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Design Thesis 4 Editors Notes 5 •Keri Hasslinger 6 •Alix Pittard 7 Current Design Trends 8 Line 9 •Straight Horizontal 10 •Straight Vertical 11 •Angular 12 •Curved Flowing 13 •Curved Tightly 14 Shape And Form 15 •Geometric Shape 16 •Geometric Form 17 •Natural Shape 18 •Natural Form 19 •Abstract Shape 20 •Abstract Form 21 •Non-Representational Shape 22 •Non-Objective Form 23 •Static Shape 24 •Dynamic Shape 25 Texture 26 •Smooth 27 •Rough 28 •Real Surface Quality 29 •Implied Surface Quality 30 •Non-Reflective Texture 31 •Reflective Texture 32

Light 33 •Natural Light 34 •Combustion Lighting 35 •Ambient Lighting 36 •Up-lighters 37 •Task Lighting 38 •Track Lighting 39 •Floor Lamp 40 •Table Lamp 41 •Mood Lighting 42 •Art Lighting 43 •Colored Lighting 44 •Glare From Natural Light 45 •Glare From General Lighting 46 •Riser Lighting 47 •Soffit Lighting 48 Color 49 •Monochromatic Color Scheme 50 •Analogous Color Scheme 51 •Direct Complementary Colors 52 •Split Complementary Colors 53 •Triadic Complementary Colors 54 •Double Complementary Colors 55 •Tetrad Complementary Colors 56 •Alternate Complementary Colors 57 •Neutral Color Palette 58 Scale 59 •Human Scale 60 •Symbolic Scale 612

Proportion •Object In Proportion With Space •Object Not In Proportion With Space Rhythm •Metric Rhythm •Climactic Rhythm •Contrast •Flowing Emphasis •Focal Point Visual •Focal Point Structural Pattern •Placement Of Emphasis •Character Of The Pattern •The Pattern Color Scheme •The Scale Of The Pattern Balance •Visual Symmetry •Structural Symmetry •Visual Asymmetry •Structural Asymmetry •Visual Radial •Structural Radial Harmony •Unity Through Line •Unity Through Shape •Unity Through Repetition

62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

•Unity Through Color 89 •Variety Through Color 90 •Variety Through Materials 91 •Variety Through Furniture 92 •Variety Through Modern In 93 Contrast To Old Mass 94 •Actual Density 95 •Optical Density 96 •Massing 97 Space 98 •Positive Space 99 •Negative Space 100 •Crowding 101 •Territoriality 102 Space Planning/ Furniture 103 Arrangement •Successful Space Function 104 •Unsuccessful Space 105 Function •Straight Line Groups 106 •L-Shaped Groupings 107 •U-Shaped Groupings 108 •Circular Groupings 109 •Parallel Groupings 110 •Solo Groupings 111 References 112-113 3

Design Thesis This design magazine is intended to inspire readers to feel the colors of fall and appreciate the days of old. With the combination of the charm of antique findings aged to perfection along with the invigorating colors of fall we strive to make our readers feel alive and passionate. We hope that they will see our passion for rustic materials and homes as well as antiques and fall colors and find their own passions to appreciate. 4

Editors Pages Growing up in Oglethorpe County, I was surrounded by farm lands, rustic barns, covered bridges and everything old. Most of my family lived near me and all of their homes seemed to be decorated with antique accents passed down from generation to generation and each home had its certain elements that made it rustic. Because of these surroundings growing up, I have acquired a love of antiques and rustic looking homes, furniture, and dÊcor. These things were my inspiration for this magazine. Keri and I also have a passion for fall. We not only love the colors but the crisp air and cool nights. For me, fall brings many memories. My favorite fall memory is picking apples in the mountains with my grandfather. We always saw the prettiest leaves driving to and from the apple orchard. Fall, to me, is the one season where many people see rustic scenery. I say this because many people enjoy going for rides during the fall to see pretty leaves changing colors. I can’t think of many people who go to the city to watch the leaves change, but instead they go to the mountains or the countryside where they not only get to see the leaves changing and feel the cool breeze but they encounter many old barns, homes, and farms. Because I have such a passion for old structures and objects and for the fall weather with all its memories, I wish to let my viewers see the things I am passionate about in hopes that they too can find something to be passionate about. Alix Pittard, Co-Editor 5

Keri Hasslinger I am a Yankee at heart, but I have really grown to love the South and all it has to offer. I was born in Natick, Massachusetts, but raised more or less in Alpharetta, Georgia from second grade up. It was here that I learned to really love and appreciate the seasons, especially fall. Fall was and still is my favorite time of the year because of the truly magnificent colors the trees turn, the chilly weather, crisp apples, and so many other delights. It’s something I look forward to every year and have created so many wonderful memories from. However, if there’s one thing I like as equally to fall, it would have to be antiques and all things vintage. Maybe it’s from my parents love and collection of them or maybe it’s me but I love antiques. The mystery of the pieces and history of them excite and intrigue me and I love the way they can spice up a room. I have always been a passionate person and fall and antiques are definitely two of my biggest passions. So I knew that that’s what I wanted to bring to this magazine. I believe that everyone should have at least one thing, if not more, that they are passionate about in their life. Alix and I really wanted to inspire that passion and excitement that we both share for these two things in others. Our magazine truly comes from our heart and we have tried our best to make our readers feel that invigoration we get from our passion. We invite you to snuggle up by the fire to keep warm from the delightfully chilly fall weather and be invigorated! Keri Hasslinger Co-Editor


Current Design Trends The design world continually grabs new trends. Just as the fashion world repeats itself, so does the design world. One of the designs that has repeated itself, much like leggings have, is sleek furniture. Out with the big comfy couch and in with the sleek chair and couches. This design was much alive in the 50's but is currently a trend once again. No more keepsakes all over the house but only a few simple accents. While some go for this look because it is good for having company over because your house looks clean and decluttered, some say no to this trend. some prefer to keep their big comfy couches and personal knick-knacks around the house. The sleek style looks perfect but many want to stick with a home that looks lived in and comfortable. This magazine is intended not to follow the sleek style but the lived in style.

Another trend in the design world is the Apron Sink. Apron sinks are sinks that are flush with the edge of the countertop. These sinks look beautiful and are also practical because then you don't have to add the fake drawer in front of the sink. They have many styles to choose from. You can choose a white ceramic one that will complement a classic country look or a copper one that would compliment a more rustic look. These kitchens alone can 7 add a great deal of spark to a kitchen. Garden

Of course when talking about design trends, you have to consider color. Color plays a huge role in design trends whether it’s in the interior design world, fashion, or any other part of the world! Currently, there are many palettes with a variety of colors. Some of these include ambiance, galaxy, gatherings, transformations, and pastiche, just to name a few. My personal favorite is the transformation color palette. It consists of blues, greens, lavender grays, mauve, amber, and a touch of pink. I find it refreshing and comforting at the same time.You will be sure to see some of these upcoming color palettes in the interior design world as well as different aspects of the economy and the world in general. (

Lastly, and a personal favorite, is the vessel sink. Just like the Apron sink, the vessel sink can transform a bathroom. Vessel sinks are sinks that sit above the countertop. These are perfect for transforming an old table into a bathroom counter. You can cut a hole in the table to run the drain through and the sink just sits on top of the table. Because these sinks come in such a variety, you could drastically change the feel of your bathroom solely by the sink itself. Choosing a colored glass sink may make for a classy bathroom or you may choose a tempered finish that looks much like a wooden bowl to create a native look. I have even seen one that the faucet looks like a hand pump and the sink looks like an old water bucket. As you can tell, you can really add character to your bathroom through these amazing diaryofasmartchick.com8 sinks.



Horizontal Line

This rustic barn and dark wood beam ceiling are beautiful and obvious examples of horizontal line.


Marcinko Residence

V e r t i c a l Steeple Tower

This structure located in Athens, GA is a great example of vertical line. The long vertical lines of the building draw your eyes up to the top of the building. It is also an older building and many attractive , vintage details such as exposed brick, on the side and a natural distressed look.

L i n e


Angular Lines

Pittard Residence

Angular zigzag lines can cause many emotions. Too many or too tight and intense while zigzags can be irritating , few or more spread out zigzags can be invigorating. in the case of this saw, because the saw would be only a small part of an overall room, the tight zigzag would probably not cause irritation to someone viewing it. Also, the calming picture drawn onto the saw takes away from the tight zigzag. However, if this tight zigzag was painted across the length of a room, it would be more irritating. Zigzags that are bigger and fewer, like the shades on the window can spice up a 12 room and add character.

Curved Line

Curved lines are used to show movement. They break the mold and are less common than straight lines so when they are used they are interesting to view.

The slightly curved bridge and hand rail not only show movement but are very calming as well. 13 Pittard Residence

Curved Tightly Spiral staircases like this one are curved tightly as they wind down. There are many examples of tightly curved lines in the world, but in the interior world, a spiral staircase is a really great example of this type of line at work. Marcinko Residence



Marcinko Residence

Geometric Shape

Marcinko Residence

This unique grain holder is an example of geometric form. The case itself is a rectangle and then the glass that shows the pasta, rice, beans etc. is a square and is again framed by another square geometric form. 16

Geometric Form Geometric forms represent geometric shapes in 3 dimensions. This covered Bridge in Oglethorpe County represents a geometrical form because you can see the pentagon shape being used for the interior of the bridge. I think this bridge does a great job of showing geometric form that is visual entertaining. uplighter

Watson’s Mill Bridge Watson’sCounty, Mill Bridge 17 Oglethorpe GA Oglethorpe County, GA

Natural/Organic Shape Marcinko Residence

The leaves in this tile represent a natural or organic shape. The Marcinko Residence where this flooring is found, exudes a natural atmosphere. Leaves are truly a natural shape and create an interesting pattern for this tile. In this pattern, there are a few smaller tiles around the larger leaf tiles located in the center of the hallway. 18

Natural Form Natural forms such as the turtle in the pictures is any natural object that is in 3 dimensions. While humans are a common natural form to use, animals such as the turtle are appealing as well. This turtle is in front of a huge stone pavillion used for weddings mostly. The building itself makes you feel like you are in a castle but the turtle brings you back to earth with a feeling of being around nature.

Forest Park St. Louis, Missouri


Abstract Shape This painting which hangs in Choo Choo’s is considered abstract because though it appears to possibly be vases, we cannot be certain. Abstract painting has become very popular. Abstract work is an alteration of the original shape to the point to where you can’t be 100% positive that what you are looking at is actually what you think it is. Sometimes it isn’t at all possible to make out the shape. Abstract shapes entertain the mind.


Abstract Form An abstract form is a form, or 3 dimensional object that represents something. This is an abstract form of a dragonfly. It is made of car and tractor parts so it isn’t a true dragonfly it simply represents a dragonfly.


Non-Representational Shape

Piece of art hanging in Choo Choo’s.

Non-representational shapes such as the one seen in this painting are shapes that cannot be recognized as any known shape or object. This painting is a prime example because if someone asked you what the painting was of, you 22 would have no known this to compare it to.

Non-Objective Form Non- objective form is a 3 dimensional object that isn’t representing anything in particular. This non-objective form is placed in front of Parc Frontenac which is a high class apartment building in St. Louis Missouri. This piece of art doesn’t represent anything other than maybe the high class, artsy attitude of the apartment building itself.

Parc Frontenac St. Louis, MO 63108


Griffin Residence A static shape is one that is basically unmoving; that could categorize many things. However, in this instance, this armoire remains at a standstill and stays that way unless moved by another object or person. It fits perfectly into this little nook and is a very attractive rustic green color.

Static Shape 24

Sackett Residence

Characterized by its look of movement, this dynamic shape is actually a candle holder. The leaf like protrusions create a sense of movement from the piece which gives it interest and a person can’t help but be drawn to it out of curiosity and intrigue!

Dynamic Shape


Stegeman Coliseum


Smooth Texture

This fireplace made from smooth rocks is a great example of smooth texture. Smooth texture is calming and elegant. I feel that this fireplace exemplifies the calming aspect of smooth texture especially and also creates a very homey feel. The Marcinko Residence, Cherokee County


Rough Texture This wood cabin is a prime example of rough texture. The wood used on the outside of the cabin is unfinished. It has no paint or glass on it to smooth it down so when you touch it all you feel is rough wood. The rough texture provides a very rustic feel to this newly built cabin and creates visual interest. The old barn also has the same feel.

Carol Frey’s Barn and Cabin


Real Texture Real texture is texture that can be touched and seen as the same texture. Real texture is represented by this tile floor. When stepping on it, it is cold and hard like tile and is also seen as tile.


Dauler Residence

Dauler Residence

Implied Texture Implied texture is texture that is viewed as one texture but isn’t actually that texture. Implied texture is seen in this linoleum floor. The floor looks like a tile floor but isn’t actually cold and hard like the tile floor is and is made of a different material. 30

This hoosier displays a non-reflexive texture. The wood is not polished and is more rough and vintage looking. It is actually a vintage piece that my parents have had for a long time. There are some shiny, reflective parts to it but these are just the hinges. However, the wood is in good condition and is a good example of this element of design.

Summit Apartment

Non-Reflective Texture 31

Reflective surfaces such as glass create an interesting experience when being viewed. In this example, the reflection gives you a double view of the figurines but in some cases can be irritating because of the glares they cast. 32

Pittard Residence

LIGHTING Vaughn Residence


Natural light such as the light let in by windows can be a great way to save energy by not using lights as much but can also cause glares and be unpredictable. One would need to have other lighting in this corner for reading when the natural light wasn’t coming in.

Pittard Residence


Marcinko Residence Fireplaces are a good source of combustion lighting, which is most often created by the presence of fire. In this room, the fireplace is encompassed by light colored brick and beautiful dimpled, wood beams that are around the fire and then continue to the ceiling. It is then accented by a floral arrangement on the mantle piece and two short stools to sit on and enjoy the warmth. Combustion lighting like this creates a soft, warm, and romantic glow in the room as we can see here.

Combustion Lighting 35

Ambient Lighting Ambient lighting is an indirect light source that bounces light off of a wall or ceiling . This floor lamp is being used to create ambient lighting in an otherwise dark corner of this room.

Boutier Winery Danielsville, GA


Network Interior Design

Uplighters Uplighters in this kitchen can be found above the high cabinets creating a light that is pointed towards the ceiling. They add to the general lighting of a room and create a certain atmosphere, almost a glowing one. I am becoming a fan of these lights after seeing them frequently. The more I see them, the more I like them. They don’t do too much, but really add a little character to a room. 37

T a s k

L i g h t i n g

Summit Apartment

Task lighting is an important aspect in many rooms of a household. In this case, this lamp is not the main source of light in the room, but it offers a little more light to the room in case someone wants to use the desk it is on. It offers extra light as well as adds a decorative element to the room. 38

Dauler Residence

Track Lighting

Track lighting is a convenient form of lighting because the lights are out onto a track so they can easily be moved not only along the track but also tilted different ways to light different areas or art pieces such as the ducks and guns and things hanging on the wall at the Dauler household. Track lighting was used well here to showcase certain things that the Dauler’s wanted people to see.

In the drawing of track lighting you can see from the arrows that not only can the lights move along the track but also tilt form side 39to side or back to front.

Floor Lamp Floor lamps as is stated are lamps that rise up from the floor. Much like table lamps they can light a corner or hover over a chair or table to provide light for reading or writing. This particular lamp is mostly for show, to have a small light in the room when the overhead light is not wanted. It is placed near an old sewing machine but it is not used anymore so the light really isn’t used for anything with the table. This light is left on by Julie Sinn, the homeowner so that she has a somewhat lit room when she enters it.

Julie Sinn’s Master Bedroom Waterloo, IL


T a b l e

L a m p

Table lamps are used for reading areas, to light a corner, or even to draw attention to certain pictures. There are many reasons to use a table lamp but the table lamp seen in the picture below uses it in all the reasons for using a table lamp as listed above. This table lamp is set at a corner table so it lights the corner, it provides light to read, and it draws attention to the family pictures that are displayed on the table. This is an excellent use of a table lamp. Dauler Residence


This picture shows a close up of the lamps and candles adding to the mood lighting of this dining room.

Mood Lighting Griffin Residence Mood lighting evokes emotion in people and makes them feel something. In this dining room, you get a sense of warmth from the dim lighting from the chandelier above the table and the table lamps on the server behind the table. The candles on the table also add to the warmth. 42

A r t L i g h t i n g

Art lighting is exactly what it says; when the light itself is a piece of art. The grape clusters on the shelves are art lighting because the grape clusters are a piece of art that is also a light source. This art lighting is found in a winery in Ila, Georgia so for the place that these lights are being used, this is a great use of art lighting.

Boutier Winery Danielsville, GA


Boutier Winery Danielsville, GA

Colored lighting is used to create mood. This colored lighting was placed in a couple different wholes in the wall at a winery. With white lights over head, the colored lighting provided relief from the ordinary mood of the white lights. The colored lights also lit up decorations and the whole set up was visually appealing and made the place 44 more intimate.

Marcinko Residence

Glare From Natural Lighting

The sun from the window creates a natural glare on these stairs. The window is located in front of the stairs and provides sunlight that cascades into the room. This glare lights up the stairs and plays up the maple toned wood.


Glare From General Lighting

Vaughn Residence

As you can see, general lighting can cause a glare like this light is causing on this painting. This light forms the three small oval spots on the picture and the two larger ovals are formed from another light in the room. This glare makes it difficult to see and understand the 46 picture as a whole.

Riser Lighting Riser lights are lights that are built into stairs so that the stairs are in plain view so that people don’t trip on them. They are a safety measure but can really add mood and class to an area. (


Soffit Lighting Soffit lighting is used to light a space evenly. It can be especially effective for lighting over a kitchen sink for washing dishes or over bathroom sinks for easy grooming. The soffit light used here is placed directly over the toilet because in this particular bathroom the other lights don’t reach the toilet as much as may be needed for reading or what have you. I thought the soffit lighting was perfect for this bathroom area.

Sinn Residence




Summit Apartment

Monochromatic Color Scheme This burnt orange bedding not only brings to mind the colors of fall, it also exemplifies a monochromatic color scheme. You can see that in the comforter there is a darker shade of orange surrounding the orange color. On the accent pillow, you can see the lighter orange tint in the embroidery.


This is an example of an

University Apartments

analogous color scheme. The red, orange, yellow, and purple are all next to each other on the color wheel. I love this picture because it displays a lot of the colors that we are using in our magazine. The crisp reds, oranges, and deep purples and browns are perfect for our theme.

Analogous Color Scheme 51

Direct Complementary Direct complementary colors are colors adjacent to each other on the color wheel such as red and green. Both of these buildings show excellent use of direct complementary colors. I love the way that red and green work together especially when they are the not so bright red and green used on both of these buildings.


Interior Lighting Design

Split Complementary Colors

To find spit complementary scheme, you would first find complementary colors such as blue and orange. However, instead of using the blue right across from the orange, we would use the two colors on either side of it. This is the color palette used in this space. They have used a combination of a blue, purple, and an orange to give this space a nice punch of color, but they still keep the room classy with the type of furniture they have used. Split complementary color schemes can give a room a healthy dose of color to add interest to any room. 53

Triadic Complementary Colors Triadic complementary colors are three colors that are equally spaced apart on the color wheel. An example of a Triadic color scheme would be red, yellow and blue as is seen in this wall dĂŠcor.


Double Complementary Colors

Hasslinger Residence

A double complementary color scheme consists of four colors. You start by finding a pair of complementary colors and then instead of using those two colors, you would use the two on either side of each of the colors, therefore ending up with a rich , four color palette. In this painting, red, orange, blue and green are all used to create the scenic little cottage on the water. I feel it is a very beneficial color scheme to use because of its diversity of colors and the harmony they can create together. 55

Tetrad Complementary Colors

Tetrad complementary colors are two sets of complementary colors that are evenly spaced on the color wheel. An example would be purple and red and green and yellow. This room, created on shows purple, red, green and yellow. 56

Griffin Residence

This painting is an example of an alternate complementary color scheme. It includes the colors green, orange and blue. The painting is depicting a tree consisting of these three colors. I think this is definitely an interesting piece, but maybe not something I would buy or find as attractive as other pieces. If not for the pop of orange, the blue and green almost make you feel a little melancholy.

Alternate Complementary Colors 57

Henderson Avenue Residence

Neutral Color Palette This quaint little house on Henderson Avenue portrays a neutral palette on its exterior. As opposed to having a lot of color, the house is painted with a variety of tans, whites, and browns, along with a neutral gray roof. The toned done palette adds to the light and comforting feeling of the house and does not scare you off with any bright or distracting colors. 58



Human Scale When something is true to human scale that means that the people who use it fit the object or area. The chair with the two women sitting in it is not to human scale. No human would actually own a chair that they had to climb a ladder to get into. The small chair with the small child in it is in human scale because the children that use this chair fit well in it.

Sleepy’s Cabin DÊcor and More


Symbolic Scale

Symbolic Scale can best be described as some sort of presentation of status or wealth; what better thing than a mansion to portray this? This large home encompasses this element, especially in today’s world where bigger is apparently becoming better! 61

Inch House Interiors



Griffin Residence To be in proportion with a space, an object must look like it belongs there, and not out of place. In this room, the framed space above the fireplace calls for a painting of a certain size to make it look just right. The present painting is a perfect fit for the space. It does not look dwarfed nor does it look like it is too big for the space.

Object in Proportion with Space 63

Object Not In Proportion With Space.

This humongous chair found in Gatlinburg, TN is a prime example of object not in proportion with space. As you can tell, the chair is as tall as the building itself but should be maybe 1/3 the size of the building. Even though this object is not in proportion with its space, it was done so intentionally to attract people to the store. It attracts people because they aren’t use to seeing huge chairs so it works well for the business. 64

Sleepy’s Cabin Décor and More


Metric Rhythm

The Graham Residence

Metric rhythm is seen through the repetition and weaving in and out of the columns on this home. Column, window, column, window creates rhythm.


Climactic Rhythm

First United Methodist Church of Greensboro

This church steeple starts big at the base and seems to keep going and going higher and higher as though trying to reach heaven. Climactic rhythm is found because your eye just keeps following the line all the way up to see what is waiting at the top as you anticipate what will be at the top. This church steeple is a great way to show climactic rhythm and is a great way to get people to look up toward heaven.


Griffin Residence

This fabric is an excellent example of contrast. Contrast is when something opposes or is the opposite of the other. In this fabric, the alternating blacks and tans of the circles create a contrast to the one next to it because no two touching ones are the same. I really like this fabric and find it quite interesting., especially for the eyes to follow.


Sackett Residence Just like the water that flows into this sink, the pattern lining the bowl of it, is considered flowing. It is a continuous circle around the sink that does not end. The gold of the pattern is an exquisite accent to the black of the bowl and truly is the focal point of this powder room in the Sacketts house.





Frey Residence

Marcinko Residence

Focal Point Visual This beautiful nature inspired lighting fixture is the focal point visual of this room. It is centered in the center of the space and naturally draws the attention of people entering. The uniqueness of the materials used like the branches, tree stems, and the bark –like light shades add to the attention grabbing aspect of the light. Yellow glowing bulbs also add to the warm feeling the light gives off. 71

Focal Point Structural

This is the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, MO. The Gateway Arch can be seen from miles away as you can tell from the small picture. This arch is a structural focal point because the structure itself is practically the focal point of the entire city. It is a monument that symbolizes the bridge from 72 that “connects� the East and the West that was used for

Under a Paper Moon



Placement of Emphasis In this particular pattern, there is not a true placement of emphasis on just one thing. Instead, the maroon shapes located inside the bigger shapes acts as emphasis to the viewer.

Griffin Residence

Character of the Pattern The character of the pattern is very repetitive. It continues the same paisley pattern over and over without stopping.

Pattern of Color Scheme The pattern of the color scheme is also quite repetitive. It does not incorporate any new colors, but rather just sticks to the maroon, sage green, and light amber yellow.

Scale of the Pattern The scale of this pattern is more or less on a human scale. It is the size f what most fabrics would regularly be and it not oversized or under sized. It is on an average scale when considering one of a fabric. 74


Located on the Marcinko property in Cherokee County, this covered bridge exemplifies visual symmetry. It is easy to divide the bridge right down the middle even with your eyes to get even pieces on both sides. There is already a beam in the center of the top of the structure which makes it easier for our eyes to follow and extend it down to the ground. Marcinko Residence

Visual Symmetry


Structural Symmetry This four car garage shows structural symmetry. The already divided sections of the doors show the symmetry, but even without them, we can see that this structural element is straight and symmetrical.

Griffin Residence


Visual Asymmetry Griffin Residence

A chaise or a fainting couch is the perfect example of visual asymmetry. It is easy to see the lack of symmetry when considering this piece of furniture. The one sided armrest and the single back of this couch make it easy for the lack of balance to be noticed. Despite its asymmetry, it makes for a very comfortable place to relax or enjoy a good book. 78

Structural Asymmetry Structural asymmetry is when a large object is balanced by smaller objects grouped with it. The Five Points Fire Department shows structural asymmetry in a beautiful way because the large part of the structure is at the corner of the street and then if you go along either street that it runs along, the building gets shorter. I love this example of structural asymmetry. The two short sides balance out the tall 79 middle part.

Radial Symmetry

Summit Apartment

These five pointed tin stars are a good example of radial symmetry. Just like a starfish, if you divide the star down the middle, and to the sides all around, there will be equal parts . They also add a very country and vintage feel to the room. 80

Structural Radial Structural radial balance is seen when looking at the pools in this picture. Structural radial balance is when permanent pieces of an area are placed in a circular position. These pools are like connect the dots that are forming circles that get larger and larger.

Red Rock Casino Resort Spa 81 Las Vegas, Nevada



Unity through Line This World Fair Pavilion in St. Louis, MO is an amazing example of unity through line. Curved lines are used throughout the entire pavilion. The openings to walk through, the windows, and even the Hispanic looking shingles are curved lines. The unit though curved line made for a beautiful piece of architecture. World’s Fair Pavilion Forest Park St. Louis, MO 63110


Griffin Residence

Unity Through Shape

This backsplash in the Griffin residence kitchen portrays unity through shape. It consists of the same shape, a square or diamond, but in different sizes. Despite the size differences, they all work together to create harmony. The square outline also works together with the smaller ones within. 84

Unity Through Repetition Griffin Residence

We go up and down them everyday, and just like our repetitive actions, the spindles on staircases act as a unifier through repetition. We see on these stairs that the multiple spindles with decorative shapes are repeated on the whole set of stairs creating unity and harmony. 85

Unity through color

Unity through color is easily seen in this room. The orange color is carried throughout the room. One piece of furniture is that color, then the curtains and the rug both have that color within them and to top it off the other chair has the same color pillows. I thought this room worked beautifully. (Sinn Residence)


Variety Through Color Variety through color is seen when you have something that can be seen as unified but has variety also because of the different colors used. (Rooms to Go Online)


Marcinko Residence This dining area portrays a

variety of materials. From the tree –like chairs, the branch lighting, to the smooth wood of the pillars and framing, there is plethora of unique materials in this area. They all come together to form a cozy, warm and inviting space.

Variety through Materials


Variety Through Furniture Variety through furniture is easily seen in these two pictures that are taken of the same room in the Frey residence. This room doesn’t contain matching sets of furniture but instead has 4 very different types of furniture. It contains a gliding chair, a rocker, a Papasan chair, and a couch. None of these pieces were made to be put together in a room but when they are all combined in room it makes the room extremely interesting to look at and sitting in the many different types of furniture makes the experience more rich. (Frey Residence)


Variety Through Modern in Contrast to Old The coffee table in the center of this room is actually a antique piece. It blends well with the more modern furniture, giving the room a antique charm but in an updated way. I feel like this is becoming popular throughout the years and makes for a good way to incorporate a piece of history into our daily lives. Hasslinger Residence



Marcinko Residence


This solid, deep brown sleigh bed portrays actual density. Looking at it, we can see that there are no cutouts or holes to the bed, it is completely solid. It’s solidity creates a true density for the eye to see.

Actual Density 92

Griffin Residence

Optical Density

Optical density is seen in pieces that aren’t solid but appear to be dense. This table isn’t a solid wood block, but it does have thing on the top to make it appear dense. 93


Massing is simply grouping pieces together to fill a space. These two chairs are grouped with the Victrola to fill the corner. This is an excellent example of massing and also creates a beautiful set. 94

Pittard Residence


Marcinko Residence

Positive Space

A wine holder is something we probably see quite often, but I bet it never makes you think of negative and positive space! You may have not noticed before, but it is actually a great example of these two things. Positive space is the space that is actually occupied. The holes where the wine bottles are stored is considered negative space, while the wood that holds up the bottles is positive space. Hasslinger Residence


Marcinko Residence

This outdoor pavilion is a perfect example of negative space. The cutout squares show the negative space while the posts, framework, and roof represent the positive space. The negative space makes you feel free yet at the same time, you are enclosed and sheltered by the positive space. The two blend together to create a relaxing space to enjoy nature and the fall weather.

Negative Space


Crowding Crowding is easily seen in this area because the table behind the two pink chairs can’t even be viewed. This is simply entirely too much furniture in one in one are for it to be visually appealing or completely livable. Crowded areas can be extremely irritating to the person viewing it or living in it. Overall this is a great picture to show crowding but an awful use of this space.


Pittard Residence

Territorial Space Territorial space is space that one makes known they want to keep just for themselves. A fence shows that that person wants the space that is fenced in not to be intruded on by others unless asked to do so. Another way is simply by signs. Barnes and Noble acknowledges that each of us has our own “bubble” and so they have a sign saying “Please wait here for next cashier.” They have this so that people won’t be directly behind the person checking out and making them feel uncomfortable. This is really helpful to the customer and makes checking out a better experience because there is more privacy.




Frey Residence

Grifin Residence

Hasslinger Residence

Both of these furniture layouts portray a successful arrangement. In the first, the eating area off the kitchen is small, but this distressed table for 6 is an efficient use of space. In the second, the space is comfortably decked out with armchairs and a sofa in order to create a cushy place for people to watch TV and enjoy the fireplace.

Successful Space Function 101

Unsuccessful Space Function This space is unsuccessful in its function because there is no room for two reasons. First, the person who is sitting in the second or third seat or stool has no room to get out because the people in the first stool and chair are too close together. Another reason is because the stool sits on uneven ground because of the rug.

102 Tom Frey Residence

A straight line grouping presents an obvious and straight path one would naturally go in a room. In a galley kitchen such as the one pictured, this is the kind of pathway you would find. There is a straight line of traffic that you must follow to get through the kitchen or to get to one side or the other. This is a great example of a straight line grouping that is present in many home settings.

Straight Line Grouping

Griffin Residence


L-shaped Furniture Grouping As seen in the photos from the Griffin residence, an l-shaped furniture grouping ‌‌

Griffin Residence An L-shaped furniture grouping can be made by any number of pieces of furniture . In this case, an armchair, table, and sofa make up the L in this room. This arrangement allows for an open space and can allow easy traffic flow, but can also be conducive to conversation and other activities. 104

U-shaped Grouping U-shaped groupings work reasonably well in a living room because with sitting on three sides of the room you can put some sort of object to be viewed on the fourth wall. The object could be a window, a fireplace, a piece of art or a television. U-shaped groupings are also used in kitchens such as the one shown. The refrigerator, sink, and stove are each on one side of the U along with cabinets. This is easy to maneuver in and is very practical leaving clear walking into other rooms or in this case, walking to the kitchen table.


Frey Residence

Lawhorn Residence

Circular Grouping Circular Groupings are very practical ways to group people to where they can have a conversation. When you sit at say a rectangular table you have to talk across someone if you want to speak to someone that isn’t right beside you. When you have this small circular table you can easily talk to anyone at the table and everyone is included. 106

Griffin Residence

Parallel Furniture Grouping A parallel furniture grouping has two or more pieces facing each other. In the Griffin household, we see this in their living room. This arrangement allows easy conversation or a perfect setting to play a board game. There is usually a focal point as well in this grouping, which in this case is the fireplace behind the two chairs. I like the arrangement but I have always felt like it is more of a formal atmosphere when compared to the more causal U-shaped or L-shaped groupings. 107

Solo Grouping

Solo groupings can either be completely solo, like this table and chair under the stair case, or can be a solo grouping in a room full of other furniture where someone at a party could have their own space instead of sitting with others on a big couch or something. I love this table and chair set because it is in the hallway which is right outside of a bedroom and outside of a huge living room so when you need privacy or just somewhere quiet to talk on the phone, you have the perfect spot. (Frey Residence) 108

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