Leader's Digest #35 (January 2020)

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• COMPASSION Image by Alexas_Fotos from Pixabay




Editor-in-Chief Ismail Said Assistant Editor Diana Marie Capel Graphic Designer Awang Ismail bin Awang Hambali Abdul Rani Haji Adenan

* Read our online version to access the hyperlinks to other reference articles made by the author.





















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Leader’s Digest is a monthly publication by the Leadership Institute of Sarawak Civil Service, dedicated to advancing civil service leadership and to inspire our Sarawak Civil Service (SCS) leaders with contemporary leadership principles. It features a range of content contributed by our strategic partners and panel of advisors from renowned global institutions as well as established corporations that we are affiliated with. Occasionally, we have guest contributions from our pool of subject matter experts as well as from our own employees. The views expressed in the articles published are not necessarily those of Leadership Institute of Sarawak Civil Service Sdn. Bhd. (292980-T). No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the publisher’s permission in writing.


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When a thank you is more than a reflex gesture it can make a powerful and lasting impact

Think about a great leader you genuinely respect, and chances are that one of the things that boss does particularly well is to thank their employees. You can too, since recognising and praising hard work and achievement is one of the easiest – and most effective – rewards you can provide. And if showing appreciation isn’t reason enough, it’s also good business. According to an American Psychological Association study: “Almost all employees (93 percent) who reported feeling valued say they are motivated to do their best at work.” Fortunately, you don’t need a formal recognition programme. You don’t need to create an initiative and put a recognition process in place. You just need to say thanks – sometimes explicitly, but often implicitly. Here are some simple – and free – ways to show your gratitude and thank your employees for their hard work.

1) Say “Thanks” Obvious, right? Not necessarily. Many bosses assume that their employee’s praise and recognition comes in the form of a paycheck.

“Why should I thank you for doing your job?” they think. While technically that is correct, it’s also stupid. When an employee drops off a report, say: “Thanks.” When an employee spots a problem, say, “Thanks.” Say “thank you” as often as you can. Not only will your employees appreciate the gesture, they’ll start to follow your lead and thank the people around them. That’s the easiest way to build a culture of praise and recognition. Start saying “thank you” as often as you can for all the little things your employees do. And don’t wait. The more time that passes between great performance and praise, the lower the impact of that praise. “Immediately” is never too soon to say thanks.

2) Provide greater freedom and autonomy Granted, great organisations optimise processes and procedures. Yet at the same time, engagement and satisfaction are largely based on autonomy and independence. I care when it’s “mine”. I care when I’m in charge and feel empowered to do what’s right. When an employee makes a great decision, say thanks by giving them the latitude


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to make more – and more important – decisions in the future. Say: “Thanks for figuring out how to expedite shipping on that late order… feel free to do what you think is best whenever something like that happens again.”

5) Say “thanks” by lending a hand When an employee puts in extra effort, saying “thank you” is a great way to recognise that effort. So is pitching in to help.

“Showing trust is a great way to say “thank you”. And you benefit too, because empowered employees almost always find ways to do their jobs better.”

But don’t just say, “Is there anything I can help you with?” Most employees will give you a version of the reflexive “No, I’m just looking” reply to sales clerks and say: “That’s okay. I’m all right.”

3) Say “thanks” by genuinely seeking input

Be specific.

Engaged employees have ideas; take away opportunities for them to make suggestions, or instantly disregard their ideas without consideration, and they immediately disengage.

Find something you can help with. Say, “I have a few minutes. Can I help you finish (that)?” Offer in a way that feels collaborative, not patronising or gratuitous.

When you say “thanks”, whenever possible follow that up by making it extremely easy for the employee to make a suggestion. If the employee solves a problem, ask if they can think of ways to ensure the situation doesn’t occur again. If an employee helps another employee deal with an interpersonal issue, ask what they think you should do to make the situation better. In short, say “thanks” by also showing you respect and trust the employee’s input. That way I don’t just get to feel praised for what I did; I also feel recognised for who I am. And speaking of asking…

4) Say “thanks” by asking for help Asking for help implicitly shows respect – you know, or can do, something I don’t know or can’t do. And it shows you trust the other person, because you’re willing to be vulnerable and admit you need help. The next time an employee does something for you, don’t just say: “Thanks”. Ask how they did it. Ask why. Ask what they did. Show that you want to learn from them. In the process you’ll show vulnerability, respect, and a willingness to listen -– which are all qualities of a great boss. And you’ll prove that your “thank you” was far from lip service.

“Model the behaviour you want your employees to display.” Then actually roll up your sleeves and help. Helping is a great way to prove you know a task is difficult – and that you appreciate the hard work that goes into competing it.

6) Say “thanks” by saying “you’re welcome” Think about a time you gave a gift and the recipient seemed uncomfortable or awkward. Their reaction took away a little of the fun for you, right? The same thing can happen when you get thanked or complimented or praised. The spotlight may make you feel uneasy or insecure, but all you have to do is make eye contact and say: “Thank you”. Or make eye contact and say: “You’re welcome. I was glad to do it”. Whenever someone thanks you, make sure you respond that way. Show you appreciate the praise. Show your employees that you want them to feel comfortable accepting, and appreciating, praise. Because they should.

Jeff Haden Jeff Haden is a public speaker and author of more than 50 non-fiction books and ghost-writer for innovators and business leaders.

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How Appreciating People Is Low In Cost But High In Impact When was the last time you say to someone, "You are making a difference. I appreciate you.”? BY YEOH LIN LIN

There are several definitions of appreciation but most, if not all, point to it being an act of recognising or understanding the value, quality, significance or magnitude of people and of things. In relation to people, it is about who they are, less of what they do.

According to Gallup, employee recognition is a lowcost, high-impact endeavour that helps to improve organisational performance but is underused. More often than not, we fail to see beyond the work at hand.

In the working environment, everyone is on the same level playing field, in the sense that all of us are paid to do our job. The difference is in the how and the attitude. Therein lies the power of appreciation, the game changer!

How often do your employees or co-workers hear words of appreciation? Many work extra hours for no additional money or benefit, and often without the benefit of hearing someone say a simple “thank you”. Despite that, they put in the hours and effort as they feel it is incumbent on them to give their all and make a difference in their jobs.

It’s a morale booster

Can you imagine then what a great boost to their morale it would be if their colleagues, and their bosses, were to come around and say, “We appreciate your effort.” And in appropriate situations, the boss could even reward the particular employee with some hours off. Let us, therefore, not stinge on building someone up, or being that catalyst to add a spring in someone’s step!

It’s a strong motivator

When we appreciate our colleagues, it creates an environment where everyone wants to work and 6

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continue to make a positive difference in the company. When we express our appreciation towards others, we are basically saying: “I notice your effort. You are making a difference. I appreciate you.” It could also serve as a motivator to others in the team, spurring them on to give their best. For those in leadership position, we seldom realise the so-called positive impact of our words or acts of appreciation to our subordinates. Subordinates are inclined to feel “on top of the world” when their team leaders appreciate them and take them out for a meal to show their appreciation. These actions have longterm benefits – as we sit down together for a meal and get to know each other better, and a healthy rapport is developed. According to a Gallup study, around 50% of employees leave the organisation to get away from their bosses. Let those in leadership position take heed, and not be the cause of high employee turnover!

Appreciation 20 years late… better than never

Years ago when I was about five months pregnant with my second child, I attended a job interview. I finally met the chief executive officer (CEO), and was subsequently hired. I joined the organisation when I was seven months into my pregnancy. After working for close to two months, I went on two months’ paid maternity leave. All this was agreed on with the CEO, even though he knew that it would cost his organisation in terms of medical expenses and paid time-off. Over the years after leaving the organisation and as I grew and advanced in my career, there had been times I wanted to contact the CEO and thank him for what he has done for me.

It’s for everyone

In the office, gestures of appreciation need not be topdown only; it could be bottom-up, and lateral.

The decision he made was unconventional. It helped shape the way I think and decide when I became a hiring manager later in my career. The CEO’s action taught me to look beyond the here and now, to look at the sum total of the talent and capability of the candidate for the longer term.

When our bosses have done something good for the welfare of the staff, we could thank them for their action. Yes, the boss is usually expected to care for the welfare of the employees but it is a choice he/she has. He/She chose to exercise good judgment for the staff. Thank him/her.

As I mulled on the topic of a speaking engagement*, I decided to give him a call. He was surprised, nonetheless as it was, after all, some 20 years ago! I thanked him for giving me the opportunity and for helping to shape my “hiring” thinking. Since then, I had “paid it forward” a couple of times.

Subordinates may think it is out of their place to do so, but think about it, your boss is just as human as you. The same goes with your peers and subordinates. And yes, our family.

The first step is always the hardest as you cannot envision the response of the person. Put that aside. Just do it! (as Nike says). The response is secondary. Don’t hesitate to take a moment out of your day to let someone know you appreciate him/her. Words of encouragement can make a bigger impact than you can imagine.

Bringing things into perspective

Appreciation can make a day, even change a life, for someone. Our willingness to put it into action is all that is required. Give this a thought. Think of someone today – someone at work, in your family, your friends, your community – and do something to let him/her know that you appreciate him/her.

Appreciation is one of the most powerful, yet overlooked, aspects of successfully motivating and empowering people and teams.

It is all within our capacity to make another person feel good. A bad day could turn into an awesome one when a kind word is said. Let’s not wait until the person or thing is taken away from us. Let’s just do it… now!

– MAPSA We don’t do it enough, if we do it at all.

Yeoh Lin Lin Lin Lin is the editor behind the Leaderonomics Bahasa Malaysia website. Of Chinese ethnicity, trained in Bahasa Malaysia, and with a stomach for Indian cuisine, she likes to think that she is an embodiment of the muhibbah spirit of Malaysia. She writes occasionally for her own musing and is thrilled when it gets published! Issue 35 I January 2020 7




– Even Crocodiles Innately Have Them (No Kidding!) BY HEW GILL

HOW WE CAN ALL TRAIN UP OUR BRAIN’S INNATE POWER TO EMPATHISE Empathy is one of those topics that generate a lot of talk but few insights. It’s one of those qualities that everybody claims to have – like having a sense of humour – but does everybody really have empathy? Is having empathy always a good thing? Can we learn to empathise? Well, it seems that everybody can empathise, although not necessarily in the same proportions. Recent work in the field of neuroscience is beginning to unlock the mysteries of the brain and is showing us that we are all hardwired for empathy, but also that our life experiences build upon what nature gives us at birth. Empathy is that magical skill of being able to understand what other people are feeling and sometimes even share their emotions as though we are experiencing them first-hand. There is evidence that we are all born with this capacity. Infants less than a year old have been shown to exhibit empathic concern and it has been suggested that empathy is a fundamental part of human social nature. However, it might be more accurate to say that empathy is a fundamental part of mammalian nature. Behaviours that look very much like empathy have been observed in a range of other animal species. It has been suggested that empathy evolved because being

able to understand the emotions of other individuals has good survival value. For example, detecting another person’s fear warns you to run away before the sabertoothed tiger eats you. Being aware that a child is in distress prompts you to help the child – an altruistic response that is good for the whole tribe. We should also acknowledge that empathy isn’t just about fear, it can also be about understanding positive emotions: Just cast your mind back to the first time you exchanged a knowing glance with a pretty girl or handsome boy at school. Do you remember how you felt and how good it was to see the same feelings reflected in the other person? If you do, then you understand how empathy helps ensure the survival of the species through reproduction. As empathy is a phenomenon older than humankind, it’s not surprising that it seems to originate in an older, pre-human part of the brain called the cortex which we share with our evolutionary ancestors, including other mammals and reptiles. The cortex plays a strong part in memory, attention, perception, awareness and consciousness. As it or something like it appears to be present in the brains of all vertebrates, it’s possible that even crocodiles have empathy. What may surprise you even more is that this shared heritage of brain structure means empathy can be shared across different species. One of my colleagues at Sunway University Psychology Department, Yong Min-Hooi, recently showed that empathy can extend between different animal species in a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. She played a tape recording of human

Photo by Roger Bruner on Unsplash


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babies crying to human volunteers, to pet dogs and to orangutans to see how they would react. The humans got upset and sometimes irritated; the pet dogs got upset and anxious; and the orang-utans . . . well, they were completely unconcerned. She interpreted her results as showing that pet dogs are capable of empathising with humans based upon their experience of living with us, but that the orangutans could not empathise because they don’t know us and don’t understand that crying means a baby is in distress. So, next time you’re trapped on a train or a plane with a screaming tiny tot, you’ll truly understand the meaning of the phrase, “It’s a dog’s life.”

GENDER FACTOR Neuroscience has also revealed that there may be differences in empathy between the genders and it probably comes as no great surprise to find that on the whole, women appear to be more empathic than men. However, whether these differences are due to fundamental differences in male and female brains or to differences in the gender expectations set in most societies, remains hotly debated. Another possible explanation could be difference in hormones.

Higher levels of testosterone have been linked to lower levels of empathy and in a leadership context this could have serious consequences because managers with high levels of testosterone are rated by professional peers as having less empathy and as being less effective at their jobs. Indeed, evidence from across the world shows that managers with higher levels of empathy are generally seen as being more effective leaders and that the most successful top executives have higher levels of empathy and general emotional awareness than the average person. So, does this mean that the widespread belief that you need to be a big he-man boss to be successful is false, and that we should replace that myth with a Miss? Well maybe yes . . . but then again maybe not.

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Empathy is usually seen as a universally positive attribute, but there is also some evidence that empathy can have a darker side that leads to leaders doing the wrong thing.

Although a dog might be able to empathise with a human, very few of us would expect our pet pooches to make complex moral decisions.

Because empathy means understanding and experiencing how other people feel, it can sometimes cause leaders to avoid situations that could be potentially upsetting to others, such as giving honest feedback or addressing poor work performance. Empathy can also cause some leaders to play favourites and not think about the needs of the wider team or bigger group. Empathy may also be fatal to businesses in these times of massive and rapid change because it can limit leaders’ ability to innovate. Innovation means change and, as we all know, even the best managed change often means friction and upset, so highly empathic leaders may avoid introducing new ideas and instead allow out-of-date work processes to continue. This can hit the competitiveness of a business very hard indeed.

MELLOWING INTRO STRENGTH So, is there a balance to be struck and, if so, how? Most people will become more empathic with age; as men age their testosterone levels go down and most of them inevitably become more empathic than their younger male peers. Ageing also directly affects the brains of both sexes as we mature. We become more empathic because fundamental changes take place in the neural pathways of the cortex where empathy is processed. These changes also mean that we become less emotional and more evaluative in our assessment of situations. As a result, we are much more likely to think over things and control our emotions rather than responding to situations on impulse. This combination has been shown to be the best way to deal with crises and stress; the most effective leaders set an example by not showing extreme emotion, but by empathising with colleagues about the stresses they experience. This magic blend of higher empathy, emotional control, and increased thinking may be what makes leaders great in middle age because it’s also the combination that underpins our sense of morality. 10

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Morality seems to be one of the few human characteristics that is not shared by most of our animal relatives, although there is now some evidence that our closest primate cousins are capable of some moral reasoning. Empathy may be the foundation of morality because it is what makes us care about how other people feel and whether things are fair or unfair. Brain scans show that when we see other people suffering from unfairness, our brains light up as though we were going through the same experience in a phenomenon known as neuronal mirroring. Moral thinking and ethical behaviour happen when we combine our feelings with our rational intelligence to develop judgement and integrity, and there is abundant evidence that successful leaders are valued for these qualities.

This may also partially explain why leaders with high levels of empathy are less likely to fail in their careers and why they are often the people who get to the top. As each of us matures, our brains develop a more nuanced mix of empathy, emotional control and rationality that leads to the better decisions associated with good leaders, but does this mean that only people in middle age can be effective leaders? Fortunately, the answer is that you can train yourself to be more empathic and, ultimately, more moral. Even better, empathy training is not that difficult and it’s very likely that we would have already done some even if you did not realise it at the time.



PRIMING YOUR MIRROR NEURONS Earlier we touched on the properties of mirror neurons, the cells in our brains that respond to other people’s experiences as though we were having the experience ourselves. What’s really amazing about mirror neurons is that pretty much any neuron can be a mirror neuron. So, for example, if you wave your hand at someone else in greeting, then the neurons in the other person’s brain respond as though they are waving back even if they don’t move their hand. Yes, this means that if someone waves or smiles or winks at you, the cells in your brain that control waving, smiling and winking behave as though you are performing the same actions even though you are not moving. The same thing seems to happen when it comes to empathy, so when we see other people’s feelings, the cells in our own brains start acting as though we were having those feelings ourselves. This phenomenon has got neuropsychologists very excited and there is lots of debate about how, when and why our brains evolved the capacity to imitate other brains and how far we imitate each other. However, the central fact remains that your brain is a mirror that reflects and copies what it perceives in other people. You can use this innate skill to improve pretty much any aspect of yourself because every time you observe other people’s feelings, thinking and behaviour, your brain will be teaching you how to empathise with others. This is one reason why we like to sit at the kedai kopi watching the world go by, savouring the little dramas and comedies acted out by the people passing us. Sadly, most of us don’t have the luxury of being able to spend hours watching strangers and observing the

people we live and work with as that comes across as creepy. So, how can we learn from other people?

IMPACT OF ART AND LITERATURE The answer is by using what may well be the most powerful and successful invention of our earliest ancestors: storytelling. Humans have been telling stories since there were humans and we’re still doing it, whether it’s children’s bedtime fairytales or Hollywood blockbusters. All stories can be reduced to seven basic plotlines and every single one of these plotlines is about people going through a series of challenges and in the process finding out more about themselves. We as readers or watchers or listeners are learning how the characters in the story behave, think and feel. In the process, we develop our empathy and our understanding of morality. When a story or a picture or a piece of music stimulates our empathy enough to start masses of mirror neurons firing, then we are experiencing art; if the same experience encourages us to think about the human condition and who we are, then we are in the presence of truly great art. This is why every culture has certain stories, plays, paintings, sculptures, poems, etc, that are carefully preserved from generation to generation. So, if you want to develop your empathy, watch more soaps, go to the theatre, read novels, enjoy visual arts or do anything that enables you to observe how other people feel and behave. But if you want to develop your empathy into moral integrity and judgement, then seek out great art – the best novels, poems and plays, and remember to enjoy them; after all, this is what you’ve been doing since you were born.

When a story or a picture or a piece of music stimulates our empathy enough to start masses of mirror neurons firing, then we are experiencing art… Hew Gill Professor Hew Gill is the Associate Provost of Sunway University and returned to academia a successful multi-track career as an entrepreneur, public servant, banker, senior leader and Bussiness Consultant. He is a frequent Broadcaster and Sought-after Public Speaker on a range of Business and Psychological subjects, and is always interested in Commercial Research and Consultancy Projects.

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Can Servant Leadership Be Part Of The Solution To Our World’s Issues? BY JOHN MOI

Servant leadership is simply applying leadership principles by serving others before self. It is a leadership practice that achieves results for their organisations by giving priority to the needs of their counterparts and those they serve. In another interpretation, servant leaders are said to be serving stewards of their organisation’s resources – be it physical, financial or humanly speaking.

CONCEPT OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP The modern servant leadership movement was launched by Robert K Greenleaf in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader whereby he popularised the terms “servant-leader” and “servant leadership.” Greenleaf expanded on this concept by publishing additional essays on the various attributes of servant leadership. After his passing in 1990, the concept was further advocated by other thought leaders and experts such as William W George (also widely known as Bill George), James A Autry, Kenneth Hartley Blanchard, James C Hunter, George SanFacon and Larry Spears. Interestingly, the Royal Military College (Maktab Tentera Diraja) in Malaysia carries the motto, “Serve to Lead” (Berkhidmat Memimpin) way back in its founding year of 1952!


Issue 35 I January 2020 Photo by Ronaldo Oliveira on Unsplash



Servant leaders understand that people’s lives and wellbeing are entrusted to them. They are usually on the ground with the people, not sitting in their own throne rooms. QUALITIES OF BEING A SERVANT LEADER Spears, who was once the “chief steward” of the Greenleaf Centre for Servant Leadership for more than 17 years, described the following 10 characteristics of servant leaders, plus my personal perspectives on each quality: 1. Listening Servant leaders listen to the people. They exist to serve the flock, not themselves. It works to have excellent listening skills; otherwise, they might find themselves ousted from leadership.

4. Awareness Servant leaders need to be know themselves and the people they lead. They need to be aware that their actions and words can make or break the community. Such leaders strive towards universal values and principles that benefit humankind. 5. Persuasion Good servant leaders will persuade and not manipulate their followers. They will persuade the congregation by logical reasoning and not by the “don’t ask any questions” statement!

2. Empathy Sympathy is not good enough for servant leaders. They need to feel more and do more for the followers who empowered them. Otherwise, why lead as leaders?

6. Conceptualisation They must have the insight to look at the big picture and translate it into smaller clusters. Helpful skills include the short, medium and long-term strategic implementation that will meet the common objective(s) of the team.

3. Healing Effective servant leaders can heal relationships; resolve unfavourable situations by being a peacemaker and mend rifts that arise from human conflicts. They can help heal a nation by marshalling the resources against tyranny.

7. Foresight Great servant leaders will need to have foresight to learn from the past; and prepare for the present and future by analysing the environmental influences of political, economic, social and technological factors that will affect the well-being of the community. Issue 35 I January 2020 13



9. Commitment to the growth of others Committed servant leaders will grow their followers by setting good leadership examples, helping and nurturing the followers regardless of race, religion or creed. They understand and implement the concepts of “unity in diversity” and “we are in the same boat” effectively. 10. Building community Budding servant leaders must endeavour to build communities of love and servanthood despite the multicultural and multiracial background of the people being led. In the near future, we will see more universal values being adopted to build such communities. Interfaith dialogues will be encouraged and interracial partnerships will enhance community-building.

MODERN PERSPECTIVES OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP Greenleaf, in his essay, has this to say about the servant leader:

The servant-leader begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve first the followers and believes that leading is a by-product of serving, whereas the leader-first believes that one is called to lead by being served and supported by followers.

The cynical view is that unless the leaders take the initiative to serve the followers, the followers will not listen to the leaders who have not proven themselves by serving the followers first. Such are the expectations in this enlightened age!


It can be said that some, if not most, leaders see servant leadership as an esoteric philosophy of leadership supported by specific aspects and practices. Kent M Keith, the former chief executive officer of the Greenleaf Centre for Servant Leadership and the author of The Case for Servant Leadership stated that servant leadership is practical, ethical and meaningful. He further identifies seven key practices of servant leaders: 1. Self-awareness 2. Listening 3. Changing the pyramid 4. Developing your colleagues (followers) 5. Coaching not controlling 6. Unleashing the energy and intelligence of others 7. Foresight


Servant leadership is best summed up by its emphasis on collaboration, trust, empathy and the ethical use of power and leadership. Servant leadership is all about making the conscious decision to serve by leading others (followers), enhance the growth of individuals, and for the servant leaders themselves in organisations to improve teamwork. In today’s world of self-centred takers and tremendous turmoil, the main question on leadership is:

8. Stewardship Servant leaders understand that people’s lives and wellbeing are entrusted to them. Wrongful decisions will betray their trust and destroy them. Even nations are subjected to fall by blatant abuse of stewardship at the highest level.

Do the present global leaders have what it takes to be servant leaders?

John Moi John Moi is the founder and advocate of Scriptures–to–business (S2b) applications. What are your thoughts on servant leadership? Have you considered applying these principles in your organisation? Why, or why not?


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THE “MAGIC” OF ONE MINUTE How can you change each day to a joyful one in just one minute? It’s simple. By counting your blessings and expressing your gratitude for them to whichever god or faith we believe in. Why does gratitude work as a meditation practice? Because it makes you focus on what you have, as opposed to always looking at what you seek. It creates inner contentment and peace that stays with you through the day. Lastly it helps you deal with the moments when you don’t get something you seek or something you thought you deserve. So how can one experience this magic in just one minute? Here are the simple steps: • Sit in peace for a moment without your phone, laptop or the presence of another person. You need a minute’s peace. Find it in any corner of your home or office where you can. If you are in a bus or a train, close your eyes and relax • Say gently to yourself:

Aseem Puri Aseem is a digital coach and a faculty trainer with Leaderonomics. He has many years of experience creating disruptive online and offline campaigns around the world.

Photo by Debby Hudson on Unsplash

I say thanks today for all that I am blessed with: 1. I say thank you for blessing me with life, with breath which so many are denied every day 2. I say thank you for my last meal which filled me, a meal that so many lack every day 3. I say thank you for the sip of clear water that nourished my thirst, which is denied to many 4. I say thank you for every organ in my body helping me to function 5. I say thank you for the love of my (mum, dad, spouse, children, etc.) 6. I say thank you for (my education, teachers, school, college etc.) 7. I say thank you for (my income, my job, my career) 8. I say thank you for a roof over my head, my home 9. I say thank you for the challenges and teachings you send my way 10. I say thank you for the opportunities and gifts you send my way 11. I say thank you for loving me and forgiving my mistakes 12. I say thank you for saving me in so many crises when I had lost it all 13. I say thank you for always being there in my every prayer When you are done with the list of thanks, pause – and with a smile on your face, say a final “thanks”.

You can also choose to write the list of thanks in a diary every day. It will take no longer than a minute. Remember, those who say thanks have much to be thankful for.

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11 Life Lessons From A Cancer Survivor BY CHARLES DE BRABANT

A NEW BEGINNING‌ It is amazing to think that a little over one year ago on Dec 31, 2016, I finished my last chemotherapy treatment. What a difference 12 months make. At the time, I was feeling awful, pumped up with who-knows-what, 10kg lighter, no hair and wondering what was going to happen to me, to us – Elisabeth, my wife, and I. I now find myself on a freezing cold evening looking out my office on the 6th floor on the Bronfman Building at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. I have found the perfect opportunity as executive director of the Bensadoun School of Retail Management, which will officially be launched in the autumn of 2018. This opportunity has brought me back home next door to my parents, many other family members and not so far from both our children. I have to say that it was time to come home. It just feels so right. On the health front, I feel for the most part better than I have in years and as many people have told me, look better too. I get to bike or walk to work every day, which is a real privilege. I do keep on getting stressed out every time I see the oncologist and do the relevant CT (computed tomography) scans and blood tests. One of my cancer markers is still a little off the norm, but so far, so good.


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Charles in good spirits.



In the meantime, I have discovered a real passion for cooking and still religiously watch the Montreal Canadiens, who are unfortunately playing pretty mediocre hockey at the moment. I feel so fortunate to have ended up in a place and a situation that I would not even have dreamt of. ‘Luck’ certainly played its part, but I certainly tried to do the right things to make it happen. Now my goal for 2018 and beyond is to find peace and serenity in my life. I realise that even with all the positives that have happened, I am still not completely there. That is my new quest…


My cancer came back in Oct 2016. The first one happened in May 2015, and it was like a walk in the park on a cloudy day. I was diagnosed on a Wednesday, operated on Saturday and back at work the following Wednesday with active surveillance as followup. In short, a little blip in a very healthy life. The second time was a more profound life-changing experience. The treatment was brutal with 26 days of chemotherapy over 68 days from Oct 24–Dec 31, 2016. It felt like I was living in a hellish, chemotherapy-infused cocoon. My family and I thought that the page would turn on Jan 1, 2017. It was not so simple as the results were not ideal. After a couple of months of uncertainty and stress, the latest results from my tests have cleared me, putting me on active surveillance and allowing me to come back to the land of the living. It felt fantastic! However, so many things have changed. I am a cancer survivor as I now come under active surveillance for the foreseeable future with a chance of recurrence. I have left my last position as chief human resources officer of Asean’s fastest growing premium and luxury retailer.

With our youngest daughter Chiara graduating from high school in June, my wife Elisabeth and I are completely mobile to envision the future. Roots, family, friends and places have become ever more present. I finally know that I need to find new opportunities with meaning around my passion, namely people development, executive education and teaching in strongly-branded organisations. From the start of my treatment until I got the green light to live normally again, I wrote a journal of events and feelings that I shared with family and friends. I can only tell you with hindsight that it was an essential way for me to cope and better understand what was happening to me. By sharing the journal, it forced me not only to delve on the negativity of the experience, but also to share positive moments and important life lessons I’ve learnt along the way. I cannot thank enough those who read through the journal and supported me through this lifechanging ordeal. It is now probably a good time for me to stop this journal, but before I do, I would like to share my 11 life lessons battling this disease. It is my hope that they may be useful to others who may, unfortunately, have to embark on a similar journey. 1. FIND YOUR OWN COPING MECHANISMS. Cancer treatment is a war that takes place within your body and mind where the enemy and the saviour are the same – chemotherapy. To cope, you need to find your own means to keep going. While it is important to listen to others, especially cancer survivors, doctors and nurses, ultimately, the battle is still yours to fight on. In my case, I wanted to know about my cancer just enough to make thoughtful decisions. I was not looking for the world’s best cancer facility, but a reputable one that was close to home and my family. Reading became an obsession, as did watching the Montreal Canadiens hockey games. 2. FIND YOUR OWN MINDSET. I was often pushed to be the perpetual optimist, to look at how others had suffered more than me. It never actually worked for me. Dwelling in negativity and slipping into depression are certainly not the desired mindset either.

Charles with his recruitment team in Malaysia on Dec 22, 2016.

Fortunately, I was able to deal with it by having an optimistically realistic approach to my fate. With cancer, I ended up many times on the wrong side of the statistics. So had I been too optimistic at every step, I believe that it would have left me shattered. By being realistic, it allowed me to cope with the negative and fight on. It taught me how to be more reflective when some piece of good news came my way. It’s always great to have won small battles, but don’t get too confident until the big war is won. Issue 35 I January 2020 17



3. TRYING TIMES FOR YOU, AND THOSE WHO SHARE YOUR DAILY LIFE. This is a moment in life where everything just shifted, not only for you but also for those dearest to you, especially your spouse and children. You became totally dependent on them. It required important adjustments for all. After years of being at the pink of health, the sudden change to being at home or the hospital created a sense of helplessness. It was not only tough on me, but it demanded a lot of courage and resilience from Elisabeth and Chiara. 4. BUILD A COMMUNITY OF SUPPORT. I don’t believe anyone can go through this ordeal alone, at least not healthily. So find that community in family, friends, doctors, nurses and acquaintances. Their physical and emotional support will make all the difference. 5. FIND A WAY TO SHARE WHAT IS HAPPENING. It is not enough to have people supporting you; you need an avenue to talk it out. It seems that this comes more easily for women than for men. It is for one of these reasons that Sofia Davis founded an association called “One for the Boys” in 2013 to get men with cancer to talk more openly about what they were going through, with actor Samuel L Jackson as its ambassador. 6. THE IMPORTANCE OF SECOND (OR SUBSEQUENT) OPINIONS. Gather advice from different people, preferably from different places. This is especially true when critical decisions need to be made. It reassured me to know that all the doctors in Malaysia and Canada whom we had consulted shared the same diagnosis and treatment protocol. More recently, it potentially saved me from possibly unnecessary cycles of chemotherapy and operations. This is thanks to a visit to my urologist who suggested that I meet a testicular cancer specialist at the National Cancer Centre of Singapore. The specialist recommended, with the support of the world’s leading testicular cancer expert in Norway, to stop all further treatment if my scan was clear and my blood sample test was okay; which turned out to be the case. 7. LOVELY THINGS HAPPEN IN TRYING TIMES. Despite the ordeal, I am so thankful for many things. It brought our family closer together. Back in September, as a young adult, Chiara was growing more distant and independent as is the case for most people her age. But with the recurrence of my cancer, she realised the importance of family, and that brought us much closer before she furthered her studies.


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I realised how unsupportive I was when Elisabeth had cancer 15 years ago. I finally apologised to her as it was something that had lingered in her heart for years. We spent Christmas as it was intended to be spent – a special moment of love and care, instead of fighting and waiting only to open presents. The experience also brought me closer to many friends, families and acquaintances. The messages of support were heartwarming and profoundly impactful to my wellbeing. 8. EXERCISE TO STAY AS STRONG AS YOU CAN. You will lose weight and energy. In many cases, you will experience hair loss, although that quickly becomes secondary if you are a man. In between chemotherapy sessions, work to stay healthy and exercise. It is essential to speed up your recovery, especially for your mental wellbeing. Small steps will do and as my doctor told me, your body will tell you fast enough when it cannot go on anymore. I can say that by working at it, I was just about back to normal after 2.5 months. And in three to four months, I should be fitter and healthier than ever. 9. BEWARE OF THE FINANCIAL CONSEQUENCES. In some cases, with less brutal treatment and more understanding bosses, you may be able to manage your state of mind better. But in other cases, you may have to stop working for months, forcing you to leave your current employment. You may also want to completely reassess your life and take a more fulfilling and healthier path. You probably need 6–12 months of financial security to make it through. Thanks to Elisabeth, we were fortunate enough to have something sold, and that has given us some of that security. One wonderful story of support in financially trying times was told by former vice president Joe Biden regarding former president Barack Obama. When Beau Biden, Joe’s eldest son, was diagnosed with a brain tumour, Joe was unable to continue working as attorney-general of Delaware and as a result, no longer had enough money to support his family. Joe was ready to sell his family home outside Wilmington to help his son and told the president about it. Given what Joe had been through in losing his first wife and young daughter in a car accident years before and bringing up the rest of the family in that house, the president told him that he would never allow him to sell it and would give all the money that was necessary to help him and his family through the ordeal. Such was the gesture of friendship and support from the top leader in the world.



10. HAVE A DO-ABLE DREAM AND LIVE IT. In the movie Bucket List, terminally-ill cancer patient Carter Chamber (played by Morgan Freeman) had a bucket list of places he wanted to visit and things he wanted to do but did not have the means to. Together with another cancer patient Edward Cole (played by Jack Nicholson), they both lived it. It was very special for both men, especially for Edward who until that time was a bitter and intensely disliked person despite his sharp business acumen, wealth and power. It brought out in him humanity, generous spirit and the joy of life he never had before. In my case, it was a trip to the places that I love and visits to people that I hold dear. On my 35-day journey, I travelled to Paris, Montreal, Stowe Vermont, New York, Verbier in the Swiss Alps and Ile d’Yeu off the West Coast of France. For me, it was the most powerful journey that I have ever undertaken. Its power came at so many levels: • The importance of rituals. Until the trip began, I did not understand the importance of rituals in our lives. I lived so much throughout this trip that it is now filled with memories, scents, sceneries, sounds and intense moments of friendship that have made life special and worthwhile. • The power of relationships. In each place that I visited, I felt like I saw everyone that I hold dear and shared at least one special moment with each of them. • A disbelief at some of the things that I was able to do. A heli ski day off Petit Combin in Verbier, a full run on the Cote Sauvage – the first since my chemo finished – and swimming on Easter Monday in freezing cold water in the Anse des Fontaines on Ile d’Yeu. • An affirmation of what I want to do next. Strongly recommended by my father, I organised 20– 25 meetings/interviews with headhunters, business schools, friends, and new acquaintances. These meetings may lead to one potential offer that I would seriously consider. More importantly, I know that my future lies in people development, teaching and executive education. On where and the details of the next role(s), only the future will tell. • A rebirth. On Easter Sunday, I went to my favourite place in the world, la Chapelle de la Meule in Ile d’Yeu. I had the entire place to myself for 30 minutes as the sun rises that morning. For the first time since my cancer reappeared, I prayed for my late mother-in-law (who passed away on Easter Sunday and whose presence I felt intensely), my wife, our kids, our family, our loved ones and friends. Coincidentally, Easter is also a story of rebirth as I felt reborn and ready for the next step in our lives.

Charles after the third cycle of chemotherapy.

11. LIFE WILL NEVER BE THE SAME, BUT DO NOT GIVE UP ON IT. PRESS RESET AND LIVE IT TO THE FULLEST. This type of journey, no matter how painful, will change the way you look at life. Sometimes, you need trying moments like these to take hold of what had happened and to re-evaluate your life’s priorities. You may not be able to do everything you aspire to do, but hopefully, you will be able to get closer to what you want in life. I personally would have loved to take a year off. After an exhilarating 10 years in Shanghai, the three years in Malaysia have proven to be the most challenging in my professional life, and as a direct consequence, for my health. A year off would have been great to regain my health, enjoy life and prepare better for the future. However, our financial situation has not allowed me to take a full year. Nevertheless, I am making the most of it with the amazing trip and the additional 2–3 months to organise the future. BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER It is probably time to spend less time in Asia and more in North America and Europe. The sooner the better, but we need to be realistic about that. Our time in Asia has been an enriching ride, but it is now time to get closer to our roots and our friends. It will also allow Elisabeth and I to be closer to our children. On a professional front, I am focused on finding new opportunities with meaning around my passion. Will I get there right away, I’m not sure, but I hope so. I will work hard to find the right opportunities. In conclusion, I hope to make significant strides towards my ideal situation. In the meantime, I will embrace life and do as many things that I enjoy as possible. It is a life worth living to the fullest. Charles de Brabant Although a major health crisis often throws us off guard, there is a blessing in disguise behind such painful experiences. It helps us re-evaluate our life’s priorities, and knocks us out of our senses to appreciate our loved ones more. Issue 35 I January 2020 19



Don’t Think Acts Of Kindness Really Matter? R e s e a r c h s h o w s t h at t h e y n o t o n ly b e n e f i t p e o p l e , b u t b u s i n e s s e s t o o BY ROSHAN THIRAN


Issue 35 I January 2020

Photo by Jonas Vincent on Unsplash



One of the core values we espouse at Leaderonomics is ‘Giving’ – not only does it help to create an authentic sense of belonging within our social enterprise, but it also drives lots of creative ideas and deepens engagement. I have written previously about leadership giving.

Once a week for four weeks, they were to report how they were feeling in terms of mood and life satisfaction, and their experience of positive and negative behaviours.

Traditionally, the idea of focusing on what might have been described as “soft” values has been viewed as something of a luxury – one that leaders might indulge in once they take care of the ‘real’ hardcore business of performance, results and the bottom line.

What the workers didn’t know was that 19 members of the group were tasked by the researchers to be “givers”, and to carry out random acts of kindness (which they were free to choose) for a month.

However, in recent years, research has shown that treating people like early industrial factory workers (i.e. automatons paid to do a job) has a detrimental effect on performance. People feel disengaged and demoralised by leaders who neglect their employees’ well-being – the best they can expect to receive is the bare minimum offered through compliance.

After the four weeks, the participants reported further measures including happiness as job satisfaction.

Examples of these small acts were bringing someone a drink or sending a colleague a pleasant, uplifting thankyou message. After the month, the receivers of the random acts reported 10 times more prosocial behaviours in the office compared to workers who received no particular acts of kindness. As a result, they also reported higher levels of happiness.

What’s in it for givers and receivers?

The givers also benefited from the study, more so than the receivers, reporting higher levels of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms.

A study conducted by researchers at University of California headed by Joseph Chancellor found that, where acts of kindness regularly took place in the workplace, the organisation benefited overall as both receivers and those performing the acts of kindness felt a greater sense of happiness and job satisfaction.

It turns out the old adage is true – it is better to give than to receive – which is something most of us would have experienced for ourselves in buying gifts for other people.

Workers from a range of departments at Coca Cola’s Madrid site were told that they were taking part in a happiness study.

It’s great to make others feel good, and the research shows that giving brings benefits all-round.

Photo by Ricardo Moura on Unsplash

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Cultivating a culture of giving

It starts from the top

Another positive finding by the study was that those who received acts of kindness were keen to pay them forward, engaging in three times more prosocial behaviours than did workers who received no special attention.

As always, leaders can take the initiative and set the example of the kind of culture they want to see within their organisation.

Remarkably, the acts of kindness were not a result of obligation – receivers paid their kindness forward to people other than the original givers, which suggests that employees in general are eager to participate in a culture of giving within an organisation that encourages generosity. Giving, then, turns out to be much more than a “soft” value – it offers real, tangible benefits to both givers and receivers, and enhances the culture of an organisation as a result. While this might seem as an obvious state of play, the study really acts as a reminder to leaders (and to each of us individually) of the importance of giving, and that we should make more of an effort to help each other in any way that we can, however small the act of kindness. There are many ways to give. I have written previously that even connecting people is giving.

By engaging regularly in behaviours such as praise and recognition, lending a helping hand, and encouraging others to let them know how things are going, leaders can set the tone for an environment that’s geared towards lifting people up through acts of kindness. The vital ingredient here is consistency in practising the behaviours we’d like to see shaping our organisation for the better. Giving freely to others is a great way to foster unity and boost morale and engagement. It’s also a fantastic way to help organisations grow and to be a thriving example of the difference they endeavour to make to their people, customers, shareholders, and the communities. Ultimately, leaders should view the quality of giving as the ‘real’ business that, in the end, is what truly helps to drive performance, results and the bottom line.

The key to fostering a culture of giving is to ensure that it’s cultivated naturally, rather than a culture that’s enforced. When we give out of a sense of obligation, we’re not really giving at all, but rather returning the favour, which feels more like a debt repaid on both sides.

Roshan Thiran

Roshan is the founder and CEO of the Leaderonomics Group. He believes that everyone can be a leader and make a dent in the universe, in their own special ways.


Issue 35 I January 2020




i v re •

Photo by Alif Caesar Rizqi Pratama on Unsplash

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Being a successful giver means being helpful while not sacrificing your own goals. – Adam Grant

Merriam-Webster defines the term ‘give-and-take’ as the practice of making mutual concessions. In other words, it involves compromising or reciprocating the circumstances we are in.

Givers tilt reciprocity in the other direction, preferring to give more than they get. They are more other-focused, paying more attention to what other people need from them.

Wharton University of Pennsylvania professor Adam Grant, also author of Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Success, gives insight into the dichotomy of behavioural styles people adopt in pursuing success.

Take, for example, someone who is willing to help others by making an introduction, giving advice or even imparting some knowledge without any strings attached.

There are the takers which he explains as having a distinctive signature in that they like to get more than they give.

However, there is also a third category, i.e. the matchers, and here is where majority of the population is categorised.

Takers tilt reciprocity in their own favour, putting their own interests ahead of others’ needs. In short, takers attempt to maximise profits and work solely for themselves.

Matchers strive to preserve an equal balance of giving and getting. They operate on the principle of fairness, that is when they help others, they protect themselves by seeking reciprocity. It’s more of a tit-for-tat relationship.

The other group are called the givers, considered a relatively rare breed.

According to the study by Grant, givers are considered the most successful.


Issue 35 I January 2020



Despite also representing most of the bottom tier after takers and matchers, givers who are wise enough to manage their time and efforts slowly find themselves at the top most tier.

Image | Cleveland clinic

How can one be a successful giver without burning out? 1. 5-minute favour Adam Rifkin, named Fortune’s best networker on LinkedIn believes you should be willing to do something that will take you five minutes or less for anybody without thinking about being repaid. After retiring in his 30s as a successful entrepreneur, Rifkin began doing favours by introducing and connecting people to jobs or business opportunities, starting with three introductions every day. The essence of this is to pick a favour that take at least five minutes and excel at it. This could even be asking someone what they’re working on so you’ll have a better understanding on what help they might need.

2. Prioritise As much as we want to help everyone, this is very much impossible without sacrificing yourself. A great rule of thumb to live by is this line-up: family, friends, colleagues and everyone else, although there is, sometimes, a fine line between friends and colleagues. The question to be asked before lending a hand is: Will this affect my time/relationship with my family? If not, then go ahead and help the person. It’s a great way to keep one’s self-balance without having to jeopardise other relationships and burn out.

Think about it

How else can you become a successful giver in a world perceived as full of takers?

Rohini Rajaratnam

Rohini is a law graduate and freelance writer. Her areas of interest are personal development, social rights, and reflective writing.

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Those are the words of Microsoft co-founder, Bill Gates, who wrote about one of the hottest autobiographies to hit book shelves in a long time. Writing on his website, www.gatesnotes.com, the lifelong learner was so impressed by Tara Westover’s book that he invited her to talk about her unusual upbringing and the challenges she faced, from educating herself to gaining her Ph.D. at Cambridge. The incredible story of Westover goes beyond the usual tale of ‘overcoming the odds’. Born the youngest of seven siblings into a Mormon family with extreme religious and political views, Westover’s zealot father spent much of his time lecturing the family and preparing them for the End of Days.

Lessons from Tara Westover’s Memoir, ‘Educated’ BY SANDY CLARKE

As a man who believed that conventional education was nothing more than the government’s attempt to brainwash the population, his children were home schooled – although this amounted to little more than religious teachings and speeches. Even severe injuries were treated with the mother’s herbal remedies (referred to as ‘God’s pharmacy’ by the father). The head of the family – suspected of suffering from bipolar disorder – justified his extreme behaviour by convincing himself he was protecting his family from the malignant influence of the so-called Illuminati.

‘Educated’ tells the story of a young woman that is all at once heart-breaking, inspiring, unbelievable, and empowering. As she finally managed to liberate herself from the strict confines of the sparse home in the shadow of a mountain, Westover’s foray into education left her feeling out-of-place, depressed, and inadequate.

I thought I was pretty good at

teaching myself – until I read Tara Westover’s memoir Educated. Her ability to learn on her own blows mine right out of the water.


Issue 35 I January 2020

Photo by Kinga Cichewicz on Unsplash

She was exposed to a world where everyday behaviours were viewed as sins by her overpowering father, and the spotlight shone on her ignorance when, in history class, she asked what the Holocaust was, to the astonishment of everyone in the room. Nevertheless, her thirst for learning and her innate talent was enough to have prominent professors encourage Westover to further her education, which led to fellowships at Cambridge, then Harvard, and then back to Cambridge to complete her doctoral studies in history. There is so much contained within Westover’s story that provides a rich and in-depth look at how so much in life can go against us, and yet, if ever there was a story to show how much we’re each capable of, Educated sets the standard.



Here are four lessons I took from reading this amazing story:


Your voice is powerful – if you have the courage to use it

As Westover writes, “My life was narrated for me by others. Their voices were forceful, emphatic, absolute. It had never occurred to me that my voice might be as strong as theirs.” So often, we yield to the opinions and expectations of others to the extent where our own potential becomes stifled.

How often do we seek validation and approval from others, without giving consideration to the idea that we are capable and talented enough to shape our own path? When we lose ourselves to the opinion of others, we suffocate the greatness that lies within each of us.


To see what you’re capable of, push beyond your limits

Describing her struggles with reading complex works, Westover recognised that the struggle was pushing her in the right direction. “The skill I was learning was a crucial one, the patience to read things I could not yet understand.” Mostly, we stick to what we know, which is great for our ego, but terrible for our growth. When we try something new or take on an unfamiliar challenge, we are literally informing ourselves through proactive learning. Even if we don’t get it at first, the unconscious connections we make provide us with a strong foundation of critical thinking and the ability to view problems from different perspectives. As a result, this gives us a clear edge over those who remain in their comfort zones.


Never be afraid of uncertainty – it can be your greatest guide

Westover writes:

To admit uncertainty is to admit to weakness, to powerlessness, and to believe in yourself despite both. It is a frailty, but in this frailty there is a strength: the conviction to live in your own mind, and not in someone else’s. The noted physicist, Richard Feynman, believed that “nobody ever figures out what life is all about, and it doesn’t matter. Explore the world.” One of the most brilliant minds in science insisted that to live in uncertainty was not only powerful, it’s also the most realistic way to live. By embracing the Socratic ideal that “we know nothing”, it inspires us to be curious about everything – and it’s the people who can separate themselves from the herd that tend to breathe life into ideas that change the world.


We all have our critics – walk your own path anyway

“Guilt is the fear of one’s own wretchedness. It has nothing to do with other people.” Westover’s memoir is peppered with expressions of guilt and inadequacy that stemmed from her upbringing which dictated that a woman’s place was in the kitchen and her main ambition was motherhood. Although far from being at fault, Westover nevertheless felt guilty for having her own ambitions and later pursuing opportunities beyond her family’s wishes. Sometimes, we have to make sacrifices in order to free ourselves from the shackles that bind us. There will always be critics, and nothing can change that. That said, we can choose to emancipate ourselves from our guilt, doubts and fear that hold us back from unleashing the possibilities that we can create once we give ourselves permission to do so. Sandy Clarke Sandy is a freelance writer based in Malaysia, and previously enjoyed 10 years as a journalist and broadcaster in the UK. He has been fortunate to gain valuable insights into what makes us tick, which has deepened his interests in leadership, emotions, mindfulness, and human behaviour. Issue 35 I January 2020 27


Leadership Institute of Sarawak Civil Service in partnership with State Human Resources Unit (SHRU) organised the launching and showcase of SCS Learning Management System (LMS) during Hari Perkhidmatan Awam 2019 on 4th December 2019 at Borneo Convention Centre (BCCK). The SCS Learning Management System (LMS) is a blended learning platform for SCS employees to learn online at their own pace from hundreds of courses or learning videos, e- books and audiobooks, in addition to classroom training which set to be a game changer in SCS training and development roadmap. The implementation goal of this SCS LMS is to increase outreach and availability of knowledge to bigger group of SCS employees through job-based learning, assessment, coaching and mentoring anytime, anyhow and anywhere. This SCS LMS platform is a great avenue to empower all of SCS employees with knowledge and to be in charge of their own learning. All Sarawak Civil Service employees are invited to browse through the SCS Learning Management System at






Photo by Courtney Hedger on Unsplash

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