Impact with Law

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Impact with law Leiden

Law School

Contents Introduction “Leiden is the place for Law” 4 Our teaching An excellent curriculum 7 Law and Criminology in all their facets 11 Our research Exploring and opening new horizons 14 From theory to practice 18 Connected to society Working with the professional field 23 Contributing to our society 26 Helping resolve current issues 30 Final word from our Dean Impact with law 34 3


“Leiden is the place for Law”

Leiden Law School is one of the seven faculties of Leiden University. Each year more than 1,000 students choose to study Law, Notarial Law, Tax Law or Criminology here.

Besides these students, around 500 to 600 international students come to our law school: ranging from exchange students who are here to study for one semester in Leiden, to students who have completed their undergraduate studies and have been selected for one of our advanced masters programmes. These figures say a lot about the scale of our law school. But they also demonstrate the attraction our law school has for talented legal professionals and criminologists – at home and abroad.

“Leiden is the place for Law” is a comment we often hear. In this brochure we would like to show why this comment is right if you ask our students, researchers and lecturers; what makes our law school stand out from the rest, and more particularly - what is the impact of our activities? Not just for our students – providing them with a sound academic training is, after all, our primary task - but also for our legal system, our society and the role of the law far beyond the Netherlands.

Leiden Law School is one of the seven faculties of Leiden University. Our students have lectures in the attractive Kamerlingh Onnes building. w Famous alumni: Minister van Engelshoven, Ruben van Zwieten, Armin van Buuren, Ivo Opstelten, Nout Wellink, Wopke Hoekstra, Stijn Franken, Geert-Jan Knoops

Established 1575 13.595 Alumni (Mid 2019) 3.000 Bachelor’s students 2.000 Master’s students 350 Advanced master’s students 200 International exchange students worldwide, subject LAW 26 QS-ranking 2019
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Our locations

Leiden Law School is located at two beautifully renovated monumental buildings in the heart of historic Leiden. At Campus The Hague we also teach and conduct research at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies – not just for Leiden Law School, but also for Public Administration and Leiden University College.

The extensive library at the heart of the Kamerlingh Onnes Building in Leiden is very special. Here a unique collection of legal reference works is kept, including work from the Middle Ages up to recent digital legal literature. Our students also have access to the international library at the Peace Palace in The Hague. ■

Our teaching

An excellent curriculum

Providing excellent academic education in law is in our genes. As early as 1594 Hugo de Groot (Grotius), considered the Mozart of international law, came to study in Leiden.

This rich tradition, however, is no guarantee for future success. So we are constantly investing in the quality of our curriculum. This is partly determined by our professors and lecturing staff with their years of professional experience in the area of law and security. But also through the broad focus of the innovative research conducted at our beautiful, historic faculty buildings.

The Law School offers four bachelor’s degree programmes:

w Rechtsgeleerdheid (Law);

w Notarieel recht (Notarial Law);

w Fiscaal recht (Tax Law);

w Criminologie (Criminology).

In addition, we offer a wide range of master’s degree programmes, advanced master’s degree programmes, minors, honours classes, summer schools and postgraduate courses.

» More information on pages 11 and 13; the full, up-to-date overview is on our website.

An eye for talent

Our teaching is unique - not only its academic content, but also the atmosphere in the classroom: we teach in small groups as far as possible, with intensive and personal guidance offered to students. Though this is a large faculty, our students never feel they are just a number. We have an eye for talent and stimulate students to work to achieve their full potential, also by looking beyond our national borders. Leiden is internationally orientated and maintains contacts with many universities abroad. Our location in The Hague puts us in close proximity to political and international organisations that are active in the field of peace and justice. ■

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Knowledge from over the whole world

International collaborations enrichen the education we offer. We welcome students from over the whole world to our faculty. Our lecturing staff share their knowledge and build on new experiences gained while teaching abroad. We also invite staff from international institutes and students to become acquainted with our expertise. Professor of Tax Law, Henk Vording, for example, is a member of the Global Faculty - an initiative of Peking University to advance international cooperation in teaching and research. Professor of Law and Society, Maartje van der Woude, lectures at many universities abroad on topics including immigration, law enforcement, public order and security and legislation. Our students go on exchange periods and study excursions to experience these differences themselves. Vice versa, internationally renowned lecturers regularly come to Leiden to share their expertise with our students. The Office for International Education at our Law School plays a key role in facilitating these exchanges. The Global Lounge at the Kamerlingh Onnes Building was launched with the special aim of stimulating the exchange of information and encounters between students, staff and guests from all over the world.

“A better professional thanks to my time at Leiden”

“My time at Leiden University was great. I studied Public International Law, where I met people from all over the world, which turned into an amazing experience both inside and outside of the classroom. Having people from different backgrounds studying together brought new perspectives, and it is an added bonus that many of those people became close friends. I was impressed with Leiden University's facilities, with top notch libraries and access to online databases. It was amazing to be part of the history of the oldest university of the Netherlands, with so many distinct alumni before me, such as Nelson Mandela and the Dutch king, Willem-Alexander. The studies were demanding, and Leiden University pushed me further than any of my previous studies had before. In the end, I learned more than books alone could ever teach, and my experience in Leiden helped me become a better professional, with better research and time management skills, and the knowledge that every challenge can be overcome. Many thanks for the opportunity,” - alumna Paula Meira Chinelato. ■

Het Hastings College of the Law in Californië en de Leidse rechtenfaculteit hebben een lange geschiedenis van uitwisselingen. Elk jaar bezoeken studenten elkaars universiteit. Er is een intensieve uitwisseling tussen hoogleraren voor onderwijs en gezamenlijk onderzoek. ■

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Our teaching

Law and Criminology in all their facets

Our degree programmes

Bachelor’s degree programmes

w Rechtsgeleerdheid (Law)

- Economie

- International Business Law

- Entrepreneurship and Management

w Notarieel recht (Notarial Law)

w Fiscaal recht (Tax Law)

w Criminologie (Criminology)

Master’s degree programmes (regular)

w Arbeidsrecht (Labour Law)

w Civiel recht (Civil Law)

w Comparative Criminal Justice

w Criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving (Crime and Criminal Justice)

w Criminologie en Veiligheidsbeleid (Criminology and Security Policy)

w Encyclopedie en filosofie van het recht (Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law)

w European Law

w Financieel recht (Financial Law)

w Fiscaal recht (Tax Law)

w Forensische criminologie (Forensic Criminology)

w Jeugdrecht (Child Law)

w Law & Society

w Notarieel recht (Notarial Law)

w Ondernemingsrecht (Company


w Public International Law

w Rechtsgeleerdheid (Law)

w Staats- en bestuursrecht (Constitutional and Administrative Law)

w Straf- en strafprocesrecht (Criminal Law and Criminology)

Online courses

Online courses are freely available to everyone, ranging from ‘International Humanitarian Law’, ‘International Law in Action’ to ‘Rethinking International Tax Law’. All Leiden University online courses are listed on www.

Post-academic training courses and conferences

Juridisch PAO (JPAO) of Leiden University organises and facilitates post-academic training courses for lawyers and professionals with a legal background or some other connection in their work to law. In addition, JPAO organises a broad range of events such as seminars, conferences and in-house training.

Advanced master’s

These popular, intensive international master’s degree programmes are aimed at professionals working in the legal field. Leading experts lecture in English.

w Air and Space Law

w European and International Business Law

w European and International Human Rights Law

w Global and European Labour Law

w International Children’s Rights

w International Civil and Commercial Law

w International Criminal Law

w International Dispute Settlement and Arbitration

w Law and Digital Technologies

w Law & Finance

w Peace, Justice and Development

w Public International Law

Summer schools

Together with our international partners we organise various summer schools on a broad range of topics. The aim of these summer schools is to update students and professionals in a short period of time on current issues, developments and research in the field of law and criminology.

Leiden Law School sheds light on all facets of law and criminology. We provide students from all over the world with the chance to broaden and develop their knowledge, to open up new horizons and create new opportunities, for themselves and others.
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» The current range of summer schools is on our website.

Moot Court

Moot Court is a compulsory course in the second and third year of the bachelor’s degree programmes. Students learn how to develop legal arguments and plead in legal proceedings, as applicant and defendant. They are assessed on both content and presentation. To conclude the course, students put forward their oral arguments during proceedings in an authentic courtroom settinga truly special experience, making students even more enthusiastic and motivated. They learn how to apply academic theory in practice and develop their reasoning and presentation skills in a realistic setting.

Honours College Law

For ambitious, talented and motivated undergraduate students who are looking for an extra challenge besides their regular studies, we offer the Honours College Law.

De praktijk centraal

Professor Bart Krans: “Practicum, a course in our master’s programme Civiel recht, is a good example of a course where students can practise their skills. In just a few weeks, students have to write various pieces. For example, a note on a recent judgment, comments on a legislative proposal or an article in a civil law journal. Students usually find this course quite demanding, but also extremely useful. We often hear later from alumni how much the course has helped them in their career.

Students who follow the togapracticum are given assignments specifically aimed at a career as a court lawyer (the so-called togaberoepen). For example, we ask them to write a statement of appeal, advice on the chances of an appeal or an opinion for a client. These assignments are of course explained in class by teaching staff, but also by legal professionals. The togapracticum has an added dimension through the visits of guest lecturers such as judges, lawyers and advocate generals from the Supreme Court. This is a great way for students to learn about the topic of their assignments and about working in the judiciary. Fascinating and highly instructive, according to our students.”

Unique opportunities

Robert de Regt, undergraduate student International Business Law:

“During my first year at university I discovered that I found law really interesting, but I felt there was something missing. I wanted something with more depth and therefore opted for the Honours College Law. It has also helped me to complete the regular courses faster and with better grades. In addition, the Honours College Law offers the chance to look at other fields of study. You are in a class with really motivated students which leads to lively and interesting discussions. This also forms the basis for new friendships with other students. The Honours College Law has given me opportunities that bachelor’s students wouldn’t get so quickly otherwise. For example, I secured a research position on an international project and I participated in a really interesting Law Clinic on human rights’. ■

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Exploring and extending boundaries

Academic research is of tremendous importance in the quality of our teaching: it helps us to update and improve our degree programmes. At the same time, research is crucial in contributing towards international developments in our field of study and coming up with academically sound solutions and proposals in relation to issues in society. Our top-quality research explores and goes beyond the boundaries of our discipline where possible.

Overarching strategy

Our researchers conduct thorough research and publish their findings - in dissertations, books and scholarly publications, including our own legal journals such as the Leiden Journal of International Law. In addition, we gladly share news from our faculty with a broader public, for example via social media, our own Leiden Law Blog and in debates. For example, each year we organise a large national criminology conference at our own faculty.

To maximise the quality of its academic research, Leiden University focusses on a number of research profile areas. Within this overarching strategy, the research programme ‘Interaction between legal systems’ has been designated as the main focus at our faculty: a multi-disciplinary programme that stimulates innovative research. Besides this profile area, we have also established a number of other research programmes. Our researchers contribute to multi-disciplinary research projects at Leiden University in which knowledge of law and criminology can make a vital contribution.

» Our website provides an overview of our current research programmes.

Our research 14 15

Leiden contribution at prominent seminar

At the annual Hendrik Muller Summer Seminar organised by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, more than twenty recent graduates and PhD students in Social Sciences and Humanities study a topical social theme, supervised by experts. In 2019 Vestert Borger, Assistant Professor in European Law, was invited to organise this seminar together with Luuk van Middelaar, Professor of Foundations and Practice of the European Union and its Institutions. The theme was ‘Europe between America and China: Constitutional systems, cultural identities, political choices’: highly topical, considering the changing world order through the emergence of China as a world power, and the America First focus of the United States. Literally stuck in the middle, how is Europe responding and what does it want? Nine speakers from various disciplines shed light on this theme. ■

Opportunities for young researchers

Our special Pre-PhD programme is geared to prepare master’s students and recent graduates for embarking on a PhD research position. They focus on their research skills and are helped in drawing up and submitting a PhD research proposal, in Leiden or elsewhere. Each year, around fifteen talented researchers take part on the programme.

European collaboration

The League of European Research Universities (LERU) is our most important partner in Europe. Leiden University is one of the 23 universities who are a member of LERU. This organisation represents the interests of researchintensive universities and maintains close contacts with the major actors in policy on European research.

Each year a number of PhD students spend a few weeks at another LERU partner. We, in turn, also welcome researchers to Leiden each year. An exchange of ideas is also carried out in various other ways including plenary conferences and individual meetings. In this way we stimulate joint research in the field of Law and Criminology and are able to inform each other by exchanging knowledge on current developments.

23 International partner universities


PhD defences

30 Nationalities researchers

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Our research

From theory to practice

Our research connects academic theory to practice. Existing theories are examined, new perspectives and research questions are formed, and we arrive at solutions for current issues inside and outside the field of Law.

Leiden Law Blog

For years now the Leiden Law Blog is the platform used by our researchers and students to explain about their research, respond to current affairs and make a contribution to academic debates.

Data science

The changing role of the government in today’s data society is placing new requirements on the field of Law and Administrative Law. Via large-scale data analysis the government can better tackle violations of the law, but it can also better match its services to the needs and capacities of citizens. Ymre Schuurmans, Professor of Constitutional and Administrative Law, is working together with Professor Bart Custers (eLaw) and Professor Iris Wuisman (Company Law) in the new University-wide initiative SAILS that looks to build on and expand the current expertise on artificial intelligence within Leiden University. ■

Focus on online privacy

Robbert van Eijk, PhD candidate in the Leiden University Dual PhD programme defended his dissertation in 2019 with his research on online privacy. He discovered a way to measure the privacy impact of online adverts. His most important conclusion: behind the scenes, the online advertisement market is even more nontransparent and complex than was first thought. As a result, personal data can end up at thousands of businesses involved in ‘realtime bidding’ - the selling of online advertisement space for personalised adverts. To achieve this, first the interests of visitors have to be determined. This is done on the basis of location and webpages visited. Sometimes information is exchanged behind the scenes, without this being visible in your browser. Van Eijk has calculated that in this way, thousands of parties can potentially monitor your behaviour on the web. His research was picked up in the national media. Important parties, such as the Dutch Data Protection Authority and advertising industry representatives, have studied the dissertation. ■

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Prestigious grants and distinctions

Leiden Law School researchers regularly receive prestigious grants or a distinction for their research.

w In 2018 Professor Eric De Brabandere received, together with Professor Ulf Linderfalk and Dr Anna Nilsson (Lund University, Sweden), a grant from a Swedish Research Council to conduct research into discretionary authority in international law. The aim of the research is to gain a better understanding of the concept of ‘discretion’ and its various applications in international law.

w Margaretha Wewerinke-Singh, a promising young researcher, received a Veni grant from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. In an interdisciplinary project she is investigating how effective it is for environmental activists to go to the courts to enforce a more ambitious climate policy, and what the possible drawbacks could be of doing so.

w Dr Yannick van den Brink will be conducting research at the Institute of Criminology of the University of Cambridge for eighteen months thanks to a Rubicon grant from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. He will be investigating the meaning of the principle of equality in juvenile criminal law and will explore to what extent British and American strategies to reduce inequality are applicable in Dutch juvenile criminal law.

w Leiden student Aoife Fleming was elected as the United Nations Youth Delegate on Sustainable Development for the Netherlands. She set up the lecture series ‘Sustainability and Law’ at our faculty so that students start thinking now about sustainability issues in relation to law.

Border surveillance in all weathers

Tim Dekkers conducted PhD research on the role of IT in border controls. Systematic border controls between EU Member States no longer exist, but security risks do. Government bodies collect an increasing amount of information about who crosses their borders, and when. This information can then be used for risk analysis to detect potentially high-risk individuals and take action when necessary. Dekkers held interviews and conducted field research with the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee, standing for hours in all weathers at the borders making observations. His conclusion: technology only has a limited impact on decisions taken by the Marechaussee during checks. In addition, he noted that the object of controls was shifting from migration control to fighting crime.

No research has previously been conducted into the interaction between technology and human aspects in the context of border controls. The Marechaussee has used the research outcomes to further tighten its policy. Dekkers proceeded to find work at a government inspection service. ■


Connected to society

Working with the professional field

Leiden Law School is passionate about training students and professionals for the Dutch and international legal and security practice. In doing so we contribute to improved professionalisation in the various sectors.

As the same time, we actively search for ways in which practice can be involved in our teaching and research. We are convinced that this interaction will help to enlarge our impact.

Strong links with practice

Many of our staff members already work in the profession: they are not just lecturers at our faculty, but also work as lawyers, analysts, judges or tax advisors. Many of our PhD candidates are inspired to continue their studies through experience they have gained in their work and choose to study a research question that arose in practice. Our alumni, working at home or abroad, are happy to return to give guest lectures to new generations of lawyers and criminologists.

We also have a close relationship with The Hague Court since 2005. Thanks to this collaboration, students and researchers can see what goes on in practice. And vice versa, the Court receives direct input from researchers and can develop contacts with potential future employees. Together we regularly organise symposia and a masterclass for a dozen students, we provide interns to the Court and the Court provides us with judges for our Moot Court.


Legal Tech

Alumna Esther Albers, Global Innovation Manager at Clifford Chance: ‘In practice, knowledge of law remains the central component. But the way in which this knowledge is obtained and applied is changing under the influence of technology. The law student of the future is tech-savvy, creative, proactive and thinks in solutions. He or she will have to recognize at the right moment what part of the work can be supported by which technology, what the solutions are in the market and when it is constructive to work together with others. The new generation will not only be trained to be critical analysts, but will also have skills to break new ground. This requires a view that goes beyond just law. It calls for a combination of legal knowledge, psychological insights and social skills, negotiation techniques, financial skills and knowledge of business and technology. Also where these last two skills meet, such as in “lean and design thinking”’.

Judge Rogier Hartendorp of The Hague Court holds the chair Societal Effectiveness of the Justice System. Together with students, researchers and colleagues at the Court he conducts research into the societal role and positioning of the justice system: “As judges we often see in practice that parties in a dispute are driven further away from each other. As a judge you take a decision in a dispute, but the question remains if the underlying problem is then addressed. At the same time, a judge is of course not a social worker. This gives rise to an interesting area of tension which we are examining.” ■


Leiden Law Courses


Participants on post academic legal training courses (PAO)

15 Conferences

“A judge is not a social worker…”

Connected to society

Contributing to our society

In our teaching and research we aim to achieve as much social relevance as possible. This involvement begins close to home. We consciously invest in the relationship with our alumni. We regularly organize alumni activities to keep them involved and to inform them about what we are doing.

Sometimes, rather further from home, such as in Shanghai or Jakarta. Many of our alumni have warm feelings for their old faculty and make annual donations to the Leiden University Fund, enabling extra research. In addition there are named funds, varying in size, that make an amount available each year for legal research. It was particularly special that in 2016 the courtroom for Moot Court could be opened in the Kamerlingh Onnes Building thanks to a crowdfunding campaign which many alumni contributed to.

Contributing to social debate

Scholarly publications are important, but we also want to show that we operate at the heart of the society. Where relevant, we try to reach a broader public. For example, by giving advice, lectures that are open to the public, interviews, training courses and conferences. Our lecturers and professors and regularly invited to take part in national media by shining their light on topical issues. Our active study associations stimulate debate and regularly invite speakers for events.

To be part of the debates in society, Leiden University has formed a number of important, topical research dossiers. The dossiers our faculty deals with are international tax law, international public law, Europe and a fitting punishment.

Linking to the UN development goals

In our teaching and research we make a link where possible to the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. These sustainable development goals determine the global sustainable development agenda up to 2030. Poverty reduction, peace, gender equality, fair work, climate action – all goals have a direct or indirect link to a stable judicial system. Using our knowledge and expertise, we are pleased to make an active contribution. For example, with the Leiden Advocacy Project on Plastic (LAPP), of Esther Kentin, lecturer in International Law. LAPP was set up to examine and answer legal questions that are connected to the growing problem of plastic pollution.

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Studying and conducting research in freedom

At Leiden University, freedom has always been paramount. Our current motto Praesidium Libertatis (bastion of freedom) has its origins in a print listing the names of all professors from 1575 onwards. Since 1917 the text also displays the University seal. The protest speech given by the Faculty of Law dean Rudolph Cleveringa in 1940 against the dismissal of his Jewish colleagues is commemorated each year in the Cleveringa lectures that are held throughout the world. We still view this motto as being one of our most important assignments: providing students and researchers with freedom and using our teaching and research to achieve more just societies with freedom of expression. Honorary doctorates have also been awarded by our faculty to freedom fighters such as Winston Churchill and Nelson Mandela.

Working with UNICEF

For years our faculty has worked closely with Unicef in the Netherlands. Outcomes of this collaboration include:

w Unicef Chair in Children’s Rights

w Part-time Chair in Children’s Rights in the Developing World

w Annual Summer School Frontiers of Children’s Rights

w Master’s degree programme Jeugdrecht (Child Law)

w Advanced Master Studies Programme in International Children’s Rights

w Various publications on research into children’s rights

To give substance to children’s rights, academic research and teaching on children’s rights to students and professionals is of crucial importance. With support from Unicef in the Netherlands we are therefore developing an international expertise centre for children’s rights. ■

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Connected to society

Helping resolve current issues

Many current issues are related to the judicial system or criminology. Taking an academic approach, we aim to help resolve these issues. Sometimes this involves purely legal research, but sometimes using insights from other disciplines.

From pension problems to smart contracting, from liability to privacy: our experts participate in research committees, policy working groups and innovation think tanks, up front but also behind the scenes. Besides their studies, our students also often do internships. At law firms, ministries, the judiciary and in the business sector – they make a direct contribution using their knowledge and commitment.

Research on self-sufficiency and social protection

Citizens must increasingly take responsibility for risks and plan better in relation to work, pension and healthcare. The research programme Zelfredzaamheid en sociale bescherming over de levenscyclus (self-sufficiency and social protection throughout the life cycle) identifies how great these risks are and what level of self-sufficiency is needed to cover these risks. The research, which will continue till 2023, is in the hands of the Department of Economics at our faculty. ■

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Codes of conduct of listed companies in one database

In recent years the business sector has become more conscious of its role and responsibility in the observance of human rights. Corporate Social Responsibility is increasingly a theme that is mentioned in annual reports. Many companies have laid down their policy in codes of conduct. To gain more insight into the content of such codes of conduct, the Department of Labour Law at our faculty with support from the municipality of The Hague has developed the Database of Business Ethics (DBBE). This database currently includes 1,200 codes of conduct from European and American listed companies from various business and industry sectors. These codes have been examined on their provisions on fundamental labour rights such as those formulated by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). The DBBE provides information on which codes contain provisions dealing with fundamental labour rights.

A fitting punishment

A punishment that fits the crime is the cornerstone of the rechtsstaat or constitutional state. But opinions differ greatly as to what constitutes a just and effective punishment. The constant critical eye of academia on the sentences we impose ensures that the system changes along with society. In the Netherlands the main aim of punishment seems to be shifting: from retribution and deterrence to treating and monitoring offenders as much as is possible and thus creating a safer society. This new aim makes it more difficult to find a just punishment. In addition, the effectiveness of certain punishments is being questioned. New forms of crime are emerging such as cybercrime. Our research provides politicians, legislators, law enforcers and the public with new information and insights on punishment. ■

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Impact with law

Pupils and students who say ‘if you want to study Law and Criminology, go to Leiden’ – of course, that makes us very proud. Because educating a new generation of critically-minded, academically competent lawyers and criminologists who have an open view of their field of study and the world: that is our primary task.

Every year, it is a pleasure for our team of staff to see how these young individuals develop - not just their knowledge, but also their character - to be able to take on the current challenges in their fast-changing surroundings: new technologies and worldwide issues colour the world in which they will be working later.

In this alone, we are making an impact in the world around us. But our impact goes further, as we have demonstrated in this brochure. We are focused on more than just our students. Being part of the oldest university in the Netherlands, we have a long tradition of activities that make an impact. In our teaching, research and collaborative projects.

That said, past success is no guarantee for the future. Our ambition to be leading in legal and interdisciplinary education and research means that we set high standards. We are constantly searching for ways to enlarge our academic impact. So we remain open to new initiatives in the area of teaching, research and collaborations. We explore our borders and choose to be pioneering. We talk to all our stakeholders - students and non-students. Where possible, we will raise the level of our teaching and research even higher and in doing so contribute towards a safer and more just world.

The information in this brochure has been compiled with the greatest possible care. Nevertheless, the authors of this brochure do not accept any liability for any inaccuracies.

Final words from our Dean Colophon Leiden
Leiden Law School PO Box 9520 2300 RA Leiden  +31 (0)71 527 75 12 Follow us @LeidenLaw
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