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REPORT ON PEOPLE PERCEPTION, ATTITUDE AND BELIEFS ABOUT CIGARETTES

History of tobacco industry

Tobacco is a plant that grows natively in North and South America. It is in the same family as the potato, pepper and the poisonous nightshade, a very deadly plant. The seed of a tobacco plant is very small. A 1 ounce sample contains about 300,000 seeds! It is believed that Tobacco began growing in the Americas about 6,000 B.C.! As early as 1 B.C., American Indians began using tobacco in many different ways, such as in religious and medicinal practices. Tobacco was believed to be a cure-all, and was used to dress wounds, as well as a pain killer. Chewing tobacco was believed to relieve the pain of a toothache. On October 15, 1492, Christopher Columbus was offered dried tobacco leaves as a gift from the American Indians that he encountered. Soon after, sailors brought tobacco back to Europe, and the plant was being grown all over Europe. The major reason for tobacco's growing popularity in Europe was its supposed healing properties. Europeans believed that tobacco could cure almost anything, from bad breath to cancer! In 1571, A Spanish doctor named Nicolas Monardes wrote a book about the history of medicinal plants of the new world. In this he claimed that tobacco could cure 36 health problems. In 1588, AVirginian named Thomas Harriet promoted smoking tobacco as a viable way to get one's daily dose of tobacco. Unfortunately, he died of nose cancer (because it was popular then to breathe the smoke out through the nose). During the 1600's, tobacco was so popular that it was


frequently used as money! Tobacco was literally "as good as gold!" This was also a time when some of the dangerous effects of smoking tobacco were being realized by some individuals. In 1610 Sir Francis Bacon noted that trying to quit the bad habit was really hard! In 1632, 12 years after the Mayflower arrived on Plymouth Rock; it was illegal to smoke publicly in Massachusetts! This had more to do with the moral beliefs of the day, than health concerns about smoking tobacco. In 1760, Pierre Lorillard establishes a company in New York City to process tobacco, cigars, and snuff. Today, P. Lorillard is the oldest tobacco company in the U.S. In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, tobacco helped finance the revolution by serving as collateral for loans the Americans borrowed from France! Over the years, more and more scientists begin to understand the chemicals in tobacco, as well as the dangerous health effects smoking produces. In 1826, the pure form of nicotine is finally discovered. Soon after, scientists conclude that nicotine is a dangerous poison. In 1836, New Englander Samuel Green stated that tobacco is an insecticide, a poison, and can kill a man. In 1847, the famous Phillip Morris is established, selling hand rolled Turkish cigarettes. Soon after in 1849, J.E. Liggett and Brother is established in St. Louis, Mo. (The company that has settled out of the big lawsuits recently). Cigarettes became popular around this time when soldiers brought it back to England from the Russian and Turkish soldiers. Cigarettes in the U.S. were mainly made from scraps left over after the production of other tobacco products, especially chewing tobacco. Chewing tobacco became quite popular at this time with the "cowboys" of the American west. In 1875, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (better known for its Reynolds Wrap Aluminum Foil) was established to produce chewing tobacco. It wasn't until the 1900's that the cigarette became the major tobacco product made and sold. Still, in 1901 3.5 billion cigarettes were sold, while 6 billion cigars were sold. In 1902, the British Phillip Morris sets up a New York headquarters to market its cigarettes, including a now famous Marlboro brand. Along with the popularity of cigarettes, however, was a small but growing anti-tobacco campaign, with some states proposing a total ban on tobacco. The demand for cigarettes grew however, and in 1913 R.J. Reynolds began to market a cigarette brand called Camel. The use of cigarette exploded during World War I (1914-1918), where cigarettes were called the "soldier's smoke". By 1923, Camel controls 45% of the U.S. market! In 1924, Phillip Morris begins to market Marlboro as a woman's cigarette that is a 2


"Mild as May"! To battle this, American Tobacco Company, maker of the Lucky Strike brand, begins to market its cigarette to women and gains 38% of the market. Smoking rates among female teenagers soon triple during the years between 1925-1935.In 1939, American Tobacco Company introduces a new brand, Pall Mall, which allows American to become the largest tobacco company in the U.S.!During World War II (1939-1945), cigarette sales are at an all time high. Cigarettes were included in a soldier's C-Rations (like food!). Tobacco companies sent millions of cigarettes to the soldiers for free, and when these soldiers came home, the companies had a steady stream of loyal customers. During the1950's, more and more evidence was surfacing that smoking was linked to lung cancer. Although the tobacco industry denied such health hazards, they promoted new products which were "safer", such as those with lower tar and filtered cigarettes. In 1952 P. Lorillard markets its Kent brand with the "micronite" filter, which contained asbestos! This was fortunately discontinued in 1956. In 1953, Dr. Ernst L. Wynders finds that putting cigarette tar on the backs of mice causes tumors! In 1954, RJ Reynolds introduces the filtered Winston brand. In 1956 Reynolds introduces the Salem brand, which is the first filter-tipped menthol cigarette. Tobacco companies Largest Tobacco Companies COMPANY

GLOBAL MARKET SHARE 1999 TOBACCO (%) ($BIL) 32.7 $0.023 17.3 $47

China National Tobacco Co. (CNTC) Altria Group, Inc. (USA) British American Tobacco PLC (BAT, 16.0 UK) Japan Tobacco 9.0 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco (USA) 2.0 Imperial Tobacco (UK) 2.0 Altadis (France and Spain) 2.0 PT Gudang Garam (Indonesia) 1.4 TEKEL (Turkey) 1.3 ITC (India) 1.0 Fortune Tobacco Co. (Philippines) .9 Eastern Company (Egypt) .8 Thailand Tobacco monopoly .8 Lorillard Tobacco Co. (USA) .7 Iranian Tobacco Company (Iran) .5 LCWGS (Australia) .2

$30.4 $29.9 $7.6

SALES


Production by country The United Nations Foreign Agricultural Office estimates the following production by China 2,298.8 India 595.4 Brazil 520.7 United States 408.2 European Union 314.5 Zimbabwe 204.9 Turkey 193.9 Indonesia 166.6 Former Soviet Union 116.8 Malawi 108.0 Health Hazards Revealed

In 1964, the Surgeon General's report on "Smoking and Health" came out. This report assisted in allowing the government to regulate the advertisement and sales of cigarettes. The 1960’s in general were a time when much of the health hazards of smoking were reported. In 1965, television cigarette ads are taken off the air GreatBritain.In1966, those health warnings on cigarette packs begin popping up. In 1968, Bravo, a non tobacco cigarette brand was marketed. Made primarily of lettuce, it failed miserably! Because of the negative press about tobacco, the major tobacco companies begin to diversify their products. Phillip Morris begins to buy into the Miller Brewing Company, makers of Miller Beer, Miller Lite, and Red Dog Beer. RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company drops the "Tobacco Company" in its name, and becomes RJ Reynolds Industries. It also begins to buy into other products, such as aluminum. American Tobacco Company also drops "Tobacco" from its name, becoming American Brands, Inc. In 1971, television ads for cigarettes are finally taken off the air in the U.S. Cigarettes, however, are still the most heavily advertised product second to automobiles! In 1977, the first national Great American Smoke out takes place. In 1979, the Surgeon General reports on the Health Consequences of Smoking for Women. This is in light to the increasing number of women who are taking up the bad habit. There 4


are two entrenched interests that have opinions about the tobacco industry: (a) participants in the industry, and (b) people affected by the deaths attributable to tobacco use. These interests conflict as they involve large amounts of money, long-held (historically) belief systems, and the premature deaths of loved family members.People affected by or sympathetic to the large death rate attributable to active and/or passive tobacco use cite the fact that half of all tobacco users die from tobacco-related causes worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, that means that about 650 million current smokers will die from a preventable cause.

Marketing Mix

Product The product, that is, cigarette comes in a package of 20 and 10 cigarettes. In Bangladesh only two type of packaging for cigarette is available. Cigarettes have four basic components: •

The tobacco rod

The cigarette paper around the tobacco rod

The filtration zone

The filter and tipping around the filtration zone

The tobacco in the rod includes tobacco lamina (the flat part of the tobacco leaf), tobacco stem (midribs of the leaf), and expanded lamina. The cigarette paper includes paper and adhesive. The filter is made mainly from cellulose acetate fibers, known as tow. Cellulose acetate is derived from wood pulp. The fibers are bonded together with a hardening agent, triacetin plasticizer, which helps the filter to keep its shape. The filter is wrapped in paper and sealed with a line of adhesive. Sometimes charcoal is added to filters. The tipping paper includes paper and adhesive. Design adjustments achieve different strengths and tastes, and can reduce smoke yields of various smoke components, as measured by a standardized machine method. See Cigarette design and manufacture on the drop-down menu.


Figure : Main parts of a cigarette

Price Different brand of cigarette are price different. 20 cigarette of 1 pack price is 20tk to 80tk it depends on brand name like Benson, Gold leaf Marlboro, and Pall-mall etc.

Promotion As any kind of advertisement for cigarette is banned by law in Bangladesh, the most important tool of communication for cigarette is word of mouth communication. It also uses some below the line promotional activities, street cabinets, posters, cash box, inner cult and wringer. From time to time, it also provides leaflets and brochures to customers at retail outlets and different public places.

Distribution To ensure product availability to consumers in convenient locations, Tobacco maintains a sound distribution system. The distribution system of British American Tobacco is one of the largest and strongest distribution channels in Bangladesh.

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Company’s own sales depot Factory

Sole depot

Wholesalers & Retailers

Consumers

Distributors

Table 1: The distribution Channel of British American Tobacco

Culture The Culture is a complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. Cultural factors play significant role for the consumption pattern of any product. If the product does not go with the culture of the target market, then the consumers will not consume that product. It is true that the purchasing pattern of a consumer, living in a culture will be influenced by various cultural factors like language, demographics, values and non-verbal communication.

Relevant Cultural Values Status: Status is one of the cultural values that effect the consumption of cigarette. We know that cigarette compared with other brands and its target group is all income groups. So, purchasing of cigarette reflects that the purchaser belongs to which group for those statuses is not the main fact. Traditional: cigarette consumers are traditional. They do not want to change their lifestyle.


Self concept: Self-concept is the totality of an individual’s thoughts and feelings about him or herself. It includes the products one buys, how one uses them, what one thinks about them and how one feels about them. We know that being good to myself concept is cherished by all in the society.

Nonverbal Communication Cigarette packaging is using color for nonverbal communication. It has changed the color of its cover packet into a combination of red, yellow, blue and white which represents manliness, victory and purity. Reference Groups As a low involvement impulse product, consumption of cigarette highly depends on the influence of reference groups. Target market is mainly young generation high income or middle class income group who is friendly in nature and spend a great deal of time with their friends and peers. So it can easily apply word of mouth communication through this reference groups to influence the consumption pattern.

Marketing Activities Tobacco Company can not go for any kind of print or electronic advertisement as law had been passed against it to protect consumers from injurious consumption. So tobacco industry marketing activities mainly focus on word of mouth communication, trade allowance, and some other bellow the line communication tools.

Learning is any change in the content or organization of long-term memory and/or behavior. It can be done in a low involvement situation or in a high involvement situation. Low involvement learning situation is one in which the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material. And high involvement learning situation is one in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material.

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Learning about cigarette is a low-involvement learning situation as it is a low involvement product. Consumer behavior is largely learned behavior.

Perception Perception in stages of Information Processing Information processing is a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information and stored. It is the main thing that helps consumers to gather information about a cigarette also applies the theory of information processing. It tries to create exposure of stimuli, gain attention from its consumers, makes the stimuli easy to interpret, makes them learn and finally stores the stimuli in the memory of the consumers. Here the first three steps are called perception. •

Exposure

•

Attention

•

Interpretation

Exposure Exposure occurs when a stimulus (as retail outlets, sales personnel and other objective, such as any kind of stimulus which promotes Tobacco Company) comes within range of our sensory receptor nerves. Cigarette Company is giving exposure to the people through the street cabinets. In the tea stall and other grocery store flyers and posters are used for exposure. As hard core loyal customers of cigarette pass any kind of positive words, it creates exposure about the brand. However, Cigarette Company does not provide any exposure by using internet which might have been helpful to catch attention of the consumers. Most of the stimulus individuals are exposed to be self selected. People deliberately seek out exposure to certain stimuli and avoid others. Cigarette Company can increase their


exposure rate by identifying some unique media for their promotion to attract their potential customers like opening a fan club in some social websites in the internet.

Attention Occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing. It is an extremely selective process. Shelf positioning and amount of shelf space should be designed in such a way so that it captures attention of the consumers. Attention always occurs in the context of the situation. The same individual may devote different levels of attention to the same stimulus in different situations. Therefore, attention is determined by three factors – the stimulus, the individual, and the situation.

Stimulus factors Stimulus factors are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself. The stimulus factors that influence capturing the consumer’s attention to the cigarette are:

Size and intensity Packaging or retail outlets are the best example of this stimulus factor. Packaging of cigarette is bright and attractive. So it easily grabs the attention of the consumers.

Color and movement Cigarette logo creates an impression of expedition. It contains eye-catching colors which contrast with its background.

Position Cigarette usually placed in the entrance of the retail outlets or behind the cash counter which provides attention and influences impulse purchase.

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Format Cigarette promotes a concept that it will provide the taste of expedition in the life of the consumer. So people who seek expedition in their lives choose their brand.

Individual factors Individual factors are the characteristics of the individual. Interest and need are the primary individual characteristics that influence attention. Individuals seek out and examine information relevant to their current needs and interests. So, Tobacco Company tries to create need for its to the regular smokers and interest about its product to the occasional ones.

Situational factors Consumers often go to the road side tea-stalls to have a cup of tea and almost in every teastall cigarettes are sold. So, consumers may pay attention towards different brands of cigarettes. By sponsoring different sport events it creates awareness about the brand among the people.

None focused attention Tobacco Company tries to use the concept of Hemispheric Lateralization so that it can capture attention from those people who are not actually thinking of buying cigarettes. Tobacco Company is mainly trying to influence the right side of the brain by its logo of a sailor. We know an image can tell a thousand words. Imagery representation of this logo helps to create more response from the target market.


Interpretation Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to sensations. The entire message, including the context in which it occurs, influences interpretation, as does the situation in which the individual finds himself.

Cognitive Interpretation When cigarette was first introduced to consumers, they most probably grouped it in the general medium quality cigarette in order to be able to evaluate it. With further experience and information, many consumers have gained detailed knowledge about the cigarette in other ways, like a means of expedition.

Affective Interpretation Affective interpretation is the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus. Consumers may like cigarette just because it makes them satisfied.

Individual Characteristics Some times individuals’ interpretations of stimuli tend to be consistent with their learning and expectations. Like packaging of is combination of different color and people have learnt that is a color of purity and represents manliness and victory.

Situational Characteristics A variety of situational characteristics influence interpretation. Temporary characteristics of the individual such as loneliness, feeling tired, etc. influence the interpretation of a given stimulus. That is, when people are feeling a need, because of being tensed or tired, to be recharged shall be more receptive to cigarette.

Memory It is the total accumulation of prior learning experience. Memory includes two components: 1. Short- Term Memory 12


2. Long- Term Memory

Short- Term Memory Short term memory is the portion of memory that is currently activated or in use.

Maintenance Rehearsal It is the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long term memory. The different colored packaging of cigarette is repeatedly exposed in purchase points which enabled the consumers to remember the brand color although any kind of electronic and print advertisement is totally banned for tobacco industry.

Imagery It involves a concrete sensory representation of ideas, feelings and objects so that by seeing some picture the product can easily be identified and memorized by the consumers..

Long- Term Memory Long term memory is viewed as an unlimited, permanent storage.

Episodic Memory It is a memory of sequence of events in which a person participated. Consumers of cigarette usually relate it to hanging out with friends in special occasions like Eid, Puja where they ate different food products and participated or enjoyed any sports. Schema


It is a complex web of association where both concepts and episodes acquire a depth of meaning by becoming associated with other concepts and episodes. The following diagram provides an example of a schema by showing how one might associate various concepts with cigarette to form a network of meaning for the brand according to the survey.

Cigarette Strong taste

Manly

Remove frustration

Cool

Fun

Brand

Youthful Economy Sailor Friend

Satisfaction

Convenient Expedition Fashion

Status

Reduce tension

Brand Image and Product Positioning Brand Image Brand image refers to the schematic memory (schema) of a brand. It contains the target market’s interpretation of the products attributes, benefits, usage situations, users, and

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manufacturer or marketer characteristics. It is what people think or feel when they hear or see a brand name. When people hear about cigarette they think of strong taste, considerable price, convenience, brand name, satisfaction, manliness, best friend, expedition, etc.

Perceptual Mapping Perceptual mapping takes consumers perception how similar various brands or products are to each other and relates these perceptions to product attributes. The consumers surveyed were asked to put their beliefs about the products. They were asked whether they think about and the eight other brands of cigarette are either •

Prestigious, expensive or common, economical

•

Traditional, dull or non-traditional, fun

A semantic differential scale was used containing two extremes between the two sets of attributes.

Product Positioning Product positioning is a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment. Here marketers decide that they want the members of a market segment to think and feel in a certain way about a brand relative to competing brands.

Prestigious, Expensive 5 B 4

Pi C M


Traditional , Dull

1

2

3

4

5

N o n t r a d it i o n a l, F u n

G P 2 S

Sh N 1 Common ,

Economical

Table 4: Perceptual mapping of different brands of cigarette

Attitude

Attitude is enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspects of our environment. Cigarette serves the value expressive and utilitarian function of attitude. There are three components of attitudescognitive, affective and behavioral. These components are critical to measure but are equally important to understand the consumers. 16


Attitude Components

Cognitive Components The cognitive component consists of a consumer’s beliefs about an object. Beliefs can be about the emotional benefits of owning or using a product as well as about objective features. There are some people who are blind towards the cigarette. They think cigarette means satisfaction, is their Best Friend, is manly, and adventures. They believe that is going with their image. We know that cigarette targeted the all income group and they have successfully done their strategy as a result they capture big market share of their target smoker.

Affective Components Feelings or emotional reactions to an object represent the affective component of an attitude. This over all evaluation may be simply a vague, general feeling developed without cognitive information or beliefs about the product.

Behavioral Components The behavioral component of an attitude is one’s tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity. Since behavior is directed toward an entire object, it is less likely to be attributing specific than are either beliefs or affect.

Measurement of Attitude Components Measuring Beliefs The cognitive component consists of the belief that the people have towards different cigarette brand. To measure the cognitive component towards Benson we asked consumers to place beliefs


about three cigarette brands and their ideal cigarette in a semantic scale. To fully evaluate it we also asked them to place their beliefs about products of Marlboro filter cigarette as they are the main competitor of gold Leaf. We thus compared Benson with Marlboro. The position of these averages on the scale, the weight of each factor and final results are given below.

Figure : Measurement of cognitive component Measuring Feelings A Likert scale is used to measure the feelings of the consumers towards the brand. It presents statements claiming that the brand has a certain characteristic or that the consumer has a specific affective response to the overall brand or an aspect of it.

Figure : Measurement of affective component Most of the people agreed that Benson is satisfying and it tastes good. They said it is not over priced.But they are not sure if it is likable or not and they nigther agree nor disagree about the fact that Benson makes them feel cool or not.

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Measuring Response Tendencies The behavioral component tries to predict the actual behavior of the consumers that is in this case whether they are buying cigarette, and if not, what are they buying. This was measured by asking three questions

1. The last cigarette I smoked was a --------------------------------2. When I smoked cigarette it is usually -----------------------------3. Next time I will smoke ----------------------------------The results of the three questions from the survey are shown in the graphs below. From our analysis, it was found that 22% consumer had smoked Gold Leaf last time. Moreover, it is very good rate because Gold Leaf’s close competitor Marlboros rate was 8%, castle and others were 12%.

Last time consumption

Benson

2%2%2% 4% 2% 8%

Gold leaf Marlboro Castle

22%

58%

More Pallmall Pine Star

Figure : Last time consumption


Survey result shows that consumer usually smoked Benson 54%, Gold Leaf 28% and Marlboro 6% and other brands 12%. If we compare with Marlboro, Gold Leaf has a good potential to outdo Marlboro in future. However

Attitude Changing Strategies Changing the Cognitive Component A common affective approach to change the attitude is to focus on the cognitive component. Cigarette can use the four basic strategies to alter the cognitive structure of consumers’ attitude. Can change the consumer's beliefs towards their products by changing beliefs, shift importance and add beliefs.

Change Beliefs This strategy involves shifting beliefs about the brand. People have a belief that cigarette is low in status and less modern. So they can show people that why they are less in status or they can shift the belief that other brand is very much committed toward traditional value.

Add Beliefs Another approach to changing the cognitive component of an attitude is to add new beliefs to the consumer's belief structure. Cigarette is made for excitable people not for submissive people.

Shifting Importance Most consumers consider some product attributes to be more important than others. Most of the people consider status and price is the main indicators to purchase of cigarette. The sometime did not consider tobacco quality and nicotine contain by it. As a result, may try to shift their beliefs from price and status to tobacco quality and they contain less harm.

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Changing the Affective Component Mere Exposure Cigarette is a low involvement product and price is very much affordable to its target customers. It can use mere exposure for positive feelings in the consumers’ mind. As we know that above the line promotion is not possible now so, cigarette has to go for below the line promotion for mere exposure like various campaigns in public places which will create a positive emotion.

Changing the Behavioral component Behavior, specifically purchase or use behavior may precede the development of cognition and effect. Changing behavior prior to changing affect or cognition is based primarily on operant conditioning. Elaborative Likelihood Model According to the elaborative likelihood model the attitudes formed and changed under low involvement. Cigarette follows the peripheral route to persuasion which is shown below. Figure 6: Elaboration Likelihood model

Exposure to marketing message

Low involvement with product, message or decision

Limited attention, focused on peripheral, non-product features and feelings

Low or non conscious information processing; few or no elaborative activities

Persuasion operates through classical conditioning; affect change, attitude towards the ad, and non conscious believe changes lead to a behavioral and attitude change


Self- Concept and Lifestyle Self- Concept Self-concept is defined as the totality of the individual’s thoughts and feelings having reference to him or herself as an object. Self-concept can be divided into four basic partsactual self-concept, ideal self-concept, private self-concept and social self-concept. Dimensions of consumer’s self-concept Dimensions

of

concept Private self Social self

self- Actual self

Ideal self

How I actually see myself How I would like to see myself How others actually see How I would like others to see myself

myself

Independent self concept emphasizes on personal goals, characteristics, achievements and desires. Interdependent self-concept emphasizes family, cultural, professional and social relationships.

Possessions and the Extended Self Extended Self consists of the self plus possessions; that is people tend to define themselves in part by their possessions. Products become part of one’s extended self for a variety of reasons: •

Representation of memories and feelings

Representation of relationships

Embedded with meaning and value as used over time

Measuring Self- Concept 22


On average, the survey portrays following facts about the respondents in the target market of, cigarette. Their personality is mostly characterized as: •

A bit rugged

Mostly excitable

Somewhat Dominating

Fairly Thrifty in terms of purchasing

Organized

Quite Rational

Fully Youthful

Mostly Formal

Take time to Change

Very Colorful

Using Self-Concept to position Product Cigarette is trying to develop a product image that is consistent with the self concept of the target market. Consumers maintain and enhance their self-concepts not only by what they consume but also by what they avoid. So, if the product image does not match with the selfconcept of the target market, tobacco industry will lose its consumers.

Brand image of Gold Leaf Customers’ self-concept

Relationship between selfconcept and brand image

Behavior (seek Brand name if the image match with self-concept)

Satisfaction (purchase contributes to desired selfconcept)

Reinforces self-concept Figure 7: The relationship between self-concept and brand image influence


Findings from the Survay Analysis Broad Objective The main purpose of this study is to know the consumers perception, attitude and beliefs of cigarette about the cigarette.

Table: 1.Do you Smoke?

Valid

24

yes

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

50

100.0

100.0

100.0


Do you Smoke? yes

We collect data from several place and different category people. We are collect data those are smoke. We target all age group and male female group both. Table: 2.What is your age?

Valid 1020years 2130years 3140years 4150years 50above Total

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

8

16.0

16.0

16.0

26

52.0

52.0

68.0

7

14.0

14.0

82.0

4

8.0

8.0

90.0

5 50

10.0 100.0

10.0 100.0

100.0


What is your age? 10-20years 21-30years 31-40years 41-50years 50above

Age is a big factor in the sense of cigarette consumption because tobacco marketers can not target minors, as it is beyond the law and ethics. Cigarette is one of the people habit in Bangladesh and it targeted the middle income group. From our survey we found that cigarette consumption rate is very high in the age level of 21 to 30years and lowest in the range of 41 to 50 years. But if we consider it as a whole we found that 52% consumers are aged within the range of 21 to 30years.

Table: 3.What is your sex?

Valid

26

Frequency Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

male

33

66.0

66.0

66.0

female

17

34.0

34.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0


What is your sex? male female

Cigarette can be consumed by both males and females. But due to cultural and traditional constraints in Bangladesh Cigarette is not heavily consumed by ladies. That is why Cigarette is marketed as appropriate solution for gents. Here male is 66%and female is 34% .But in actual scenario, it is predicted that female consumers are lesser in number.

Table: 4.What is the monthly income of your family?

Valid lessthan1000 0 10000to3000 0 30000to4000 0 40000above Total

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

11

22.0

22.0

22.0

23

46.0

46.0

68.0

15

30.0

30.0

98.0

1

2.0

2.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0


What is the monthly income of your family? lessthan10000 10000to30000 30000to40000 40000above

Consumer purchasing pattern, lifestyle and status largely depend on their average monthly income of the family. The social class of our target respondents was determined according to their family income. Cigarette consumption and brand preference heavily depend on the income level. From our survey we can see that 22% people are coming from the income level of less then Tk. 10000, who are from lower income group. But we found that4 6% members of the target market are from lower middle, 30% are from middle. The income level of above Tk. 40000 is considered as upper class and 2% are from upper class income group. Table: 5. why did you start smoking?

Valid pressureforfrien ds consider fashion toremovefrustra tion toincreasefun other Total

28

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

26

52.0

52.0

52.0

6

12.0

12.0

64.0

8

16.0

16.0

80.0

8 2 50

16.0 4.0 100.0

16.0 4.0 100.0

96.0 100.0


. Why did you start smoking? pressureforfriends considerfashion toremovefrustration toincreasefun other

Most of the people said they can start a smoke for pressure friends about 52%like. A fair amount of people said they start a smoke reason consider fashion and turnover frustration. Only few people said other reason.

Table: 6. Cigarette is Harmful for health

Valid Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree Strongly agree Total

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

5

10.0

10.0

10.0

2 2 7

4.0 4.0 14.0

4.0 4.0 14.0

14.0 18.0 32.0

34

68.0

68.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0


.. Cigarette is Harmful for health stronglydisgree disagree neutral agree stronglyagree

Cigarette is harmful for health all we know. However people take smoke day by day they can destroy own life. Most of the people said that cigarette is harmful strongly disagree 68%.Few people said that they know cigarette bad effect 4%.But some chain smoker never realize the smoking is bad for health 10%.

Table: 7.Cigarette is expansive.

Strongly disagree Valid disagree neutral agree strongly agree Total

30

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

16

32.0

32.0

32.0

24 4 1 5

48.0 8.0 2.0 10.0

48.0 8.0 2.0 10.0

80.0 88.0 90.0 100.0

50

100.0

100.0


Cigarette is expansive. stronglydisagree disagree neutral agree stronglyagree

Cigarette is expansive not accept all the people. Because different people income level and perception different. Cigarette is expansive disagree 48%.Because each cigarette price is maximum 4 taka. Strongly agree only 10%.

Table: 8.Cigarette is Available

Valid Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree Strongly agree Total

Frequen cy

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulativ e Percent

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

10 3 18

20.0 6.0 36.0

20.0 6.0 36.0

28.0 34.0 70.0

15

30.0

30.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0


Cigarette is Available stronglydisagree disagree neutral agree stronglyagree

We know today all place communication system is speed. All the product available urban to rural. People agree cigarette is available al the place 36%.But some people think cigarette is not available 8% strongly disagree.

Table: 9.Cigarette is Social acceptance.

Valid

32

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

17

34.0

34.0

34.0

27

54.0

54.0

88.0

neutral

3

6.0

6.0

94.0

strongly agree

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

strongly disagree disagree


Cigarette is Social acceptance. stronglydisagree disagree neutral stronglyagree

Status is one of the cultural values that effect the purchasing of any people of any culture. Our culture is religion related and not allows any illegal things. Cigarette is not allowing our society 54% people disagree.

Table: 10.Which cigarette do you smoke?

Valid light

Frequen cy

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

92.0

92.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

regula 46 r Total 50


Which cigarette do you smoke? light regular

Cigarette are two types light regular. Consumer prefers are his own refreshment or own choice. Most of the people are saying 92% smoke regular cigarette. Table: 11.

Do you consider smoking is bad for health?

Valid

34

yes no

Valid Frequency Percent Percent 42 84.0 84.0 4 8.0 8.0

Cumulative Percent 84.0 92.0

not sure

4

8.0

8.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0


Do You consider smoking is bad for health? yes no notsure

Most of the people are said smoking is bad for health about 84% people said yes. Some people said not or not sure. We know everybody smoking is bad for health but people are smoking. Table: 12.How frequently do you Smoke?

Vali d

More than 1 packet each day 1 packet each day 5 cigarette each day less than 3 cigarette each day occasionally Total

Freque ncy

Percen Valid t Percent

Cumulati ve Percent

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

26

52.0

52.0

60.0

15

30.0

30.0

90.0

2

4.0

4.0

94.0

3 50

6.0 100.0

6.0 100.0

100.0


How frequently do you Smoke? More than 1 packet each day 1 packet each day 5 cigarate each day less than 3 cigarate each day ocasinally

People are smoking in his own buying pattern or smoking per day. Most of the people are Smoking 1 packet each day. Table: 13.Cigarettes maintains a good performance in terms of relaxation.

Valid Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree Total

36

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

26 11 9

52.0 22.0 18.0

52.0 22.0 18.0

54.0 76.0 94.0

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0


Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation. stronglydisgree disgree neutral agree stronglyagree

Cigarette maintains a good performance in terms of relaxation. Cigarette is one kind of habit this is not a give a relaxation. About 52% people disagree in terms of relaxation. Table: 14.Different brand of Cigarettes are no different from one another.

Valid strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree Total

Frequenc y Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

6

12.0

12.0

12.0

31 2 7 4 50

62.0 4.0 14.0 8.0 100.0

62.0 4.0 14.0 8.0 100.0

74.0 78.0 92.0 100.0


Different brand of Cigarettes are no different from one another. stronglydisagree disgree neutral agree stronglyagree

There is different from one brand to another. Because price is different that’s why taste are different. Most of the people are said 62% there is a different one brand to another. Analysis of Hypothesis One Sample-T test Broad Objective The main purpose of this study is to know the consumers perception, attitude and beliefs of cigarette about the cigarette. (1) Ho=There is no difference in smoker on the basis of their age. H1= There is difference in smoker on the basis of their age. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

N what is your 50 age?

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

2.48

1.249

.177

One-Sample Test 38


Test Value = 0

t df what is 14.03 49 your age? 7

Mean Sig. (2- Differ tailed) ence

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lowe Uppe r r

.000

2.12

2.480

2.84

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: There is difference in smoker on the basis of their age. (2) Ho= There is no difference in smoker on the basis of their sex H1= There is difference in smoker on the basis of their sex ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

N What is your 50 sex?

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

1.48

.762

.108

One-Sample Test Test Value = 0

t What is 13.72 your sex? 7

df

95% Confidence Mean Interval of the Sig. (2- Differe Difference tailed) nce Lower Upper

49

.000

1.480

1.26

1.70

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: There is difference in smoker on the basis of their sex.


(3) Ho= There is a relationship in between income and the attitude of smoking. H1= There is no relationship in between income and the attitude of smoking. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

N What is the monthly income of 50 your family?

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

2.16

.866

.122

One-Sample Test Test Value = 0

t What is the monthly 17.64 income of 4 your family?

df

95% Confidence Mean Interval of the Sig. (2- Differe Difference tailed) nce Lower Upper

49

.000

2.160

1.91

2.41

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: = There is no relationship in between income and the attitude of smoking. (4) Ho=There is no difference in attitude to start smoking. H1= There is difference in attitude to start smoking. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics N 40

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error


Mean Why did you start 50 smoking?

2.12

1.409

.199

One-Sample Test Test Value = 0

t Why did you start 10.63 smoking 9 ?

df

95% Confidence Interval of the Mean Difference Sig. (2- Differe Uppe tailed) nce Lower r

49

.000

2.120

1.72

2.52

Statistical Decision: : Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: There is difference in attitude to start smoking (5) Ho=People think that cigarette is not Harmful for health. H1= People think that cigarette is Harmful for health ∞: 0.05

One-Sample Statistics

N Cigarette Harmful health.

is for 50

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

4.26

1.322

.187

One-Sample Test Test Value = 3 t df

Sig.

(2- Mean

95%


Cigarette is Harmful for 6.740 health.

49

tailed)

Differe nce

Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper

.000

1.260

.88

1.64

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: H1= People think that cigarette is Harmful for health (6) Ho=People think that cigarette is expansive. H1= People think that cigarette is not expansive. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

Cigarette expansive

is

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

50

2.10

1.182

.167

One-Sample Test Test Value = 3

Cigarette expansive

t is 5.382

df

95% Confidence Mean Interval of the Sig. (2- Differe Difference tailed) nce Lower Upper

49

.000

-.900

-1.24

-.56

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: People think that cigarette is not expansive

42


(7)

Ho=People think that cigarette is Available. H1= People think that cigarette is not Available. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

Cigarette Available

is

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

50

3.60

1.325

.187

One-Sample Test Test Value = 3

t Cigarette is 3.202 Available

df

95% Confidence Interval of the Mean Difference Sig. (2- Differe Uppe tailed) nce Lower r

49

.002

.600

.22

.98

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision:

H1= People think that cigarette is not Available.

(7) Ho=People think that cigarette is Social acceptance. H1= People think that cigarette is not Social acceptance. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean


Cigarette Social acceptance.

is

50

1.90

.974

.138

One-Sample Test Test Value = 3

t

df

Cigarette is Social -7.985 49 acceptance.

Mean Sig. (2- Differe tailed) nce

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper

.000

-1.38

-1.100

-.82

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: People think that cigarette is not Social acceptance (8) Ho =Most of the people smoke light cigarette, H1 = Most of the people not smoke light cigarette ∞: 0.05

One-Sample Statistics

N . Which cigarette do 50 you smoke?

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

1.94

.314

.044

One-Sample Test Test Value = 0

. 44

t Which 43.73

df 49

95% Confidence Mean Interval of the Sig. (2- Differe Difference tailed) nce Lower Upper .000 1.940 1.85 2.03


cigarette do you 8 smoke?

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: Most of the people not smoke light cigarette. (9) Ho= There is no difference in Peoples beliefs in harmfulness of cigarette and frequency of smoking. H1= There is difference in Peoples beliefs in harmfulness of cigarette and frequency of smoking. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

N Do You consider smoking is bad for 50 health?

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

1.24

.591

.084

One-Sample Test Test Value = 0

t Do You consider 14.83 smoking is bad 4 for health?

df

95% Confidence Mean Interval of the Sig. (2- Differe Difference tailed) nce Lower Upper

49

.000

1.240

1.07

1.41

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: = There is difference in Peoples beliefs in harmfulness of cigarette and frequency of smoking. (10)


Ho= Most of the people beliefs that Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation. H1= Most of the people beliefs that Cigarettes not maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation. ∞: 0.05 One-Sample Statistics

N . Cigarettes maintain a good performance in 50 terms of relaxation

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

2.74

.986

.139

One-Sample Test Test Value = 3

t

df

Mean Sig. (2- Differ tailed) ence

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lowe Uppe r r

. Cigarettes maintain a good 49 .068 -.260 -.54 .02 performanc 1.865 e in terms of relaxation Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.068) ∞ (0.05), therefore Ho is accepted. Marketing Decision: Ho= Most of the people beliefs that Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation. (11) Ho= People think that cigarette is no different from one another. H1= People think that cigarette is different from one another. ∞: 0.05 46


One-Sample Statistics

N . Different brand of Cigarettes are no 50 different from one another

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

2.44

1.128

.159

One-Sample Test Test Value = 3

t

df

. Different brand of Cigarettes are 49 no different 3.511 from one another

Mean Sig. (2- Differ tailed) ence

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lowe Uppe r r

.001

-.88

-.560

-.24

Statistical Decision: Since Probability (.000) ∞ (0.05), therefore H 1 is accepted. Marketing Decision: People think that cigarette is different from one another. Analysis of Hypothesis Regression Multiple Regression Analysis: Coefficients

Mod el 1 (Constant)

Unstandardized Coefficients Std. B Error 1.456 .823

Standardiz ed Coefficient s Beta

t 1.769

Sig. .085


what is your age? What is your sex? What is the monthly income of your family? Why did you start smoking? Cigarette is Harmful for health. Cigarette is expansive Cigarette is Available Cigarette is Social acceptance. . Which cigarette do you smoke? . How frequently do you Smoke? . Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation . Different brand of Cigarettes are no different from one another

.000 .240

.068 .108

.000 .309

-.001 2.221

.999 .033

-.045

.105

-.066

-.433

.668

-.030

.062

-.072

-.487

.629

-.006

.077

-.013

-.076

.940

.085

.071

.170

1.188

.242

.023

.069

.051

.331

.743

.014

.082

.024

.175

.862

-.668

.300

-.355

-2.227

.032

.189

.090

.298

2.116

.041

-.006

.085

-.011

-.076

.940

.071

.080

.135

.885

.382

We know, Multiple regression model, Y’ =

a + β1 X 1 + β 2 X 2 + β 3 X 3 + β 4 X 4 + β 5 X 5 + β 6 X 6 + β 7 X 7 + β 8 X 8 + β 9 X 9 +

β10 X 10 + β11 X 11 + β12 X 12 + β13 X 13 + β14 X 14 + β15 X 15 + β16 X 16

Let, X 1 = What is your sex? X 2 = What is the monthly income of your family? X3

= Why did you start smoking? X 4 = Cigarette is Harmful for health. X5

= Cigarette is expansive.

X6

= Cigarette is Available.

48


X7

= Cigarette is Social acceptance.

X8

= . Which cigarette do you smoke?

X9

= . How frequently do you Smoke?

X 10

= Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation

X 11 = . Different brand of Cigarettes are no different from one another.

So, Y’ = 1.465+.240 X 1 -.045 X 2 -.030 X 10 +.071 X 11

X3

-.006 X 4 +.085

X5

+.023

X6

+.014

X7

-.668

X8

+.189

X9

-.006

Interpretation: The intercept value is 1.465. This is the point where the regression equation crosses the Yaxis. The regression coefficient for start for smoking, is the monthly income of your family, cigarette is harmful for health, which cigarette do you smoke, Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation are negative. That is there are inverse relationships between the above independent variables and the overall satisfaction of customers. The other variables show a direct or positive relationship. These are What is your sex, Cigarette is expansive, Cigarette is Available, Cigarette is Social acceptance, How frequently do you Smoke, Different brand of Cigarettes are no different from one another. For example, -.045 X 2 = If price of cigarette increase by 1 unit then overall satisfaction decrease by 0.045 unit. .240 X 1 = If Gender cigarette buying increase by 1 unit then the overall satisfaction also increase by 0.240 units. 2 Determining R

Model Summary a Mode l R 1 .624(a)

Adjusted R Square R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

.389

.532

.191


a Predictors: (Constant), . Different brand of Cigarettes are no different from one another, Cigarette is Available, Why did you start smoking?, Cigarette is Social acceptance., What is the monthly income of your family?, What is your sex?, what is your age?, . How frequently do you Smoke?, . Cigarettes maintain a good performance in terms of relaxation, Cigarette is expansive, . Which cigarette do you smoke?, Cigarette is Harmful for health. Interpretation: The coefficient of multiple determinations, written as R Square, is the percent of the variation explained by the regression. It is the sum of squares due to the regression, divided by the sum of squares total. Here the value of R2 is .389. Conclusion The majority of interviewees was at risk of premature death and disease because of exposure to workplace smoke, and had an incomplete knowledge of the dangers to which they were exposed. Despite this success, a minority of individuals still holds favorable views of smoking or has inaccurate perceptions and knowledge of the health risks associated with tobacco use. Here we can see the consumption pattern of smoker. We can survey the question all smoker. Smoking is bad for health Most of the smoker about 84% people agrees. But still smoking one of reason is pressure for friends 52% people agree. Cigarette is not expansive respondent said that’s why most of the respondent smoke 1 packet each day. We can analyzeHypothesis And smoking habit is difference basis on age also gender.Most of the people smoking regulaer cigarette. Regression gives the positive and negative relationship about different attribute. Reference The books are1. Strategic brand management-Kevin lane Keller 2. SPSS survival Manual- Julie Pallant 3. Marketing research- Naresh K. Malhotra 50


4. Consumer Behavior-David L.Loudon. The references I got with in the Websites & Organizations– www.tobacco industry .com www.british American tobacco industry .com http://www.whoban.org/health_system_bangladesh.html, http://www.whoban.org/country_health_profile.html, http://www.whoban.org/upcoming_event.html

Appendix Research process  How to recruit respondent for the research Target Group  Who is the respondent-from Dhaka city  What is their profile in terms of o Social class o Income o Age o Service Usage habit Location  Which area would be covered – We have covered only Dhaka city

Sample selection technique  Field Selection


 All respondent were be randomly selected  Each respondent in a group will be selected in a manner so that one respondent not known to other  Random areas will be picked  Each area will be searched for recruiting the respondent by using a starting point.  A fixed gap will be maintained and after any successful recruitment this will take care of respondent biasness issue  If any of the respondent takes part in MR project/interview previously ,will be draped from the respondent list  The area also randomly selected.

52

Project final  

Tobacco is a plant that grows natively in North and South America. It is in the same family as the potato, pepper and the poisonous nightsha...

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