa ds j[k&j[kko ds fy, Hkh mÙkjnk;h FksA o"kZ 2006 esa] 4 tSo mRikndksa us VsDuksØsV~l ds rkSj ij viuh lsok,a nsuh izkjEHk dha] ftudh la[;k o"kZ 2007 esa c<+dj 17 vkSj 2008 esa c<+dj 58 gks x;hA bu VsDuksØsV~l ds lkFk rduhdksa dk foLrkj cgqr rsth ls gksus yxkA lkFk gh blh {ks= dk gksus ds dkj.k mudh Lohdk;Zrk ,oa mudh lk[k Hkh vf/kd gSA

tSfod fuos'k mRiknu bdkbZ

oehZ dEiksLV mRiknu djuk izkjEHk fd;kA mRikfnr oehZ dEiksLV dk mi;ksx os vius [ksr esa djrs Fks vkSj “ks"k cph [kkn dks xkao ds gh vU; fdlkuksa dks csp nsrs FksA “ks"k fdlkuksa us [ksr ls fudys vif”k"Vksa ls rS;kj [kkn dk mi;ksx djuk izkjEHk fd;kA 44 fdlkuksa }kjk izfro"kZ 399 Vu oehZ dEiksLV dk mRiknu fd;k tk jgk gSA cgqr ls fdlkuksa us iapxO; rS;kj fd;k vkSj tc Hkh vko”;d gks dhV fu;a=.k ds fy, mldk mi;ksx fd;kA iwjd tSfod fuos”k vko”;drkvksa ds fy, o"kZ 2006 esa iapxO; mRiknu rFkk dhV fu;a=.k dh 18 bdkbZ;kas dh LFkkiuk dh x;h] tks o"kZ 2008 esa c<+dj 56 gks x;hA bl izdkj o"kZ 2008 vkrs&vkrs cM+s iSekus ij iapxO; rS;kj gksus yxk gSA tSfod fuos”kksa dk mi;ksx djus ls ,d rjQ rks fuos”k dh ykxr ?kVh gS vkSj nwljh rjQ tSfod fof/k ls mRikfnr mRiknksa dk vPNk ewY; Hkh feyus ls o"kZ 2006] 2007 ,oa 2008 ds nkSjku fdlkuksa dks Øe”k% :0 1130] 1250 ,oa 1820 :0 izfr gsDVs;j dh vfrfjDr vkenuh gqbZA fofHkUu tSfod mRiknu bdkbZ;ksa dh LFkkiuk ls jkstxkj ds voljksa esa o`f) gqbZ vkSj o"kZ 2006 esa 142] 2007 esa 198 ,oa 2008 esa 210 vfrfjDr ekuo fnolksa dk l`tu gqvkA

mRikndksa vkSj miHkksDrkvksa dk tqM+ko tSfod fof/k ls dh tkus okyh [ksrh ds {ks=Qy esa yxkrkj o`f) gksus ds dkj.k d:j ftys esa tSfod mRiknksa dh miyC/krk Hkh c<+h gSA miHkksDrkvksa ds chp

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tkx:drk fuekZ.k ds mn~ns”; ls fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij tSfod mRiknksa dh izn”kZfu;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA bl izdkj tSfod mRiknksa ds foi.ku ds fy, foi.ku izksRlkgdksa ds lkFk ,d csgrj usVodZ Hkh LFkkfir gks x;kA jkT; ,oa jk"Vªh; Lrj ij vk;ksftr gksus okyh cgqr lh izn”kZfu;ksa esa Ñf"k foKku dsUnz us Hkh lgHkkfxrk fuHkkbZ vkSj tSfod fry ds fy, fof”k"V cktkj rS;kj fd;kA Ñf"k foKku dsUnz ds lg;ksx ls] tSfod fry ,oa tSfod pkoy ds fy, izlaLdj.k bdkbZ Hkh LFkkfir dh x;hA izek.khdj.k izfØ;k bdkbZ ds ek/;e ls ftys esa izlaLÑr mRiknksa dh miyC/krk c<+h gSA

fu"d"kZ Ñf"k foKku dsUnzksa dh LFkkiuk blfy, dh x;h gS rkfd os Kku vkSj lalk/ku dsUnz ds rkSj ij viuh lsok,a ns ldsaA ftlls jk"Vªh; “kks/k ds lkFk izlkj iz.kkyh vkSj fdlkuksa ds chp csgrj tqM+ko ds ek/;e ls ftys dh Ñf"kxr vFkZO;oLFkk dks mUur cuk;k tk;sA vius dk;ksZa

ds ek/;e ls] Ñf"k foKku dsUnz] d:j ftys ds fdlkuksa dks i;kZoj.k lEer tSfod vH;klksa dks viukus esa fdlkuksa dh enn dj jgk gSA ,slk blfy, laHko gks ldk fd blesa cgqr lh laLFkkvksa tSls& jkT; Ñf"k fo”ofo|ky;] us”kuy ls.Vj QkWj vkxsZfud QkfeZax] Ñf"kxr ,oa izlaLÑr [kk| mRikn fo”ks"kK fodkl vfHkdj.k] izlaLdj.k laxBuksa vkfn us feydj dk;Z fd;kA vc bl {ks= ds fdlku tSfod i)fr ls [ksrh djuk viuk pqds gSa] ftlls mUgsa vf/kd ykHk fey jgk gS vkSj ckgjh fuos”kksa ij mudh fuHkZjrk ?kVh gSA

°â ßËÜæÜ ·¤‹ÙÙ ·ë¤çcæ çß™ææÙ ·ð¤‹¼ý, ·¤M¤ÚU »ýæ×- ÂéÜé‰æðÚUè, ÂæðSÅU- ¥æÚU.ÅUè.×Üæ§ü ÌæÜé·¤- ·é¤ÜèÌÜæ§ü, çÁÜæ- ·¤M¤ÚU Ìç×ÜÙæÇéU §ü-×ðÜ Ñ vallalkannan@yahoo.com Stakeholders in agroecology LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No. 4, Dec. 2016

ãU×æÚUðU âæÍ çß™ææÂÙ S‰ææ§ü °ß¢ ÂØæüßÚU‡æ â×Ì ·ë¤çcæ ·ð¤ çß·¤æâ ãUðUÌé §‘ÀéU·¤ w® ãUÁæÚU âð ¥çÏ·¤ Üæð» ÜèÁ¸æ §ç‡ÇUØæ Âç˜æ·¤æ âð ÁéǸðU ãñ´UÐ æðÌè âð ÁéǸðU ÃØßãUæçÚU·¤ ¥ÙéÖßæð´ ·¤æð ÁæÙÙð ·ð¤ §‘ÀéU·¤ ç·¤âæÙæð´, SßØ¢âðßè ⢻ÆUÙæð´, âÚU·¤æÚUè ¥çŠæ·¤æçÚUØæð´, ·¤×ü¿æçÚUØæð´, àææðÏæçÍüØæð´, ÀUæ˜ææð´, âÚU·¤æÚUè çßÖæ»æð´, Õñ´·¤æð´, çàæÿææçßÎæð´ ¥æçÎ Ì·¤ §â Âç˜æ·¤æ ·¤è Âý·¤æçàæÌ ß çÇUÁèÅUÜ ÂýçÌ ÂýˆØð·¤ ˜æñ×æâ ×ð´ Âãé¡¿Ìè ãñÐ Îæð Îàæ·¤æð¢ âð Öè ¥çÏ·¤ â×Ø âð Âý·¤æçàæÌ ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ Âç˜æ·¤æ ¥ÂÙè »é‡æßžææÂê‡æü ÂæÆUï÷Ø âæ×»ýè, ¥æ·¤cæü·¤ çÇUÊææ§Ù, Ú¢U»èÙ Üð-¥æ©UÅU, çÙÚU‹ÌÚU °ß¢ â×Ø ÂÚU Âý·¤æçàæÌ ãUæðÙð ·ð¤ çÜ° Âýçâf ãñUÐ ØãU Âç˜æ·¤æ ¥æÆU Öæcææ¥æð´¥¢»ýðÁè, çãU‹Îè, ·¤‹ÙǸU, ÌðÜ»ê, Ìç×Ü, ©UçǸUØæ, ¢ÁæÕè °ß¢ ×ÚUæÆUè ×ð´ Âý·¤æçàæÌ ãUæðÌè ãñUÐ ãU× â¢»ÆUÙæð´, ·¤ÂçÙØæ𴠰ߢ çßàßçßlæÜØæð´ ·¤æð ·ë¤çcæ ÂæçÚUçSÍçÌ·¤è âð âÕç‹ÏÌ ¥ÂÙè âðßæ¥æð´, ©UˆÂæÎæð´, ÂæÆUï÷Ø·ý¤×æ𴠰ߢ ·¤æØü·ý¤×æð´ ·¤æ çß™ææÂÙ ÎðÙð ãðÌé ¥æ×¢ç˜æÌ ·¤ÚUÌð ãñ´Ð çßSÌëÌ çßßÚU‡æ ·ð¤ çÜ° leisaindia@yahoo.co.in ÂÚU âéŸæè M¤ç€×‡æè âð âÂ·ü¤ ç·¤Øæ Áæ â·¤Ìæ ãñUÐ

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QksVks % ys[kd ekysxk¡o xzke ds 18 ,dM+ esa fodflr ,dhÑr ikfjokfjd [ksrh

U·ë¤çcæ ÂæçÚUçSÍçÌ·¤è Áñß çßçßÏÌæ â¢ÚUÿæ‡æ ß ÂæçÚUçSÍçÌ·¤è Âæðcæ‡æ ·é¤ÜSßæ×è Á»‹ÙæÍ ÁðÙæ Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh [ksrh dks LFkkbZ cukus dk ,d ek/;e gSA ;g gfjr ØkfUr rFkk thu ØkfUr }kjk O;olkf;d Ñf"k ekMy dks c<+kok nsus dk Hkh ,d ek/;e gSA rduhdksa ds vfrfjDr] fo'o ds [kk| mRikfnr djus okys yksxksa ds fy, ,d U;k;ksfpr [kk| iz.kkyh rS;kj djus dh n`f"V ls Hkh Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh egRoiw.kZ gSA nf{k.kh&if”peh mM+hlk Ñf"k vFkZ O;oLFkk ij vk/kkfjr {ks= gSA ;gka ds 75&80 izfr”kr yksxksa dh vkthfodk [ksrh ij fuHkZj djrh gSA ;|fi fd bl {ks= esa izkÑfrd lalk/ku izpqj ek=k esa ik;s tkrs gSa] fQj Hkh cnyrh tyok;qfod ifjfLFkfr;ksa us ;gka dh vkfnoklh leqnk;kssa ds le{k [kk|] vkthfodk ,oa ikfjfLFkfrdh lqj{kk dk ladV mRiUu dj fn;k gSA rsth ls gks jgs i;kZoj.kh;

gzkl] fuoZuhdj.k ,oa [kk| mRiknu ds le{k tyok;q ifjorZu dh pqukSfr;ksa ds dkj.k bl {ks= ds yksxksa dh vkenuh ij o"kZ&nj&o"kZ xaHkhj izHkko iM+ jgk gSA mM+hlk jkT; dh ,d vxz.kh laLFkk vxzxkeh us bu eqn~nksa ij dke djus dk fu”p; fd;kA bl gsrq laLFkk us mM+hlk jkT; ds 3 ftyksa & jk;xnk] dksjkiqV rFkk dkykgkaMh ds rhu fodkl[k.Mksa & dk”khiqj] nleUriqj o rglhy jkeiqj ds 150 xk¡oksa esa bdks&xk¡o fodflr djus ds fopkj ij vey djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ekWMyksa us ,dy [ksrh i)fr dk LFkku ys fy;kA Ñf"k dh tSo fofo/krk c<+us ds dkj.k yksxkas dh mit c<+h] ftlls fuf”pr rkSj ij mUgsa vkfFkZd Qk;nk gqvkA lkFk gh mRikndrk] iks"k.k ,oa dk;Z{kerk c<+us ls yksxksa dh [kk| lqj{kk ,oa lEizHkqrk esa Hkh mYys[kuh; ;ksxnku gqvkA Ñf"kxr xfrfof/k;ksa esa efgykvksa dks Hkh iq:"kksa ds lkFk cjkcjh dk ntkZ feyus yxkA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 9


QksVks % ys[kd fofo/k Qlyksa dks ysdj izlUu ,d yM+dh

fofo/krkiw.kZ Ñf"k iz.kkyh dks viukus ds fy, Ñf"k& ikfjfLFkfrdh dk mi;ksx j.kuhfrd rkSj ij ;kstukc) rjhds fd;k x;kA mnkgj.kLo:i] e`nk laj{k.k ds fy, igkM+h <ykuksa ds fdukjs cka/k cukuk rFkk ouLifr;ksa dk ck/ak r;Skj djus tl S h xfrfof/k;ka ikzjEHk dh x;hAa leqfpr ty fudklh grsq xy q h ,oa fjokbu dk fuek.Zk fd;k x;kA

taxyh iztkfr;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk Qynkj o`{kksa tSls& vke] cknke] yhph ,oa ve:n ds ikS/kksa dks Hkh yxkus ij tksj fn;k x;kA o`{kkjksi.k dk ;g dk;Z 30 fMxzh ls Åij okys <yku ij fo”ks"k :i ls fd;k x;kA rhuksa fodkl[k.Mksa ds 150 xk¡oksa esa [ksrh esa uohu o ifj"Ñr midj.kksa dk mi;ksx fd;k x;k] Hkwfe dk losZ{k.k dj

Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrd vH;klksa ds ykHk Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrd vH;kl

ykHk

thjks fVyst [ksrh

%

blls en`k dh x.qkoÙkk vkjS LokLF; mUur gkrsk gAS tfSod l?akVdkas ds lkFk&lkFk e`nk ds vUnj ty fjlus rFkk ty /kkj.k dh {kerk esa Hkh o`f) gksrh gSA

,dhÑr iks"k.k izcU/ku

%

oehZ dEiksLV] fiV dEiksLV] rjy [kkn] gjh [kkn ,oa ukbVªkstu fLFkj djus okyh Qlyksa dk mi;ksx dj jlk;fud moZjdksa ds mi;ksx dks de fd;k tkrk gSA

e`nk ,oa ty lj{k.k

%

en`k {kj.k eas gkzl gkrsk g]S en`k mojZrk eas of`) gkrsh gS vkjS Vl sª grsq uo igy cfMx a ] [kkbZuqek cka/k rFkk usdysl cfMax ds ek/;e ls e`nk esa ueh dk laj{k.k gksrk gSA

vUr% [krsh o fefJr [krsh %

bl fof/k ls e`nk vkSj Qly nksuksa dh mRiknu rFkk mRikndrk nksuksa esa o`f) gksrh gSA blds lkFk gh ;g fdlku dks ladV ds fnuksa esa Hkh vPNh vk; nsrh gSA

Qly ds lkFk i'kq/ku dk ,dhdj.k

%

blls vPNk ck;ksekWl feyrk gS vkSj vf/kdre iks"k.k ds iqupZØhdj.k rFkk l”kfDrdj.k ds ek/;e ls fdlku viuh vk; esa o`f) djrk gSA

cht o vukt cSad

%

bl xfrfof/k ds dkj.k fdlkuksa dks iSls ysus ds fy, lkgwdkjksa vFkok dtZ[kksjh ij fuHkZj ugha jguk iM+rk gSA ftlls muds vUnj Lo LFkkbZRo dh Hkkouk c<+rh gS vkSj og tyok;q ifjoruZ ds iHzkkokas ls fuiVrs g,q viuh [kk| ljq{kk lfquf”pr djrk gSA

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|


mlds fglkc ls clkgV dh izfØ;k viuk;h x;hA o"kZ 2010 esa] 1800 fdlkuksa }kjk dqy 11700 Qynkj o`{kksa dk jksi.k fd;k x;kA tqykbZ 2016 ds vUr rd] 6000 ls vf/kd ifjokjksa us ikfjokfjd Ñf"k dks viuk fy;kA ifj.kker% 2013&14 vkSj 2015&16 ds chp Ñf"k ;ksX; Hkwfe es 120 izfr”kr dh c<+ksRrjh gqbZ] ftl ij ikfjokfjd [ksrh dh tk jgh gSA vkerkSj ij ;gka ikfjokfjd miHkksx ds fy, vuktksa vkSj nygu dh [ksrh dh tkrh Fkh vkSj vf/kd gksus ij mls cp s dj vkenuh ikzIr dh tkrh Fkh] ftlls cPpkas dh f”k{kk ,oa muds LokLF; ij gkuss okys [kpkaZs dks ijwk fd;k tk ldsA

eq[; izHkko ;g fl) gks pqdk gS fd Ñf"k mRiknu esa o`f) ds ek/;e ls NksVs fdlkuksa dks ykHkkfUor djus gsrq Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ,d tSfod lek/kku gSA ;gka fuEu fcUnqvksa ds vUrxZr fdlkuksa dh vkenuh] muds csgrj LokLF; rFkk i;kZoj.k dks mÙke cukus esa Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh }kjk fd;s tkus okys mYys[kuh; ;ksxnkuksa ds fo"k; esa tkuus dk iz;kl djsaxsA  mRikndrk vkSj Qly fofo/krk esa o`f) cgq Qlyh rFkk ikjEifjd vkSj ns”kt vH;klksa dks viukrs gq, {ks= ds vkfnoklh NksVh tksr ds fdlku vc e`nk gzkl rFkk e`nk moZjrk dks tkapus esa l{ke gks pqds gSaA mRikndrk esa o`f) gqbZ gS vkSj 3&7 o"kZ rd Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh dk mi;ksx djus ds ckn fdlku igys dh vis{kk nksxquk mit izkIr dj jgs gSaA  vkthfodk lqj{kk Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh xfrfof/k;ksa ds ek/;e ls NksVs fdlkukas dh vk; esa cM+s iSekus ij o`f) gks jgh gSA ckgjh fuos”kksa ij fdlkuksa dh fuHkZjrk vc cgqr vf/kd ugha gSA flapkbZ ds u;s vH;klksa rFkk [ksr ls fudys vif”k"Vksa ls rS;kj tSfod [kkn dk mi;ksx djus ds dkj.k mudh mRiknd ykxr esa deh vk jgh gSA NksVs fdlku vc vk; miktZu ds fy, tkx:drk ,oa n{krk c<+us ds dkj.k ;s fdlku vc [kk| iz.kkyh] O;olkf;d [ksrh vkSj O;kikj uhfr;ksa ds vUrlZEcU/k dks le>us esa l{ke gks jgs gSaA

ÕÎÜæß ·¤è ÕØæÚU ÜæÌè âé×æÙè ÛææðçÎØæ lqekuh >ksfn;k mM+hlk ds jk;xnk ftys ds dk”khiqj fodkl[k.M esa fljhxqnk xkao ds >ksfn;k vkfnoklh leqnk; dh 62 o"khZ; efgyk gSaA igys lqekuh >ksfn;k igkM+h dh <ykuksa ij gLrkUrfjr [ksrh djrh FkhaA og vius ?kjsyw miHkksx ds fy, jkxh vkSj /kku mxkrh FkhaA ysfdu vc muds ifjokj dh fLFkfr esa cnyko vk;k gS vkSj bl cnyko dk dkj.k Fkk& fiNys dbZ o"kksZa ls pyh vk jgh Ñf"k i)fr esa cnyko dj Ñf"k& ikfjfLFkfrdh vH;klksa dks viukukA lqekuh >ksfn;k [kk| lqj{kk ds fy, cgq Qlyh vH;kl dks viukrh gSaA fefJr [ksrh ls ,d o"kZ ds vUnj Qlyksa dks csgrj rjhds ls c<+us esa enn feyrh gSA budh ,d cM+h leL;k tykiwfrZ dh Fkh] tks iwjs xk¡o dh leL;k FkhA bl leL;k ls fuiVus ds fy, xk¡o ds ukStoku ,oa o`) fdlkuksa us vius [ksrksa ds fudV ls cgus okyh ty/kkjk dks eksM+us ds fy, ugj dh [kqnkbZ dhA blls mUgsa o"kZ Hkj flapkbZ dh lqfo/kk miyC/k gks x;hA ugj esa o"kkZ ty dk laxzg.k gksus ls ogka ds Hkwfexr tyLrj dks fjpktZ gksus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA vc lqekuh >ksfn;k lfCt+;ka vkSj Qy mxkrh gSa vkSj muds ikl vke dh Ng iztkfr;ksa dh mPphd`r ulZjh rS;kj gSA os dk”khiqj ds LFkkuh; cktkj esa vius mRiknksa dks csprh gSaA o"kZ 2015 esa] mUgksaus Åaps LFkkuksa ij vke dh Ng iztkfr;ksa ds 5000 ikS/kksa dks mxk;k vkSj o"kZ 2016 esa 6000 ikS/kksa dks :0 25 izfr ikS/kk dh nj ls csp fn;k] ftlls mUgsa :0 15000000 dh vkenuh gqbZA vc muds ifjokj dks o"kZ Hkj Hkkstu feyrk gSA xkao esa LFkkfir cht@vukt cSad esa rhu o"kksZa ls ,d= vukt ls iwjs xkao ds lHkh 56 ifjokjksa dks o"kZ Hkj Hkkstu fn;k tk ldrk gSA lqekuh >ksfn;k larqf"V Hkjs eqLdku ds lkFk dgrh gSa fd&^^eSa vc vius [ksr esa cgqr lh lfCt+;k ,oa Qy mxkrh gwaA ge viuh [kkn ;gha cukrs gSa vkSj gekjs ikl vPNh tykiwfrZ iz.kkyh gSA esjs iksrs&iksfr;kas dks gekjh rjg Hkw[k dk lkeuk ugha djuk iM+rk gS vkSj os iks"k.k rRoksa ls Hkjiwj Hkkstu djrs gSaA vc esjs ,oa esjh vxyh ihf<+;ksa ds fy, gekjs ikl vkthfodk ds LFkkbZ lzksr gSaA**

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 11


i”kqikyu Hkh djus yxs gSaA 150 xk¡oksa ds yxHkx 1500 fdlku i”kq/ku [kjhnus] tehu rS;kj djus rFkk flapkbZ iz.kkyh dks mUur cukus ds fy, iSlksa dh cpr djus yxs gSa rkfd vkenuh dk Bksl tfj;k rS;kj gks lds vkSj mudh vkthfodk lqjf{kr jgsA ;gka rd fd Qly dh {kfr gksus dh fLFkfr esa Hkh] fdlku vc dtZ ds edM+tky esa ugha Qal jgs gSaA vkSj vUr esa] ;g Hkh fl) gks pqdk gS fd Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh viukus dh otg ls fdlkuksa dh vkRegR;k dh nj esa Hkh deh vk;h gSA  [kk| lEizHkqrk [kk| lqj{kk ls NksVs fdlkuksa dk csgrj LokLF;] U;k; ,oa vkRelEeku lqfuf”pr gksrk gSA Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh tehu] ty] taxy] cht ,oa vk; lfgr [ksrh ds izR;sd igyqvksa ij fdlkuksa dks fu;a=.k iznku djrk gSA tkx:drk vkSj n{krk c<+us ds dkj.k ;s fdlku vc [kk| iz.kkyh] O;olkf;d [ksrh vkSj O;kikj uhfr;ksa ds vUrlZEcU/k dks le>us esa l{ke gks jgs gSaA

milagkj NksVs fdlkuksa ds fy, Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ,d fo”oluh; Ñf"kxr xfrfof/k gSA ;g n`f"Vdks.k u dsoy NksVs fdlkuksa dks LFkkbZRo iznku djrh gS] oju~ gfjr ØkfUr vkSj thu ØkfUr dks ihNs /kdsyrs gq, O;olkf;d Ñf"kxr ekWMy dk fojks/k djus dk ,d jkLrk Hkh iznku djrh gSA gesa fo”o dh Hkw[k dks lekIr djus ds fy, vf/kd [kk| mitkus dh vko”;drk ugha gSA cfYd gesa rks fo”o ds fy, [kk| mitkus okys NksVs] e>ksys fdlkuksa ds fy, ,d U;k;laxr [kk| iz.kkyh rS;kj djus dh t:jr gSA NksVs fdlkuksa dh t:jr cM+s iSekus ij Ñf"k ;k oSf”od cktkj ugha gSaA oju~ mudh okLrfod t:jr rks ty] taxy] tehu vkSj vk/kkjHkwr lajpukvksa rd csgrj igqap cukuh gS vkSj bldh ;k=k igys gh “kq: gks pqdh gSA ·é¤ÜSßæ×è Á»‹ÙæÍ ÁðÙæ ÂçÚUØæðÁÙæ â׋ßØ·¤- §·¤æð »ýæ× çß·¤æâ ¥»ý»æ×è, ·¤æàæèÂéÚU, ÚUæØ»Îæ, ©UǸUèâæ, ÖæÚUÌ ßðÕâæ§üÅU Ñ agragamee.org §ü-×ðÜ Ñ kulaswami13@gmail.com Agroecology- Measurable and sustainable LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No.3, Sept. 2016

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|

Issues and Themes of LEISA INDIA Published in English 2000-2016 V.2, No. 1, 2000 - Desertification V.2, No. 2, 2000 - Farmer innovations V.2, No. 3, 2000 - Farming in the forest V.2, No. 4, 2000 - Monocultures towards sustainability V.3, No. 1, 2001 - Coping with disaster V.3, No. 2, 2001 - Go global stay local V.3, No. 3, 2001 - Lessons in scaling up V.3, No. 4, 2001 - Biotechnology V.4, No. 1, 2002 Managing Livestock V.4, No. 2, 2002 - Rural Communication V.4, No. 3, 2002 - Recreating living soil V.4, No. 4, 2002 - Women in agriculture V.5, No. 1, 2003 - Farmers Field School V.5, No. 2, 2003 - Ways of water harvesting V.5, No. 3, 2003 - Access to resources V.5, No. 4, 2003 - Reversing Degradation V.6, No. 1, 2004 - Valuing crop diversity V.6, No. 2, 2004 - New generation of farmers V.6, No. 3, 2004 - Post harvest Management V.6, No. 4, 2004 - Farming with nature V.7, No. 1, 2005 - On Farm Energy V.7, No. 2, 2005 - More than Money V.7, No. 3, 2005 - Contribution of Small Animals V.7, No. 4, 2005 - Towards Policy Change V.8, No. 1, 2006 - Documentation for Change V.8, No. 2, 2006 - Changing Farming Practices V.8, No. 3, 2006 - Knowledge Building Processes V.8, No. 4, 2006 - Nurturing Ecological Processes V.9, No. 1, 2007 - Farmers Coming together V.9, No. 2, 2007 - Securing Seed Supply V.9, No. 3, 2007 - Healthy Produce, People and Environment V.9, No. 4, 2007 - Ecological Pest Management V.10, No. 1, 2008 -Towards Fairer Trade V.10. No. 2, 2008 - Living soils V.10, No. 3, 2008 - Farming and Social Inclusion V.10, No. 4, 2008 - Dealing with Climate Change V.11, No. 1, 2009 - Farming Diversity V.11, No. 2, 2009 - Farmers as Entrepreneurs V.11, No. 3, 2009 - Women and Food Sovereignty V.11, No. 4, 2009 - Scaling up and sustaining the gains V.12, No.1, 2010 - Livestock for sustainable livelihoods V.12, No.2, 2010 - Finance for farming V.12, No.3, 2010 - Managing water for sustainable farming V.13, No.1, 2011 - Youth in farming V.13, No.2, 2011 - Trees and farming V.13, No.3, 2011 - Regional Food System V.13, No.4, 2011 - Securing Land Rights V.14, No.1, 2012 - Insects as Allies V.14, No.2, 2012 - Greening the Economy V.14, No.3, 2012- Farmer Organisations V. 14, No.4, 2012- Combating Desertification V. 15, No.1, 2013- SRI: A scaling up success V. 15, No.2, 2013- Farmers and market V. 15, No.3, 2013- Education for change V. 15, No.4, 2013- Strengthening family farming V. 16, No. 1, 2014- Cultivating farm biodiversity V. 16, No. 2, 2014- Family farmers breaking out of poverty V. 16, No. 3, 2014- Family farmers and sustainable landscapes V. 16, No. 4, 2014- Family farming and nutrition V. 17, No. 1, 2015- Soils for life V. 17, No. 2, 2015- Rural-urban linkages V. 17, No. 3, 2015- Water-lifeline for livelihoods V. 17, No. 4, 2015- Women forging change V. 18, No. 1, 2016- Co-creation to knowledge V. 18, No. 2, 2016- Valuing underutilised crops V. 18, No. 3, 2016- Agroecology-Measurable and sustainable V. 18, No. 4, 2016- Stakeholders in agroecology


ÀUU æðÅðU ç·¤âæÙæð´ ·¤è ÕãéU ¥æßàØ·¤Ìæ¥æð´ ·¤æð ÂêÚUæ ·¤ÚUÙæ Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh dks c<+kok nsus esa LoSfPNd laxBuksa dh izeq[k Hkwfedk jgrh gSA fodkl ds dk;ksZa esa fdlkuksa dks lgHkkxh cukdj] ck;Q us dukZVd ds 505 xkaoksa ds 21000 fdlkuksa dh vkthfodk lqj{kk dks mUur fd;k gSA blls ;g fl) gksrk gS fd eq[; fuos'kksa tSls cht] jksi.k lkefxz;ksa ,oa tkudkjh vkfn ij igq¡p c<+kdj vLFkkbZ [ksrh dks LFkkbZRo dh vksj ys tk;k tk ldrk gSA

QksVks % ys[kd

°×.°Ù ·é¤Ü·¤‡æèü °ß¢ °â.°×. ãUèÚðU×Í

o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh ds lkFk ikfjokfjd [ksrh

ck;Q }kjk NksVs o e>ksys fdlkuksa dks ysdj Qynkj o`{kksa] pkjk o`{kksa] ck;ksekWl iztkfr;ksa] bekjrh ,oa bZa/ku dh ydfM+;ksa lfgr okfudh o`{kksa] e`nk ,oa ty izcU/ku ds lkFk esM+ksa ij pkjk dh cqokbZ dks ,dhÑr djrs gq, o"kZ 1985 esa o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dk izkjEHk fd;k x;kA o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dks ik;yV ifj;kstuk ds :i esa eSlwj ftys ds gqulwj rkyqd ds p;fur xk¡oksa esa 1985 ls 1990 rd fØ;kfUor fd;k x;kA

D;k gS o``{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh\ o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh okM+h ds rkSj ij Hkh izpfyr gS] ftldk xqtjkrh esa vFkZ ^^ckxhpk** gksrk gSA bl iz.kkyh esa de ykxr okyh o i;kZoj.k lEer xfrfof/k;ksa tSls & vkS|kfud] okfudh] pkjk o`{kkas o pkjk ?kklksa dk jksi.k] iks"k.k;qDr [kkn cukus dh rduhd rFkk chekfj;ksa ,oa dhVksa ds izcU/ku gsrq izkÑfrd mik;ksa dks viukuk] nq/kk: tkuojksa rFkk NksVs tkuojksa dks ikyuk o e`nk ,oa ty laj{k.k i)fr;ka vkfn “kkfey gSaA bl vH;kl ds ek/;e ls] fdlku izfr ,dM+ vke] beyh] v[kjksV] ve:n vkfn 35 ls 40 izdkj ds Qy dh iztkfr;ksa rFkk 8 ls 10 izdkj dh okfudh iztkfr;ksa ds ikS/kksa dks yxkus gsrq mRlkfgr gq,A Qynkj o`{kksa dks Qly mxkus okys [ksrksa esa yxk;k tk ldrk gS vFkok bUgsa vUnj dh esM+ksa o ckgjh esM+ksa ij Hkh yxk;k tk ldrk gSA Qynkj o`{kksa esa jksi.k ds 5osa o"kZ ls Qy vkuk izkjEHk gks tk;sxk vkSj fdlkuksa dks vkenuh gksus yxsxhA

okfudh o`{kksa dks [ksrksa ds lHkh esM+ksa rFkk ckgjh pgkjnhokjh ij yxk;k tk ldrk gSA okfudh ikS/kksa esa tykSuh ydM+h okyh iztkfr;ksa tSls ccwy] dhdj] taxyh nkyphuh] fxfjiq"ik] bekjrh ydfM+;ksa tSls & lkxkSu] cywr] “kh”ke] ccwy] lqccwy vkfn csgrj xq.koÙkk okys pkjk o`{k gSa] ftuls nqX/k ikyu xfrfof/k dks LFkkbZ cuk;k tk ldrk gSA okfudh o`{k vius jksi.k ds pkSFks o"kZ ls ck;ksekWl vkSj tykSuh ydM+h dk mRiknu izkjEHk dj nsrs gSaA okfudh o`{kksa ls mRiUu ck;ksekWl ds mi;ksx ls rS;kj oehZdEiksLV dks vius [ksrksa esa mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA blls jlk;fud moZjdksa dk mi;ksx de djus esa lgk;rk feysxh vkSj bl izdkj okrkoj.k esa ukbVªl vkDlkbM dk mRltZu de gksxkA o`{kkjksi.k ds ik¡pos o"kZ ls i;kZIr ek=k esa tykSuh ydM+h feyus yxsxhA blls ifjokj dks [kkuk cukus ds fy, tykSuh ydM+h feysxh vkSj taxyksa ls ydM+h ugha ykuh iM+sxhA bl izdkj] 5&6 o"kksZa dh vof/k esa] o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh ds ek/;e ls [ksr fofo/krkiw.kZ gks tk;saxs] yksxksa dh [kk| lqj{kk c<+sxh] i”kqvkas ds fy, pkjk dh miyC/krk gksxh vkSj tyok;q ifjorZu ds izHkkoksa ls fuiVus gsrq yksxksa esa {kerk c<+sxhA ;g Hkh ik;k x;k fd o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh vFkok tSfod [ksrh ds vUrxZr okrkoj.k ls izfro"kZ izfr gsDVs;j 733&3000 fdxzk0 vFkok blls vf/kd rd dkcZu vo”kksf"kr gksxkA tyok;q ifjorZu U;wuhdj.k ds fy, e`nk esa dkcZu vo”kks"k.k dh izfØ;k dk c<+uk ,d

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 13


QksVks % ys[kd

ckDl 1 % o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh esa bjQku us viuk Hkfo"; ns[kk

o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh esa isM+] Qlysa ,oa pkjk

vko”;d rRo gSA o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh esa e`nk esa dkcZu vo”kks"k.k dh izfØ;k dks c<+kus ls vk/kqfud Ñf"k ij tyok;q ifjorZu dk izHkko de gksxkA ,d u;s fopkj dk ,dhdj.k [ksrh iz.kkyh esa o`{kksa dk lekos”k djus ls ,d rjQ Qly dk uqdlku gksus ij HkjikbZ gksus ds fy, chek ds rkSj ij ;s o`{k jgrs gSa rks ogha nwljh rjQ i;kZoj.k dk laj{k.k djus esa Hkh enn feyrh gSA bl izdkj] o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh [ksfrgj leqnk; rFkk i;kZoj.k nksuksa ds fgr esa cgqr vPNh gSA fQj Hkh] fdlku ,slk ugha lksprs] D;ksafd o`{kkas ls mit ikus ds fy, mUgsa yEck bUrtkj djuk iM+rk gSA blfy,] o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dh rjQ fdlkuksa dks mRizsfjr djus gsrq fØ;kUo;u laLFkk dh Hkwfedk dkQh egRoiw.kZ gks tkrh gSA o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh ls gksus okys vkfFkZd ,oa i;kZoj.kh; ykHkksa ds lkFk bl vo/kkj.kk dks le>kus gsrq xkao Lrj ij cSBdsa ,oa dsfUnzr lewg ppkZ,a vk;ksftr dh x;ha rFkk yksxksa ds lkFk O;fDrxr lEidZ LFkkfir fd;k x;kA o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dks lQyrkiwoZd fØ;kfUor djus okys LFkkuksa ij fdlkuksa dk Hkze.k vk;ksftr dj ogka ds fdlkuksa ds lkFk vuqHkoksa dk vknku&iznku fd;k x;kA blds ckn x<~<k [kksnus] x<~<k Hkjus rFkk o`{kkjksi.k i)fr;ksa dk izn”kZu fd;k x;k blds lkFk gh vU; xfrfof/k;ksa tSls csflu rS;kj djus] “ksfMax] efYpax rFkk ckn esa ns[k&Hkky xfrfof/k;ksa dk izn”kZu Hkh fdlkuksa ds le{k fd;k x;kA jksi.k dk;Z le; ij lqfuf”pr djus ds fy, vPNh xq.koÙkk okys ikS/kjksi.k lkefxz;ksa dh vkiwfrZ Hkh lqfuf”pr dh x;hA jksi.k {ks= dks NqV~Vk i”kqvksa ls cpkus ds fy, [ksr ds vkl&ikl daVhys rkjksa dk ckM+ Hkh rS;kj fd;k x;kA dhV ,oa O;kf/k izcU/ku ds fy, xzke Lrj ij izf”k{k.k

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|

31 o"khZ; bjQku deknksyh gosjh ftys ds fgjcsUnhfxjh xk¡o esa vius ifjokj ds lkFk jgrs gaSA muds ikl rhu ,dM+ flafpr Hkwfe gSA bjQku igys xksok esa jgdj fuekZ.k dk;Z djrs FksA vkB o"kZ igys og vius xk¡o okil ykSV vk;sA ysfdu [ksrh ds fy, ikuh dh fuf”prrk u gksus ds dkj.k vHkh Hkh muds lkeus vkthfodk dk ladV FkkA mUgksaus vius 3 ,dM+ [ksr esa okf"kZd :0 30]000-00 dh cktjk] lkaok] dksnks ,oa ewaxQyh mxkuk izkjEHk fd;kA muds ikl cSyksa dh ,d tksM+h vkSj nks xk; gSaA os pkjk rFkk vius [ksr gsrq [kkn cukus ds fy, Qly vo”ks"kksa ij fuHkZj djrs gSaA mUgsa [ksrh esa 6 ekg rd gh dke feyrk gSA “ks"k 6 ekg viuh vkthfodk pykus ds fy, mUgsa etnwjh djuh iM+rh gSA izkjEHk esa] mUgksaus o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh djus ls euk dj fn;kA mudk dguk Fkk fd ^^eSa bu ikS/kksa dh iwjs o"kZ ns[k&Hkky ugha dj ldrk] D;ksafd eSa flQZ 6 ekg gh [ksr ij vkrk gw¡A ckdh ds 6 ekg eq>s etnwjh djuh iM+rh gSA** fQj Hkh vUrr% o"kZ 2010 esa mUgksaus bl ifj;kstuk ls tqM+us dk fu”p; fd;kA ifj;kstuk dh rjQ ls mUgsa vke dh dyes] okfudh ikS/kksa dh ulZjh ,oa pkjk ikS/kksa ds chtksa dh lgk;rk nh x;hA laLFkk }kjk izkIr rduhdh tkudkfj;ksa dks viukrs gq, bjQku us vke ds 120 ikS/kksa dh iwjh rjQ ns[k&Hkky dhA xfeZ;ksa ds fnuksa esa lqjf{kr flapkbZ djus gsrq os xk¡o ls [ksr rd crZuksa eas ikuh <ksdj yk;s vkSj ikuh dk VSad fdjk;s ij fy;kA vc muds dfBu Je us Qy nsuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA o"kZ 2014 ls os cktkj esa vPNh xq.koÙkk okys vkeksa dks cspus yxs gSaA izfro"kZ Qyksa dks cspus ls mUgsa vkSlru :0 30000-00 dh vkenuh gks tkrh gSA lkFk gh os vUr% Qly ds rkSj ij eDdk vkSj lfCt+;ka Hkh mxk ysrs gSaA vc] o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh us mudh vk”kkvksa dks iquthZfor dj fn;k gSA os izfrfnu vius [ksr ij tkus yxs gAaS mudk dguk g& aS ^^ogka ifzrfnu dN q u dN q dke jgrk gS vkSj [ksrksa dh gfj;kyh eq>s izlUurk nsrh gSA**

tSo vo'ks"kksa dh miyC/krk c<+us ls fdlku HksM+ vFkok cdjh tSls NksVs tkuojksa dks ikyus ds fy, mRiszfjr gq, gSaA dqN LFkkuksa ij rks nq/kk: i'kqvksa dk ikyu Hkh c<+k gSA


vk;ksftr fd;s x;s ,oa fu;fer Qkyksvi fd;k x;kA blds lkFk gh O;kid Lrj ij ykHkkfUor gksus ds fy, cktkjksa rFkk jkT; ljdkj ls tqM+ko LFkkfir djus esa Hkh enn dh x;hA

o`{kkas dh la[;k c<+us ls lw{e tyok;q esa lq/kkj gqvk gSA ;g Hkh vuqHko gS fd ftu [ksrksa esa o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh viukbZ x;h gS] ogka dh tyok;q B.Mh gSA

izHkko

o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh] e`nk ,oa ty laj{k.k] tSfod [ksrh ,oa i”kq/ku esa o`f) ds dkj.k yksxksa dh ikfjokfjd vkenuh esa mYys[kuh; o`f) gqbZ gSA vkSlru] o`{kkjksi.k ds ik¡posa o"kZ ls fdlku :0 10]000-00 ls 12]000-00 izfr ,dM+ dh vkenuh izkIr dj jgs gSaA blds vfrfjDr mlh Hkwfe esa vUr% [ksrh ds :i esa vfrfjDr Qlysa Hkh yh x;haA

o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh okys [ksrksa esa e`nk mRikndrk esa mYys[kuh; lq/kkj gqvk gSA ifj;kstuk vkPNkfnr xk¡oksa esa

ckDl 2 % fefJr [ksrh ls feyk buke Jh xaxb;k foHkwfreFk] gosjh ftys ds loukSj rkyqd esa vofLFkr xk¡o enkiqj ds lhekUr fdlku gSaA buds ikl ek= Ms<+ ,dM+ “kq"d Hkwfe gSA o"kZ 2008 ds igys] os viuh Hkwfe ij o"kZ esa dsoy ,d ckj cktjk] eDdk] fepZ ,oa nygu tSlh Qlysa o"kkZ vk/kkfjr iz.kkyh ds rgr~ ysrs FksA 2008 ds nkSjku] mUgksaus fefJr [ksrh iz.kkyh viukbZ vkSj fofo/khÑr [ksrh djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA blds vUrxZr mUgksaus phdw] vke] uhcw] ve:n ,oa djh iRrk dks yxk;kA o`{kkjksi.k lkefxz;ksa ds fy, mUgas ns”kik.Ms Qkm.Ms”ku }kjk lgk;frr le`f) ifj;kstuk ls lgk;rk iznku dh x;hA mUgksaus xfeZ;ksa ds nkSjku lqj{kkRed flapkbZ djrs gq, o`{kksa dh ns[k&Hkky dhA vkt mudh Hkwfe ij phdw ds 41 o`{k] djh iRrk ds 70 ikS/ks] vke ds 8 ikS/ks rFkk uhcw ds 6 ikS/ks gSaA mUgksaus vius mlh [ksr esa ,LVj ,oa dudkEcjk tSls Qwyksa o pkjk dks vUr% Qly ds rkSj ij Hkh fy;kA o"kZ 2013 ls os yxkrkj vkS|kfud o`{kksa dks yxkrs pys vk jgs gSaA o"kZ 2015 ds nkSjku mUgsa phdw vkSj ve:n ds Qy cspus ls :0 10000-00 dh vkenuh gqbZA Qwykas dks cspdj mUgsa izfr ekg vkSlru :0 20]000-00 dh vkenuh gksrh gSA os vius Qwyksa dks enkiqj xk¡o ls 10 fdeh0 loukSj ds cktkj esa csprs gSaA dqy feykdj os lkykuk :0 1-8 yk[k dekrs gSaA ;g vkenuh mu Qlyksa ds vfrfjDr gS] tks og vius ?kjsyw miHkksx esa ykrs gSaA xaxb;k eqLdjkrs gq, dgrs gSa fd&^^fefJr [ksrh ls gksus okyh csgrj vkenuh ls ge viuh csVh dh “kknh esa vkus okys [kpZ dks iwjk dj ik;sA**

esM+ksa vkSj catj Hkwfe;ksa ij pkjk o`{kksa] >kfM+;ksa ,oa ?kklksa dks yxk nsus ls pkjk miyC/krk esa Hkh lq/kkj gqvk gSA blls fdlku NksVs tkuojkas tSls & HksM+ ;k cdjh ikyu ds lkFk&lkFk ,d ;k nks n/qkk: tkuoj Hkh ikyus yxs gAaS o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh viukus okys ifjokjksa dks vc vius gh [ksr ls i;kZIr ek=k esa tykSuh ydM+h feyus ls ?kj dh efgykvksa dk dk;Zcks> ?kVk gSA vc mUgsa ydM+h bdV~Bk djus gsrq vkl&ikl ds taxyksa vkSj xk¡o ds lkoZtfud tehuksa rd ugha tkuk iM+rk gSS vkSj taxyksa ij ncko Hkh de iM+ jgk gSA fgr/kkjd ds :i esa fdlku dh Hkwfedk dks c<+kuk ck,Q us fofHkUu vuqnkunkrkvksa tSls& Mh,,uvkbZMh,] dikVZ] Hkkjr ljdkj] dukZVd ljdkj] ukckMZ] ns”kik.Ms Qkm.Ms”ku vkfn ds foÙkh; lg;ksx ls o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dks fØ;kfUor fd;kA bu lHkh dk;ZØeksa esa] vuqnku nsus okyh laLFkk] fØ;kUo;u djus okyh laLFkk vkSj fdlku rhuksa us feydj dke fd;kA o"kksZa ckn] ;g Li"V gks ldk fd lHkh dk;ZØeksa esa fu;kstu rFkk fØ;kUou esa fdlkuksa dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gksrh gSA ifj;kstuk dh ikbyV vof/k ds nkSjku] izR;sd u;s fopkj dks fØ;kfUor djus esa fdlkuksa dks lgk;rk iznku dh x;h vkSj fopkj ;k dk;Z ds vlQy jgus ij i;kZIr eqvkotk Hkh fn;k x;kA o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh tSls x<~<k [kksnus] o`{kkjksi.k djus] ckn esa ns[k&Hkky djus] [ksr esa esM+cUnh djus] [ksr dh ns[k&Hkky djus] pkjksa rjQ ckM+k rS;kj djus rFkk xfeZ;ksa esa ikS/kksa dks ikuh nsus ds cnys fdlkuksa dks cgqr lh uxn /kujkf”k izksRlkgu ds rkSj ij nh x;hA blds vfrfjDr] ,Dlikstj] izf”k{k.k ,oa [ksr ij izn”kZu bR;kfn xfrfof/k;ksa eas Hkh O;; fd;k x;kA bl izdkj ifj;kstuk dh ikbyV vof/k ds nkSjku izfr ,dM+ :0 30]000-00 dh ykxr vkbZA dk;ZØe esa fdlkuksa dk LokfeRo c<+kus ds fy,] ck,Q

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 15


dks le;&le; ij viuh j.kuhfr;ka cnyuh iM+haA 1995 ds ckn ls fdlkuksa dks fn;s tkus okys uxn izksRlkgu jkf”k esa deh dh tkus yxhA ykxr lk>snkjh ds fopkj dks lkeus j[krs gq, o"kZ 1995 ds ckn ls ifj;kstuk fØ;kUo;u ds fy, fdlkuksa ls oLrq vFkok uxn ds :i esa fgLlsnkjh yh tkus yxhA /khjs&/khjs] fdlkuksa us dqN&dqN xfrfof/k;ksa tSls x<~<k [kksnuk] o`{kkjksi.k] ckn esa ns[k&Hkky djus vkfn dkekas dks Lo;a ls djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA dqN dk;ZØeksa esa] fdlkuksa us izfr ,dM+ :0 500-00 dk uxn va”knku fn;k vkSj tks bl ;ksxnku dks ugha ns ik;s] mUgksaus [ksr ij Je fd;kA vkt] o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dks viukus dh ykxr ?kVdj izfr ,dM+ :0 7000-00 jg x;h gSA blesa ekuo Je ,oa iz”kklfud [kpZ Hkh “kkfey gSaA vc ge ml fLFkfr esa igqap pqds gSa] tgka vuqnkfur nj ij csgrj xq.koÙkk okys ikS/kjksi.k lkefxz;ksa] ,Dlikstj ,oa mRizsfjr djus tSls egRoiw.kZ fuos”kkas ds ek/;e ls o`{k vk/kkfjr [ksrh iz.kkyh dks foLrkfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl ekWMy dk csgrj izn”kZu fd;k x;k vkSj mls iwjs dukZVd esa LohdkjksfDr feyh gSA ukckMZ us tutkfr fodkl vuqnku ds vUrxZr iwjs ns”k esa bl ekMy dks nqgjk;k gSA Hkkjr ljdkj ds tutkfr ekeys foHkkx us Hkkjr ds tutkrh; bykdksa esa okM+h ds fØ;kUo;u ds fy, ck,Q dks ,d lUnHkZ laLFkk ds rkSj ij ekU;rk iznku dh gSA °×.°Ù. ·é¤Ü·¤‡æèü Õæ°È¤ ·é¤âé×Ù»ÚU ÏæÚUßæÇU¸ ·¤ÙæüÅU·¤æ Stakeholders in agroecology LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No. 4, Dec. 2016

×æñâ× ¥æÏæçÚUÌ âê¿Ùæ Ùð ¹ðÌè Õ¿æ§ü xzke fpdfu;k Mhg] tuin lUr dchj uxj ds esgnkoy fodkl [k.M dk iSDl ifj;kstuk vUrxZr ,d xk¡o gS] tgka yksxksa dh vkthfodk dk eq[; lk/ku [ksrh gSA bl xk¡o eas cM+s iSekus ij lCt+h dh [ksrh gksrh gS vkSj yksx xk¡o ds lkFk&lkFk fudVLFk cktkj lgtuoka] tloy ,oa ihihxat esa mldh fcØh djrs gSaA blh xk¡o dh jgus okyh Jherh ykynsbZ iRuh Jh jkefgr ekS;kZ iSDl ifj;kstuk ls o"kZ 2012 esa tqM+h vkSj ifj;kstuk dh fofHkUu xfrfof/k;ksa esa lfØ;rk ls Hkkx ysdj le> fodflr djrh jghaA ekSle lEcU/kh vfuf”prrk rFkk blls gksus okys Ñf"kxr uqdlku dks ns[krs gq, th0bZ0,0th0 }kjk ekSle vk/kkfjr lwpuk,a eksckby ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa rd igq¡pkus dh izfØ;k “kq: dh x;h vkSj “kq:vkr esa ifj;kstuk {ks= ds izR;sd xk¡o ls ekLVj Vªsuj ,oa ekMy QkeZj gh bl rjhds dh lwpukvksa dks izkIr djrs FksA o"kZ 2013 vDVwcj esa ;s vius Ms<+ ch?kk [ksr esa vkyw rFkk eVj dh cqokbZ djus dh ;kstuk cuk jgh FkhaA fnukad 12&13 vDVwcj] 2013 dks fpdfu;k Mhg dh ekLVj Vªsuj “kdqUryk ds njokts ij Jherh ykynsbZ vkSj fpdfu;k Mhg ds ekMy QkeZj ds ifr Jh lR;ukjk;.k nksukas yksx cSBdj vkyw dh cqokbZ ds ckcr ckr dj jgs FksA budh ckr&phr dks lqudj ekLVj Vªsuj us bUgsa tkudkjh nh fd xksj[kiqj ,Ukok;jUes.Vy ,D”ku xzqi ls ekSle lEcU/kh lwpuk vk;h gS vkSj blds vk/kkj ij 15&16 vDVwcj] 2013 dks vf/kd ckfj”k gksus dh laHkkouk gSA buls izkIr lwpuk dks ekurs gq, Jherh ykynsbZ us viuh vkyw ,oa eVj dh cqokbZ Vky nh] ftlls budk uqdlku cp x;kA vxj iSls esa ns[ksa rks Ms<+ ch?kk [ksr esa cqokbZ ds fy, 4-5 dqUry vkyw 20 :0 dh nj ls [kjhnh Fkh vkSj ,d ch?kk ds fy, eVj dk cht 16 fdxzk0 80 :0 dh nj ls [kjhnk rks bl izdkj 4-5 dq0 vkyw X 2000-00@dq0 = :0 9000-00 16 fdxkz vfdy Z eVj X 80:0@fdxkz= :0 1280-00 vFkkrZ~ ykynbsZ dk dy q 10280-00 :0 dk ud q lku gkuss ls cp x;kA tcfd nwljh rjQ ogha cSBs gq, Jh lR;ukjk;.k us lwpuk ij fo”okl u djrs gq, vius ,d ch?kk [ksr esa vkyw dh cqokbZ dj nh] ftlls mUgsa yxHkx 6000-00 :0 dk uqdlku gqvkA lzksr % xksj[kiqj ,uok;jUesUVy ,D'ku xzqi

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|


U ¤çcæÌ ¹æl ¥·ë ÀéUÂæ ãéU¥æ ¹ÁæÙæ

cgqr ls dkj.kksa dh otg ls >kj[k.M esa igkfM+;k vkfnokfl;ksa ds Hkkstu ls taxyksa ls feyus okys [kk| inkFkksZa dk fgLlk de gks pyk gS] ftlls mudh [kk| lqj{kk ,oa iks"k.k ij O;kid vlj iM+k gSA vÑf"kr [kk| inkFkksZa dh lqj{kk] laj{k.k] izlaLdj.k vkfn fofHkUu izdkj dh igyksa ds ek/;e ls mUgsa iqu% eq[; /kkjk esa 'kkfey djus rFkk leqnk; dh [kk| fofo/krk dks mUur cukus esa enn feyh gSA lkFk gh lkFk Hkw[k ,oa dqiks"k.k dh leL;k ls fuiVus esa Hkh lgk;rk feyh gSA

;g tuojh dh ,d lqcg FkhA /kqa/kyh igkfM+;ksa ds Åij vkdk”k esa lwjt cnyrs ewM ds lkFk mHkj jgk FkkA eSaus laFkky xk¡o dks ikj fd;k vkSj >kj[k.M esa ikdqj ftys ds fyfrizk fodkl[k.M esa igkM+h dh pksVh ij cls igkfM+;k xk¡o dqryks ikgkj rd igqqapus ds fy, vkxs c<+uk izkjEHk fd;kA ;g xk¡o igkfM+;k vkfnoklh leqnk; cgqy xk¡o gSA tSlk fd uke ls gh irk pyrk gS] igkfM+;k jktegky igkfM+;ksa ds igkM+h {ks=ksa esa clh ,d igkM+h tutkfr gSA bu igkfM+;k tutkrh; leqnk;ksa dh vkthfodk dk eq[; lzksr gLrkUrfjr [ksrh vkSj ikjEifjd ou vk/kkfjr vFkZO;oLFkk gSA ,d ?k.Vs pyus ds ckn eSa xk¡o esa igq¡pkA ogka ij xzkeh.kksa ls ckr&phr ds nkSjku eq>s ogka dh izpfyr izFkkvksa ds ckjs esa irk pykA mUgksaus crk;k fd os igkM+ksa ij mxh >kfM+;ksa dks tykus ,oa lQkbZ djus ds ckn puk dh [ksrh djrs gSaA blds lkFk gh os vjgj ,oa eDdk dh fefJr [ksrh Hkh djrs gSaA igkfM+;k vkfnoklh [ksrh gsrq cht ds fy, LFkkuh; Lrj ij _.k nsus okys egktuksa rFkk cktkj ij fuHkZj djrs gSaA ;s egktu vko”;d oLrqvksa tSls pkoy] vkyw] I;kt] fepZ vkfn dks cspus ;k ckaVus dk dke Hkh djrs gSaA ;|fi fd igkfM+;k tutkfr ds fy, egktuksa ls dksbZ [krjk ugha gS vkSj ,slk “kk;n blfy, gS] D;ksafd ckgjh nqfu;k ls mudk lEidZ LFkkfir djus dk ,d ek= tfj;k ;s egktu gh gSaA

QksVks % ys[kd

¥¢àæé×æÙ Îæâ

taxy ls bdV~Bk fd;s x;s Qy

ppkZ ds nkSjku yksxksa us ;g Hkh lk>k fd;k fd vc os taxy] taxy vk/kkfjr [kk| ,oa mlls tqM+h ijEijk,a [kksrs tk jgs gSaA blds fy, mUgksaus taxyksa ij tula[;k ds c<+rs ncko dks eq[; dkj.k ekukA

vkgkj esa vUrjky 10 igkfM+;k tutkrh; cgqy xkaoksa esa o"kZ 2012 esa osYFkaxjykbQ ds ^^QkbV gaxj QLVZ buhf”k;sfVo** ds vUrxZr vk/kkjHkwr losZ{k.k ds ,d Hkkx ds rkSj ij ,d iks"k.k losZ{k.k v/;;u fd;k x;kA v/;;u esa ;g fudy dj vk;k fd 33 izfr”kr cPpksa dk otu vR;Ur de rFkk 40 izfr”kr cPpksa dk otu e/;e oxZ ds vUrxZr gSA 56 izfr”kr cPpksa dh c<+r u ds cjkcj gSA [kk| dh deh okys fnuksa esa vkSlru 1500 dsdy dSyksjh dh [kir gksrh gSA blds foijhr] fu;kefxjh igkfM+;ksa esa Mksaxfj;k dksa/k leqnk; ds lkFk fd;s x;s ,d nwljs v/;;u esa ;g fudydj vk;k fd taxyksa ls iwjs o"kZ i;kZIr ek=k esa [kk| lkexzh feyrh gS vkSj xzh"e] o"kkZ ,oa tkM+s dh _rqvksa esa dqy Hkkstu esa bu taxyh [kk| inkFkksZa dk Øe”k% yxHkx 37 izfr”kr] 30 izfr”kr ,oa 45 izfr”kr ;ksxnku jgrk gSA iks"k.k losZ{k.k v/;;u ls izkIr rF; ;g crkrs gSa fd fofHkUu dkj.kksa ls tutkrh; lewgksa ds vkgkj esa “kkfey taxyh [kk| inkFkksZa ds fgLlksa

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v| 17


eas deh vk;h gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] gky ds o"kksZa esa] ljdkj us vkfnoklh rFkk xjhch js[kk ls uhps thou ;kiu djus okys (ch0ih0,y0) ifjokjksa dh [kk| lqj{kk lqfuf”pr djus gsrq vuqnkfur nj ij pkoy dh ;kstuk dk fØ;kUo;u izkjEHk gqvkA blls mudh Hkkstu dh vknrksa esa mYys[kuh; ifjorZu vk;k gS vkSj vc mudh [kk| fofo/krk flQZ pkoy vk/kkfjr Hkkstu ij gh fleV dj jg x;h gSA pwafd ;s tutkrh; leqnk; iks"k.k ds fo"k; esa cgqr tkx:d ugha gksrs] urhtru os ued] rsy ,oa vU; ?kjsyw mi;ksx dh oLrqvksa dk ewY; pqdkus ds fy, iks"k.k ls Hkjiwj taxyh [kk| tSls Qy] tM+sa ,oa dUn] dhV] fpfM+;ka] [kk| ifÙk;ka] e”k:e] beyh ,oa ckal dh dksaiyksa dks fcpkSfy;ksa dks lLrs nkeksa ij ns jgs gSaA

[ktkuk igkfM+;k leqnk; ds ,d cqtqxZ lnL; Jh jkors igkfM+;k dk dguk gS fd&^^vkt ds cPps brus etcwr ugha gSa] ftruk gekjs tekus esa gqvk djrs FksA** blh ckr dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, lcls igyk dk;Z taxyh [kk| inkFkksZa dk ekSleh fp=.k fd;k x;kA bu taxyh [kk| inkFkksZa dh igpku djus rFkk nLrkosftr djus ds dk;Z esa geus cPpksa dks “kkfey fd;kA bl nkSjku ;g Hkh Li"V gqvk fd vk/kqfud fodkl ds Øe esa muds ijEijkxr Kku foyqIr gksrs tk jgs gSaA ;qok oxZ viuh ijEijkvksa vkSj le`) tSo fofo/krk ls vutku gS vkSj [kk| ,oa vkS"kf/k;ksa ds fy, os ckgjh lzksrksa ij cgqr vf/kd fuHkZj gks jgs gSaA QyLo:i] os dqiks"k.k] Hkw[k ,oa chekjh ds lUnHkZ esa vR;f/kd laosnu”khy gksrs tk jgs gSaA vÑf"kr [kk|] ftuesa ifÙk;ka] Qwy] Qy] tkuojksa] fpfM+;ksa] e”k:e] eNyh] dsdM+k] ?kksa?kk] “kgj vkfn lfgr vf/kdka”k foyqIr gks jgs taxyh ikS/kksa dks leqnk; ;kn dj ldrk gSA mUgksaus lk>k fd;k fd fo”ks"kdj xfeZ;ksa ,oa cjlkr ds ekSle esa tc gekjs ikl vk; dk dksbZ lzksr ugha jgrk vkSj gesa tyok;q ls mRiUu rukoksa dks >syuk iM+rk gS] ml le; ;s taxyh vÑf"kr [kk| gekjs fy, izkÑfrd chek ds rkSj ij leqnk; us taxyksa esa ekStwn 10 izdkj ds e'k:e] 8 izdkj ds tyh; [kj&irokjksa] 5 izdkj ds 'kgn] 20 izdkj dh fpfM+;ksa] gjh iÙkhnkj lfCt+;ksa dh 24 iztkfr;ka] 15 izdkj ds Qy] 6 izdkj dh lfCt+;ksa] 6 izdkj dh nyguksa] 2 izdkj ds eksVs vukt] 3 izdkj ds Qwy] 4 izdkj ds dUn rFkk 3 izdkj ds chtksa dh igpku dhA

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çÎâÕÚUU w®v|

gSA yxHkx 40 o"khZ; ,d fdlku us vkxs vkdj dgk& ^^gekjs cpiu esa ge cktkj ls flQZ feV~Vh dk rsy o ued gh [kjhnrs Fks] tcfd vkt ge viuh t:jr dh yxHkx lHkh oLrq,a cktkj ls ;k egktu ls ysrs gSa] tks gekjs lkFk cgqr vf/kd O;kikj djrs gSaA vkt thus ds fy, gkFk esa uxnh dk gksuk cgqr vko”;d gSA tcfj;k iyk;u vkSj ty&teko ds dkj.k isM+ksa dk mdB tkuk bl cnyrs ifjn`"; dk ,d izR;{k ifj.kke gSA** le; chrus ds lkFk /khjs&/khjs] leqnk; us taxyksa esa ekStwn 10 izdkj ds e”k:e] 8 izdkj ds tyh; [kj&irokjksa] 5 izdkj ds “kgn] 20 izdkj dh fpfM+;ksa] gjh iÙkhnkj lfCt+;ksa dh 24 iztkfr;ka] 15 izdkj ds Qy] 6 izdkj dh lfCt+;ksa] 6 izdkj dh nyguksa] 2 izdkj ds eksVs vukt] 3 izdkj ds Qwy] 4 izdkj ds dUn rFkk 3 izdkj ds chtksa dh igpku dhA bu lHkh dks muds LFkkuh; uke] oSKkfud uke] fooj.k] mudh vknrksa] :fp;ksa ,oa lgu”khyrk] mi;ksx] iks"k.k ewY;] ekSleh fp=.k bR;kfn ds lkFk lko/kkuhiwoZd nLrkosftr fd;k x;kA nLrkosthdj.k dk ;g dk;Z leqnk; ls fudys Lo;alsodksa us fd;kA fo”ks"kKksa dh Hkkxhnkjh gksus ds ckotwn e”k:e ,oa eNfy;ksa dh oSKkfud igpku ugha dh tk ldhA

dh tk jgh dk;Zokgh nLrkosthdj.k izfØ;k ds ek/;e ls igkfM+;k tutkfr dh izÑfr [kk| ,oa laLÑfr dks geus cgqr vPNs rjhds ls tkukA lkFk gh fofHkUu izdkj ds dUn ewyksa o tyh; thou dh igpku o ;qok leqnk; dks Hkh gks xbZ] ftlls bl leqnk; dh vkgkj fofo/krk Hkh mUur gqbZA ;|fi fd izkjEHk esa] ;g tkudkjh ds Lrj ij vf/kd Fkk] fQj Hkh leqnk; us blls ykHk fy;kA cjlkr ds ekSle ds nkSjku] dUn ,oa iÙkhnkj lfCt+;ka rFkk xfeZ;ksa ds nkSjku dqN Qy muds vkgkj esa “kkfey gks x;s FksA 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa bldh ek=k de Fkh ijUrq vc izR;sd lIrkg muds nksigj ,oa jkr ds Hkkstu esa ckjg ls pkSng ckj ;s lkefxz;ka 'kkfey gks tkrh gSaA efgyk,a dqN ,sls O;atuksa rFkk vH;klksa dks ;kn dj ldha] tks os yxHkx Hkwy pqdh FkhaA cgqr lh izlaLdj.k xfrfof/k;ka tSls & gjh ifÙk;ksa dks lq[kkuk] LFkkuh; lw[kh ifÙk;ksa ,oa Hkhxs fils nkyksa dks feykdj nky dh vnkSjh (cjh) rS;kj djus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k] ftls yksxksa us ljkgk vkSj vius vkgkj esa “kkfey Hkh fd;kA blls ,d rjQ rks yksxksa dh iks"k.k lqj{kk mUur gqbZ rks nwljh rjQ vk;tud xfrfof/k;ksa ds rkSj ij yksxksa us O;kid laHkkouk,a ns[khaA


Hindi - Dec 2017  
Hindi - Dec 2017  
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