“This publication is supported by the European Community Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity (2007-2013). This programme was established to ﬁnancially support the implementation of the objectives of the European Union in the employment and social affairs area, as set out in the Social Agenda, and thereby contribute to the achievement of the Lisbon Strategy goals in these ﬁelds. The seven-year Programme targets all stakeholders who can help shape the development of appropriate and effective employment and social legislation and policies, across the EU-27, EFTA and EU candidate and pre-candidate countries. The Programme has six general objectives. These are: (1) to improve the knowledge and understanding of the situation prevailing in the Member States (and in other participating countries) through analysis, evaluation and close monitoring of policies; (2) to support the development of statistical tools and methods and common indicators, where appropriate broken down by gender and age group, in the areas covered by the programme; (3) to support and monitor the implementation of Community law, where applicable, and policy objectives in the Member States, and assess their effectiveness and impact; (4) to promote networking, mutual learning, identiﬁcation and dissemination of good practice and innovative approaches at EU level; (5) to enhance the awareness of the stakeholders and the general public about the EU policies and objectives pursued under each of the policy sections; (6) to boost the capacity of key EU networks to promote, support and further develop EU policies and objectives, where applicable.
For more information see: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/progress/index_en.html”
“The information contained in this publication does not necessarily reﬂect the position or opinion of the European Commission”
Fundación Andaluza Fondo de Formación y Empleo
Production, text and design:
Fundación Andaluza Fondo de Formación y Empleo
An effort has been made in this report to use language that avoids discrimination or differentiation between women and men. For the purpose of simpliﬁcation and to facilitate reading, generic terms have been used in Spanish except in cases when this has not been possible, in which case the traditional masculine gender form in Spanish has been used, on the understanding that all references in masculine always refer to men and women.
The model of local and regional development applied to employment. Its transferability as a good practice in the European context
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................... 1 2. INTERVIEW WITH THE REGIONAL MINISTER OF EMPLOYMENT OF THE ANDALUSIAN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................................... 5 3. INTERVIEW WITH THE TECHNICAL DIRECTOR OF THE ANDALUSIAN FOUNDATION FOR TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT............................................................................................................ 11 4. THE LOCAL-GLOBAL DILEMMA: LOCAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES........................................................... 15
4. 1. Globalisation as an opportunity for local development 4. 2. Relational governments: a new local and regional political culture in the context of globalisation. Contributions to local development 4. 3. The local development approach: cohesion, consensus and endogenous resources 5. THE ANDALUSIAN EMPLOYMENT AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL: ORIGINS, DEFINITION AND DIMENSIONS........................................................................................... 25
5. 1. Deﬁnition and dimensions of the model 5. 2. Applicability of the model 6. MODEL APPLICABILITY EXERCISES................................................................................................. 39
6.1. Good practice selection methodology 6.2. Presentation of the exercises 7. SOCIAL COHESION AND CONCERTED ACTION: THE CONSORTIUM MODEL................................................................................................................. 47
7.1. Details and scope of action 7.2. Reasons for the action 7.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 7.4. Target groups 7.5. Main actions 7.6. Internal and external resources 7.7. Innovative elements
8. THE GENERATION OF WEALTH AND QUALITY EMPLOYMENT: THE PROMOTION OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT......................................................................................... 57
8.1. Details and scope of action 8.2. Reasons for the action 8.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 8.4. Target groups 8.5. Main actions 8.6. Resources: Internal and external 8.7. Innovative elements 9. DEVELOPMENT OF ENDOGENOUS RESOURCES: “JAÉN DIVERSIFICA”........................................................................................................................... 69
9.1. Details and scope of action 9.2. Reasons for the action: revaluation of endogenous resources and the creation of employment 9.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 9.4. Target groups 9.5. Main actions 9.6. Internal and external resources 9.7. Innovative elements 10. THE ATTRACTION OF EXOGENOUS RESOURCES AS A BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ACTIONS IN THE TERRITORY: CREATION OF THE ANDALUSIAN HISTORICAL SITES NETWORK....................................................... 81
10.1. Details and scope of action 10.2. Reasons for the action 10.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 10.4. Target groups 10.5. Main actions 10.6. Internal and external resources 10.7. Innovative elements 11. RESEARCH-PARTICIPATIVE ACTION TO OBTAIN KNOWLEDGE ON TERRITORIES: A STUDY OF KEY PRODUCTION SECTORS......................................................................................... 93
11.1. Details and scope of action 11.2. Reasons for the action 11.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 11.4. Target groups 11.5. Main actions 11.6. Internal and external resources 11.7. Innovative elements 12. CLOSE ADMINISTRATION: A COMMITMENT TO BRINGING RESOURCES CLOSER TO CITIZENS................................................ 105
12.1. Details and scope of action 12.2. Reasons for the action 12.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 12.4. Target group 12.5. Main actions
12.6. Internal and external resources 12.7. Identiﬁcation criteria of the good practice 13. QUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT: THE ANDALUSIAN EXTRAJUDICIAL SYSTEM FOR LABOUR CONFLICT RESOLUTION....................... 117
13.1. Details and scope of action 13.2. Reasons for the action 13.3. General and speciﬁc objectives 13.4. Target groups 13.5.Main actions 13.6. Internal and external resources 13.7. Innovative elements 14. GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................................... 127 15. BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................................. 131
In recent decade, the Autonomous Community of Andalusia has undergone an intense process of socioeconomic transformation in line with changes in both the rest of Spain and Europe. The Andalusian economy has been characterised by constant nominal and relative growth, fuelling great dynamism and rapid growth. This constant growth reveals Andalusiaâ€™s capacity for integration in the globalisation processes characteristic of modern societies. In other words, better access to global resources in terms of technology, capital and markets has given local and regional territories(1) an opportunity to design and implement competitive development strategies. In this context, the value of the local dimension acquires new value as a political stakeholder responsible for the global strategies designed in different parts of Andalusia to achieve progress throughout the region as a whole. Therefore, the local dimension is once again a factor of political, social and cultural identity, a space for commitments and a fundamental step towards development. Having acknowledged the important role of the local dimension, a comprehensive development strategy for Andalusia must be built based on in-depth knowledge of both the main social, economic and cultural characteristics of the territory and the operative dynamics governing activities therein in order to achieve two ultimate goals: greater well-being for Andalusian citizens; and the transformation of Andalusian municipalities into territories that are integrated and highly competitive in world markets. (1) We consider that the spatial dimension of the territory and its local or regional expression are not subordinate to administrative divisions (municipalities, provinces, Autonomous Community).
This publication presents the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model on which the policy developed by the Andalusian Regional Government is based. It is the result of an important process of systematisation, implementation and conceptualisation of the principles underpinning the Andalusian development strategy, the strategic areas of intervention in employment and local development matters, and the main actions developed to foster growth and progress in Andalusia. The systematisation and conceptualisation of the adopted strategy are essential conditions for identifying the potentialities of the Andalusian Model as a reference for designing measures and actions to optimize growth and development in other territories, and also as a benchmark model for a conceptual and practical planned work methodology based on the notion of territorial proximity, co-responsibility, participation and networking, as well as the use of available resources in the territory. All these features mean that this Andalusian Model can be transferred to other socioeconomic contexts. Accepting that there is no recipe for designing a perfect growth and development model, this publication seeks to contribute practical knowledge on the intervention strategy adopted in the economic and employment fabric of Andalusia. To reďŹ‚ect this, the publication includes two sections on the basic features of theoretical development models and the characteristics and prior situations that have conditioned the development of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model. In order to promote the strategy adopted in the Andalusian labour market, the aim is, in short, to promote and foster the networking, mutual learning, identiďŹ cation and dissemination of good practices and innovative approaches at EU level; these are all objectives of the European Community Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity (2007-2013) (PROGRESS), which has funded this project(2). Bearing in mind that this Model is the result of the coordinated work and input of many social, economic and political stakeholders in Andalusia, it was considered worthwhile to include the informed views and opinions of two experts directly involved in employment and local development matters, in the form of (2) The objective of the PROGRESS programme (which funds this project under the 2007 call for projects) may be summarised as follows: ensure the Community can support the commitments of Member States to create more and better employment and provide all citizens with equal opportunities.
two interviews, one with Antonio Fernández García, the Regional Minister of Employment of the Andalusian Regional Government, and another with Fernando Villén Rueda, the Technical Director of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment (Fundación Andaluza Fondo de Formación y Empleo - FAFFE).
Interview with the regional minister of employment of the andalusian regional government
Is unemployment still one of the main concerns for the Andalusian economy and society? Unemployment has undeniably been a priority for the Andalusian Regional Government and important progress has been made in the last 20 years. Andalusia’s income per capita is already above the 75% of the EU average and this prosperity has been Antonio Fernández García(3) Regional Minister of Employment of the Andalusian Regional Government (Junta de Andalucía) President of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment (FAFFE)
accompanied by historical employment growth, which has increased 58% in the last ten years with the Andalusian labour force increasing by 1.19 million people to more than 3.2 million. However, Andalusia cannot
rest on its laurels, and less so with the current slowdown in growth worldwide. The challenge we now face is to adapt the Andalusian Employment Service to this new and more demanding situation in order to make job-seekers more employable and better prepared for more highly-skilled professional jobs.
What approach or concept is being used to design active employment policies in Andalusia? Our work has been based on Concerted Action on Social Matters and we may afﬁrm, without exaggerating, that Andalusia is an example of how social dialogue can achieve more effective results and solutions than any other method for addressing problems in the labour market. This concerted action has not been (3) Antonio Fernández was born on 16 July 1956 in Jerez de la Frontera (Cadiz). He has a Degree in Law from the University of Seville, where he specialised in Company Law. He is an Associate Professor at the Universities of Cadiz and Seville. He has worked as a labour lawyer in the legal departments of the CC.OO. and UGT, Spain’s two main trade unions. After holding various posts of responsibility in the Andalusian Regional Government, he was appointed Regional Minister of Employment in 2004.
limited to the permanent participation of trade unions and entrepreneurs, even in the Governing Body of the Andalusian Employment Service. Our collaboration with local authorities and other territorial stakeholders means that they participate in the design and execution of active employment policies, with local plans tailored to meet the speciﬁc needs of each area. At present, and as established in the European Social Agenda (2005-2010), we aim to strengthen our policies on gender equality and the reconciliation of professional and family life, wage disparities or the few women in management positions.
Do you believe this planning model responds to current needs? Is it efﬁcient and effective? It is efﬁcient because it responds to very speciﬁc needs in each territory. The diagnosis of the situation in each area is different because each territory has very speciﬁc emerging sectors and always complex needs. It is important to remember that Andalusia is an Autonomous Community with more than eight million inhabitants and a surface area of 87,000 square kilometres, 17% of the country’s total surface area and larger than countries such as Belgium, Holland or Switzerland. Common initiatives are often doomed to failure. For this reason, our planning is carried out in close collaboration with local institutions and in close collaboration with social, economic and administrative stakeholders.
How important are active employment policies for the creation of employment in Andalusia? In the last four years, we have made active employment policies a new civil right, the right to employability and to equal access to these tools which, as I think we have shown, are effective for improving the labour market and optimising the creation and quality of employment. This transformation of employment mechanisms, based on the transfer of active policies, has had a clear impact in the Andalusian labour market and has allowed us to maintain an unprecedented and intense pace of job creation in Andalusia.
Europe has channelled many resources into Andalusia, mainly through the Structural Funds and, in particular, through the European Social Fund. What impact have these policies had in the region? Our aim has been for active employment policies to fulﬁl one purpose: to
consolidate a quality labour market. To develop this strategy, the resources obtained from European Funds, coupled with direct investments by the Andalusian Regional Government, have been crucial because they have allowed us to develop ideas and projects in the territory to provide training for workers in Andalusia and to develop employment promotion programmes, as well as other initiatives to develop the production fabric in Andalusia, create jobs and improve employment quality, and at the same time compare experiences with other European Union countries.
The Regional Ministry of Employment is ďŹ rmly committed to an employment model based on cooperation with Local Corporations and social and economic stakeholders. What beneďŹ ts are being achieved in such priority areas as the creation of quality employment, local development and occupational risk prevention? The model for developing active employment policies, in permanent collaboration with economic and social stakeholders, requires the development of a realistic policy that takes into account both the productive fabric and the territory; hence, the results obtained are positive. As I have already mentioned, these policies are implemented taking into account the overall needs of each territory and workers resident in each area. This means these policies have an undeniable impact on the creation of employment and wealth. As regards policies on occupational risk prevention, which is an area of major concern for the Andalusian Regional Government, no efforts are spared to promote these policies in collaboration with stakeholders in the different territories. In fact, we collaborate with the Andalusian Federation of Municipalities and Provinces to promote a culture of occupational risk prevention in Andalusian town and city councils as work centres and collaborators in the monitoring of safety in their respective areas of action.
What measures is the Regional Ministry adopting to improve employment quality? Employment quality is the ultimate objective of this Regional Ministry and all our policies are focused on achieving that goal. They are also all the result of a consensus with social and economic stakeholders, as reďŹ‚ected in the Sixth Agreement on Concerted Social Action. Many diverse measures have been adopted taking into account all the possible employment quality criteria. Thus, initiatives range from projects to develop occupational safety and health (all included in
the General Occupational Risk Plan) to initiatives aimed at combating seasonality (such as incentives to promote indeﬁnite employment contracts) or inequality (measures to foster the employment of women or the Preferential Integral Territorial Actions to Promote Employment (Actuaciones Territoriales Integrales Preferentes para el Empleo - ATIPEs) applied in nine parts of Andalusia that require special attention). We must also not forget training, personalised guidance on job seeking or labour mediation. All these initiatives ensure that supply matches demand, that employers and employees are satisﬁed and, in short, that all jobs offer guaranteed quality at all levels.
What will be the Regional Ministry of Employment’s main priority in the next few years? We aim to continue working in the same direction to achieve more employment, mainly quality employment. However, in this globalised world Andalusia is not immune to what is happening in the rest of the world, and the circumstances will not be the same as in the previous term of government. Hence, the strategies for dealing with situation will also be different. Therefore, in pursuit of quality employment, we will continue to prioritise women and other collectives with special difﬁculties in accessing the labour market, but we must also not ignore workers in sectors such as the construction industry by introducing measures that can be applied immediately to enable these workers to either stay in the same sector in new emerging occupations or obtain new qualiﬁcations to remain in a labour market, such as the Andalusian labour market, which continues to create employment. In the next four years we also want to continually improve the employability of job seekers and anticipate private demand for labour.
What will the challenges be in the next few years? The global strategy I have described aims to address speciﬁc challenges but these will be identiﬁed and consolidated over the coming months. Nevertheless, one challenge is to deal with the situation in the construction sector, search for alternatives in other emerging sectors and increase personalised support. We will also double our efforts to improve female employment, from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint, and reconcile family and professional life. And, of course, we have not forgotten the objective of achieving full employment within a time horizon of approximately seven years, and strengthening our
Andalusian Employment Service through a more attack-minded policy supported by a new regulatory framework. We must also not forget our commitment to occupational risk prevention to ensure no more workers lose their lives at work. In fact, we are already working on a new General Risk Prevention Plan, which will be even more aggressive than the previous plan. We will adopt a policy of zero tolerance towards accidents.
Interview with the technical director of the andalusian foundation for training and employment
What is the key to providing high value-added training for Andalusia? At the Foundation we believe that training is crucial for development in Andalusia and we can Fernando Villén Rueda(4)
Technical Director of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment
ensure this training is effective in three ways: by adapting it to the current needs of Andalusia’s indus-
trial fabric; by adapting it to meet the needs of collectives that demand training, whether they are unemployed or employed; and taking into account the speciﬁc potentialities and characteristics of each territory. In other words, training must respond to the needs of productive sectors, collectives demanding such training and the territory where this training is required. The aim of training must always be to facilitate the integration of unemployed persons in the labour market and the improvement of workers’ qualiﬁcations and skills, and must be provided taking into account their real circumstances in each case. The Foundation is very active in this area providing guidance and counselling, and has become a key collaborator with public authorities.
What is your opinion about the future of Andalusia’s productive fabric in terms of human resources and training? (4) Fernando Villén Rueda (Cadiz, 1959) has a Degree in Psychology from the University of Seville and received speciﬁc training in Business Administration at the San Telmo Institute in Sevile. He has been working for more than 20 years in the development of the labour market and human resources qualiﬁcations. He was Territorial Director of the former Fondo de Promoción de empleo Zona Sur and is currently Technical Director of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment, which belongs to the Regional Ministry of Employment.
I believe we can be optimistic about the current situation that has been achieved in Andalusia. And I say this because we now have a better qualiﬁed society with more resources, and a more competitive and innovative productive fabric that is committed to new areas of activity in the economy. However, this situation should not make us complacent and catch us off guard. After achieving this, we must continue working and use the experience we have acquired over the years to launch speciﬁc programmes to identify the speciﬁc needs of productive sectors in Andalusia and the demands placed on it by the market. We must therefore be ready to transform opportunities into potential improvements so that we continue moving forward in our commitment to research, to the consolidation of successful experiences and to the development of R&D&I in order to achieve a fairer and more cohesive society, with sufﬁcient resources to guarantee balanced development to strengthen the entire territory.
Does the Foundation plan to work in new sectors or activities? The Foundation is a ﬂexible, modern and decentralized entity adapted to the needs of the territory and population. In my opinion, a modern organisation is one that can survive in a changing environment and adapt to continual changes and changing needs. For this reason, the Foundation is currently working on a very ambitious consolidation and expansion plan in which it aims not just to increase its presence throughout the whole of the region in order to reach more collectives and thus redistribute our potentialities more equally, but also support new strategic sectors such as the management of Diversity in companies or Cooperation or Evaluation of Public Policies, which are starting to become important areas of activity in our society.
How important for the Foundation is it to participate in European knowledge and experience transfer projects? Working in these types of projects is very important for the Foundation because it allows us to communicate with other local development stakeholders and share experiences and models that have already been successfully tested and which can therefore be considered transferable.
However, these experiences must ﬁrst go through a process of adaptation in order to be effective in other territories. We are interested in learning how this can be done, monitoring these good practices in other places. Models are not absolute truths; they may not always work as they have done in the territory of origin because this depends on the moment they are launched and on the process of adaptation in each territory.
What goals has Andalusia set in the area of local development and employment? What role does the Foundation play in this regard? I believe employment and wealth are generated within the territory. A bottom-up approach must therefore be used. It is absolutely essential to take into account the speciﬁc characteristics of the territory to guarantee territorial cohesion and prevent imbalances. This approach brings policies closer to people, puts local people at the centre of policy development and takes into consideration the speciﬁc needs of each community. The Foundation’s policy of territorial expansion aims to identify the needs of the territory and, in collaboration with social and economic stakeholders, to contribute training and employment solutions.
The local-global dilemma: local development opportunities and challenges
In less than ten years the idea of globalisation has not only dominated political and academic discussions but also attracted the attention of the media, economic and social stakeholders and public opinion in general. This process, which is characterised by the extremely rapid and complex internationalisation of the economy, politics and culture, is only comparable with the process of socio-political and cultural change that followed the industrial revolution. On the surface, globalisation prompts countries to apply measures in order to adapt their economic policies to the new realities of globalisation, leading to opening up of markets, deregulation and elimination of obstacles to capital movements and technology transfers, the search for new trade opportunities, the denationalisation and delocalisation of economic activity, insofar as productive spaces and investment are no longer deﬁned by nationality or state frontiers, and particularly the search for new opportunities for investment and growth of the national economy. Although the economic aspects relating to ﬁnance and capital ﬂows and mobility are normally referred to as a consequence of globalisation, this process is substantially more complex and is not limited exclusively to the globalisation of markets. Instead, it implicitly entails the association of profound changes in the nature of relations between society, government and markets, and these changes have palpable effects on territories. While the image of delocalisation and uprooting of the economy is strengthened in a speciﬁc geographical area, another current moves in the opposite direction: the image of local development. The difference between this approach and the methods used in the past is that growth and change at local level, inde-
pendently of administrative planning, is no longer only the result of decisions deriving from political centres/policies. Now, this depends more on interaction among local and regional public and private entities that start cooperating under more or less formal agreements.
4.1. Globalisation as an opportunity for local development Although globalisation brings homogeneity in consumer and cultural trends and in terms of access to information, regardless of the location, reality shows that it can also afford a wide range of different challenges and opportunities for different territories. The globalisation process exposes, on the one hand, local economies unable to compete in this globalised context because they are unable to adapt to the intense pace of globalisation. However, on the other hand, global relations open up opportunities for areas that manage to adapt to the new environment and take advantage of greater access to global resources in terms of technology, capital and markets, allowing them to simultaneously increase the value of their endogenous resources. In this sense, this local-global tension is seen as an opportunity for socioeconomic and cultural development, particularly through local strategies designed to foster integration in the global environment. These strategies are supported by speciďŹ c territorial, cultural, historical and productive resources and elements, which are used to design speciďŹ c competitive strategies in this new context. Therefore, this situation shows that globalisation can pose serious threats: the exclusion of places or district that cease to be attractive for the world economy; the environmental threat resulting from a largely unsustainable development model; the subordinate integration of regions in this globalised environment, due to weak or fragile relationships with external stakeholders (the threat of these stakeholders withdrawing their investments and resources in search of other territories that offer more advantageous conditions is greater for these subordinated local societies). Nevertheless, there are also important possibilities for local development associated mainly with two processes: the actual changes that take place in productive organizations; and political-institutional transformations. The ďŹ rst process - changes in productive organizations - refers to opportunities deriving from the relationships between globalisation and local development
in almost strictly economic terms. Territories, through their actual capacity to produce goods and services and/or through investments of foreign capital, are able to improve their own positions or even launch their own development processes. Within this global-local tension, they take advantage of investment opportunities, capital, ﬂexibility and business decentralisation and also information and communication technologies for compete, distribute, disseminate and market their products and services produced at local level. The second process - political-institutional transformations - refers to the opportunities that the delegation of new political tasks and responsibilities to territorial or regional governments, resulting from their efforts to acquire higher levels of power, has on the growth and development of territories and local communities. Many politicians and academicians agree that the Nation-State (and speciﬁcally the Welfare State as the ﬁnal historical exponent of the Nation-State) has slowly lost some of its original functions, with more powers being delegated to other institutions and national policy becoming more blurred, towards both lower levels - local contexts - and higher levels - supralocal and globalised levels. The effects of globalisation on national policy strengthen certain local structures, which are able to assume new political functions that were previously assumed by the State, and give rise to new relationships of coexistence between central and local governments. National governments use this Keynesian model of the Welfare State, with the provision of public goods and services and the regulation of internal markets, to begin decentralising the management (and only the management) of their policies and delegating these functions to institutions that are closer to citizens. However, the fact that it is impossible or difﬁcult for the State to continue assuming all the responsibilities and commitments envisaged in the Welfare State model, as well as the new more plural, global and complex economic and political context, means that new opportunities are presented for local and regional governments, which transform from mere managers and administrators of centrally decided policies to true political actors and decision-takers. Globalisation therefore gives rise to a new map of institutional responsibilities for development reintroducing the territorial or local dimension as a factor of political, social and cultural identity, a space for commitments and a step towards development. As a result, new reference frameworks begin to develop, outside Central Government, as the territorial and political ideal of contemporary socie-
ties. The State, which is subject to strong tensions “from above”, due to the consolidation of supranational institutional environments and globalisation itself, and “from below”, due to the consolidation of more visible subnational territories, is therefore no longer the only structural element underpinning economic and political systems. Its behaviour is now affected by the transnational operational logic of large companies, the territorial logic of development of different local economic systems and the supranational logic of economic integration processes. However, this trend towards local dimensions does not mean the end of the Nation-State but rather the consolidation of other areas of interaction and political spaces closely linked to the territory, for which the corresponding national policies must be articulated. The reform of the State, as the axis of policies to adapt to the structural change in society, does not imply the reduction but rather the reconstruction of its different levels, from central to local, so that it can fulﬁl all its obligations towards both society and the market. In fact, the State is the key stakeholder in local development because it is the main entity responsible for territorial solidarity, preserving its undeniable role in offsetting economic, social, cultural or territorial asymmetries through the promotion of redistributional and social cohesion policies. In this context, the major difference with the political management model based exclusively on the ﬁgure of the Nation-State is that local governments, given their proximity to citizens and their in-depth knowledge of the territories where they act, are able to assume, which they do, a new political model based on citizen cooperation and participation in policy design and execution. This change clearly has important repercussions for local development. This is known as relational government.
4.2. Relational governments: a new local and regional political culture in the context of globalisation. Contributions to local development. In the last twenty years, traditional democratic governments have had great difﬁculty reacting to more a complex, uncertain and dynamic environment. Citizens, for their part, before the legitimacy claimed by public institutions, claim and demand more spaces for participation, and not just simply voting in general elections or receiving public services.
Local and regional governments, on the other hand, in order not to get left behind in this globalised world, claim their own mechanisms and resources in order to become true political actors, and develop their own action programmes; this political agenda has gradually incorporated a multidimensional perspective. This multidimensional perspective may be deﬁned as follows: ﬁrstly, a broader range of local policies that were previously not (and could not be) local, including most notably policies designed to promote employment and economic promotion; secondly, the concept of territory as a space for urban development, with infrastructural and public services policies, and with the economic, social and territorial mobility consequences this entails; thirdly, innovation and dynamism, mainly for the adaptation and use of opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies, as well as the dynamisation of their productive fabrics; fourthly, proximity, with the recovery of the nearest territory as a space in which to respond to new social, economic and political challenges, and a factor that conﬁrms the hypothesis of the strengthening of local political spaces in the new global context; and lastly, but no less important, networking or participative action. These last two perspectives - proximity or the principle of subsidiarity and participation or relational government - offer the main clues to the new way local governments understand policy and their need to tackle the new economic and social context in which they are immersed. The principle of subsidiarity is deﬁned in Article 5 of the Treaty establishing the European Community. It is intended “to ensure that decisions are taken as closely as possible to the citizen and that constant checks are made as to whether action at Community level is justiﬁed in the light of possibilities available at national, regional or local level”. The principle of subsidiarity does not only refer to the distribution of competencies at different hierarchical and/or functional levels of a social structure. It is also the expression of a speciﬁc concept relating to the participation of all groups in this structure. Subsidiarity entails, in the ﬁrst instance, recognition of the autonomy of each collective in the structure to establish its objectives and select processes to achieve them, but it also requires dialogue and the participation of all (individual and collective) members of the social group in the deﬁnition of the overall objectives, the design of strategies to achieve these and their execution and evaluation, as well as respect for self-regulation and co-regulation instru-
ments. This guarantees the participation in decision-taking processes of persons, groups and entities with in-depth knowledge of the reality in the territory and its potentialities and weaknesses. This principle therefore recognises that it is at this local level that citizens can achieve greater autonomy and more opportunities to join a common decisiontaking and political action structure. Links and connections between social organizations formed by these citizens and local or regional governments are the best guarantees for the improvement of territories, the promotion of civil values and the creation of social capital. This social capital must be understood as synonymous with the obtainment of common resources and capacities based on the interrelationship of stakeholders in order to satisfy human needs and achieve human development. Understanding social capital from this perspective implies accepting a relational form of government in which public authorities can incorporate citizens and social networks in common policy, based on the principles of participation, dialogue and social consensus. Generally speaking, the ultimate aim of this approach is to respond to two non-delegable objectives of local governments: to achieve high levels of well-being for their citizens; and to make their municipalities integrated and highly competitive territories in global markets.
4.3. The local development approach: cohesion, consensus and endogenous resources All the elements that have emerged during the development of this new political culture based on relational government, enabling the development of more active citizenship, based on public-private cooperation and contributing to consensus and cooperation, are precisely the elements that the local development approach has incorporated in its model of action to strengthen territories, as well as their wealth and resources. The local development approach does not refer exclusively to the economic dimension of territories in terms of the use of endogenous resources to develop different forms of production; the objective is more ambitious and addresses a new challenge for the management of the territories themselves, based on cooperation, consensus and the participation of stakeholders acting in these territories, with the shared goal of making the local dimension a competitive environment.
A brief look at the different theories on local development shows that this is the case: the perception of territories has gradually changed not just as sources of wealth but also as shared spaces of action to promote well-being. The traditional approach to local development(5) was based on supralocal processes and focusing on territorial development (at local, provincial or regional level) using endogenous resources. In other words, comparatively less-developed territories were favoured by supralocal development through processes that disseminated growth from the top down. At the heart of this concept is the supposition that less developed areas have surplus labour that cannot be productively channelled and more developed areas have surplus capital that needs channels for investment in order to be economically viable. Based on this assumption, transferring capital (production units) to less developed areas would theoretically resolve territorial and economic imbalances. From this perspective, urban/industrial development growth is driven by large companies, giving rise to strong territorial imbalances characterised by strong growth in large cities (concentration) and impoverishment in rural areas. The theory of dissemination (based on the Centre-Periphery Model) was developed to resolve such imbalances. This theory assumes that, as indicated previously, growth in large cities spreads territorially, favouring regional and rural development(6). However, this model has certain important shortcomings(7). Firstly, it implies the stagnation of qualiﬁed labour in depressed areas because such workers specialise in routine functions. Secondly, a territorial exchange of factors and products is generated that undermines the development potential of less-developed areas because saving, proﬁts and qualiﬁed labour remain concentrated in metropolitan areas. And ﬁnally, the perception of urban industrial growth is exaggerated with respect to local development, prompting the abandonment of rural areas and the saturation of cities. It was not until the 1980s that the concept of locality began to be introduced in theories on development and it was during this period that local development strategies actually began to develop. The incorporation of this term also (5) This ﬁrst appeared during the 1950s but it was not until the late 1970s that theories were developed introducing variants on local development: Becattini’s concept of industrial districts (1979) or Fuá’s concept of the decentralised industrialisation model (1988). (6)Las estrategias de desarrollo local: aproximación metodológica desde una perspectiva socioeconómica e integral; Joan Ramón Sanchís Palacio. Dirección y organización: Revista de dirección, organización y administración de empresas, ISSN 1132-175X, Number 21, 1999, Pages 147-160. (7)Ibid.
coincided with local governments taking a more prominent role as political stakeholders in the deﬁnition of their own policies and actions. Thus, after the 1980s a new development model appeared, the bottom-up model or endogenous local development model, according to which growth was achieved by taking advantage of the speciﬁc human, productive and natural resources of a given area. The endogenous local development model has a series of associated characteristics, which are summarised below: - The territory is an agent of social transformation and not simply a physical medium for development: from the functional space to the active space. - The potential development of an area depends on its own resources. - It requires determined and concerted action – dialogue and consensus – among the different local public and private stakeholders (public authorities, relevant business and trade union associations in the territory, large companies and/or business sectors, associative movements, etc.), in order to create a territorial environment that promotes productive activities in general. - It uses endogenous resources efﬁciently and sustainably and takes advantage of opportunities for exogenous dynamism or the dynamism of business activities carried out in the territory. - It takes into account mainly endogenous resources (real and potential), as well as the needs of local society. - The surplus produced by development has an impact in the territory by generating new activities that tend to foster the diversiﬁcation of production. The endogenous development model, despite being developed as an alternative to the top-down or concentration/dissemination model, is highly compatible with the latter and eventually makes it necessary to incorporate both endogenous and exogenous elements in the local development process(8). This represents a commitment to integral development processes. Based on this reality, an integral local development model can be deﬁned (8) Ibid.
as a strategy that supports the growth, development and progress of territories in the recovery of their own resources through the appropriate combination of their social, productive, cultural, environmental and historical factors in order to increase the well-being of their citizens. It is therefore a local development model that promotes a planned design or strategy of the activity that aims to improve and rationalize the levels of effectiveness and efﬁciency at socioeconomic, cultural, environmental and other levels, in territories where this strategy is implemented through the ordered deployment of a series of activities, using different instruments (political measures, employment devices, speciﬁc programmes, incentives, etc.). A local development model is also participative because the local community is the active protagonist in the design of the development process. In this sense, the boost provided by public-private cooperation and strategic concerted action on the part of territorial socioeconomic stakeholders to design local development strategies entails the shared management of development that is not only based on directives encompassed within central policy or simply guided by the free market. Intermediate spaces between the market, society and the administration are used to deﬁne a new way of policy making, in particular local development policies. Thus, the distinctive element of local development is the capacity of local institutions to cooperate and create shared lines of development that can mobilize local resources and competencies. As indicated previously, the ultimate objective of any local development model is to improve citizen well-being by developing the territory’s endogenous resources and exploiting local resources. Despite its importance, this well-being should not be understood merely from an economic perspective (higher incomeper-capita), but in a broader and integral sense combining other variables, including most notably the following: employment and economic growth variables (better and more employment, the creation of quality employment at all levels, the development and consolidation of existing business fabrics, productive diversiﬁcation, training for citizens, support to self-employment initiatives); relational government variables (the consensus of social agents, the development of associationism, citizen participation); and variables related with social responsibility and environmental sustainability (the development of social equality, environmental protection, protection of the quality of life, cultural development, responsible urban growth). This list of variables already reveals the objectives of the Andalusian Em-
ployment and Local Development Model, although this is not a deﬁnitive list of aspects that will be addressed because each territory is different and each model or speciﬁc action must be adapted to the environment where it is implemented. Certain actions will also have priority over others and others will have to be included because they do not appear on this list but are intimately linked to the territory and are therefore extremely important for its development. In general, all these reﬂections show that globalisation is not incompatible with local growth and development processes and can actually drive these processes. The question is what option, strategy or model should territories adopt in order to join the globalised world, through sustainable development processes that can be maintained and that can create employment in territories, since employment is essential to prevent the exclusion of individuals and territories. The capacity to successfully combine the key elements of local development will not only determine the success of the strategy but also the actual model proposed for the territory. Bearing in mind that each territory is different and that the planned measures and actions must be adapted accordingly, an optimum formula must be developed to ensure a balance between these factors and thus achieve a more integral, balanced and efﬁcient endogenous local development model that can be proposed for the territories in question.
The Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model: origins, deﬁnition and dimensions
Therefore, for the design and execution of an employment and local development model to be successful, the model must be perfectly and rigorously adapted to the needs of the territory where it is to be applied. It must also be have elements and relationships between these elements that make it multidimensional and ﬂexible. The model can be adapted perfectly with in-depth knowledge of the main social, economic and cultural characteristics of the territory and the operating dynamics governing territorial activities and characterising trends of future development. Andalusia, which is immersed in the strong global process of change and social progress characteristic of modern societies today, is a complex, diverse and changing territory where many inter-related social, economic and cultural stakeholders interact. These interrelationships are also encompassed within lines of future development that afford coherence and coordination to all the actions carried out in the territory. The ultimate objective of these actions is generally to promote local development through growth, development and progress in the territory as a whole. Although it is true that the design and execution of an employment and development model must be based mainly on the economic and labour structures of a territory, it is also true that in territorial actions it is impossible to deﬁne and separate the different social, cultural, economic and historical spheres that interact in the territory and that determine whether local development strategies are successful. For this reason, it was considered essential to identify the features that currently characterise Andalusia. This was done simply for illustrative purposes and not scientiﬁc reasons in order to deﬁne the reference context in which the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is being developed.
Firstly, and on a more general note, it is important to understand that Andalusia is currently immersed in the different relations, coupled with a certain dependency, with all national and supranational territories. These dynamics are imposed by the globalisation processes currently taking place in modern societies, where interdependence is the basic relational principle between economies and cultures. This interdependence directly affects the development strategies of local territories because the objectives and actions designed to strengthen growth and progress of local territories must be synchronised with the achievement of the main lines of development dictated by globalisation. Nevertheless, despite the challenges for local development presented by the internationalisation of relational dynamics in local territories, the local perspective and the actions of local stakeholders must continue to be a priority in any proposed development model. A second process taking place in modern societies, and which directly inďŹ‚uences the pace of growth, development and progress in Andalusia, is linked to the strategic irruption of new information and communication technologies in all areas of Andalusian society. The relationship between new technologies and local development strategies in territories must be interpreted in two different ways. Firstly, they are a tool to support all development and employment actions undertaken in local territories. In this sense, their important contribution in terms of the diversiďŹ cation of intervention opportunities, as well as the elimination of geographical barriers, which is crucial for the implementation of social/employment policies and initiatives to develop broad local development strategies, is undeniable. Secondly, new information and communication technologies are another challenge for Andalusian territories. Since they must adapt their resources and training programmes and generate positive attitudes on the part of Andalusian citizens, local territories must make an effort to join the rapid process of modernisation in terms of technological capacity that is taking place worldwide. Therefore, all local development projects or initiatives must base their success on strengthening the use of new information and communication technologies and accept that these are fundamental tools at the service of citizens, economic, social and employment agents and, ultimately, as tools to support growth, progress and development in the territory.
A third relevant aspect in the analysis of the context in which the Andalusian development model was developed is knowledge of the actual economic context and the important reﬂection of this situation in the Andalusian labour market. This is the key element of the Andalusian Development Model described in this publication. In this sense, Andalusia is immersed in a process of growth and improvement of the basic structures on which its economy is based. In the Andalusian labour market, this economic growth has resulted in both improvements and new development trends that have triggered the modernisation and improvement of the Andalusian labour market. The appearance of new employment sites, the design of local development and employment policies, the increase in rates of participation of Andalusian citizens in the labour market, the search for the on-going improvement of working conditions, general improvements in the qualiﬁcations of workers and the perception of training as a priority element are just some of the improvements that have taken place in the Andalusian labour market. The emergence of new professional proﬁles, new demands in terms of ﬂexibility and effectiveness, the imperative need to modernise its basic structure, social interest in the integration of collectives with special difﬁculties integrating in the labour market, and the actual irruption of new technologies as a growth-driving element, are the new development trends in the Andalusian labour market. Rigorous and in-depth knowledge of the operational dynamics and characteristics of the economic context and the Andalusia labour market are essential in order to elaborate a local development proposal that takes into account the characteristics of the territory. This is even more important when the main scenario in which the strategies, actions and constituent instruments of any local development model are to be implemented is the labour market. Nevertheless, although it is true that the economic boom and the modernisation and dynamisation of the Andalusian labour market are crucial elements for designing a Development Model for Andalusia, the importance in this model of existing resources in the territory should not be ignored. Since these are necessary to support any progress and growth strategy, the diagnosis of the context that always precedes the deﬁnition of any development model must provide a thorough inventory of existing resources.
It is a question of not only identifying economic resources, infrastructures or resources that form part of the territory’s natural wealth, but also the human resources and their fundamental characteristics. Only through rigorous knowledge of the quality and quantity of resources in the territory can actions be designed to strengthen the territory and attract other exogenous resources at the core of a general territorial growth and development strategy. A ﬁnal aspect worth highlighting in relation to the context in which the Andalusia Employment and Local Development Model has been developed concerns the actions carried out by the Andalusian Regional Government in the area of employment. Many speciﬁc infrastructures have been created in Andalusia for carrying out actions in the area of employment. These consist of a series of ﬁnancial instruments, tools, mechanisms and resources available to all stakeholders working to achieve the same general objective, namely to create employment policies that respond to the needs of the Andalusian economy and labour market. All these employment actions must be seen as a reference and platform for the deﬁnition of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model, since they incorporate the Autonomous Community Government’s vast experience in the design and management of labour policy. Ultimately, employment - and quality employment in particular - is the cornerstone of any development model.
5.1. Deﬁnition and dimensions of the model All the aspects of the socioeconomic context in Andalusia described above conﬁrm the importance of different elements that are fundamental in the design of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model. The diversity of factors deﬁning the context, the complex interrelationships between all these factors and the irregular evolution of each factor in different parts of Andalusia require an equally complex, planned, inclusive and ﬂexible intervention strategy to allow all Andalusian territories to achieve development and full employment. The characteristics of this strategy are described below. The employment and local development model for Andalusia presented in this document takes all these questions into consideration. A general deﬁnition of this model and the essential constituent elements of the model that make it applicable are provided below.
The Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is based on an integral, strategic and planned design articulated around speciﬁc characteristic principles and strategic pillars that guide and harmonize employment initiatives developed in Andalusia by entities and groups belonging to the Regional Ministry of Employment, through the ordered and coordinated deployment of programmes, measures and services. As mentioned previously, this model is based on three dimensions or interrelated explanatory levels. These establish the fundamental inspiring principles of the model and make it an instrument for the practical implementation and development of social and labour policies, all within a context characterised by strong synergies of change in which local stakeholders play a key role. These three dimensions are: the conceptual dimension; the structural dimension; and the territorial dimension. An optimum understanding of the three dimensions and of the relationships that exist between them conﬁrms this model as a reference for intervention in the territory in the areas of employment and local development, and also validates it as a fundamental tool for achieving progress in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. 1. The conceptual dimension. This requires substantial analysis, which is essential in any model, to identify the principles on which global employment and development strategies launched in different territories in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia must be based. Although the contribution of this analysis is really more theoretical, it is ultimately justiﬁed because it helps to guide and contextualise all employment and development initiatives launched in the territory. Therefore, all the differential characteristics deﬁning the Model are presented in the conceptual dimension: - Local: Territories and their differential elements are at the core of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model; the territory is the main element driving actions that must and can be developed in that territory. - Participative: The model is participative because it takes into account the interests and wishes of all the stakeholders participating in its development, with actions always being aimed at citizens, who are the ultimate beneﬁciaries of all the measures envisaged in the model.
- Endogenous: The model is endogenous because it approaches the development of Andalusian territories through local development models that focus on territorial capacities, values and resources to foster integral, sustainable and lasting growth and development. - Integral: The model is integral because it envisages integral actions structured around a series of strategic work areas that cover different important aspects relating to employment and economic development. - Sustainable: The model is sustainable because the actions it develops have been agreed by all the stakeholders participating in the generation, support and promotion of development and employment; hence, the measures launched are not subject to speciﬁc decisions but rather to a planned and systematic approach to work in the different territories. - Proactive/dynamic: The model is proactive because it envisages the promotion of local stakeholders to lead initiatives in the territories. This promotion and dynamisation is based on a prior consensus on the design of actions, both as a general action framework and for each speciﬁc activity linked to a speciﬁc axis of the model. Local entities change from being passive receivers of policies and suppliers of services to active participants in their own development. - Structured: This is a structured model because it has been planned. This is not to say that it only identiﬁes fundamental areas of work but also the principles that have inspired all the speciﬁc actions launched within the scope of this development and employment model. - Agreed: The model has been agreed because it is based on a general action framework represented by the different Concerted Social Action Agreements. This ﬁgure or form of managing public matters generates a whole range of micro products resulting from cohesion, the most representative product being the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model. - Flexible: The model is ﬂexible because its design and speciﬁc actions are constantly being reviewed by all the entities participating in its development at both technical and executive level. Additionally, the model also establishes speciﬁc feedback mechanisms that stakeholders entrusted with implementing the de-
signs in the different territories can use to adapt proposed measures. - Assessable: The model is evaluated throughout its entire life cycle in terms of its design, through consultation and consensus with participating stakeholders, and implementation, through the adaptation and completion of actions through different internal and external authorities, which evaluate the results and performance of each action. - It promotes co-responsibility: The model promotes co-responsibility among territories and all stakeholders involved in the planning and execution of the measures envisaged in the model’s strategic axes, thanks to the agreed design and establishment of explicit commitments among the different parties. By placing coresponsibility at the end of this list of differential characteristics of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model does not diminish its relevance, quite the opposite. It concludes this deﬁnition of the model’s characteristics by emphasising the spirit inherent in the model. 2. The structural dimension. A second so-called structural dimension has been deﬁned based on knowledge of the close links between the Andalusian Employment and Development Model and the characteristic features of Andalusia deﬁned in the previous section and the applied nature and orientation of the model. This dimension gives the model an applied perspective in which planning and ﬂexibility are the key criteria. Since any development models must identify work areas in which it can be developed and in which its main guiding principles can be applied, the structural dimension identiﬁes and deﬁnes the priority areas of action for the growth, development and progress of the economy and employment in Andalusia. These areas of action have been structured in seven speciﬁc strategic axes of action underpinning the model, speciﬁcally: social cohesion and concerted action; the generation of wealth and quality employment; the recovery of endogenous resources; the attraction of exogenous resources; participative research-action to obtain knowledge on the territories; close management; and quality employment. These strategic axes are general because their main objective is to identify key areas for the development and strengthening of territories. Each of these stra-
tegic axes is implemented through a set of actions carried out in the territory by different institutions and groups through the planned execution of programmes, services and measures. In this sense, the structural dimension must be seen as an intermediate step between the general principles guiding development in Andalusia and the speciﬁc actions and initiatives contained in this dimension. The strategic axes and their deﬁnitions are presented below: Strategic axis 1 [SOCIAL COHESION AND CONCERTED ACTION]: The generation of social capital in Andalusia is conceived, within the scope of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model, as a prerequisite for any type of growth. This refers to growth at two levels: economic growth, accompanied by more efﬁcient territorial development and consequently an exponential increase in the well-being of citizens (in economic terms); and social growth, generated by cohesion synergies deriving from the policy of concerted action. In terms of social growth, this knowledge of the participation of, and consensus among, the stakeholders involved in the development of the economy and employment in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, produces a fairer and more supportive distribution of active employment policies throughout the territory. This axis is basically founded on the principle of territory as the protagonist of its own development and on the ﬁrm belief that the work and conviction of local stakeholders participating in and leading development strategies, undoubtedly results in the generation of institutional dynamics that favour innovation, the generation of wealth and growth. Strategic axis 2 [GENERATION OF WEATLH AND QUALITY EMPLOYMENT]: This strategic axis focuses on the search, promotion and recovery of local labour markets to generate and support economic growth in the area, in order to generate more and better employment. In short, the aim is to incorporate the factors necessary for generating social capital in territories where actions are being implemented, based on the principle of wealth as social well-being (and individual well-being), coverage of basic needs to achieve a richer and better-trained population that participates in decision-taking processes.
This axis also considers the role that employers (and connections between them) can play in the territory to generate wealth. Entrepreneurial spirit is the result of an individual decision to respond effectively to opportunities in the local environment. Nevertheless, it is up to the Administration is use means at its disposal to make this process smoother by developing and supporting self-employment initiatives. There are many reasons for including entrepreneurial spirit in the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model, but the following are perhaps the most noteworthy: - First and foremost, it provides a means of access to the labour market for certain collectives (especially women and young people) that are most seriously affected by imbalances in terms of access to the labour market. - Secondly, this is high value-added employment because it is normally generated through activities that cannot be covered by formal markets for either logistical reasons (goods and personal services) or because these areas of activity have only developed or been discovered recently (e.g. environmental work). In either case, this generates employment with high added value because of its potential for rebalancing and promoting social cohesion. - And thirdly, because all self-employment generated with support and assistance from public employment services has a quality that could otherwise not be achieved: quality in terms of the durability of the initiatives, potential links between initiatives, ethical criteria associated with new enterprises (effective equality between women and men, respect for the environment, etc.). Strategic axis 3 [DEVELOPMENT OF ENDOGENOUS RESOURCES]: A recurrent and key element of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is the need for local stakeholders to develop a common and agreed development strategy that can be applied in their respective territories. This agreed strategy aim to achieve more and better use of endogenous resources and the diversiďŹ cation of production in the different territories. This strategy must also include the incorporation of quality in products and production processes, as well as innovation in business and administrative-institutional management.
In this area of action, the development of the existing territorial productive fabric and the qualiﬁcation/reclassiﬁcation of human resources in these territories is a prerequisite for the recovery of local endogenous resources. In both aspects, labour market requirements must been kept in mind in terms of companies’ capacity to compete in international markets and their potential to adapt to new production activities. In summary, the improvement of living conditions and citizen well-being, as priority objectives of local development strategies, depends on, among other aspects, better use of local resources to create more companies, employment and wealth and generate more growth and development. This use of local resources must be geared to adapting/readapting production processes and human resources to the market, and this must be supported by a solid institutional services network. Strategic axis 4 [ATTRACTION OF EXOGENOUS RESOURCES]: The attraction of exogenous resources is without doubt an essential variable for building an effective employment and local development model because these resources are crucial for supporting and consolidating many projects developed in different territories. Nevertheless, the attraction of exogenous resources is not a spontaneous, isolated activity disconnected from the development dynamics implemented by the model (supportive logic), quite the opposite. It is a key element in the development process as one of the prerequisites to ensure optimum attraction of exogenous resources: cooperation, networking, recovery of resources, etc. These actions generate development synergies in territories (knock-on effect) that facilitate the attraction of resources in the form of ﬁnancial capital and external investments (productive logic). Strategic axis 5 [PARTICIPATIVE ACTION-RESEARCH TO OBTAIN KNOWLEDGE ON TERRITORIES]: Based on the premise that territories are the main protagonist of local development strategies, research in the ﬁeld, particularly applied research, is a fundamental pillar on which to design employment programmes and mechanisms
because the speciﬁc characteristics of each territory, e.g. productive fabric, economic dynamics and cultural features, deﬁne the basic requirements or information for the implementation of speciﬁc comprehensive actions. For this reason, the obtainment of knowledge on Andalusian territories must be a fundamental area of activity in an endogenous development model because Andalusia has so many different territorial and socioeconomic realities that require responses speciﬁcally adapted to the situation in each territory, based on the design of tailor-made actions. The active employment policies planned by the Autonomous Community Government - within the framework of a planned development model - can therefore not ignore the contrasting realities of Andalusia’s different territories. Strategic axis 6 [CLOSE MANAGEMENT]: The inclusion of this strategic axis in the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is not a minor issue. It is related to the way in which the administration perceives its relationships with users of its services. An employment and local development model implemented in a vast and diverse Autonomous Community like Andalusia must necessarily take into consideration the differential aspects of its different territories to be included within the scope of general, integral and sustainable development. On that basis, this strategic axis makes three fundamental contributions: speciﬁc attention to potential territorial imbalances in terms of access to speciﬁc policies, programmes, incentives or actions encompassed within active employment policies developed within the context of the development model; the modernisation of public employment services in terms of the speed and effectiveness of their relations with citizens and companies; and, lastly, but most importantly, improved access to employment resources provided by the Regional Ministry of Employment. Strategic axis 7 [QUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT]: Employment creation is clearly a key pillar in the development of any territory; hence, creating more employment is one of the main concerns of an emplo-
yment and local development model. The Regional Ministry of Employment is committed to an employment creation model in which employment is generated in accordance with speciﬁc quality criteria. To this end, the Ministry has designed different mechanisms, instruments and measures to promote and achieve this objective. Newly-generated quality employment is not seasonal employment that offers unstable contractual conditions, it is employment that, for example, complies fully with existing legislation on occupational risk prevention, protects the occupational health of workers, or respects gender equality, diversity and the environment. Any other type of employment that does not comply with the criteria established within the scope of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is inconceivable. 3. The territorial dimension. This third dimension is transversal and inﬂuences the content of the conceptual and structural dimensions. This transversality is achieved because the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is closely linked to the concept of territory. The model is based on an understanding of the local dimension, local stakeholders acting in that environment and initiatives promoted by them as the main component that must deﬁne both the principles inspiring the model (conceptual dimension) and its strategic axes of intervention (structural dimension). This approach has three consequences: the ﬁrst is that the applicability of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is determined by its capacity to combine all the employment and local development actions carried out in the territory; the second is that this model treats territory as the main asset, as a resource and as a space; and the third consequence is that the space in which the model is developed is the territory itself, whereby stakeholders in the territory are treated as the protagonists of growth, development and progress in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Territory is therefore seen as a space for participative and relational interaction. In short, the territorial dimension in this model emphasizes the importance,
protagonism and fundamental nature of the local dimension in the design of any intervention strategy that aims to achieve integral development in these territories and thus tackle the major challenges of modernisation and progress characteristic of global societies.
Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model
Figure 1. Characteristics of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model.
5.2. Applicability of the model The Andalusian Employment and Development Model therefore has certain characteristic features and potentialities that make it a legitimate reference for the optimum growth and development of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia and, at the same time, transferable to other territories. The applicability of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is based on two fundamental ideas. Firstly, it is a multidimensional model. When designing the model, efforts have been made to identify and deﬁne the fundamental principles that have inspired the model’s strategic axes and which are developed in the speciﬁc employment and local development actions that emerge in the different territories. Through ﬁrst-hand knowledge of these actions, important efforts have been made to analyse and identify the speciﬁc and real
activities supporting these strategic axes. This conﬁrms the model’s potential as a tool for establishing links between the conceptual frameworks of development and the application of development and employment policies in given territories. The second idea justifying the applicability of this model is its ﬂexibility. This ﬂexibility is based on the many actions carried out locally in the different territories and which have served as a basis for conceptualising and structuring this development model. In addition, many links have also been established between these territories in order to achieve the strategic axes. This feedback between the theoretical and applied facets of the model means that it can be continually rebuilt according to innovations in both actions and inter-relationships between actions. This approach aims to reveal the application potential of the model itself in terms of deﬁned dimensions, speciﬁc characteristics and supporting axes, and thus constructing a model from the top down (i.e. a model with an existing and established design). The selection of the following exercises is a second way of understanding its applicability, in this case from the bottom up, i.e. through actions such as those described here or similar actions, in each axis of the model, in order to gradually build the model.
Model applicability exercises
In practical terms, the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model is implemented in the territory through the development of initiatives linked to each of its seven strategic axes. In order to prepare this publication, an exercise was carried out to identify speciﬁc initiatives in Andalusia linked to these axes and to provide a better understanding and promote the practical transferability of the model. The seven initiatives were chosen due to their explicit contribution to one of the axes, although they also strengthen the other axes. In short, seven practical exercises were identiﬁed for the applicability of the Model in other territories. Each initiative has been built on a set of planned actions and strategies supported by speciﬁc economic and human resources and, crucially, with the support of local political and social stakeholders where the actions and strategies were implemented and the Andalusian administrative authorities in general. In order to identify the best initiatives or those which, as part of a set of actions, make the greatest contribution to the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model, an identiﬁcation and evaluation instrument was created using the good practice selection methodology(9). This methodology was strongly endorsed and validated by both political-administrative stakeholders and academicians in Andalusia.
6.1. Good practice selection methodology In general terms, a “good practice” may be deﬁned as an example of a (9) Based on the Guía metodológica de buenas prácticas (Methodological Guide of Good practices). Regional Ministry of Justice and Public Administration. Regional Government of Andalusia. Observatory for the Improvement of Public Services.
good technique or method that establishes a sequence of activities to be followed by others who wish to carry out the same activity in a speciﬁc context(10)”. A “good practice” is one that allows a deﬁned objective to be achieved and that may be repeated, always taking into account the speciﬁc characteristics of each context in other different environments. A “good practice” is also distinguished by its innovative nature, resulting in new actions that are different to those used previously. Various requirements must be fulﬁlled for a practice to be deﬁned as a “good practice”. In short, all “good practices” must: - Accurately identify the causes of the social problems they aim to resolve and the barriers that prevent the improvement of the situation. - Correctly plan the actions to follow in order to resolve the problem. - Implement actions in accordance with the established planning. - Have an innovative perspective. - Generate a tangible impact. - Offer prospects for future improvement. In the speciﬁc case of employment and local development, a “good practice” is one that adapts training to different market demands, generates greater employment opportunities and foster improvements in the production fabric. In this sense, a “good practice” is one that identiﬁes, plans and implements actions innovatively, continually adapting to changes in the social and labour contexts and promoting sustained processes of development. The “good practices” in employment and local development presented in this publication were identiﬁed in the following phases: the selection of experiences; the compilation of information; the analysis of this information; and the selection of “good practices”.
(10) Observatory for the Improvement of Public Services, 2007:6.
The good practice identiﬁcation process
Firstly, the analysis team identiﬁed a set of experiences that could be classiﬁed as “good practices” through continual and ﬂuid communication and based on in-depth knowledge of the different employment and local development measures launched by the Regional Ministry of Employment. After these experiences had been selected, information was gathered on these practices based on a review of the main internal documents (annual reports, activity reports, databases, etc.). The gathered information was then analysed to determine whether the practice could be classiﬁed as a “good practice”. This analysis was based on a review of the following dimensions: data identifying the practice, starting situation and context, objectives, applied methodology, implementation stages of the practice, means and resources employed, results of the practice, stakeholders involved, innovative elements and areas of improvement. Each policy or measure was identiﬁed as a “good practice” by valuing a set of criteria that referred to key aspects for the modernisation of employment and local development policies and services, the maximum score being 100 points. Compliance with the four basic selection criteria - transferability, innovation, planning and administration of processes, and participation – was analysed, each with a maximum score of 12.5 points. Other selection criteria were also scored, but these could only receive a maximum score of 5 points; these criteria included, for example, quality, optimisation of resources, internalisation and transparency. Practices achieving overall scores above 60 points were identiﬁed as “good practices”, as shown in this publication.
Selection criteria Basic
Maximum score Transferability
Process planning and management
Optimization of resources
Evaluation and monitoring
Total maximun score
By developing the “good practice” selection criteria shown above, we were able to establish two large blocks of selection criteria: basic criteria; and general criteria. These criteria are deﬁned below, together with details of the different aspects or subcriteria in each case. Basic criteria - Transferability: This refers to the existence of key attributes or features that can be used as a model by other organisations. Transferability is a core element of any “good practice” because its fundamental objective is to increase the replicability of policies and measures in other social contexts and areas of action. Transferability may be horizontal, if it is applied within the same service or institution, or vertical, if it is applied between institutions or organisations. - Innovation: This is another key element of any “good practice” and is associated with originality in aspects such as the adoption of new work and mana-
gement approaches, the performance of actions with speciﬁc collectives and the creation of social capital. - Process planning and management: This criterion refers to planning and management actions to deﬁne and monitor the processes necessary to ensure services are rendered effectively to citizens. Key aspects include the existence of clear political leadership and efﬁcient and effective human resources management. - Participation: This involves the incorporation of citizen initiatives and expectations to improve public services through the creation of speciﬁc communication and interaction channels and the promotion of co-responsibility. General criteria - Quality: This refers to the improvement in quality as a result of the implementation of the practice. Quality is measured in terms of the adoption of a quality management model based on the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model adapted to the Public Sector; compliance with established quality standards; and the application of subsidiarity, consisting in bringing services closer to all citizens in conditions of equality. It is linked to attributes such as the opportunity and precision of policies or measures. - Optimisation of resources: This criterion is related to the examination of available human, material, economic and technological means and resources and their efﬁcient and effective use. It is linked to the viability of the practice in terms of resources and over time and to the existence of proportionality in the distribution of resources to achieve the different objectives. - Integrality: This criterion is linked to the adoption of multidimensional approaches for implementing different actions to resolve speciﬁc social problems. It is associated with a holistic vision in policy identiﬁcation and planning. - Transparency: This is related to the clarity of actions and arrangements carried out to implement the practice. It is linked to access to public information, institutional reporting and ﬂuid internal and external communications. - Results: All “good practices” must help to improve an existing situation. The results of a policy or measure may be observed in citizens, in speciﬁc social groups, in the employees of the organisation and in the organisation itself. These
results may be the effects deﬁned in the planning process or broader impacts on the internal and external context of the organisation. - Networking: The establishment of collaboration networks inside and outside the organisation to achieve the same objectives is a crucial element to be taken into consideration in the modernisation and improvement of public policies and services. Networking can be achieved through internal and external collaboration agreements or alliances. - Sustainability: This is linked to the implementation of practices that give added value to the activity and guarantee its continuity beyond the existing political cycle. - Environment: This criterion is related to the evaluation of environmental impacts, environmentally-friendly planning and the performance of activities to promote the sustainable use of natural resources. - Equality: This refers to the promotion of equality throughout the life of a policy, from its design through to its evaluation, and in particular evaluating the impact of actions on different situations of inequality. It is linked to the principle of equal opportunities, according to which everyone must have the same opportunity to access the labour market and must not be discriminated against for reasons of sex, geopolitical or racial origin, age, religious beliefs, sexual orientation or disability. - Evaluation and monitoring: This is associated with the performance of systematic analysis exercises that enable reporting, learning and the improvement of policies in the case of evaluation, and the incorporation of the necessary modiﬁcations during their implementation in the case of monitoring. It entails the measurement and development of different dimensions, such as the effectiveness, efﬁciency, relevance and coherence of policies.
6.2. Presentation of the exercises The application of the good practices methodology, coupled with the adaptation of basic and general criteria, enabled the identiﬁcation of seven initiatives encompassed within the scope of the employment and local development model and implemented in the territory.
The initiatives identiﬁed as “good practices” are described as shown in the diagram to ensure in-depth knowledge of both the practice and its innovative elements and thus enable the development of benchmarking through their presentation and dissemination in this publication.
Diagram of the different applicability exercises presented
1. Details: This includes information such as the name of the “good practice”, the promoting entity and the implementing entity, the territorial scope of application, the duration – start and end dates – and the internal and external resources. 2. Reasons for the action or detonating factor: This presents a brief description of the initial situation that prompted the implementation of this action, as well as the determining factors. 3. General and speciﬁc objectives: This indicates the purpose of each policy according to the speciﬁc social problem it is designed to help resolve. 4. Target groups: This speciﬁes the target population of the policy or measu-
re in question. 5. Main actions: This describes the sequence and logic behind of the main actions that have been carried out. 6. Resources: This provides details of the human, economic and material resources employed, as well as the communication systems used to implement the policy. It provides speciﬁc details of both internal and external resources. 7. Innovative elements (in accordance with the good practices methodology): This includes details of the aspects that make the intervention a “good practice”. This section provides a logical explanation of why the policy is considered to be a “good practice”, according to compliance with the established basic and general criteria.
Social cohesion and concerted action: the consortium model
7.1. Details and scope of action The Autonomous Community of Andalusia has always been committed to a territorial model of full-scale regional and local development and prior to the transfer of competencies relating to the management of active employment promotion policies, it introduced different key mechanisms for the management of these policies. This process culminated in 2003 with Royal Decree 467/2003 of 25 April(11), whereby the Regional Administration accepted the challenge of designing these active employment promotion and economic development policies in territories with high levels of unemployment, and doing so in a region as vast and diverse as Andalusia. The result of this work before and after the transfer of competencies relating to the management of these active policies is a unique territorial development model in which active employment promotion policies have received a new and innovative boost in terms of the strengthening of actions carried out by local governments and social and economic stakeholders and the adaptation and cooperation mechanisms used. The body responsible for implementing these new dynamic processes is the Servicio Andaluz de Empleo (SAE) (Andalusian Employment Service). After its creation in 2002(12) as the body responsible for managing the employment policies of the Andalusian Regional Government, it has complied fully with all the directives issued by the European Commission(13) for the modernisation of Public Employment
(11) Royal Decree 467/2003, of 25 April, on the transfer to the Autonomous Community of Andalusia of management responsibilities of the National Employment Institute in the areas of work, employment and training. (12) Law 4/2002, of 16 December, on the creation of the Andalusian Employment Service. (13) European Commission Communication of 13 November 1998.
Services in order to support the European Employment Strategy. The SAE is an autonomous entity belonging to the Regional Ministry of Employment. It develops an integral management strategy structured around ten services aimed at citizens, companies, social stakeholders and public and private entities: - Guidance and Insertion. - Professional-Vocational Training. - Employment and Training Actions. - Employment Promotion. - Self-employment. - Labour mediation. - Recognition of Qualiﬁcations. - Prospection, Research, Studies, Dissemination and Statistics. - Community Programmes. - Support to Local Development. These competencies have recently been modiﬁed(14), although they still respond to the core ideas of active employment policies. - The promotion of quality, qualiﬁed and stable employment, as well as the monitoring of the Programme to Promote Agricultural Employment. - The promotion and development of local employment, according to the speciﬁc needs of each territory and in coordination with Local Administrations. - Vocational training for employment, promoting the integration in the labour market of unemployed persons and professional qualiﬁcations for employed persons. - Labour mediation, qualifying demand and increasing and efﬁciently adapting employment offers. - Professional guidance and insertion for job seekers through the establishment of personalised employment accompaniment itineraries.
(14) DECREE 118/2008, of 29 April, approving the organic structure of the Regional Ministry of Employment and of the Andalusian Employment Service (BOJA (Ofﬁcial Gazette of the Andalusian Regional Government of 2 April 2008).
- The execution and coordination of actions deriving from the European Employment Strategy in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, as well as participation in Community programmes and initiatives in areas in which this Regional Ministry has jurisdiction. In this context, even before the transfer of competences, a speciﬁc instrument is designed and launched, for example, to enable the coordination of policies between different administrations, and at the same time establish closer ties between the regional government and areas where it was not present before: the Area Units for Employment, Local and Technological Development (UTEDLT in Spanish). Since their creation in 2001(15), these units have been established as the instruments for cooperation with Local Corporations in Andalusia. However, in order for this co-participation to be possible, the person responsible for each Provincial Delegation of the Regional Ministry of Employment and the representative of the corresponding local Entity must sign the corresponding Cooperation Agreement. The legal ﬁgure created under such Agreements in a territory of similar characteristics, and which therefore enables this new form of cooperation between the different stakeholders, is referred to as a Consortium, which, as a public law entity, has its own legal status. Considering that it is easier to strengthen and exploit endogenous resources in territories with similar characteristics, each Consortium is formed by a group of local entities from a speciﬁc area that decide to group together to collaborate and with an ofﬁce in that area. The Consortium is therefore an original organisational model that enables cooperation among different local entities and therefore becomes a fundamental and indispensable element to guarantee the effectiveness of active employment policies and, in short, to achieve the initial objective: the creation of quality employment and local economic development. The structure of the Programme includes 95 Consortia distributed throughout Andalusia. This undoubtedly enables a high level of adaptability to the socioeconomic circumstances of each territory, especially when valuing local endogenous resources. (15) Order 29 of May 2001. Originally, the regional administration responsible was called the “Consejería de Empleo y Desarrollo Tecnológico” (Regional Ministry of Employment and Technological Development). Now, the UTEDLTs are managed by the Regional Ministry of Innovation, Science and Business.
7.2. Reasons for the action The Autonomous Community of Andalusia has a territorial administrative structure in which different institutions developing similar activities share a common space, but with clearly-deďŹ ned governmental competencies at central, autonomous community and municipal level. As regards employment and local development and their promotion, the Regional or Autonomous Community Government and local governments have been developing many different activities throughout Andalusia. In the case of active employment policies, the Regional Government has set up the Andalusian Employment Service (Servicio Andaluz de Empleo - SAE). In order to fulďŹ l its functions in relation to the promotion of local development and the creation of more and better employment, the SAE promotes the Area Units for Employment, Local and Technological Development (UTEDLT), based on the principles of co-participation and development of the concept of intermediation in labour matters. Key elements such as co-participation between all social, economic and government stakeholders in each area, and the spatial distribution of the different units, have been fundamental for preventing possible territorial imbalances in a community as vast as Andalusia, and thus promote equal opportunities in employment for all citizens, especially among priority groups: women and young people. By providing the different Units with stable structures and signing Cooperation Agreements, a new concept has been developed: co-responsibility between Local Corporations and the Andalusian Employment Service in order to launch these active policies. Co-responsibility and cooperation among the different stakeholders, as the expression of consensus and balance among all the participants, has become a basic pillar for territorial development. Solidarity and balance among the different stakeholders makes the policy more ďŹ‚exible. This is essential for the development of territories as a whole. Therefore, development is not only about companies and the economy; it is also about the development of more disadvantaged territories that cannot adapt to the changes taking place in our society.
Co-responsibility, which has always been a key element of the new dynamics of employment creation and economic development, requires: 1. Important political conviction when formalising relations. 2. A commitment to create local participation and collaboration spaces. 3. The creation of a new legal ﬁgure to develop a broader and more innovative process of labour mediation: the Consortium.
7.3. General and speciﬁc objectives - Consolidate the co-participation of the different social, economic and governmental stakeholders as a structuring element and “generator” of social capital in the territory. Co-participation is the key to the success of this programme and is considered to be a basic and essential principle, as revealed by the emphasis on this objective in the Social Dialogue and Consensus established in the Andalusian Agreement on Concerted Social Action (in particular Agreements V and VI). Undoubtedly, social concerted action and peace in the Andalusian labour market have helped generate economic growth in recent years. - The exploitation and promotion of networks of existing and inﬂuential social and economic stakeholders in the labour market has been crucial for generating effective spaces of co-participation, thus fostering the convergence of stakeholders at multiple levels but independently at the same time. - The commitment of and collaboration with local governments responds to the directives of the European Commission for the “Strengthening the Local Dimension of the European Employment Strategy”(16). - Broaden the concept of intermediation, where intermediation is not simply the management of job placement procedures but something more that includes facilitating not only contact but also dialogue and commitment among the stakeholders intervening in the labour market. This has undoubtedly helped create social capital in the territory based on the multiple opportunities afforded by networking, including the transferability of good practices. This new concept of intermediation has established new values in the productive fabric, where companies have embraced corporate social responsibility, and this has acquired great importance at local level. (16) Communication of the Commission to the Counil, European Parliament, Economic and Social Committee and Committee of the Regions, of 6 November 2001.
- Integral management of these active employment promotion policies, provided these are planned with a global vision, executed in a coordinated manner and reach citizens logically and transparently. To this end, a common planning and target-based management tool is used - the Programme Contract – which is implemented in territories with the consensus of all stakeholders.
7.4. Target groups A distinction can be made between the different institutions in the Consortium: Local Corporations, the Regional Ministry of Employment and the Andalusian Employment Service and economic and social stakeholders. There are also potential beneﬁciaries (companies, entrepreneurs, local collectives, citizens in general).
7.5. Main actions The Consortiums are mainly established through a process of awareness-raising and negotiation between the different administrations and entities involved. After this negotiation period, a legal document must be executed to establish the Consortium, which thus acquires legal status, with its corresponding bodies of management (the organisational unit that is formed) and government (the governing board as a participative body where decisions are taken/voted on). After this legal document has been formalised, the rules governing participation in the Consortium must be established (in terms of the appointment or rotation of the President, Secretary, etc.) and the voting rules (Board members with voting and speaking rights and members with a speaking but not voting rights).
7.6. Internal and external resources The ﬁnancing(17)of the Consortiums is conceived in different ways due to their collective nature; a distinction can be made between contributions made by (17) Established in two Orders: -The Order of 21 January 2004, establishing the basic requirements for the concession of public aid to Local Corporations, Consortiums of Territorial, Local Development and Technology Units, and Companies classiﬁed as R&D ﬁrms that promote local development. -The Order of 29 May 2001, establishing the Programme of Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Units as instruments for cooperation with Local Corporations in Andalusia.
the Andalusian Employment Service through the Regional Ministry of Employment, and those made by consortiums of municipalities. The Andalusian Employment Service, through the Regional Ministry of Employment, ďŹ nances the following: - The basic structural expenses of the Consortiums. - Between 70% and 80%(18)of total labour costs of Local Employment Promotion Stakeholders in the consortiums of the UTEDLTs (Complementary Structure) and in Local Corporations in provincial capitals. - Expenses incurred in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of the Units, as well as the creation of support instruments and actions to improve their operation. Secondly, consortium-based municipalities must make the following contributions: - Financing to cover the operating expenses of the Unit or Units within their jurisdiction. - The provision of premises and the corresponding equipment for them to develop their functions. - It co-ďŹ nances between 20% and 30%(19)of total labour costs of the Local Employment Promotion Stakeholders participating in Consortiums and in Local Corporations in provincial capitals. - Expenses incurred in the permanent adaptation of personnel to work posts through training actions and training on any techniques they need to improve their performance.
7.7. Innovative elements In this case, the result obtained has been translated into a good practice insofar as it complies with the basic innovation, participation, planning and (18) According to the number of inhabitants in the municipality where it intends to develop its main activity. (19) According to the number of inhabitants in the municipality where it intends to develop its main activity.
transferability criteria, as well as other general criteria such as the optimisation of resources or networking. Innovation The conﬂuence and channelling through the same legal entity and the spatial organisation of employment competencies between local and regional government constitutes a public management model in which resources (which would otherwise be disperse) are redirected and interests and efforts combined with the ultimate objective of generating more and better employment, wealth and social capital, regardless of the physical location, and, in turn, using this localisation as a value. Participation Citizens’ expectations and initiatives can be incorporated mainly through the construction of a decision-taking environment with the participation of legitimately-elected representatives of different levels of government. Other entities representing the interests of both entrepreneurs (business organisations) and workers (trade unions) also have the opportunity to participate. The consideration at all times of the unequivocal mission to guarantee services that meet similar quality standards in all parts of Andalusia responds to the criterion of participation of citizens as users of this public service. Planning The establishment of these Consortia has been planned by central government with the support of the institution representing all local administrations (in the case of Andalusia, the Andalusian Federation of Municipalities and Provinces) and formalised under a collaboration agreement, together with the publication of the rules governing the Consortium and its formation in the Ofﬁcial Journal (in Andalusia, the Ofﬁcial Journal of the Regional Government of Andalusia). Transferability In addition to the form of this type of agreement as a type of pact, the in-
corporation of interests and consensuses is sufﬁcient justiﬁcation for the transfer of this model to other areas where competencies are being transferred and agreements are necessary when designing and launching active employment policy measures. Optimisation of resources The principle of co-responsibility in agreements established within the framework of the Consortiums, in order to ensure their shared ﬁnancing, is also present in the taking of decisions on the resources made available for policy measures. Networking The joint conception of these consortiums, i.e. their conﬁguration as a network operating and interacting throughout the whole of Andalusia and thus establishing relations with other entities and organisations present in the territory, has allowed them to broaden their actions. This is due to their legal status as consortia, which allows them to actively participate (as shown in other examples of good practices presented in this publication) in projects and initiatives.
The generation of wealth and quality employment: the promotion of self-employment
8.1. Details From the economic standpoint, the competitiveness of a region and its economic growth depend largely on its entrepreneurial capacity. This conception is a fundamental requirement IN most advanced economies. Andalusia is immersed in an innovative process of convergence towards this objective because, in this day and age of globalization and competition, it is essential to value the importance of self-employment for the creation of quality employment. For a long time, self-employment was often treated as a transitory solution to unemployment. The Andalusian Regional Government has been ďŹ rmly committed to promoting and developing self-employment through its strong and determined commitment to drive and promote self-employment as a source of wealth, employment and quality. This objective has now been achieved and the focus has shifted to promoting viable self-employment projects undertaken with vocational spirit and prospects for future development, and as instruments that generate selfemployment. The Andalusian Regional Government has undertaken many actions to support and promote self-employment from different perspectives. Of these actions, the Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia has been selected as a good practice for generating quality employment and promoting self-employment. This Plan aims to achieve objectives such as full employment in productive sectors and equality between men and women. The Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia is governed by Decree 75/2006, of October
10, approving the Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia, and the Order of 15 March, establishing the regulations governing the concession of aid and their announcement as provided in Decree 175/2006, of 10 October. Both regulations were published in the Andalusian Regional Government’s Ofﬁcial Journal (Boletín Oﬁcial de la Juna de Andalucía - BOJA) on 3 November 2006 and 30 March 2007, respectively. These actions are ﬁnanced by the Andalusian Regional Government and coﬁnanced by the European Social Fund. The “Comienza” Plan of 30/03/2007 has an expected duration of 4 years.
8.2. Reasons for the action From the economic and social standpoint, self-employed workers today are different to those some decades ago. In the past, self-employed work was often limited to largely unproﬁtable small-scale activities that did not require ﬁnancial investment, such as agriculture, traditional crafts or small retail outlets. Today the situation is different because self-employed work is ﬂourishing in high income-percapita countries in high value-added sectors, as a consequence of new developments in telecommunications, and offers a freedom of choice sought by many people who value their autonomy and independence. Today, self-employment is very important in Spain, so much so that in March 2008 23.11%(20) of Spanish workers were self-employed. This reveals the high speciﬁc weight of self-employment in the economy and as a component of national employment. It is equally important in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, where more than 500,000 people are self-employed. Many people have found that self-employment offers them a way to enter the labour market and develop professionally, in a labour market where the unemployment rate stands at 14.83 %(21). In this sense, measures to promote entrepreneurial culture and self-employment are an effective way of combating this high level of unemployment. Self-employed people are not only important in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia because they create employment; they also generate wealth in terms of social well-being, due to the high added value they contribute to the (20) All the statistical data presented in this publication have been obtained from ofﬁcial sources and refer to persons registered with the Social Security as self-employed workers, the special regime for self-employed seafarers and the special regime for selfemployed agricultural workers. (21) Data obtained from the Working Population Survey in the ﬁrst quarter of 2008. The unemployment rate is deﬁned as the coeffcient between unemployed and working persons.
social fabric and the economy. The Andalusian Regional Government, aware of their importance, and within the framework of the Sixth Agreement on Concerted Social Action(22), has strengthen its commitment to self-employed workers and has undertaken to set up a regulatory framework to promote self-employment in Andalusia, through a series of homogeneous and integral measures and actions that it intends to develop. All these new measures will help to promote self-employment and thus beneﬁt all self-employed women and men. This commitment towards the main economic and social stakeholders in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia has resulted in the creation of the Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia, which is regulated by Decree 175/2006, of 10 October.
8.3. General and speciﬁc objectives. The main objective of the Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia is the creation of quality employment. To achieve this, the following speciﬁc objectives have been established: a. Promote employment through self-employment by individuals starting new economic activities. b. Consolidate the positions of existing self-employed persons. c. Improve Andalusian society’s knowledge of self-employment, promoting associationism among self-employed workers and supporting organisations representing self-employed workers.
8. 4. Target groups. The Plan is aimed at self-employed workers, as individuals engaging in selfemployed economic activities and with a maximum of 5 employees. Different persons can beneﬁt from the programmes and measures regulated in the Plan: this plan aims to consolidate the positions of persons already engaging in self-employed economic activities and to develop, promote and support individual selfemployment by supporting unemployed persons who wish to start an economic (22) Agreement signed on 25 January 2005 by the Andalusian Regional Government, the Andalusian Entrepreneurs’ Confederation and the main Trade Unions from Andalucía, as the most representative social and economic stakeholders in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, through the negotiation and agreement of speciﬁc actions and measures and the consolidation of their effects through dialogue.
activity in Andalusia, thus also targeting unemployed persons with entrepreneurial spirit. In this sense, the Plan prioritises incentives and measures aimed at collectives with greater difﬁculties in accessing the labour market and persons at risk of exclusion, in compliance with the basic principle of equal opportunities for all that must govern any active employment policy. In addition to these groups, there are other beneﬁciaries or entities that may participate in the Plan, i.e. entities participating in self-employment accompaniment programmes, local entities participating in projects launched in new sources of employment, and entities participating in training, study and awareness-raising action programmes related with self-employment. Since the ultimate aim is to generate employment by encouraging selfemployed workers to hire unemployed persons and informing citizens about selfemployment, the plan focuses on the labour market, creating quality employment and thus ensuring that citizens are the ﬁnal beneﬁciaries.
8.5. Main actions The Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia is the result of a long planned process achieved with the participation and consensus of the main stakeholders concerned. For planning purposes, research and dissemination actions were carried out in order to perform an in-depth and detailed diagnosis of the situation of self-employment in Andalusia. The Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia was developed on the basis of this research and prior work by work and discussion groups in the Public Administration and the main stakeholders concerned (main associations of self-employed workers, trade unions, business confederations) and under the guiding framework of the Sixth Agreement on Social Concerted Action. This Plan integrates different programmes and measures to promote selfemployment and enables the efﬁcient coordination of all the help and support mechanisms for self-employed persons. It also establishes new lines of support and guidance, and provides more training and ﬁnancing opportunities for self-emplo-
yed workers. The main lines of activity/programmes regulated and executed by the Plan are presented below. Line 1. Programme to promote employment through the self-employment by individuals starting new economic activities. Establish a framework of collaboration measures and instruments to develop, promote and support employment through self-employment by individuals starting new economic activities in Andalusia. This Programme is structured around a series of economic aids for unemployed people starting economic activities as self-employed workers, ranging from initial aid that varies from territory to territory, being greater in territories with higher unemployment, to measures geared to support ďŹ nancing or aid for the recruitment of external consultancy and management services. Line 2. Self-employment guidance and accompaniment programme. The Programme is designed to provide basic information and personalised guidance to promote the integration in the labour market of unemployed job seekers through self-employment, as well as technical guidance and accompaniment measures to support the start-up of their businesses. It also aims to provide technical guidance and accompaniment to existing self-employed workers to help them consolidate their businesses. In order to implement this programme, the Regional Ministry of Employment has set up a support service for self-employed persons. This is a coordinated system that has been designed to provide guidance, monitoring, accompaniment and project evaluation services for start-ups and the consolidation of self-employed activities, and thus provide an integral and homogeneous Public Service for selfemployed persons where the priority is mainly on the effectiveness and quality of services and uniform procedures established for these services. The functions of the operators of this System include: raising awareness about and providing information on self-employment; accompanying and providing technical support to self-employed workers; and supporting and advising self-employed persons on the start-up of economic activities, as well as the moni-
toring, tutoring and consolidation of existing businesses. Line 3 .Programme to boost projects promoted by Local Corporations in New Sources of Employment. This Programme aims to promote new economic activities through self-employment in projects promoted by Local Corporations in New Sources of Employment(23), designed to promote projects capable of making the productive fabrics of territories where they are implemented more dynamic and to strengthen endogenous development in accordance with their needs and requirements. The Programme is articulated around experimental projects presented by Local Corporations, consisting in the start-up of innovative self-employment initiatives in territories with greater potential for generating new economic activities, based on prior analysis and knowledge of the territory. Line 4. Programme to consolidate and support the economic activity of self-employed workers. This Programme is designed to support the consolidation of economic initiatives developed by self-employed persons with economic aid awarded for the recruitment by self-employed workers of employees on indeﬁnite employment contracts, strengthening the creation of quality employment and measures to support ﬁnancing for business consolidation or expansion purposes. Line 5. Training programme for self-employed workers. This Programme is designed to promote self-employment through training for unemployed people intending to join the labour market through self-employment, as well as the improvement of the professional qualiﬁcations of self-employed workers. To this end, on-going training and professional-vocational training measures are introduced to develop speciﬁc technical skills for different occupations, management skills, and training in occupational risk prevention. Line 6. Programme to promote an occupational risk prevention culture among self-employed workers. The aim of the Programme is to promote an occupational risk prevention (23) Term used in Delors’ White Paper to describe work activities that satisfy new social needs.
culture among self-employed persons to improve occupational safety and health and to ensure optimum working conditions for both self-employed workers and their employees. This Programme establishes economic aid for projects and investments and training programmes on occupational risk prevention. Line 7. Programme to support self-employed women and projects to help self-employed men and women reconcile family and professional life. This Programme aims to reduce gender discrimination in self-employment. To this end, it has two main objectives: a) promote greater presence of self-employed women through speciďŹ c formulae to allow such women to take maternity, adoption or preadoption leave; b) establish formulae to allow self-employed men and women to reconcile family and professional life through study and research projects or the performance of actions on the reconciliation of family and professional life of self-employed workers hired by different entities. Line 8. Programme to strengthen knowledge of self-employed work in Andalusia, promoting the associationism of self-employed workers. This Programme aims to promote associationism among self-employed workers and improve societyâ€™s knowledge of self-employed work by incorporating the added value contributed by self-employed workers for the growth, development and the generation of employment in Andalusia. The programme provides economic aid to organisations representing self-employed workers, ďŹ nancing to entities that carry out studies and awareness-raising actions and provide information on self-employed work, the promotion of the culture of self-employment within the education system, and the promotion and creation of lines of collaboration between self-employed workers.
8.6. Resorces internal and external The Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia is coďŹ nanced by the European Social Fund and the Regional Ministry of Employment of the Andalusian Regional Government. The Plan has been launched with Technical Support from the Andalusian Training and Employment Foundation Fund, together with human and material resources from entities belonging to the Support System for Self-Employed Persons of the Regional Ministry of Employment.
8.7. Innovative elements The Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment in Andalusia contains many elements that make it transferable to other territories in Europe. The
most noteworthy criteria in the Plan are presented below: Transferability The transferability of the model has been achieved through a structured design and launch processes. The methodology behind the logical process of actions is transferable although it can be adapted to each context in which it is to be implemented. Some or all of the objectives and programmes developed are also transferable, always keeping in mind that they have to be adapted to the speciﬁc realities of each context to which they are to be transferred. Innovation The element that makes the Plan to Promote and Consolidate Self-Employment a good practice is precisely its originality. The Decree regulating the Plan is innovative in itself because this is the ﬁrst time that an Autonomous Community in Spain has included all the support measures and range of incentives for self-employed workers under the same “umbrella”. Another original development is the creation of the First Telematic Services Network in Spain to provide accompaniment and personalised guidance services to self-employed persons and thus convert their “ideas” into viable business enterprises and electronically process public incentives. This network is consolidated with the creation of coordinated project guidance, accompaniment, monitoring and evaluation systems for start-ups and the consolidation of self-employed activities. Other innovative measures contained in the Plan include certain initiatives that are unique in Spain, for example the measure that provides maternity leave support for self-employed women. Process planning and management The Plan has been planned and implemented using the same logical and structured system. Based on prior diagnoses, it continues with the implementation of the measures for the integral management of the Plan, the creation of all the tools required for its application and ﬁnally the design and implementation of a monitoring and evaluation system for on-going improvement of same.
Participation Since the practice is based on the Sixth Agreement on Concerted Social Action, it reďŹ‚ects the agreements adopted by the main economic and social stakeholders in the territory. It responds to the main demands of self-employed workers, to the commitments undertaken in the Sixth Agreement on Concerted Social Action and to the objectives set out in the Self-Employed Workers Statute presented by Central Government. The Plan strengthens the importance of self-employment by improving knowledge of this form of employment in Andalusia and strengthening the participation of self-employed workers through measures to support organisations representing self-employed workers, support measures for the analysis, knowledge and dissemination of self-employment and measures to support the development and creation of lines of collaboration between self-employed workers. Integrality The Plan consistently reďŹ‚ects the wide range of existing regulations and incorporates other new ones in a single regulation, thus facilitating the understanding and organisation of regulations governing the economic activities performed by self-employed workers. Andalusian Local Corporations play an important role as promoters of projects to consolidate self-employment, within their respective scopes of competence and within the framework of New Sources of Employment. The Plan is therefore integral and global because it combines measures of great importance to self-employed workers: the promotion and consolidation of selfemployment, guidance, training, occupational risk prevention and the reconciliation of private and professional life. Sustainability The Autonomous Community Government aims to promote self-employment through viable projects to guarantee their continuity in time and, in turn, make them generators of self-employment. This sustainability and durability of activities undertaken by self-employed persons is achieved through the obligation for a specialist tutor to prepare a Feasibility Plan. This feasibility plan evaluates the
economic potential and expected proﬁtability of the future self-employment project, and estimates the required investment and forecast results. Equality One objective established in the Decree regulating the Plan is the elimination of gender discrimination towards self-employed workers, a criterion also used with respect to employed workers. For this reason, the Plan envisages economic aid to self-employed workers for hiring substitutes during maternity leave periods, a measure without precedent in Spain. It also strengthens and funds study and research projects or actions to enable self-employed workers to reconcile private and professional life. Quality The existence of a Coordinated System to Support Self-Employed Persons, with specialised human and material resources for this service, means that common quality and efﬁciency standards can be established. To achieve these objectives, common action protocols have been developed that are complied with by all the operators participating in the Support System for Self-Employed Persons. This ensures common quality and efﬁciency standards are maintained at all centres in Andalusia. The introduction of measures to improve the professional qualiﬁcations of self-employed workers also guarantees the quality of the business projects because workers are able to obtain training on aspects speciﬁc to the sectors in which they operate, as well as transversal management capacity and skill building and occupational risk prevention training. Another clear example of the quality of the plan is the fact that self-employed persons now enjoy greater security thanks to a measure designed to promote an occupational risk prevention culture, since one of the basic pillars of quality employment is undoubtedly occupational health and safety at work. Network of contacts The achievement of the Plan’s objectives depends largely on the establish-
ment of collaboration agreements, which are valuable initiatives that modernise public systems. The network of contacts referred to in the Plan envisages, for Financing measures, collaboration with major Andalusian savings banks, and for the Consolidated System to Support Self-Employed Workers, is supported by the collaboration of the UTEDLTs and other collaborating entities. Monitoring and evaluation The Plan envisages projects to evaluate and monitor accompaniment and technical support to self-employed workers. Financing is awarded to projects that include actions aimed at the on-going improvement of personalised support services for self-employed persons within the framework of this programme.
Development of endogenous resources: “Jaén Diversiﬁca”
9.1. Details and scope of action The project Jaén Diversiﬁca (literally “Jaen Diversiﬁes”) is an Experimental Training-Employment Programme encompassed within a global strategy – the Programme of Activation Measures. Jaen XXI -, approved by the Council of Ministers on 20 January 2007. This strategy is the result of a joint collaboration between Central Government, the Andalusian Regional Government and the Provincial Council of Jaen. It deﬁnes a system of action measures to promote socioeconomic growth in the province of Jaen and thus achieve greater convergence with other Andalusian and Spanish regional economies. The 89 actions included in the Programme of Activation Measures. Jaen XXI, to be developed in the period 2006-2009, include four areas of action, two of which contribute contents to the good practice deﬁned in this publication: AREA 1: Support to the development of infrastructures in the province of Jaen (hydraulic and communications infrastructures) AREA 2: Promotion of economic activity and employment creation AREA 3: Sustainable development AREA 4: Social, cultural and security actions Areas 2 and 3 of the Jaén Diversiﬁca project responds to the need to activate economic activity and generate employment, and also guarantee the sustainable development of the province of Jaen. To achieve this, each area creates actions that are developed through a training programme for the sustainable development of natural ecosystems and actions to support the diversiﬁcation of uses in the installations of olive producing cooperatives in the province of Jaen.
Therefore, these two measures – training and diversiﬁcation of production – allow the actions and use of cooperatives, relating to olive farming and olive oil, to be transformed into motors for generating employment, reducing the dependence of these territories on olive farming, in turn strengthening sustainable development and exploiting olive by-products. The Andalusian Training and Employment Foundation Fund is the entity responsible for supervising this project for the diversiﬁcation of production in the olive oil sector and natural parks in the province of Jaen.
9.2. Reasons for the action: revaluation of endogenous resources and the creation of employment According to data obtained from the General Social Security Treasury and the results published in the Report on Key Production Sectors in Andalusia(24) in 2006, the province of Jaen is, in comparative terms, the Andalusian province that has suffered the strongest decline in business activity in recent years, prompted largely by the recession in the primary sector, which accounts for most activity in the region.
(24) Report on Key Production Sectors in Andalusia. Andalusian Employment Service, Regional Ministry of Employment, Seville, 2006.
Despite growth in the number of companies operating in the Industry, Construction and Services sectors, this increase is still insufﬁcient to counteract the recession that has affected the raw materials sector, particularly since 2003. Additionally, and according to diagnostic research performed by the Economic and Social Council of Andalusia and the Provincial Council of Jaen, both references prior to the launch of the Jaén Diversiﬁca project, the major challenge facing cooperatives in Jaen operating the olive farming and olive oil extraction sectors is to break the reliance of these territories on olive farming. In the last decade, cooperatives in Jaen have made important efforts to adapt their facilities, investing in technical infrastructures to improve the effectiveness and efﬁciency of their olive oil production processes. However, these facilities are underused outside the milling season. In this sense, the challenge for Jaén Diversiﬁca is to transform the diversiﬁcation of cooperative actions and uses, always in relation to olive farming and olive oil, into factors driving employment creation in the most depressed parts of the province. To this end, both central government and the Andalusian Regional Government are committed to an integral project to promote and strengthen entrepreneurial spirit and self-employment in the provide through the diversiﬁcation of productive activity deriving from olive farming, thus creating employment and fostering local development. The institutional interest in and support for the Jaén Diversiﬁca programme is therefore justiﬁed by the objectives of the programme, the achievement and scope of which have an important impact in the labour market in Jaen. Speciﬁcally, Jaen Diversiﬁca offers the opportunity to implement actions in the province of Jaen to create new business opportunities and companies that were previously lacking (Jaen has a cultivated area of almost 600,000 hectares, approximately 25% of the national cultivated surface area). The strengthening and diversiﬁcation of uses in the olive sector can contribute to the improvement of the local economy and development, with the corresponding knock-on effect on small and medium-sized municipalities. The Jaén Diversiﬁca project helps create employment directly and indirectly because it supports and promotes self-employment and employed work for professionals in the olive oil sector, as well as for recently-trained professionals who
see this area as an opportunity for employment. It also improves production quality through speciﬁc training for professionals specialised in these emerging sectors. Therefore, these new initiatives and specialised training for professionals in these productive diversiﬁcation activities respond to difﬁculties detected in the province during the creation of employment and counteract the decline in business activity and its consequences for employment.
9.3. General and speciﬁc objectives The general objective guiding all the actions planned in the Jaén Diversiﬁca project is the creation of quality employment in rural areas through three broad areas of action: (1) the introduction of productive diversiﬁcation at the facilities of olive oil cooperatives in order to convert olive by-products into value products. (2) training for unemployed persons in silvicultural treatments (3) and the transformation of local agricultural by-products into value products To achieve this general objective, a system of speciﬁc objectives has been designed based on three areas of action: The aim of the diversiﬁcation of cooperative activities is to: - actively encourage cooperatives in the province by strengthening their use of new activities; - increase employment associated with the cooperatives; - extend their productive uses beyond the olive harvest and olive oil production season; - extend their range of services to cooperative members 1.In terms of human resources training: - Training for future managers on the development and implementation of new lines of activity in each cooperative. - Training for unemployed persons on new economic activities through a training-employment programme. 2.In terms of the promotion of local agricultural by-products, the aim is to:
- Transform traditional mountain and speciﬁcally olive by-products into value products. - Strengthen the sustainable development of natural parks and the province in general. These objectives respond to two areas of action in the Jaén Diversiﬁca project: the training programme for the sustainable development of natural ecosystems; and the actions to promote the diversiﬁcation of uses in the facilities or plants of olive cooperatives in the province of Jaen.
9.4. Target groups This project targets unemployed persons in general and speciﬁcally the long-term unemployed. Within this group, a distinction may be made between the following: - men and women with no professional qualiﬁcations and who work occasionally as labourers in different professions. - women who want to join the labour market, have little or no training or work experience and need to specialise in professions with employment-creation potential. Despite the large target group, the priority group of all the programmed actions are unemployed women because from a social standpoint this is a particularly vulnerable group, and historically women have worked mainly in traditional harvesting activities and small industries deriving from olive farming: production of soaps for domestic use, therapeutic oils for small homemade cures, beauty products, etc. The different itineraries can be accessed through the Andalusian Employment Service and selected candidates receive training contracts as established in Article 11.2 of the Revised Text of the Law on Workers’ Statutes, from the beginning of the training itinerary, and receive the minimum interprofessional wage.
9.5. Main actions The Jaén Diversiﬁca project has been implemented based on a planned system of actions classiﬁed into large lines of intervention; on the one hand, a
training programme for the sustainable development of natural ecosystems; and on the other, through a programme of diversiﬁcation of uses in olive oil production facilities. Action line 1: Diagnosis and analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of the territory. The success of any actions carried out in the territory is highly dependent on in-depth knowledge of the scope of intervention. To ensure the efﬁciency and effectiveness of the Jaén Diversiﬁca project, its interventions have been designed based on prior analysis and prospection of opportunities and weaknesses in the territory. This speciﬁc analysis, carried out by the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment, has given the programme direction by adapting it to the economic and social reality in the province of Jaen. The diagnosis contains a quantitative element which refers to the evolution of employment in the province. Action line 2: Training programme for the sustainable development of natural ecosystems The training actions included in the project aim to integrate the population in the labour market. The emphasis is on actions that also promote entrepreneurial spirit and self-employment, enhance employability opportunities for women and the long-term unemployed and exploit new sources of employment in the area. The training programme is divided into three main phases: 1. Complementary or transversal training, which includes the learning of general skills (autonomy, team work, negotiation, responsibility, etc.) and skills relating to emotional intelligence (motivation, self-conﬁdence, controlling relations with other people, etc.). The contents covered are assimilated through the modules envisaged in the transversal training actions included in the Professional-Vocational Training Programmes offered by the Directorate General of Training for Employment of the Regional Ministry of Employment of the Regional Government of Andalusia: a. computer literacy module: to enable students to acquire basic compu-
ter processing skills using the basic functions of ofﬁce IT applications and services and Intranet/Internet protocols. b. occupational risk prevention module: to train students to prevent risks in the workplace and take preventive and/or health protection actions, minimising risk factors. c. environmental awareness-raising module: to enable students to acquire knowledge of the main environmental problems in general and in the area of employment speciﬁcally, and their application in areas of professional specialisation through the development of environmental good practices. d. modules to promote employer activity: to analyse the degree of personal employability according to labour market characteristics and the professional proﬁles of workers. e. gender equality module: to evaluate the situation regarding equal opportunities between women and men in order to contribute to the development of society through equal access to the labour market. f. vocational guidance module: during training students will receive guidance on job seeking, employment and professional information and business training; to provide this training, the Employment Workshop will have adequate means and qualiﬁed professionals to provide this training. 2. Training for speciﬁc trades. This training is tailored to the needs of individual olive oil mills (olive oil cooperatives) to develop the technical skills and professional capacities of the target group. The technical contents to be developed focus exclusively on capacity building to develop each line of diversiﬁcation proposed for each olive oil mill participating in the Programme. A sufﬁciently broad training programme will be developed to allow participants to achieve a high level of qualiﬁcation, covering all possible demand groups in the olive sector, together with business management training that will be given from the beginning of the programme. The contents covered are organised into the following modules: a. Marketing of cosmetic products: promotional actions and sale of cosmetic products. b. Production of soaps and cosmetic products with olive oil c. Production of parquet ﬂooring d. Production of aromatic oils e. Use of olive biomass for energy: production of pellets and gasiﬁcation f. Use of olive leaves in feed for small ruminants. Experimental application on farms: production of nutrient and veriﬁcation of the impact of this feed on the
physiology and nutrition of these animals. g. Integral olive plantation services, based on demand identiﬁed in the sector, due to the ageing of olive labourers and harvesters and the incipient abandonment of olive farms by young people. h. Production of compost from olive mill waste 3. Business placements. After receiving training, the students will go on work placements in cooperatives participating in the programme. These practical placements will allow students to directly perform work relating to productive diversiﬁcation to take advantage of olive by-products and thus complete the professional qualiﬁcation process. To this end, all the logistical means and infrastructures necessary will be provided so students-employees can work in real contexts in the olive mills participating in the programme. Action line 3: actions to promote the diversiﬁcation of uses at the facilities of olive cooperatives and the promotion of entrepreneurial culture Jaén Diversiﬁca, in addition to the training actions, includes a set of actions carried out by private communication, training and dynamisation entities that will enable different uses the facilities of olive cooperatives and the main raw material: olives. These actions have the following objectives: ﬁrstly, to improve and provide technical support to the Jaén Diversiﬁca project and thus ensure its optimum performance; secondly, to provide technical support to business projects developed in the area, as well as strategies to diversify production; and thirdly, develop communication actions to promote the Jaén Diversiﬁca project. All these actions have been organised according to whether they address or respond to the following areas of action: a) Management tools. This envisages actions aimed at the development of software and telematic tools linked to the activities envisaged in the Jaén Diversidad programme: Speciﬁcally, it focuses on the implementation of an IT tool that can be used to include all the activities developed in the project. This tool enables continually monitoring of the actions and evaluation of the project itself. Among other functions, the tool gathers information on completed feasibility plans, business projects, training courses, research, actions and dissemination campaigns,
support to entrepreneurs and monitoring of professional guidance actions. b) Technical support to promote entrepreneurial culture. This covers all actions aimed at providing technical support to promote entrepreneurial culture within the scope of the Jaén Diversiﬁca project. To this end, a virtual network of agents is designed and set up to provide assistance, guidance and support to promote entrepreneurial activity in the province. c) Feasibility studies. This measure consists in the performance of studies and research to analyse new business opportunities and create employment in the olive farming and olive oil sectors, with the scope of the Jaén Diversiﬁca programme d) Dissemination and communication: design and execution of actions for the publicity and communication of the project and its results. The aim of this activity is to inform citizens of the actions and measures included in the Jaén Diversiﬁca project.
9.6. Internal and external resources The Jaén Diversiﬁca initiative has been launched jointly by Central Government, the Andalusian Regional Government and the Provincial Council of Jaen. It is ﬁnanced entirely with funds from the Spanish State’s General Budget assigned to
the Programme of Activation Measures. Jaen XXI.
9.7. Innovative elements Innovation The Jaén Diversiﬁca project is innovative in its speciﬁc area of action not only due to the introduction of new productive activities in the province that had previously not been launched, but also the research and piloting of new uses of olive products. In this sense, the project envisages a test phase for using olive leaves as the basic ingredient in feed for small ruminants. Participation These measures were considered essential for designing the project based on the co-participation of all local agents, with the participation of local and municipal entities and oil cooperatives. Speciﬁcally, a total of 39 cooperatives have joined the programme. These cooperatives have participated in the training itinerary and in the student placements. All the public and private entities that have participated in the Jaén Diversiﬁca programme have established a joint work plan that has given the project unity and a single strategy: · support to oil mills, and more speciﬁcally to those that have invested in machinery, with a clear commitment to the diversiﬁcation of their productive activities and to the creation of employment in their municipalities; · backing and support to companies when they are being set up through guidance on feasibility, business plans, marketing and commercialisation plans, complementary training on business management, etc.; · generation of a quality distinction in production; · implementation of an institutional communication plan, attendance at fairs, seminars and specialist events;
· preparation of a competitive cooperation plan and support to a digital platform to consolidate e-business. Planning The Jaén Diversiﬁca programme has been developed on the basis of a system of actions planned in time in order to respond to each of the objectives planned in its design. To this end, an initial phase was carried out consisting in the prospection and analysis of the territory, its opportunities and weaknesses, in order to design actions in line with its real needs. The result has been an integral and systematised action plan covering multiple and plural processes with two objectives: the diversiﬁcation of the uses of cooperatives in the olive sector in Jaen and the creation of employment. These plural processes are integral processes that act directly on the target population and cover the following: a (traversal and speciﬁc) training period; a period of practicals at the oil mills participating in the project; a third process aimed at boosting the development of entrepreneurial culture; and a ﬁnal phase focusing on the dissemination and publicity of both the project and its results. Transferability Jaén Diversiﬁca is a highly transferable initiative thanks to its planned and sequential structure of activities (research-training-practicals-employment creation) and its objectives and scope. The effective implementation of the project for employment creation and local development depends on the performance of prospection and analysis of the territory where the project is to be implemented in order to adapt actions and objectives to the context in question. This guarantees the relevance and feasibility of the actions. Jaén Diversiﬁca is not just about adapting the project to territories for transferability purposes. It is also an action model based on integrality and plurality with a view to obtaining an overall result that affects all socio-economic and cultural levels in Jaen. It is a change in the form of production, in the way of understanding a very speciﬁc sector, beyond the simple production and marketing of olive products. It is based on diversiﬁcation and specialised training to obtain a true impact
in the creation of employment. However, it also aims to provide training on integral olive sector services and counteract the loss of labour in the sector due to both the ageing of olive labourers and harvesters and the abandonment of olive farming by young people. Environment The diversiﬁcation of production in the olive industry is an environmentally sustainable initiative because it produces no harmful costs for either natural or human resources in the territory. It is also an initiative that promotes the intrinsic values of sustainability. To this end, it is based on the learning and start-up of, on the one hand, production processes for the integral exploitation of olive plantations – actions to recycle olive residues to produce soaps, oils and cosmetic products, or natural parquet and compost, and, on the other hand, learning and the startup of production processes for the use of olive biomass for energy through the production of pellets. The ultimate aim is the integral and sustainable use of olive trees for both direct products - olives – and all olive by-products - parquet, compost for fertilising soil and natural cosmetic products or biomass. Results Jaén Diversiﬁca has improved the initial situation in the province: ﬁrstly, training has been provided to give persons general skills to facilitate their integration in the labour market, professional skills in the olive sector and professional work placements; secondly, it has helped create employment in olive mills that have undertaken to hire all or some of the students trained at their plants. Overall, 669 people (615 women and 54 men) have received training; 788 employment contracts have been signed under the programme (students and trainers) and 39 cooperatives participated in the initiative. Thirdly, cooperative work systems have been set up and a common work strategy has been established among the institutions: the Employment Delegation, the Innovation, Science and Business Delegation, the Andalusian Women’s Institute, the Agriculture Delegation and the Provincial Council of Jaen.
The attraction of exogenous resources as a basic principle of actions in the territory: creation of the andalusian historical sites network
10.1. Details and scope of action The main objective of initiative to create a Red de Conjuntos HistĂłricos de AndalucĂa: Tesoros de Interior: ÂĄDespierta tus sentidos! (Andalusian Historical Sites Network: Inland Treasures: Awaken your senses!) is to attract exogenous resources to foster the conservation and valorisation of heritage and promote sustainable tourism development of municipalities in the network. At the same time, it is a multi-territorial initiative because it has been set up with the joint involvement of employment institutions from six Andalusian provinces and, given its magnitude, has developed over a period of three years (2005, 2006 and 2007). It is currently in the consolidation and growth phase, which will lead to the localisation and attraction of resources even at international level. One of the main missions to be developed in the territory is to guarantee optimum use of these resources in order to stimulate development and growth in the area and thus create wealth in the territory. In this sense, a key objective is the attraction of exogenous resources to help generate growth and wealth in the area. The restructuring and development of territorial resources make local socioeconomic fabrics more dynamic and generate synergies to foster greater labour market development and thus stimulate the incorporation of exogenous resources. The employment actions therefore have a direct knock-on and multiplier effect on investments by external stakeholders in Andalusia. The capture of exogenous resources is therefore one of the main missions of the employment development initiatives. The importance of this mission is consolidated on the following fundamental pillars:
- The continuous search for innovation: through the development of innovative projects in the territory that foster its dynamisation. - The commitment to stable, socially-viable and environmentally sustainable development. - The strengthening and optimum use of existing resources in the territory on the premise that territorial resources offer greatest potential for territorial development; however, support from exogenous resources is necessary to develop these resources and make them sustainable. - The search for a multiplier effect of resources and strategies launched in order to promote growth and territorial development. The capture and attraction of exogenous resources is a working practice stemming directly from the actual operative dynamics and actions of territorial employment mechanisms. Therefore, the potential to attract resources that generate territorial development and wealth must be based on the actual work dynamics. These may be summarised in two main aspects: a. Networking: work is carried out in the territories based on the conviction that the establishment of cooperation networks in the economy beneﬁts the development of productive fabrics. Networking is a premise that is fulﬁlled in the territories in two senses. The ﬁrst is related to the actual operative structure and working philosophy behind certain programmes, such as the Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Units articulated around Consortiums. And the second is based on work performed to stimulate interaction, knowledge and exchanges among local economic, political and social factors, as well as with future entrepreneurs and the business sector. b. Strategic planning: fundamental work is carried out in the territory to involve all local public and private stakeholders in the deﬁnition and strategic planning of territorial development. Based on the model of concerted social action in Andalusia, all the economic and social stakeholders operating in the area become participants and co-responsible for the development and growth of the different local territories, sharing this responsibility with local authorities. The promotion of networking and a participative and associative culture are two key operative methods for attracting exogenous resources; through the optimum use of resources in the territory, they generate synergies for attracting resources that have the aforementioned multiplier effect on growth and develo-
pment in the area. Therefore, the attraction of exogenous resources is considered a good working practice due to its actual nature and structure and to the work methodology behind actions in the area of employment in Andalusia, thus justifying its consideration as a practice transferable to other similar territories and working models. Nevertheless, the capture of exogenous resources responds to very diverse formulae and strategies, i.e. it is achieved after the planning and launch of equally diverse work practices. The work strategies for attracting exogenous resources that foster territorial growth and development give rise to many extremely diverse actions and initiatives, which does not undermine their perfect deﬁnition, planning and implementation for transfer to other contexts. This situation is most directly justiﬁed by the heterogeneity of territories targeted by these initiatives in relation to employment. Andalusia consists of many municipalities with different and complex potentialities and operative and growth dynamics. This local component requires planning according to the speciﬁc characteristics of each territory and the performance of actions linked to the needs in each area. As a corollary, ﬁve large groups of territorial actions are presented below that directly or indirectly contribute to the achievement of the fundamental objective of attracting exogenous resources: 1. Promotion of projects that stimulate territorial development. Innovation as the main element for attracting exogenous resources. 2. Development and awareness-raising collaboration actions and the creation of networks to generate positive territorial synergies. 3. Development of research activities that provide direct knowledge on local potentialities and therefore become particularly useful instruments for the medium and long-term identiﬁcation of both possible lines of intervention in the territory and needs for support from exogenous resources. 4. Support and guidance to public and private entities on local development, thus encouraging the involvement of all territorial stakeholders in the plan-
ning and implementation of the main guidelines for development in the area. Planning as an indispensable requirement for the attraction and optimum use of exogenous resources. 5. Dynamisation and improvement of the competitiveness of self-employed persons. In relation to another matter, proximity with the territory is a fundamental element is a fundamental pillar of the potential of employment actions designed to attract exogenous resources given the added value this contributes. This proximity provides them with both direct knowledge of territorial potentialities and resources and a strategic position for launching initiatives to help improve quality of life, boost the local economy and generate wealth. In summary, the capture of resources in the territory depends on the development of other measures or actions, including information, accompaniment and research, employment promotion and local development. During the long period in which actions to promote employment and development in Andalusian municipalities have been carried out, these have been promoters and pioneers in the practical application of numerous initiatives technically adjusted to the broadly accepted deﬁnition of good practice transferable to other socio-economic contexts and scenarios. The scope of action of the good practice presented is the Autonomous Region, because Andalusian municipalities from six Andalusian provinces have participated in the project.
10.2. Reasons for the action The launch of the Red de Conjuntos Históricos de Andalucía: Tesoros de Interior: ¡Despierta tus sentidos! (Andalusian Historical Sites Network: Inland Treasures: Awaken your senses!) is justiﬁed on two fundamental work axes closely related to the development of the potentialities of the territories where they are developed. The ﬁrst is the maintenance and strengthening of municipal heritage resources through the detection of certain heritage conservation needs which may be greater in small municipalities. The second axis justifying territorial intervention is the need to establish a formula for the development of municipalities based on the
dynamisation of the business fabric based on a tourism planning strategy. In turn, the execution of both work axes requires the development of two fundamental work dynamics based on networking and on the capture of exogenous resources. Networking is necessary in order to combine the efforts and resources of all socio-economic agents participating in the initiative to set up the Andalusian Historical Sites Network and to offer a global and unitary product. The maintenance and exploitation of the endogenous resources of municipalities belonging to the Andalusian Municipalities Network make the capture of exogenous resources necessary.
10.3. General and speciﬁc objectives Although the actions carried out by the stakeholders involved in this good practice have led to the creation of a Historical Sites Network, the general and speciﬁc objectives supporting these actions are based on a planned development and growth strategy for the whole of Andalusia, geared especially to strengthening the economic fabric related to tourism. The overall objective of this good practice is to promote the sustainable development of tourism in the municipalities belonging to the network through the creation of tourism products so that by networking with the emphasis on quality parameters, they can conserve and develop their heritage, optimise their investments, be competitive and consolidate their positions as tourist destinations within the Historical Sites Network in order to generate employment and wealth. This general objective is accompanied by other speciﬁc objectives, including most notably the maintenance of tourism spaces, the installation of environmental management systems and the promotion of equal opportunities in rural areas.
10.4. Target groups The creation of the Historical Sites Network has had an important impact in different areas and at various levels. Particularly noteworthy has been its impact in the local tourism sectors of the municipalities participating in the initiative, where two priority target groups can be identiﬁed: local companies and entrepreneurs; and all the Andalusian municipalities participating in this initiative, since the crea-
tion of the Historical Sites Network has a direct impact on both the maintenance of heritage and on the dynamisation of the tourism fabric in these areas. At a more general level, this good practice is also targeted at the whole of Andalusian and Spanish society. The Network has created an integral tourist destination that can be enjoyed by all citizens interested in discovering Andalusian heritage. For this reason, and without overvaluing the impact of this good practice, any citizen from any country in the world could be a target because the Historical Sites Network has fostered greater proximity and developed endogenous resources such as historical heritage sites. Lastly, there are two other main groups which, despite being conceived as a target group, should instead be treated as a subject because they have participated actively in the launch of this initiative. These are the UTEDLTs and the local socio-economic stakeholders in the municipalities promoting the Historical Sites Network. Of these stakeholders, the provincial delegations are perhaps the most important.
10.5. Main actions As mentioned in the previous paragraphs, the creation of the Historical Sites Network is principally a response to an exercise in strategic planning for growth and development in Andalusia, based mainly on the dynamisation of the Andalusian tourism sector and the bringing together of the initiatives and work of a group of socio-economic stakeholders from different Andalusian provinces. As a result of the nature and dimension of this good practice, this planning exercise has led to the performance of many inter-related actions with the active participation of many Andalusian social and economic stakeholders. Bearing in mind that the creation of the Historical Sites Network is presented in this publication as an example of a good practice for attracting exogenous resources, at this point of the project an effort must be made to implement and synthesise in order to ultimately make this practice transferable to other territories. In the ďŹ rst instance, this entails identifying, deďŹ ning and establishing the sequence of each action. The ďŹ rst action consists in promoting the creation of an Association of Municipalities that, in turn, involves Andalusian economic and social stakeholders. The
mayors, entrepreneurs and economic stakeholders in the associated municipalities have a very important role to play in the creation of this association. This action is based on a fundamental working methodology to stimulate growth in the territory, i.e. the creation of networks. Based on the conviction that the establishment of cooperation networks boosts the development of productive fabrics, this initiative encourages interactions and exchanges among local economic, political and social stakeholders, while at the same time involving the tourism business sector. The performance of a territorial diagnosis is another key action to guarantee the successful outcome of this initiative, the Andalusian Historical Sites Network. The actions carried out and promoted in the territory are always based on objective knowledge of the real contexts in which the actions are performed, considering that research and diagnosis activities provide important information on local potentialities. The diagnosis of the municipalities belonging to the Historical Sites Network is structured around two fundamental analytical axes: the ﬁrst focuses on the analysis of the situation of heritage sites in the participating municipalities, and which reveals the enormous difﬁculties regarding the maintenance and conservation of this heritage without exogenous support and ﬁnancing; and the second analytical axis consists of an itemized study of the socio-economic fabrics of areas where this initiative is carried out, with special focus on tourism and its future growth potential. A third key action, directly linked to the previous action, consists of the preparation of a list of tourism resources in municipalities. The development of this action has enabled the creation of seven tourism products and a global tourist destination called the Red de Conjuntos Históricos de Andalucía: Tesoros de Interior: ¡Despierta tus sentidos! (Andalusian Historical Sites Network: Inland Treasures. Awaken your Senses!). Seven tourism products have been created and they are all related to the senses: 1: Historia Viva (Living History); 2. Miradas Singulares (Unique Visions); 3. La Tradición del Sabor (The Tradition of Taste); 4. Al Alcance de tu Mano (Within Your Hand’s Reach); 5. Aromas de interior (Interior Aromas); 6. Murmullos de la Tierra (Murmurs from Earth); and 7. Nuestras Leyendas (Our Legends). Other actions have been carried out directly related to the promotion of networking as a strategy for territorial growth and economic development. These actions consist in the signing of collaboration agreements. After establishing all the links and channels for co-participation and co-res-
ponsibility of all the territorial stakeholders involved in the creation of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network, a basic activity must be carried out to plan lines of work and action to guide the future development of both the Network and the Association of Municipalities. For this reason, an action plan has been designed. This is a key tool for two reasons: it organises the business fabric around tourism planning; and it is crucial for attracting exogenous resources because it is presented to the Regional Ministry of Tourism, the Provincial Councils and other entities, thus directly helping to capture substantial ﬁnancing. This concludes the ﬁrst phase of actions, based on networking and the optimisation of endogenous resources, which, guided by a planning exercise, ensures the incorporation of good practice in the creation of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network in order to capture exogenous resources to boost territorial development. This represents the culmination of the ﬁrst phase because the preparation of an action plan ensures the future continuity of this initiative, initially and directly related to the capture of exogenous resources, promoting all participating stakeholders to search for ﬁnancing at European level.
10.6. Internal and external resources Human resources are always a key element of any initiative directly related to territorial dynamisation and the search for exogenous resources to generate wealth and optimise the use of existing resources. Since numerous territorial stakeholders have participated in and coordinated the development of this good practice, inspired by the conviction that networking guarantees the attraction of resources and subsequently territorial development, the staff of town and city councils, provincial councils and companies are also a very important resource for the creation and maintenance of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network. However, economic and ﬁnancial resources may be considered to result mainly from all the actions developed in this initiative because, as mentioned previously, substantial ﬁnancing has been contributed by different institutions, including the Regional Ministry of Tourism and the Provincial Councils.
10.7. Innovative elements Both the strategies developed in the territory and the results obtained in terms of the dynamisation of territorial stakeholders, the exploitation of local endogenous resources, the promotion of co-participation in the planning of territorial development and the knock-on effect generated by exogenous ﬁnancial resources are basic criteria that must be fulﬁlled for an initiative to be classiﬁed as a good practice. Given the important synthesis exercise that has led to the planning and execution of all the actions includes in this initiative, we set forth below the basic criteria fulﬁlled by this good practice and which are closely related to these actions. Participation One of the main actions supporting the creation of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network is the formation of an Association of Municipalities. The members of this association are mainly Andalusian municipalities with important historical heritage. However, the establishment of this network has required the participation and involvement of numerous political, economic and social stakeholders, including, most notably, provincial councils and companies operating in the area where this good practice is implemented. This participation and planning has been formalised through collaboration agreements between the territorial stakeholders involved in the creation of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network. The establishment of the association is essential for the optimum development of this Andalusian initiative because it makes a series of social stakeholders participating in the project responsible for the economic development of the socio-economic fabric in Andalusia, and without whose participation and coordination of objectives and actions this initiative would not have been possible. In terms of local development, this good practice has shown that the establishment of participation channels enhances the development of productive fabrics, foster interaction and exchange among local economic, political and social stakeholders, with the involvement of entrepreneurs from the tourism sector.
Innovation The creation of an Andalusian Historical Sites Network is a highly innovative initiative in Andalusia and makes its promoters pioneers in heritage conservation and the management of tourist resources. One of the main actions developed under this initiative has been the preparation of a list of heritage resources located in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Process planning and management Process planning and management is a criterion that can undoubtedly be achieved with the creation of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network. The arguments justifying this scope are based on two fundamental axes: the ﬁrst and most obvious one is the design by the Association of Municipalities of an action plan to programme and establish a sequence for all activities to be carried out by the association in the medium and long terms in order to achieve the deﬁned objectives relating to the development of the local tourist sector, since the preparation of an action plan guarantees the achievement of the deﬁned objectives; and secondly, and also very closely related to the criterion of innovation, is the fact that the Andalusian Historical Sites Network has created a planning tool for the tourist sector that has, as mentioned previously in this report, fostered the creation of seven tourist products such as the global tourist destination known as the Red de Conjuntos Históricos de Andalucía: Tesoros de Interior: ¡Despierta tus sentidos! (Andalusian Historical Sites Network: Inland Treasures. Awaken your Senses!). Transferability The transferability of a good practice is determined by different characteristic features of the initiative in question, such as diligence, the sequentially of activities, the identiﬁcation of speciﬁc and achievable objectives, or the adaptation of activities and objectives. But of course in order for an initiative to be transferable to other contexts with minimally similar characteristics, it is essential to describe and to sequence the speciﬁc actions identiﬁed in strategic planning and which have enabled the achievement of the established objectives. In this sense, the approach used to create the Red de Conjuntos Históricos de Andalucía: Tesoros de Interior: ¡Despierta tus sentidos! (Andalusian Historical Sites Network: Inland Treasures. Awaken your Senses!) is easily transferable insofar
as all the actions carried out to build the Network and obtain exogenous ﬁnancing have been identiﬁed, i.e. the creation of the Association of Municipalities, the diagnosis of the territory, the preparation of a list of tourist resources in the municipalities, the signing of collaboration agreements and the preparation of an action plan. Environment Although one criterion that must be fulﬁlled for an initiative to be classiﬁed as a good practice is for the actions included in that practice to promote sustainable use of natural resources and respect the environment, the Andalusian Historical Sites Network can clearly be identiﬁed as a good practice. Speciﬁcally, one ultimate objective of the Network is not only the conservation and maintenance of these sites but also the recovery of Andalusian heritage, which is closely related to natural resources. Moreover, one speciﬁc action developed by the Network has been the implementation of environmental management systems. Therefore, it may be concluded that this initiative, which has focused on attracting resources and ﬁnancing for the conservation of the historical and natural environment, guarantees the sustainability and protection of Andalusia’s natural resources. Sustainability Sustainability is one principle that has inspired the creation of the Andalusian Historical Sites Network, with a view to maintaining and protecting heritage by developing the local social and economic fabric and guaranteeing the availability of exogenous resources to achieve this objective, and because it develops a strategic planning exercise that includes actions and the search for medium and long-term ﬁnancing.
Research-participative action to obtain knowledge on territories: a study of key production sectors
11.1. Details and scope of action Knowledge of the territory is considered to be one of the main axes of the Andalusian Employment and Local Development Model. Identifying the potentialities, opportunities and weaknesses of territories is a key task for achieving economic, social and cultural growth and improvement. For this reason, the Andalusian development model represents a ďŹ rm commitment to the implementation of applied social research to obtain more in-depth knowledge of this geographical region. SpeciďŹ cally, it reďŹ‚ects a commitment to research based on participative methodologies with the involvement of stakeholders operating in the territory who have, in turn, expert knowledge of the territory. The participation of expert individuals and entities in each territory enables studies and research to be carried out. The results of these actions are focused on the improvements and potentialities that must be undertaken in each area of study in order to achieve greater and better local growth and development. An example of this approach, based on the creation of knowledge, is the good practice presented here, the Study of Key Production Sectors in Andalusia, carried out by the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment. The research was performed in 2006 and the results were published in March 2007. The good practice is autonomous because it was based on the activity and actions developed with the Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Units (UTEDLTs) covering the whole geographical area of Andalusia. The knowledge contributed by the Study has a positive impact on the entire Autonomous Community of Andalusia.
11.2. Reasons for the action Public policies must be continually adapted to territorial diversity. To do so, these policies must be ﬂexible and dynamic, especially in order to respond to the demands generated by different situations. Employment and economic development are perfect examples of this reality. The strong socio-economic differences between territories, as well as the different situations relating to occupancy and unemployment in regions with respect to others, have prompted the promotion of ﬂexibility-based initiatives to improve the operativity and efﬁciency of the administration’s actions, based on the creation of spaces for taking decisions and management in the territories, so that the latter adapt and contextualise general action policies, and develop and execute their own speciﬁc policies. These initiatives are based on the conviction that the socio-economic growth of municipalities is much slower, and sometimes even stagnates, when attempts are made to encompass external policies within the framework of general policies. This is known as “territorialisation”, a phenomenon linked to the concept of “governance” and to the “principle of subsidiarity”, which is understood as the need to devise closer political interventions to guarantee their success and relevance. To achieve this, creative formulae must be established that respond to that demand for the transfer of information, analysis, research and decision-making spaces. This step, the articulation of relations, policies and projects with the participative, responsible and coordinated intervention of both the different levels of government and social stakeholders present in the territory and citizens, as the ﬁnal beneﬁciaries of the developed actions, is the most complex at both organisational and functional level. One of these formulae is the participative action-research presented in this good practice, the Study of Key Production Sectors in Andalusia, which has been based on the territorial prospection and analysis actions performed by the UTEDLT (Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Units) with the participation of local stakeholders and experts in Andalusia.
11.3. General and speciﬁc objectives The aim of the study of these key production sectors is to examine in detail the organisation of economic activities in Andalusian, as well as to study the characteristic proﬁles of each territory linked to production and employment, in order to deﬁne both the current situation and future trends of evolution of the different municipal productive fabrics. To achieve this, the study examines in depth the potentialities of the territory and its dynamism and identiﬁes the activities emerging in territories, the activities that help generate most wealth and employment, the companies and the reasons why they are more durable in time, the reasons justifying the consolidation of business initiatives and the elements that make them more competitive in the market. The study also aims to generate the information necessary to direct political actions supporting entrepreneurial spirit in Andalusia, strengthening dynamics that increase the value of business activities and promoting changes in citizens’ attitudes towards this entrepreneurial reality.
11.4. Target groups Key production sectors have had an impact on a broad target group, more so taking into account that it is based on an open research-participation methodology and that it has been supported by the active participation of territorial stakeholders. Based on this general examination, a distinction may be made between the target group and the developer of the good practice, insofar as the latter participates actively in its implementation and also receives its achievements and results. This group includes the UTEDLTs and local stakeholders (political, economic and social) operating in the territory. The good practice also has a target group which, in this case, does not participate directly but beneﬁts from the achievements of the good practice, namely all Andalusian society and, speciﬁcally, future employers who have business projects or ideas but have not yet launched these for different reasons.
11.5. Main actions In order to obtain a detailed insight into Andalusian production sectors and their dynamics, as well as the business fabric and available opportunities, an applied participative study was carried out using a systematised and integral action plan based on the use of numerous sources of information. The main sources of information used to develop the study methodology were, as shown in the following ďŹ gure, secondary information sources, a business fabric survey and collaboration with economic and social stakeholders and experts from the territory.
Phase 1: Research design The technical personnel of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment is responsible for designing the research and determining the objectives, reasons justifying this intervention, indicators common to all the UTEDLTs, methodology and work plan.
Phase 2: Request for data and preparation of secondary sources for each UTEDLT After determining the objectives and type of research to be performed, information was compiled before carrying out the study. This phase consisted of two actions: Action 1: Requests for information. The Foundation asked the General Social Security Treasury to provide data on the number of companies belonging to the agriculture and ﬁsheries sector, by consulting the number of agricultural and ﬁshing companies and self-employed workers operating in these sectors and in each municipality. In this sense, the use of this information was innovative because socio-economic studies normally exclude such data. Action 2: Organisation of information for each UTEDLT. The technical staff of the Foundation prepared a folder contained statistical data for each of the 114 UTEDLTs. Each package contained information on the establishments pursuing economic activities in Andalusia (DIRCE), Tax on Economic Activities (IAE) and from the agricultural and ﬁsheries sector (TGSS) in all the municipalities where each UTEDLT operated. In the municipalities where UTEDLTs carried out actions, they had to analyse the data contained in each data folder in order to prepare the results report. Phase 3: Participative and agreed design of the survey and the questionnaires for the work groups with local stakeholders The primary source of information was a survey carried out by the UTEDLTs and the organisation of work groups and collaboration with economic and social stakeholders and experts in the territory; this was also the responsibility of the UTEDLTs. While the UTEDLTs were responsible for carrying out the surveys in the municipalities where the actions were being carried out, the organisation of work groups, design and preparation of survey questionnaires and groups was the joint responsibility of the technical staff of the Foundation and technical personnel at the 114 UTEDLTs. In this way, the result was supported by the consensus, agreement and networking between the UTEDLTs and the Foundation and also a common work methodology.
Action 1: Performance of the survey. The survey was carried out with companies present in the municipalities, covering the four production sectors: agriculture; forest silviculture and ďŹ sheries; industry; construction and services(25). Action 2: Organisation of meeting groups. The number of participants in the meeting and collaboration groups ranged from 8 to 10, with the intervention of the following persons: employers from each sector; Representatives of Town/City Councils; the Director of the Andalusian Employment Services OfďŹ ce or technical staff responsible for managing job offers; Presidents of Cooperatives; Presidents of Business Associations; Representatives of the different groups of the Andalusian Employment Service in the territory; Trade Union representatives. The UTEDLTs were responsible for contacting each stakeholder and guaranteeing their participation in the groups. Phase 4: Drafting of UTEDLT reports (municipal information) Using the information gathered by each UTEDLT and secondary-source information provided by the Foundation, UTEDLT technical staff analysed the results and drafted the reports on the key production sectors in the municipalities where they carried out their actions. The information was therefore broken down on a municipal basis, covering the entire area of action of each UTEDLT. The information was complemented with that available in the Projects bank of the UTEDLT. This Bank is a database completed with information on initiatives of entrepreneurs in each of the 114 Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Units provided on a standard form. This database contains information on Self-employment-entrepreneurial initiatives and on public and private initiatives (both existing initiatives and those that have not yet been launched). Phase 5: Preparation of the Key Production Sectors in Andalusia project (aggregation of autonomous community data) The Foundation is the entity responsible for aggregating all the information and results obtained from the reports prepared by the UTEDLTs. It has also been responsible for grouping the results obtained from the municipal surveys at auto-
(25) The size of the sample was calculated in proportion to the number of companies present in the municipalities within the scope of action of each Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Unit. Based on the results of this calculation, the size of the sample was distributed among the different production sectors according to their weight in each UTEDLT.
nomous community level, enabling very valuable and ﬁrst-hand information to be obtained on the activities of Andalusian companies operating in the territory. This phase therefore resulted in the presentation of a Report on key production sectors in Andalusia, prepared using quantitative and qualitative data from the participating Andalusian municipalities and with the participation and consensus of the UTEDLTs and stakeholders operating in the local area.
11.6. Internal and external resources This good practice was carried out using all the human and material resources available in the UTEDLTs, as well as a specialised technical research team of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment. Speciﬁcally, the UTEDLTs gathered data, analysed results and prepared the report on key production sectors corresponding to their scope of action. The Foundation coordinated, analysed and processed, at autonomous community level, all the information available (pooling together the results from each UTEDLT) and the work on the preparation of the ﬁnal report.
11.7. Innovative elements From the technical standpoint, innovative formulae must be established on the basis of the design of protocols and tools to obtain knowledge on the territories where the practice is to be implemented. For this reason, the most appropriate tools and mechanisms must be selected within the framework of the territorialisation of public employment policies, and cooperation with the stakeholders involved in the management and development of municipalities, effectively strengthening speciﬁc knowledge of each territory in order to subsequently design adapted action strategies and implement optimum active policies to promote development and employment. In this case, the result obtained has resulted in a good practice since it complies with the basic criteria of innovation, participation, planning and transferability; and the general network of contacts criterion. Innovation The two main elements that make the Key production sectors study innovative are, on the one hand, the type of research used and, on the other, the use of unpublished information.
In relation to the ﬁrst element, applied participative research was carried out. This assumes that the conclusions and recommendations reached after the information gathering and analysis phase (based on a participative methodology, as described below) are practical in nature and may be implemented in the territory. This type of research-action is, therefore, a fundamental pillar for designing policies because it enables the identiﬁcation of the speciﬁcity of each territory in terms of its productive fabric, its economic dynamics and its cultural features. For this reason, knowledge of Andalusian territories is the main value of research, particularly if territory is treated as a speciﬁc resource and the main factor in local economic development. In other words, the differential aspect and the added value of this work model stems from the conception of territory not just as a main stakeholder or as a set of geographical, physical, cultural and socio-economic variables, but as a group of stakeholders interacting within the territory; thus giving a purpose to the second differential element of the prospective model, its integration in the research process. Based on this collaboration, local stakeholders have acquired and broadened their knowledge of the territories in which they develop their activities. Moreover, joint work with the UTEDLTs has enabled the exchange of experiences and forms of operating and understanding the territory, using practical and ﬁrst-hand information on the Andalusian business fabric, its dynamics, weaknesses, opportunities, emerging activities, as well as a socio-economic analysis of the causes justifying business consolidation and business growth. As regards the second element, research has been based on own sources of information, created by the UTEDLT network, as well as statistical data that are hard to obtain for other similar studies. In this sense, data provided by the General Social Security Treasury on companies registered in Andalusia from 1999 until 2005 in any regime have been very useful, including the agricultural and ﬁsheries sectors. This meant that an examination of the situation regarding these two municipal economic sectors could be included in the study. It is difﬁcult to ﬁnd such a complex and detailed analysis in other publications due to the difﬁculty involved in accessing standard records.
Participation The study includes a detailed examination of the organisation of economic activity in the territories where the UTEDLTs operate, as well as the characteristic proﬁles of each area in relation to production and employment, in order to deﬁne the current situation and future trends of development of the different municipal productive fabrics. To this end, the study was supported by the joint work/networking of the UTEDLTs and with the participation-cooperation of local political, social and economic stakeholders. This participation and cooperation was achieved through the actual work study model, which integrates, through the design of a common methodology and from the initial design phase, both units that are going to develop the work (in the form of their provincial representation) and territorial stakeholders responsible for supplying information in a bottom-up direction(26). Then it examines in detail the implementation of the consensus and selfdiagnosis of the needs through social research formulae (both quantitative and qualitative), which boost the inclusion of the persons responsible for socio-economic development in the municipalities involved, and which also participate in the analysis and drafting of conclusions. To summarise, the value of this good practice, from the participation standpoint, is consensus, a principle deeply rooted in Andalusian policy and which attempts to manage agreements and actions through consensus, i.e. the presence, participation and opinions of everyone involved in the development of the municipalities where the interventions are carried out. Planning Another crucial element of this research model is the systematisation of work through a single, common and agreed methodology that attempts to avoid the traditional shortcomings observed in these types of networking processes, where territorial diversity and the speciﬁcity of each unit make the monitoring of a common line of work and analysis more complicated. As deﬁned so poignantly by the CAENTI (Coordination Action of the European Network of Territorial Intelligence): (26) Surveys were carried out and discussion groups organised with local companies, loyal employers from each sector, representatives of town/city councils, managers of Andalusian Employment Service ofﬁces or technical staff responsible for managing offers, cooperative managers, managers of business associations, representatives of different Andalusian Employment Service teams in the territory and trade union representatives.
“Research tools in social sciences generally suffer from a deﬁcit of standardisation when they are used on the same territory and the methodologies that are used are hardly made explicit. The processing instruments of quantitative and qualitative data are not accessible to the actors. Information sharing remains defective and harms the participative and collaborative action.”(27) In this process of organisation of signiﬁcant relations between the protagonists of local socio-economic development and organisation, standardisation and systematisation of information, consensus among stakeholders and among administrations is clearly very important, as mentioned previously, when providing, for example, sufﬁciently contrasted and updated statistical data (in this case, municipal statistics) to allow homogeneous (exclusively in terms of form of analysis, of course) and reliable conclusions to be drawn. This systematisation of information and this level of administrative support (consensus) to work, avoids gaps such as those referred to by the CAENTI: “Thus the social sciences researcher or local actor should compare data that are collected at different territorial levels, in different scales of time, and that are based on indicators which are deﬁned in different ways. In these ﬁelds, good practices are not well known and do not beneﬁt from adequate dissemination.”(28) Transferability Key production sectors have an agreed action plan, with homogeneous processing of information in each territory and with common indicators for all the municipalities analysed. This systematic and homogeneous research and analysis model can be transferred to other regions. To do so, public local and municipal entities in these regions must be identiﬁed and one entity must be responsible for coordinating and gathering local and municipal data in order to prepare results covering the whole meeting. The Study of Key Production Sectors is characterised by the transferability of knowledge to society. The whole of Andalusian society also beneﬁts from this study. Speciﬁcally, the transfer of implicit knowledge in this project helps promote
(27) http://www.territorial-intelligence.eu; “State of the art of territorial intelligence”. (28) http://www.territorial-intelligence.eu; “State of the art of territorial intelligence”.
the activities of persons with entrepreneurial spirit who have not yet decided to set up their own companies or become self-employed. Recognition of the important volume of entrepreneurial activity in Andalusia has a knock-on effect that encourages other entrepreneurial individuals to start their own activities. Networking The added value of this study and methodology used has enabled the establishment of a network for inter-relationships and exchange of knowledge among social, political and economic stakeholders operating in the local context and aware of the opportunities in the territory. This network of contacts has been created largely thanks to the conception of the territory throughout the research: the territory as a dynamic construction of actors and actresses intervening in same, in a permanent construction process, and in which they can participate at any time through innovative formulae such as applied/participative research. Results In general terms, and as an integrated intervention system, the Key Production Sectors in Andalusia report has improved the initial situation in two ways. Firstly, important knowledge of Andalusia and its productive fabric has been obtained, through deeper research of potentialities and strengths that enable weaknesses and encouraging entrepreneurial culture in emerging sectors and activities. Secondly, the links and relations between all the stakeholders operating directly in the territory have been strengthened, boosting the creation of employment and local development, with added value in the form of social capital generated by these links.
Close administration: a commitment to bringing resources closer to citizens
12.1. Details and scope of action We will now present a good practice aimed at brining public administration employment services closer to citizens. This good practice is based on actions designed for the implementation of the Close Administration strategy and promoted by the Andalusian Employment Service of the Regional Ministry of Employment, are guided by criteria to foster the interaction of all the social and economic stakeholders with the administration, support based on different channels that guarantee access for all users and strengthens the traditional channels, the application of new technologies to bring services closer to citizens and the improvement of the Andalusian administrative authorities’ capacity to offer early responses. These actions include, most notably, the Virtual Employment Ofﬁce (which includes Eurek@ and Gescontrata), the Renueva tu demanda (Renew your job applications) Employment Points, the Columna de Currículum Vídeo (Video Curriculum Column) implemented by the Centres of Reference for Guidance on Employment and the Agentes de Intermediación Laboral (Labour Mediation Agents) and Unidades de Barrio (Neighbourhood Units) programmes. The scope of action of the good practice is Andalusia, since the whole territory is immersed in a process of modernisation of the administration and its relations with users, and therefore also a process of bringing the administration closer to citizens.
12.2. Reasons for the action The actions and programmes carried out by the employment services of the Andalusian Autonomous Community to bring the Administration closer to citizens
is encompassed within a broad analytical and provisional context. This context is structured around two large inter-related exes, relating to the boom in the presence of new information and communication technologies in advanced societies and the need for modernisation of the Andalusian administration. In fact, these are two inter-related exes since the modernisation of the administration, its management and its services aims to adapt to both social and technological evolution and new citizens’ demands. The most noteworthy principles justifying the modernisation of the Andalusian administration include the following: - The adaptation to technological change. The use of ICTs helps increase the systematisation and simpliﬁcation of processes and procedures, since e-management generates savings in time and costs. - Greater efﬁciency and effectiveness of administration services. The modernisation of the administration has the advantage of increasing the efﬁciency of public authorities in their administrative and documentary activities. - The fulﬁlment of the new demands of citizens and entrepreneurs. Users of public services place new requirements on administrations, which focus on the needs of speed, personalisation and incorporation of services, and increase their quality, among other needs. - Continual improvement of quality. The modernisation of the administration has the basic objective of bringing administration services closer to citizens. The different local and autonomous community administrations do not do this without planning because the Autonomous Community of Andalusia has launched the Strategy to Modernise the Public Services of the Regional Government of Andalusia, the ﬁrst strategic line would be Close Administration, a circumstance that presents the Autonomous Community Government’s intention to place citizens at the centre of all its actions. Bringing the administration closer to citizens requires the following:
- Facilitate interaction between all socio-economic stakeholders and the administration. - Provide multichannel attention and information that guarantee access to all citizens. - Strengthen traditional channels through the application of new technologies. - Improve the capacity of the autonomous community government to generate anticipated responses, i.e. responses based on early detection of the needs of the user population. All these actions reveal that the concept of close administration has a dual interpretation. The ﬁrst is strictly geographical and consists in creating technological structures that enable proximity services to be rendered to citizens, i.e. physical approximation of the administration service to citizens. And the second interpretation of close administration is as a type of principle of logic of action that allows the autonomous community government to gear all its actions to quality, efﬁciency, effectiveness and on-going improvement, considering the user population as service seekers and therefore breaking with the traditional consideration of an administered population. In terms of employment services, the implementation of the Close Administration strategy by the autonomous community government, speciﬁcally the Regional Ministry of Employment, is particularly relevant, given the consideration of employment as a strictly necessary resource for the population of working age and, at the same time, as a factor driving the Andalusian economy. In this sense, the ultimate objective of the modernisation process and Close Administration strategy for the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Employment is to improve the conception and application of employment policies, making it easier for all citizens to access employment resources.
12.3. General and speciﬁc objectives The Close Administration strategy entails a set of actions that, as explained previously, put citizens at the centre of actions based on both the physical approximation of employment resources and the implementation of basic principles or criteria towards improvements in the rendering of these services.
Therefore, the overall objective of the Regional Ministry of Employment, through the Close Administration strategy, is to facilitate citizens’ relations with the Administration by eliminating physical and organisational barriers and formalities. This objective is subdivided into other speciﬁc objectives. One particularly important speciﬁc objective is the rationalisation of management of administrative units, through a continual exercise to simply and standardise administrative procedures. Closely linked to this is the objective of offering more and better services to meet the needs and expectations of citizens. A third speciﬁc objective is the identiﬁcation of new channels of communication with citizens that, in time, bring the administration closer to citizens, strengthen traditional channels and are based on the use of new technologies. Finally, the fourth speciﬁc objective would be the improvement of the transparency of the citizen inter-relation model with employment resources and services.
12.4. Target group Although several references have been made in this chapter to Close Administration in terms of bringing employment resources closer to citizens, the concept of citizens in this sense is very broad. Generally speaking, it is aimed at to all persons living in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia and who have a labour or employment relationships with the regional administration. However, the group targeted by the Close Administration strategy also includes other entities and speciﬁcally certain collectives in the general population. Firstly, these are entities or organisations, including most notably companies and other administrative authorities, which, in their relations with the administration, aim to reduce their transaction costs and see Close Administration as a rapid and economical way of obtaining the public information they need to development their activity. Andalusian entrepreneurs, immersed in profound changes that the development of the information and communication society is introducing in its dealings and relations with the labour market and with all social and economic stakeholders, become equally innovative, close and effective seekers of employment services. At the same time, the implementation of Close Administration entails the
establishment of an order and the search for synergies in relations established between the different administrative authorities, generating an agile, close and efﬁcient regional administration. Secondly, although this good practice is targeted at all citizens who establish relations with the regional authorities in relation to employment, two large groups are speciﬁcally targeted. These are job seekers in Andalusia and collectives with special difﬁculty integrating in society.
12.5. Main actions The scope of the objectives established in the Close Administration strategy includes the deﬁnition and execution of different actions and initiatives designed to bring Regional Ministry of Employment resources and services closer to citizens and to implement basic principles aimed at improving the services rendered. At the same time, these actions are translated into different intervention strategies and tools, sometimes leading to the launch of speciﬁc employment Programmes, the clearest example being the Programa de Unidades de Barrio (Neighbourhood Units Programme). The actions presented below are examples of this wide variety of actions, all initiatives developed by the Andalusian Employment Service. One of the main initiatives launched by the Andalusian Employment Service of the Regional Ministry of Employment is the Virtual Employment Ofﬁce. This initiative consists of different actions and the creation of various telematic tools used to develop the Close Administration strategy supported by the use of new information and communication technologies (speciﬁcally Internet). The implementation of the Virtual Employment Ofﬁce has been accompanied by the provision of different services and resources relating to the management of employment offers and candidates for both job seekers and companies in Andalusia. These include a service that provides information on employment contracts, a catalogue of jobs that are difﬁcult to ﬁll and the Eures Network (management of employment offers and job seekers at European level). However, there are two particularly noteworthy services offered by the Virtual Employment Ofﬁce, namely Eurek@ and Gescontrata. Eurek@ is a tool that the Andalusian Employment Service offers employers and job seekers for managing job offers on Internet. Job seekers are offered the following: more opportunities to ﬁnd employment, real-time information on offers
adapted to their proﬁles, as well as the possibility of responding in real time to conﬁrm their availability for speciﬁc jobs. Eurek@ offers companies the following services: a prior survey on potential candidates, real-time management of job offers, the possibility of maintaining direct relations with candidates and the application of numerous candidate selection criteria. Gescontrata is a free software programme that the Andalusian Employment Service offers companies for the management and communication of employment contracts of employees via Internet, from their place of work, thus avoiding having to travel to Employment Ofﬁces. The group targeted by this initiative are all companies and entities that are obliged to communicate employment contracts to the Andalusian Employment Service. Both initiatives are, therefore, an example of the adaptation of the Autonomous Community public administration to the new requirements and demands of Andalusian entrepreneurs, who, immersed in a process of modernisation and approximation to new information and communication technologies, demand a more modern relationship with the administration to speed up and complete associated formalities. A clear example of bringing support and information services closer to citizens are the Renueva tu demanda (literally “Renew your job applications”) Employment Points, an Andalusian Employment Service initiative that consists in the implementation of a system to make it easier for job seekers to renew job seeking and applications through a ﬁngerprint reading system. This system consists of two differentiated elements: a ﬁngerprint reader and biometric software that stores the biometric details of job seekers and managers; and the creation of information and management points, similar to ATMs, which, through ﬁngerprint recognition, allow users to renew their job applications. The main objective of these Employment Points is to make it easier for job seekers to make enquiries and present applications if they are resident in places or localities where there are no employment ofﬁces (these points are normally installed in town/city council or other ofﬁcial buildings, Andalusian Employment Service ofﬁces and departments of the Andalusian Employment Service or Regional Ministry of Employment). They also offer the following: shorter waiting times, ﬂexible opening times and a reduction in travel for all users of these services. In summary, the services offered by the Renueva tu demanda Employment Points to Andalu-
sian job seekers are: consultation via Internet of information on job applications, updating of job applications via Internet, renewal of job applications, and printing of complete job application reports and application renewal documents. This initiative is therefore a clear example of the modernisation of the management of demand, since it entails the telematic management of same. Moreover, this action brings resources closer to users and improves existing resources, and also adapts these to the needs of job seekers and optimises times and resources, improving the relationship of job seekers with the administration. Another initiative being carried out by the Andalusian Employment Service to bring employment resources and services closer to citizens, speciﬁcally job seekers, has its origins in the “Andalucía Orienta” Programme, which is completed with the Centres of Reference for Guidance on Employment (Centros de Referencia para la Orientación - CRO). The “Andalucía Orienta” Network focuses all its activities on supporting job seekers, the main objective being the obtainment and improvement of the employment and professional conditions of job seekers or persons whose situations can be improved, as well as persons with special difﬁculties accessing the labour market or at risk of social exclusion. However, within the scope of this Programme, it was considered necessary, in line with the changes and dynamics taking place in the labour market, to continue designing special actions according to the needs of job seekers and the business fabric. For this reason, the Columna de Currículum Vídeo (Video Curriculum Column) was designed as an innovative tool for job seekers to record videos of their professional proﬁles for presentation to employers, enabling curriculum vitae to be present in a personalised, autonomous and efﬁcient way. This tool allows applicants to present not only information in traditional currículum form but also the skills, attitudes and competencies they consider to be useful for their presentation as candidates for vacancies. In this sense, the main potentialities of the Columna de Currículum Vídeo, as a clear example of bringing resources closer to citizens and seeking efﬁcient management of employment resources, include facilitating the integration of job seekers, personalising job seekers before employers and presenting the skills and attitudes of each job seeker more in line with labour market demands. The Video Curriculum Columns can be found at both the Guidance Reference Centre and at Andalusian Employment Service ofﬁces.
The Andalusian Employment Service has developed another Programme called Agentes de Intermediación Laboral (AIL) (Labour Mediation Agents), a network of professionals distributed around Andalusia that brings the SAE closer to local productive fabrics in order to respond to the human resources and employment needs of Andalusian companies. In order to match employment supply and demand, the Labour Mediation Agents Programme develops a series of action protocols based on business prospection actions, company visits, capture of job offers, management of demand and guidance to companies. After developing the Close Administration strategy, the Andalusian Employment Service provides labour mediation personnel with a set of tools to facilitate and strengthen the management of supply and demand under this programme. This basically consists in the development of an application for monitoring business activity, including a company database. The information obtained with this software provides knowledge on the activity of companies, plan future activity and analyse major labour market trends; this information is subsequently transferred to all citizens. The work methodology of the Labour Mediation Agents Programme is an example of how to modernise the management of employment supply and demand and bring these services closer to citizens to satisfy the needs of the user population, formed by both entrepreneurs and job seekers, and make them more efﬁcient and effective. One of the main lines of work in the Close Administration programme focuses on bringing employment services and resources closer to collectives in speciﬁc circumstances and, therefore, special difﬁculties accessing employment. The Andalusian Employment Service’s Neighbourhood Units Programme materialises and implements these actions in order to bring these resources and services closer to a speciﬁc sector of society that lacks sufﬁcient means and skills to use employment resources in equal conditions to the rest of citizens. Therefore, the Administration’s Neighbourhood Units Programme brings citizens closer to these resources and services by breaking the barriers of disinformation, apathy and mistrust, and establishing a relationship of trust and proximity, through information and specialised guidance on different employment mechanisms that citizens can access, thus helping to reduce social gaps to a minimum and build a more equal society.
The work methodology used in the Programme is based on the planning and implementation of collaboration mechanisms and participation among associations, informal leaders and public and private entities, as a method for generating social capital in neighbourhoods, thus bringing more vulnerable collectives closer to these services and giving them access to existing employment public and private resources. The actions developed under the programme and noteworthy as good practices for the development of Close Administration have the following main objective: . Disseminate resources, according to the speciďŹ c needs and characteristics of each collective in order to foster appropriate and quality use of these resources according to market needs, by the priority collectives of the SAE. . Promote the collaboration and establishment of joint lines of work among all employment resources and mechanisms to ensure collectives have more efďŹ cient and ordered access. . Offer the different collectives an initial and integral guidance on training and employment resources, mechanisms, programmes and experiences, as well as their subsequent derivation to the adequate service. . Offer a support service to the different Andalusian Employment Service resources to provide specialised attention to collectives with difďŹ culties accessing employment. In short, the Neighbourhood Units Programme is an initiative of the Andalusian Employment Service designed to bring resources and services closer to collectives and based on knowledge and recognition of their needs and on the design of projects and tools to cover such needs. All the actions, tools and programmes presented under the programme, helping to bring employment resources and services closer to citizens both physically and by satisfying the needs of users and improving resources, are complemented by others, which are equally relevant and interesting, including most notably electronic claim or suggestion boxes and means for consulting administrative experts and managers.
12.6. Internal and external resources All the physical and telematic actions and tools described above require the use and management of the material, economic, ﬁnancial and human resources of the Regional Ministry of Employment, speciﬁcally the Andalusian Employment Service. These are supported by the economic and ﬁnancial resources of the European Social Fund, thus boosting the Close Administration employment strategy in Andalusia.
12.7. Identiﬁcation criteria of the good practice All the actions undertaken in Andalusia in order to implement the Close Administration, guided by criteria to favour the interaction of all socio-economic stakeholders with the administration, and support and multichannel information services that guarantee access for all citizens, strengthening traditional channels through the application of new technologies and the improvement of the capacity of the Autonomous Community administration to generate early responses, comply with the basic criteria for the initiative to be classiﬁed as a good practice. The basic criteria complied with by this good practice are presented below. These basic criteria are participation, innovation, process planning and management and transferability. Equality and quality are the general criteria. Participation All the actions launched by the Regional Ministry of Employment to implement the Close Administration strategy have been inspired on the consideration of citizens as the core element. The needs and new requirements of users of employment services have at all times provided the basis for new services rendered and improvements to existing services. Therefore, this good practice meets the participation criterion with respect to citizens in general and in terms of the participation of entrepreneurs and other entities and administrations. Innovation Most of the actions presented in this report, an optimum example of which is the Andalusian Employment Service’s Virtual Ofﬁce, are supported on telematic
tools and structures that have necessarily been developed using new information and communication technologies, the maximum indicator o innovation and modernisation of employment services by the Andalusian Regional Government. Process planning and management The Autonomous Community of Andalusia has launched the Strategy to Modernise the Public Services of the Andalusian Regional Government. The ﬁrst strategic line of this Strategy is Close Administration, which reveals the regional government’s commitment to placing citizens at the centre of all its actions. Bringing employment resources and services closer to citizens and the ongoing improvement of these resources and services is achieved using a planned approach, developing actions aimed at speciﬁc collectives, using speciﬁc formats and supported on planning, management, monitoring and evaluation tools. Transferability Since these are actions and initiatives aimed at citizens in general and job seekers in particular, all these initiatives are perfectly transferable to any context and to any administration responsible for managing employment services and resources. Sustainability The sustainability of the actions presented within the framework of the Andalusian Regional Government’s commitment to bring employment services closer to citizens is a guaranteed insofar as they satisfy the need for efﬁciency and improvement in the rendering of services to citizens and are based on telematic means that represent the future of resources management. Equality One of the key elements of the Close Administration strategy is catering for collectives with special needs. These collectives represent a challenge to bring employment resources and services closer to all citizens and, therefore, an important effort to strengthen equal access and use of same, eliminating different inequalities and obstacles.
Quality Bringing employment resources closer to all users does not only consist in bringing them physically nearer but also improving the quality of these resources and services. This objective is achieved through actions such as the Renueva tu demanda Employment Points, which also received the Prize for Quality Public Services awarded by the Regional Government of Andalusia in the e-administration modality.
Quality in employment: the andalusian extrajudicial system for labour conﬂict resolution
13.1. Details and scope of action The Andalusian Extrajudicial System for Labour Conﬂict Resolution (Sistema Extrajudicial de Resolución de Conﬂictos Colectivos Laborales de Andalucía - SERCLA) was established following the interprofessional Agreement adopted by the Conference of Entrepreneurs of Andalusia and the Spanish Andalusian trade unions UGTA (Unión General de Trabajadores de Andalucía) and CC.OO. (Comisiones Obreras de Andalucía) in 1996, as provided in Article 83.3 of the Workers’ Statutes. To guarantee the commitments assumed under this agreement, the agreement was also signed by the President of the Andalusian Regional Government and the Regional Minister of Employment and Industry. Although the agreement was adopted in 1996 and implemented on 11 May 1998, as published in BOJA (Ofﬁcial Journal of the Regional Government of Andalusia) number 147, of 26 December, since 1993, within the context of the Agreement of Economic and Social Development of Andalusia, reference was made to the need to boost speciﬁc negotiations among all those working to achieve an autonomous system of this type. Additionally, the Andalusian Pact on Employment and Productive Activity, dated 13 February 1995, also emphasizes the need to develop a procedure for extrajudicially resolving conﬂicts in all their Mediation, Reconciliation and Arbitration phases. Therefore, the SERCLA consolidates a collective strengthening process through the creation of an extremely interesting and useful instrument, promoting spaces of consensus and participated conﬂict management, as well as the search for solutions based on consensus and co-responsibility.
As indicated in the Statement of Reasons of the Regulations of the SERCLA, in our Autonomous Community, these Arbitrating Systems shall enable decisions to be adopted in disputes or conﬂicts based on agreed actions resulting from dialogue and close collaboration between the main parties, the Economic and Social Stakeholders, which shall promote permanent concerted action channels, and strengthen and attribute responsibilities for collective autonomy, also helping to promote and enrich collective bargaining processes and the ordering, rationalisation and establishment of the current framework of labour relations. In organisational terms, the SERCLA is a complex legal structure due to the importance of its functions and the need to adapt its speciﬁc rules within the framework established by the legal system. The SERCLA, having been established on the basis of an Interprofessional Agreement on speciﬁc matters (Article 83.3 of the Workers’ Statutes) has by law been attributed the nature and effects of a collective agreement. This means that the regulations of the Agreement and the Regulation itself are binding and directly applicable to all workers and to businesses within its scope of application (the Autonomous Community of Andalusia), without having to be included in agreements with smaller scopes of application. This instrument was selected in order to apply a more ﬂexible conﬂict management instrument. In fact, the collective bargaining agreements enable greater adaptability and a closer response to the demands generated in practice.
SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE SERCLA
The SERCLA’s scope of action covers the whole of Andalusia. It is an institutional unit for the whole Autonomous Community, with headquarters at the Andalusian Council of Labour Relations located in Seville, it performs decentralised actions and has 167 mediators operating in all Andalusian provinces, and who work for the Confederation of Andalusian Entrepreneurs and the trade unions Comisiones Obreras and Unión General de Trabajadores. From a functional perspective, the Extrajudicial System intervenes in the following types of disputes: • Disputes arising in relation to the interpretation, application or creation of a Collective Agreement, as well as from the interpretation or application of state regulations or company practices. • Disputes on agreements during consultative periods when the workers and companies affected are located in Andalusia. • Disputes prior to strikes and relating to security and maintenance during strikes. The Paritary Commission must be contacted ﬁrst before contacting the SERCLA whenever the dispute concerns a Collective Bargaining Agreement (disputes relating to its modiﬁcation, application, interpretation, etc.). The Paritary Commission must also be notiﬁed if an appeal is presented under the terms of the Agreement in any type of dispute. All agreements adopted via the SERCLA are the result of the promotion of dialogue and consensus between the parties and efforts to combine objectives; in other words, dialogue and closer relations that may be projected within the scope of the agreement and in the place where the dispute has arisen.
13.2. Reasons for the action The recently-approved Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia, submitted to referendum on 18 February 2007, represents the new scope of action of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, where the search for quality employment and excellence in labour relations are taken onboard as fundamental strategic lines. In this sense, the statutory framework expresses Andalusia’s commitment to
these objectives, for which purpose the Autonomous Community must necessarily develop the corresponding policy. This is conﬁrmed in Article 170 of the Statute, which speciﬁes the labour relations policy and other policies, including measures to promote means for the extrajudicial resolution of labour disputes. The same article also stipulates the need for a collective bargaining policy in accordance with the model of permanent concerted social action that is followed in Andalusia, where the quality of employment is also an objective achievable through collaboration among all social, economic and political intermediaries and stakeholders. Therefore, in order to develop a labour relations system, as well as to generate quality employment, it is assumed that collective bargaining is a priority structuring instrument. For this reason, public authorities are authorised to collaborate in the development of actions aimed at improving its structure and contents to satisfy the needs of a modern productive system and thus achieve the general employment policy objectives indicated in the Statute of Autonomy. In order to achieve these strategic lines, it is essential to harness the participation of business and trade union organisations in permanent and tested concerted action structures and dialogue with social stakeholders, such as the Andalusian Labour Relations Council. For this reason, this institution’s speciﬁc personal and material resources necessary for it to perform its functions are strengthened. Similarly, the Andalusian Extrajudicial System for Labour Conﬂict Resolution is strengthened through its contribution to consensus and dialogue between social intermediaries and to promoting social peace.
13.3. General and speciﬁc objectives The Extrajudicial System for the Resolution of Collective Labour Disputes in Andalusia has been created in order to resolve disputes in the Andalusian labour market through dialogue and mediation. Speciﬁcally, the System is consolidated as an instrument to further the improvement and strengthening of the Andalusian collective bargaining system. To this end, the System deﬁnes the following speciﬁc objectives: - Promote a more rational and articulated collective bargaining structure.
- Perfect and develop collective bargaining contents. - Consolidate and perfect extrajudicial labour dispute solution systems.
13.4. Target groups The regulatory agreements of the SERCLA are legal collective agreements and oblige all entrepreneurs and workers encompassed with their respective scopes of application, including Labour Personnel of the Andalusian Regional Government and its Public Companies.
13.5. Main actions The activities of the Extrajudicial System are developed based on an organised and sequential structure. This structure revolves around a Conciliation-Mediation Commission (CMM), a collegial bipartite entity, formed by organisations that have signed the agreement directly (trade unions and entrepreneursâ€™ associations). This Conciliation-Mediation Commission has a team of Arbitrators, formed by jurists and/or professionals of recognised prestige. When developing its actions and in order to carry out the activities relating to the management of the SERCLA, it has a President and a Secretary, who also act as President and Secretary of the Conciliation-Mediation Commission. The President may be a member of the organisation and is elected alternatively from among business and trade union representatives for a term of one year. The Secretary is a civil servant with conďŹ rmed professional labour law qualiďŹ cations and will be appointed by the Secretary of the Andalusian Labour Relations Council. The Monitoring Commission of the SERCLA is formed by four representatives of each party, business and trade union organisation who have signed the Agreement, by virtue of their greater representativeness, as well as four members of the Andalusian Regional Government. It is responsible for monitoring and developing the SERCLA in its different areas of action, as well as examining all matters of importance for the different operating Conciliation-Mediation Committees, interpreting and correctly applying, whenever necessary, the rules governing the procedure and ensuring the proper coordination of the System.
Source: Available at www.juntadeandalucia.es/empleo/carl
All participants in this system are responsible for managing and mediating in any collective bargaining disputes that arise (conﬂicts of interests, negotiations of agreements, application and interpretation of collective labour agreements and pre-strike disputes), and individual disputes (professional classiﬁcation, substantial modiﬁcation of conditions, reductions of working hours, transfers and travel, etc.).
13.6. Internal and external resources The Extrajudicial System is a public system and is also supported by resources from the Andalusian Labour Relations Council (public body belonging to the Regional Ministry of Employment), with human and material resources provided by the trade unions CC.OO. (Comisiones Obreras) and UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores) and the Confederation of Entrepreneurs of Andalusia. As mentioned previously, the stakeholders mediating in the territory belong to these entities, whereas the actual management of the SERCLA is the responsibility of the Andalusian Labour Relations Council.
13.7. Innovative elements Innovation The selection of this instrument is seen in Andalusia as an innovative response to the need to apply a more ďŹ‚exible instrument for managing disputes and problems arising from labour relations. Its clear differentiating feature is its objective to enrich a dynamic negotiation System, overcoming static trends that negatively affect Labour Relations Systems. To achieve this, it is established as an obligatory reconciliation procedure before disputes arise, based on the goals and commitment of the parties involved. Although the implementation of this procedure is obligatory, acceptance of the results of the procedure by the participants is voluntary. Furthermore, since January 2008, a pilot experience has been launched to deal with individual cases in the provinces of Seville, Almeria and Huelva. Participation Therefore, the SERCLA represents the consolidation of a process geared to strengthening collective bargaining, promoting agreement spaces and the shared management of disputes, as well as the search for solutions based on consensus and co-responsibility. The SERCLA is a parity system, created by the most representative businesses organisations and trade unions in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. It is directly administered by these collective participants, thus highlighting their commitment and special responsibility with respect to this task. The Administration only intervenes on an instrumental basis. Therefore, the SERCLA is conďŹ gured, independently of its regulatory framework, as a generally applicable Interprofessional Agreement and complex legal initiative involving complementary actions undertaken by social stakeholders with the collaboration of public actions, speciďŹ cally the Employment Council through the Andalusian Labour Relations Council, which guarantees the virtuality and practical implementation of the System.
Planning The actions carried out through the Extrajudicial System are sequentially structured for both collective and individual disputes, starting with the presentation of the case, continuing with the start-up and launch of the mediation and resolution mechanisms of the conﬂict mediation agents, until it is completely resolved. This system is developed based on the intervention of all the participants in the SERCLA, working on a connected basis and with the participation of all the stakeholders involved. Transferability The SERCLA is a highly transferable system given the implicit values it promotes – dialogue and communication; participation of social stakeholders; promotion of social peace and improvement of labour relations - and its functionality and basic structure. It is also a system that can be transferred to other social contexts and not just for resolving labour disputes. In other words, it is a mediation system that can be used to resolve other disputes such as processes prior to the initiation of legal proceedings, which entail high economic costs (in time and resources) and have a greater personal debilitating effect. Equality The SERCLA is characterised by its direct intervention in the conﬂict resolution and mediation based on respect for equality criteria in the labour context. The result of this are the conﬂict mediation actions it has been developing; their resolution guarantees measures to boost the equal treatment and conditions of more vulnerable collectives, and measures for the reconciliation of private and professional life. Furthermore, the training provided by the Andalusian Labour Relations Council, as the managing body of the SERCLA, means that equality plays a central role as the transversal axis in the resolution of all disputes. Results Since its creation, the Andalusian Extrajudicial System for Labour Conﬂict Resolution has been characterised by its strong involvement and importance in labour relations, and since its ﬁrst year of activity (1999) it has helped resolve many
disputes. Since 1999, the year in which the SERCLA began operating, until the end of 2006, it had been asked to intervene in 4,556 labour disputes, involving 443,496 companies and 3,707,303 workers. This reﬂects the acceptance of the SERCLA by workers and employers, as well as the search for agreements in its area of action. In general terms, the procedural modality of the SERCLA has meant that since 1999, 895 agreements have been signed resulting in greater ﬂuidity and the standardisation of labour relations in Andalusia and, therefore, social peace, which are essential elements for guaranteeing the effectiveness and competitiveness of the productive system and the generation of employment in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. In short, the SERCLA consolidates spaces for agreement and shared conﬂict management, as well as solutions based on co-responsibility. This co-participated space also represents a formula for remote resolution and mediation with respect to the judicial system, thus avoiding the economic costs and personal sacriﬁce such proceedings entail. It is also different from informal conﬂict resolution measures, which cannot always guarantee the best solution to suit all the parties. Evaluation and monitoring The SERCLA has had a monitoring system since its started operating in 1999. The Andalusian Labour Relations Council centralises all the information generated by the SERCLA in order to issue monthly partial activity monitoring reports, as well as annual reports, available to all citizens through the Andalusian Council’s own web portal, with information on its annual activities. These partial reports include all the information on the activity performed: cases presented, resolved disputes, causes of disputes, number of workers affected, etc.
Self-employed person: Individual who habitually, personally and directly performs an economic proﬁt-making activity on their own account without being subject to an employment contract. Guidance References Centres: on the initiative of the Regional Ministry of Employment and Technological Development, the Centres of Reference for Employment Guidance were set up in 2002 as instruments to support the coordination of the Andalucía Orienta Network. The work objective of these centres, which are located in each of the Andalusian provinces, is the development of actions aimed at improving the labour and professional conditions of job-seekers or persons whose labour situations may be improved, as well as those persons with special difﬁculties accessing the labour market or at risk of social exclusion. Regional Ministry of Employment (Consejería de Empleo): Ministry belonging to the Andalusian Autonomous Community Government responsible for employment, labour relations and social security matters as established in the Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia. Consortium: A public instrumental and associative entity that may voluntarily set up local entities with other public administrations or with private non-proﬁt-making entities in order to carry out local activities or services. Regional Government of Andalusia (Junta de Andalucía): Government of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia Territorial Employment, Local Development and Technology Units Programme (Programa Unidades Territoriales de Empleo, Desarrollo Local y Tecnológico - UTEDLT):
in 2002, on the initiative of the Regional Ministry of Employment and Technological Development, a network of 114 Units was set up distributed around the territory and covering a total of 752 Andalusian municipalities. This programme responded to the main objective of supporting and fostering the creation of quality employment in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. This objective is achieved through the actions of the UTEDLTs themselves, speciﬁcally the development of information, dynamisation, research and guidance actions for current and future employers, local entities, public and private entities and citizens in general. Labour Mediation Agents Programme (Programa Agentes de Intermediación Laboral - AIL): this is a programme of the Andalusian Employment Service that was launched in 2004, with the collaboration of the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment, with the general objective of building a closer relationship between the Andalusian Employment Services and companies based in Andalusia, rendering them human resources and employment management services. The main actions carried out within the programme include, most notably, matching match employment supply and demand, carrying out business prospections, organising company visits, capturing job offers, managing job seekers and providing guidance to companies. Neighbourhood Units Programme (Programa Unidades de Barrio - UdB): this is a programme launched by the Andalusian Foundation for Training and Employment, integrated within the action policy of the Andalusian Employment Service. Through the creation of the ﬁgure of the neighbourhood stakeholder, twenty-ﬁve units were set up in ten Andalusian towns where a large proportion of the population are at risk of exclusion. The main objective of this programme is to make it easier for collectives with special difﬁculties to access employment, guaranteeing information and access to the resources they require. Minimum interprofessional wage: this refers to the minimum interprofessional wage established legally by the State, for each labour period (hour, day or month), that employers must pay their employees for services rendered. Andalusian Employment Service (Servicio Andaluz de Empleo - SAE): This is an Independent administrative body of the Andalusian Regional Government, belonging to the Regional Ministry of Employment, as the body responsible for managing the employment policy of the Andalusian Regional Government, which has all the functions in the exercise of competencies in the area of employment and
professional qualiďŹ cations, and in particular the following: promotion of employment and equality, training for employment, guidance and information, prospection, recording of demand and labour market intermediation.
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