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ITIL®: Service Lifecycle Overview Service Strategy

Service Design

Service Transition

Service Operation

Continual Service Improvement Service strategy—key deliverables

Money, infrastructure, applications, and information people (number of employees)


Provides guidance on how to view service management not only as an organizational capability but as a strategic asset Key principles — Strategy must enable service providers to deliver value — Service management as a strategic asset — The four Ps of strategy: perspective, position, plans, and patterns — Customers (internal and external) and services (internal and external) — IT as an external service provider — Services and outcomes — Responsibility for specific costs and risks — Core, enabling, and enhancing services — Value: business outcomes, perceptions, and preferences — Value added and value realized — Functionality (utility), performance (warranty), and price — Service assets and customer assets — Increased service and performance potential — Strategic assets — Service providers: internal, shared, and external — Defining services — The Kano model — Business cases — Sourcing strategies and governance — Value chains and networks Strategy management for IT services — Strategic assessment — Strategy generation — Strategy execution — Measurement and evaluation Service portfolio management — Service pipeline, service catalog, and retired services — Process (define, analyze, approve, and charter) — Customer agreement, application, and project portfolios — Service models — Market spaces and service growth — Service assets, services, and business outcomes

Provides guidance for the design and development of services and ensures that new, modified, or retired services meet business expectations Key principles — Five aspects of holistic service design – Service solutions for new or changed services – Management information systems and tools, especially the service portfolio – Technology architectures and management architectures – Processes – Measurement methods and metrics — IT service design and overall business change — The four Ps of service design: people, products, partners, processes — The IT steering/strategy group — Balanced design: functionality, resources, and schedule — Identify service requirements — Identify and document business requirements and drivers — RACI matrix — The four types of metrics: progress, compliance, effectiveness, and efficiency — Design constraints driven by strategy — Service-oriented architecture — Service design models — Design and development approaches — Service design inputs and outputs throughout the lifecycle

Provides guidance for the development and improvement of capabilities for introducing new and changed services into supported environments Key principles — Policies, principles, and best practice – Define and implement a formal policy for service transition – Implement all changes to services through service transition – Adopt a common framework and standards – Maximize reuse of established processes and systems – Align service transition plans with the business needs – Establish and maintain relationships with stakeholders – Establish effective controls and disciplines – Provide systems for knowledge transfer and decision support – Plan release packages – Anticipate and manage course corrections – Proactively manage resources across service transitions – Provide assurance of the quality of the new or changed service – Proactively improve quality during service transition — Optimize service transition performance — Service transition inputs and outputs throughout the lifecycle

Provides guidance on how to maintain stability in service operation, allowing for changes in design, scale, scope, and service levels Key principles — Provide business value through service operation — Optimize service operation performance — Achieve balance in service operation: – Internal (technology) vs. external (IT services) – Stability vs. responsiveness – Quality vs. cost – Reactive vs. proactive — Operational staff involvement throughout the lifecycle — Operation health — Communication — Documentation

Provides guidance on creating and maintaining value for customers through better strategy, design, transition, and operation of services Key principles — CSI approach — CSI and organizational change — Ownership, roles, and responsibilities — CSI register — External and internal drivers — Service level management — Knowledge management — The Deming Cycle: plan, do, check, and act — Service measurement — Measurement framework: validate, direct, justify, and intervene — IT governance — Frameworks, models, standards, and quality systems — CSI inputs and outputs

Design coordination — Overall activity: – Define and maintain policies and methods – Plan design resources and capabilities – Coordinate design activities – Manage design risks and issues – Improve service design — Individual activity: – Plan and coordinate individual designs – Monitor individual designs – Review designs and ensure handover of SDPs

Transition planning and support — Policies — Define transition strategy — Define service transition lifecycle stages — Prepare for service transition — Plan and coordinate service transition — Provide transition process support

Event management — Policies — Principles and types of events — Designing for event management — Use of event rule sets and correlation engines — Process – Event occurs – Event notification – Event detection – Event logged – First-level event correlation and filtering – Significance of events – Second-level event correlation and filtering – Further action required? – Response selection – Review actions – Close event

Seven-step improvement process — Policies — Process 1. Identify the strategy for improvement (plan) 2. Define what you will measure (plan) 3. Gather the data (do) 4. Process the data (do) 5. Analyze the information and data (check) 6. Present and use the information (check) 7. Implement improvement (act)

Service catalog management — Policies — Agree and document service definition and description — Agree service catalog contents and structure — Produce and maintain service catalog — Interface with stakeholders — Business and technical service catalog

Financial management for IT services — Accounting, budgeting, and charging — Funding and funding models — Cost models and cost types — Return on investment (ROI) — Service valuation — Compliance

Service level management — Policies — Designing SLA frameworks — Determining, documenting, and agreeing requirements for new services and producing SLRs — Negotiating, documenting, and agreeing SLAs — Monitoring service performance against SLA and producing service reports — Conducting service reviews and instigating improvements within a service improvement plan — Measuring and improving customer satisfaction — Reviewing and revising SLAs/OLAs, service scope, and underpinning agreements — Developing contacts and relationships — Handling complaints and compliments

Demand management — Identify sources of demand forecasting — Document and analyze patterns of business activity (PBA) — Match user profiles (UP) with PBAs — Manage activity-based demand — Develop differentiated offerings — Manage operational demand Business relationship management — Customer portfolio — Customer satisfaction — Handle compliments and complaints — Define and clarify service requirements — Facilitate strategic partnerships — Identify and exploit opportunities — Involvement throughout the service lifecycle

Availability management — Policies — Principles and aspects of availability — Reactive and proactive activities — Availability management techniques — Monitor, measure, analyze, report, and review — Risk assessment and management — Investigate all service and component unavailability and instigate remedial action — Implement cost-justifiable countermeasures — Review all new and changed service and test all availability and resilience mechanisms — Continual review and improvement — Plan and design new or changed services Capacity management — Policies — Balance of cost vs. resources and supply vs. demand — Plan and manage capacity — Capacity management sub-processes: business, service, and component — Exploitation of new technology and designing for resilience — Iterative activities: monitoring, analysis, tuning, and implementation — Optimize/improve capacity — Modeling and trending — Application sizing

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IT service continuity management — Initiation — Policies and project initiation — Requirements and strategy — Business impact analysis (BIA), risk assessment, and ITSCM strategy and recovery options — Implementation — Develop ITSCM plans and procedures, organizational planning, risk reduction/recovery arrangement implementation, and initial testing — Ongoing operation — Education, awareness and training, review and audit, testing, change management, and invocation Information security management — Policies — Communicate, implement, and enforce adherence to all security policies — Assess and categorize information assets, risks, and vulnerabilities — Review risk and implement risk mitigation — Information security management system: control, plan, implement, evaluate, and maintain — Security governance — Implement and review security controls — Report, review, and reduce security breaches and major incidents — Monitor and manage security incidents and breaches Supplier management — Policies — Underpinning contracts and agreements — Supplier and contract management information system — Definition of new supplier and contract requirements — Evaluation of new suppliers and contracts — Supplier categorization and maintenance of the supplier and contract management information system — Establishment of new suppliers and contracts — Supplier, contract, and performance management — Contract renewal or termination

Management, organization, processes, and knowledge people (experience and skills)

Service assets (Money spent)




Service design—key deliverables Inputs to business cases and the service portfolio Service design packages (SDPs) Updated service models Service portfolio update, including the service catalog Financial estimates and reports Design-related knowledge and information in the SKMS RFCs to transition or deploy new or changed service Input to change evaluation and CAB meetings Design for service transition processes and procedures SLAs, OLAs and UCs Vital business functions Hardware and software maintenance requirements Document templates: SLAs, OLAs and UCs Design of services, measurements, processes, infrastructure, and systems Design for the seven-step improvement process and procedures Availability policy, plans, design criteria, risk analysis, and reports Capacity policy, plans, workload analysis, forecasts, and reports Business and IT service continuity policy, strategy, plans, risk and business impact analysis, and reports Business and information security policy, strategy, plans, risk analysis, classification, controls, and reports Supplier and contracts policy, strategy, plans, and reports RACI (responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed) matrix

Service value (Value added)

IT service

Change management — Policies — Design and planning considerations — Changes, RFCs, change records, change models, and types of change requests — Change Advisory Board (CAB) — Remediation planning — Change workflows: create and record request for change (RFC) - review RFC - assess and evaluate change - authorize change build and test - coordinate change build and test authorize change deployment - coordinate change deployment - review and close change record Service asset and configuration management — Policies — Service assets, configuration items, configuration records, the CMS, and the SKMS — Configuration models, baselines, and snapshots — Asset management — Process – Management and planning – Configuration identification – Configuration control – Status accounting and reporting – Verification and audit Release and deployment management — Policies — Release unit and release packages — Deployment options and considerations — Release and deployment models — Process – Release and deployment planning – Release build and test – Deployment (including Early Life Support) – Review and close Service validation and testing — Policies — Service quality and assurance — Test strategy and test models — Service validation and testing perspectives — Levels of testing (Service V-model) — Testing approaches and techniques — Design considerations and types of testing — Process – Validation and test management – Plan and design tests – Verify test plans and test design – Prepare test environment – Perform tests – Evaluate exit criteria and report – Test clean up and closure Change evaluation — Policies — Process – Evaluation plan – Understanding intended and unintended effects of a change – Factors for considering the effect of a service change (STORMPUP) – Evaluate predicted performance – Evaluate actual performance – Risk management (deviations report) – Evaluation report Knowledge management — Policies — The Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom (DIKW) structure — The service knowledge management system (SKMS) — Process – Define knowledge management strategy – Knowledge transfer – Managing data, information, and knowledge – Using the SKMS

CSI methods and techniques — Assessments — Gap Analysis and benchmarking — Service measurement — Metrics: technology, process, and service — Critical success factors (CSF) and key performance indicators (KPI) — Balanced scorecard and SWOT analysis — Return on investment — Service reporting — CSI interface to other service management processes

Business outcomes (Value realized)

Presentation layer Knowledge processing layer Information integration layer Data layer

Service operation—key deliverables

Service catalog Service pipeline

Access management — Policies — Process – Request access – Verification – Provide rights – Check and monitor identity status – Log and track access – Remove or restrict rights

Business view Service models

Access rights


Service portfolio

Problem management — Policies — Reactive and proactive activities, problem models, and problem analysis techniques — Errors detected in the development environment — Process – Problem detection – Problem logging – Problem categorization – Problem prioritization – Problem investigation and diagnosis – Workarounds – Raising a known error record – Problem resolution – Problem closure – Major problem review

Service desk

Service transition strategies, policies, plans, and budgets Service portfolio and service catalog updates Financial reports Change and configuration management policy, plans, and reports Release policies, plans, notes, packages, and documentation Change schedules and project service outage Change models and standard changes Requests for changes (RFC) and change records CAB agenda & minutes Configuration models Updated configuration records Configuration snapshots, baselines, status reports, and audit reports Service quality policy, risk policy, test strategy, test models, test plans, test incidents, test reports, problems, and known errors Build plans and documentation Evaluation plans & reports Deployment plans and reports Integrated set of strategic plans Service transition report Knowledge management strategy

Service knowledge management system (SKMS)

Request fulfillment — Policies — Request models, status tracking, prioritization and escalating requests, financial approval, and coordination — Process – Receive request – Request logging and validation – Request categorization – Request prioritization – Request authorization – Request review – Request model execution – Request closure – Rules for reopening requests

Single point of contact between the service provider and the users. Manages incidents and service requests, and also handles communication to users

Service transition—key deliverables

Incident management — Policies — Timescales, incident models, major incidents, status tracking, and expanded incident lifecycle — Process – Incident identification – Incident logging – Incident categorization – Incident prioritization – Initial diagnosis – Incident escalation – Investigation and diagnosis – Resolution and recovery – Incident closure – Rules for reopening incidents


Retired services

Technical view


Known errors

Service requests

Service packages

Performs the daily activities needed to manage IT services and the supporting IT infrastructure Sub functions are operations control and facilities management







CSI register

Availability management information system (AMIS)

Capacity management information system (CMIS)

Security management information system (SMIS)

Supplier and contract management information system (SCMIS)

Service operation policies and plans Operational requirements Identifying operational risks Event management policy, plans, and reports Incident management policy, plans, and reports Incident models Major incident procedure Request fulfillment policy, plans, and reports Request models Problem management policy, plans, and reports Problem models Information security policy, plans, classification, controls, and reports Processes Technical documentation Operational procedures and instructions Functional documentation User guides Historical incident and problem records RFCs to resolve operational issues Actual achievements against performance targets

Continual service improvement—key deliverables Corporate and IT vision, mission, goals, and objectives Continual service improvement policies and plans Critical success factors (CSFs), key performance indicators (KPIs), metrics, and achievements Service level targets and achievements Balanced scorecard Service improvement plans (SIPs) Business cases Reporting policies and rules Service reports and dashboards Reports of customer and user satisfaction surveys RFCs for implementing improvements Feedback on service design packages Inputs to testing requirements Financial information regarding improvement initiatives for inputs to budgets

Definitive media library (DML)

Other generic deliverables Knowledge and information in the SKMS Achievements against metrics, KPIs, and CSFs Improvement opportunities logged in the continual service improvement register

Provides technical skills in support of IT services and management of the IT infrastructure

Technical management

Strategies, policies, and plans

Financial reports

Process reports

Service reports

Technical reports

Application management

Standard operating procedures

Technical documentation

Process model Process Control

Internal vs. external drivers Methods and techniques for service provision assessment

IT operations management


Configuration management system (CMS) CMDB

Vision and mission statements Service portfolio Policies Strategies and strategic plan Priorities Service charters including service packages and details of utility and warranty Change proposals, including utility and warranty requirements and expected timescales Documented patterns of business activity and user profiles Financial information and budgets Service models Input to change evaluation and CAB meetings Demand forecasts and strategies Identified strategic risks Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register Defined business outcomes Customer portfolio Reports on customer perception of services Strategic requirements for new services and input into which existing services need to be changed Service valuation Service investment analysis Compliance (regulation and legislation) Cost optimization

SWOT analysis

Provides support to applications throughout the lifecycle

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Benchmarking and gap analysis

COBIT and ISO/IEC 20000


Process data Process information

RACI matrix

Process owner, documentation, policy, objectives, and feedback

Process Activities, roles, work instructions, procedures, and metrics


Six Sigma Responsible



Conform to operational norms Process reports and reviews


Informed Process Enablers

Process resources Process capabilities

ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited, used under permission of AXELOS Limited. All rights reserved. Based on AXELOS ITIL® material. Reproduced under license from AXELOS.

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ITIL Service Lifecycle Overview (UK)  

ITIL Service Lifecycle Overview -UK

ITIL Service Lifecycle Overview (UK)  

ITIL Service Lifecycle Overview -UK