Human Resource Management, its Procedure and Practice in “CARITAS Bangladesh & Pubali Bank Limited”
Human Resource Management is concerned with the “people” dimension in management. Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives. This is true regardless of the type of organization-government, business, education, health recreation, or social action. Getting and keeping good people is critical to the success of every organization, whether profit or nonprofit, public or private. Those organizations that are able to acquire, develop, stimulate, and keep outstanding workers will be both effective and efficient. Those organizations that are ineffective or inefficient risk the hazards of stagnating or going out of business. Survival of an organization requires competent managers and workers coordinating their efforts toward an ultimate goal. While successful coordination can’t guarantee success, organizations that are unsuccessful in getting such coordination from managers and workers will ultimately fail. Human resource management is the set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing and maintaining an effective workforce. Human resource management is a field of management involves planning, organizing, directing and controlling the functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and motivating a labor force.
Objectives of Human Resource Management Objectives are benchmarks against which actions are evaluated. HRM has some specific objectives by which organizations are benefited to materialize the goals of the enterprise. The objectives are given below:
1. To help the organization reach its goals:
Organizations achieves their goals by the utilization of resources. Human resource utilizes all other resource without which an organization can never reach its goals. The HRM helps the organization to reach its target.
2. To achieve effective utilization of human resources: Human resource are socio, psychological being. They are to be natured, motivated, inspired to contribute their best to the organization. The objective of HRM is to develop and utilize all avenues to specify the human resources. So that, there is effective utilization may be possible.
3 Employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently: HRM is to build and protect the most valuable asset, people in the organization. This entails that human skills and abilities are to tracked rightly, bridge the gaps with realities and place them in the most competent jobs so that they can best use their skills and abilities.
4. To provide the organization with well- trained and well motivated employees: The objective of HRM is to enhance the required skills and potential abilities through training and development. It is also intended to make the employees happy with the job. All the goals make human resource management competent to provide organization a satisfied, motivated and trained workforce that makes organization competitive in the economy.
5. To increase the employeeâ€™s job satisfaction and selfactualization: The human potentials have an ability that are engaged only when they are satisfied with the jobs and feel a sense of belongingness and fulfillers with their organization. HRM is aimed at enhancing the environment of the organization in such a manner. So that the human resource is maximize their job satisfaction and actualize their self objectives and goals.
6. To achieve quality of work life:
The HRM is to develop and maintain a quality of work life that makes employment in the organization desirable. Quality of work life includes amicable management and supervisory style, freedom and autonomy in decision making, satisfactory psychological conditions working hours and meaningful jobs. A sound policy and program would facilitate the organization to have qualified persons and to promote motivated workforce.
7. To communicate HRM policies to all employees: Communication is an effective tool to know about intensions of internal and external human bodies with which organization has got interest. The internal HR is to be communicated with policies, programs and actions which are relevant to their interest. It should be communicated in their own language; so that they can best understand and follow it accordingly.
8. To maintain ethical policies and socially responsible behavior:
All HRM activities must be fair, truthful and honorable. People shall not be discriminated on any account. All basic rights of people should be protected. These ethical principles and activities should apply to all activities.
9. To manage change: Change is inevitable and human is the most deterrent force to bring about changes. The relationships between and among people in organization are going through rapid, turbulent and strained development. Therefore, flexible approaches must be initiated and used
effectively without jeopardizing the survival of the organization. HRM is, thus targeted to cope with changes and maintain sustainable growth of the organization.
10. To secure the integration of the people with the organization: HRM is intended to match people with the organization. The matching is done by talking into consideration personal jealousies, prejudices, personality, conflict, cliques, and factions, favoritism, nepotism which is deterrent to commitment and integration. This would execute the objective of HRM to secure integration of people with the organization.
11. To manage increased urgency and faster cycle time: Today, firms place a growing emphasis on speed and urgency, the ability to increase customer service, the development of new product, training and education of technicians, managers and astute decision makers thought of in terms of cycle time. Therefore, HRM is distinct to prepare people meet this faster cycle time trough quick response to develop people to recruit and select most talented person for the organization.
12. To maintain better human activities:
HRM mainly deals with human resources achieve objectives of the organization. So it is important to maintain better human relations.
Function of Human Resource Management Within each functional area of human resource management, many activities must be accomplished so that the organization’s human resources can make an optimal contribution to the organization’s success. There are four basic functions of human resource management. • • • •
Acquisition Function Training & Development Motivation Maintenance
1. Acquisition Function:
It deals with human resource planning. It includes job analysis, recruitment, selection and socialization.
• Human Resource Planning: It is the process that helps to provide adequate human resources to achieve future organizational objectives. Job Analysis: It is the procedure by which one can determine the duties of the positions in the organization and the characteristics of the people to hire for them. It produces information for writing job description and job specification.
Job analysis methods: The methods that managers can use to determine job elements and the concomitant knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for successful performance include the following: • • • • • •
OBSERVATION METHOD INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW METHOD GROUP INTERVIEW METHOD STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD TECHNICAL CONFERENCE METHOD DIARY METHOD
Job analysis process: Functional Job Analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire Purpose of job analysis: Job description Job specification Job evaluation Job analysis is the starting point of sound human resource management. • Recruitment: It is a process of finding and attracting qualified people for job. Internal recruitment channel: Job-posting programs Departing employees External recruiting channel: Walk-ins and write-ins Employee referrals Advertising Educational institutions Professional associations 4
Constraints and challenges of recruitment: Strategic and human resource plans EEO legislation and affirmative action plans Environmental conditions Organizational policies Recruiter habits Job requirements Costs • Selection: Selection process is a series of specific steps used to decide which recruits should be hired. This process begins when recruits apply for employment and ends with the hiring decision. Right person for right job at the right time is the main goal of selection. Steps in the selection process:
STEP-1: PRELIMINARY RECEPTION OF APPLICATIONS STEP-2: EMPOLYMENT TESTS STEP-3: SELECTION INTERVIEW STEP-4: REFERENCES & BACKGROUND CHECKS STEP-5: MEDICAL EVALUATION STEP-6: SUPERVISORY INTERVIEW STEP-7: REALISTIC JOB PREVIEWS STEP-8: HIRING DECISIONS
Dependency of human resource management activities on the selection Inputs JOB ANALYSIS HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN
Human resource activity Challenges ORGANIZATONAL PRACTICES LABOR MARKET GROWTH EQUAL EMPLOYMENT LAWS IMMEGRATION & NATURALIZATION SERVICE RULES OTHER LEGAL CONSTRAINTS CREDENTIAL DISTORTION ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
ORIENTATION TRAINING DEVELOPMENT CAREER PLANNING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION COMPENSATION UNION-MGT RELATION ASSESSMENT
• Socialization: It is a process of getting new employees acquainted with the organization, its culture, rules and regulations, objectives and supervisors and other employees.
Socialization process ORGANIZATION’S SOCIALIZATION CULTURE & VALUES PROCESS
Socialization through orientation: Orientation covers the activities involved in introducing a new employee to the organization and to his or her work unit. It expands upon the information received during the recruitment and selection stages and helps to reduce the initial anxiety we feel when we first begin a new job. Through orientation programs, the values of organization are transmitted to newcomers.
2. Training and Development: This function of human resource management includes: EMPLOYEE TRAINING, MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT & CAREER DEVELOPMENT. Training may be defined as a systematized program to suit the needs of a particular organization for developing certain attitudes, actions, skills and abilities in employees irrespective of their functional levels. Development helps the individual handle future responsibilities, with little concern for current job duties. Career development identifies paths and activities for individual employees as they develop within the organization. Steps of training and development: NEEDS ASSESSMENT
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
PROGRAM CONTENT LEARNING PRINCIPLES
EVALUATION CRITERIA EVALUATION
Training methods: A. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING VESTIBULE TRAINING TRAINING CENTER-TRAINING SIMULATION APPRENTICESHIP 6
SKILLS KNOWLEDGE ABILITY OF WORKERS
B. OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING LECTURES THE CONFERENCE METHOD GROUP DISCUSSION CASE STUDY ROLE PLAYING PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTOR CASE STUDY ROLE PLAYING E-LEARNING MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD: A. ON-THE-JOB DEVELOPMENT COACHING UNDERSTUDY ASSIGNMENT JOB ROTATIONCOMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS B.
OFF-THE-JOB DEVELOPMENT SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS LECTURE COURSES SIMULATION EXERCISES
3. Motivation: Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. High performance depends on both ability and motivation. Motivation in human resource management includes: JOB DESIGN PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REWARDS JOB EVALUATION COMPENSATION An employee’s job performance can be defined as being determined by the level and interaction between ability and motivation: JOB PERFORMANCE= ABILITY X MOTIVATION This equation dramatizes the importance of not only having employees with the talent to do a good job but recognizing that human resource managers must be concerned with providing the stimulus that converts employee talent into successful job performance.
The objective of this function is to retain people who are performing at high levels. This requires that the organization provide safe and healthful working conditions and satisfactory labor relations. If these activities are performed effectively, we can expect to have competent employees who are committed to the organization and satisfied with their jobs. This function includes: • Compensation administration • Benefits and services • Safety and health • Labor relations • Collective bargaining • Discipline
Human Resource Practice in Bangladesh Condition of HRM in Bangladesh:
Human resource management is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued asset – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goals. HRM also can be regarded as a set of interrelated policies with an ideological and philosophical understanding. It is concerned with the employment, development, and reward of people in organization and the conduct of the relationship between management and the workforce. HRM maximizes output and efficiencies of employees. It ensures conductive human relations for uninterrupted production. Therefore, it deserves implementing in all organizations of all the countries in the world including Bangladesh. The conditions of HRM in Bangladesh are discussed below-
Forms operating in Bangladesh use advertising and personal references to inform opening to sources. It is observed that a very few firms, specific institutions sources for supply of manpower. External employers use specific agents of agencies in Bangladesh for getting their supply of manpower.
Government organizations, autonomous corporations and large private business or nonbusiness organizations make short and long term HR plan but medium and small organizations; private limited companies do not have any formal HR plan. They work on immediate demands.
Large number of organization follow traditional interview panel method and written employment list to choose the best candidate for the open positions. Unstructured interview is the general phenomena. A few organizations make reference check. Medical examination is done by almost all large organizations. Foundation training and orientation program are taken by a few large organizations. But it is absent in medium and small industry describing the job to potential candidates.
Training and development: Government organizations have got a systematic training and development program. But selection of trainees is made at random. Therefore, it becomes ineffective. Large private organizations in-house training and very few take external training and development program. Internal training is provided by small and medium organizations but no external training. Apprenticeship is the popular internal training method. Specialized institutions and university related programs generally use external training and development mechanism.
Wages and Salary: Government follows a wages and salary structure recommended by wages and salary constituted after irregular interval. Non-government organizations follow their own pay structure which is in maximum cases adjusted with government pay. Pay discrimination is high in private organizations. Workers are measurably mistreated in private organizations with barely minimum wage and discriminative pay.
Most organizations maintain formal evaluation system and graphic rating scale method to appraise performance. It is annually made and done by immediate boss. It is popularly known as ACR (annual confidential report) in Bangladesh. In some organizations a board evaluation is made.
Government organizations follow a specific limit, 57 years as retirement basis. Private organizations do not have any age limit for retirement. A systematic discharge, dismissal or termination procedure as per the law is followed by government organizations, but not by private organizations, though they are under the same law. Pension, provident fund, gratuity are the regular benefits for retiring employees in government organizations. A very few private organizations have got provident find, gratuity but none of them has any pension scheme.
Employees of government organizations get several incentives and benefits such as leave with pay, leave without pay, festival bonus, medical allowance and support etc. A very few give incentive bonus on regular basis. In some organizations health insurance, traveling allowances, medical allowance are given but majorities of the organizations do not consider leave with pay.
Problem of HRM in Bangladesh:
HRM maximizes output and efficiencies of employees. It ensures conductive human relations for uninterrupted production. Therefore, it deserves implementing in all organizations of all the countries in the world including Bangladesh. HRM is a critical competitive edge under the present homogeneous technological world. Therefore, a special attention and recognition to the HRM is required to win competition and to sustain in the volatile sharply competitive market economy. Nevertheless, management of the firms of Bangladesh doesn’t give much attention to this pivotal resource. Several researches have discovered numerous problems that are the different to the effective functioning of HRM in Bangladesh. They are discussed below:
Lack of HRM expert:
HRM is not recognized by many entrepreneurs as essentially distinct specialized knowledge. Moreover, institutional facilities to train and develop HRM are also very important. Therefore, shortage of specialized knowledge HRM experts and lack of recognition to HRM to contribute to the efficient supply of HRM experts is an important problem of HRM in Bangladesh.
No separate of HR department: It is found that HRM is generally performed by people to designate as manager, administration. A very few organization have a separate HR department. Therefore, the function of HRM doesn’t have efficient exposure to the organizational development.
Lack of effective HR planning:
It is observed that a large number of firms don’t have any formal HR plan, either short term or long term. They go on whims or crisis. This severely effects the organizations in long run performance and survival.
Lack of career development program: Career development program gives a promotional ladder to the incumbents, and recognition to the talented, high achievement motivated persons to stay in the organization. It is found that, a large number of private concerns don’t have any career development programs for the employees. They rather pressurize to develop themselves in their own cost. Training and development is regarded as useless venture.
Lack of effective evaluation of training and development:
The organizations that provide internal and external training and development for employees, don’t give right evaluation and reward to their achievements. Redesigning of jobs with challenging tasks, expanding authorities and/ or appropriate placement where the employees can place their newly acquired knowledge are not done. Therefore, trained and development employees lost their motivation to contribute effectively to their performance.
Wrong placement: 10
'Right man at the right place’ is the doctrine of organizational efficiency. But nepotism, favoritism, partisans etc. causes the problem of placing the right qualified persons to the appropriate place job. This happens both in private and public organizations in Bangladesh.
Unhealthy trade union movement:
Trade union is an inevitable part of the industrial democracy. It supports moves and prospers the organizational purpose and there by increases welfare of the workers. But trade union in Bangladesh is highly polarized, detracted and least committed to their purpose. Undue political interference, political association and indulge into unfair labor practice made trade union as a deterrent to the organizational prosperity and a curse of the economy.
Unfavorable pay structure:
Pay is the vital source of motivation to our people who are struggling for their subsystems. The general wage level of BD is not favorable to maintain minimum cost of living. Moreover, there is no protection for future uncertain. Therefore, it affects the labor productivity and labor relations.
Lack of security:
Security is desirable condition for getting motivation and commitment from people. Jobs of private firms are totally insecure. Financial productions are insufficient on inexistent. Future protections are not given any firm. The provisions of existing labor laws are not maintained. All these situations create an unhealthy, unfavorable and hostile environment to the work force.
Caritas Bangladesh About the organization: Caritas is a Latin word. Literally it means “charity” or universal love. They prefer “LOVE” which includes all aspects of humanity. Caritas is Bangladeshi, local, national, non-profit, development organization, established by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Bangladesh, to carry out activities of integrated social welfare and development. Caritas is registered under the Societies Act XXI of 1860 No.3760-B/11 of 1972-73. It is also registered with the NGO Affairs Bureau., Prime Minister’s Secretariat, and The People’s Republic of Bangladesh No. 009 of 1981 under the Foreign Donation Regulation Ordinance 1978. Caritas was founded in 1967 as the eastern branch of Caritas Pakistan. It was re-organized and become known as Christian Organization for Relief and Rehabilitation (CORR), and took on the character of a national organization of January 13, 1971. The name Caritas was reintroduced in 1976. Thus, counted from its inception as Caritas Pakistan it is over 39 years old. But they prefer to take into account the period since our Liberation as a Sovereign Country and Homeland,
Bangladesh. Having new directions Caritas the become a very important and active organization. In that perspective they have observed their Silver Jubilee in 1997. Caritas has its Head Office in Dhaka. There are seven Regional Offices in Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Khulna, Mymensing and Rajshahi. In all these places Caritas is operational in Integrated Development, Disaster Management and Human Resource Dvelopment, under a central management. Caritas restricts itself at present to 139 Upazilas for integrated human development work. During emergencies, such as natural disasters, Caritas is operational in any of the country.
In the light of the Social Teachings of the Church, Caritas Bangladesh envisions a society which embraces the values of freedom and justice, peace and forgiveness, to live as a communion and community of mutual love and respect.
Mission Caritas Bangladesh tries to become a partner of people – especially the poor and marginalized, with equal respect for all – to attain integral development, to live a truly human life in dignity and to serve others responsibly.
1. Human Resource Development through Education, Formation and Capacity Building • Quality Education for children and youth, especially those in need. • Formation and development of Youths and Adolescents. • Capacity building and formation of staff. 2. Establishment of Social Justice and human Rights through the Capacity Building of the Poor, of the Women and of the Ethnic Communities. • Promote, uphold and advocate for Social Justice in favor of the poor and marginalized. • Create appropriate conditions to eliminate all forms of discrimination against gender, class, religion and ethnicity. • Self-help capacity building of the hardcore poor for their sustainable livelihood. • Activation of self-managed sustainable People’s Organization through appropriate educational and technical support. • Capacity building through institution development. 3. Health and Care • Preventive and Curative Health services including Safe Water and Sanitation • Preventive Education on HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse and Care for the drug addicts. • Care for the Disabled and Elders. • Family Life Education for promoting Responsible parenthood and Respect for Procreation. 12
4. Ensure Ecological Sustainability through the Appropriate Use of Natural Resources And Capacity Building in Disaster Management • Humanitarian assistance to people affected by Natural Calamities and Manmade Disasters • Building for the capacity of the people in coping with disasters, before, during and after. • Promote innovative steps to minimize Degradation of environment and Depletion of Natural resources to restore Ecological Balance. • Bio-diversity Conservation and Poverty Reduction through sustainable use of natural resources as well as promotion of Indigenous Knowledge and techniques.
Several Caritas projects at a glance: Co-operative & extension services and rural development: Development Extension Education Services (DEEDS) Integral Human Development Project (IHDP) Improvement of Living standard of the Hardcore Poor of Sandwip (ILSHP) Rural Infrastructure Development and Job Creation Measures (RIDJCM) Caritas development Institute (CDI) Prevention of Trafficking in Women and Children through Awareness Building Training, Evaluation, resource and Counseling (TERC) Human Rights Education programmer (HREP) Capacity Building and Morality Project (CBMDP) Gender Development Program (GDP) Integrated Community Development Projects (ICDPs) Projection and Establishing Rights on Land of Adivasi in Mynensingh (PERLAM-MJF) Employee Creation Through Sericulture (ECTS)
Agriculture and environment:
Social Forestry Project (SFP) Horticulture Develop Project (HDP)
Sustainable Aquatic Resources Management (SARM) Project Community Based fisheries Management (CBFM) Project Sustainable Environment Management Program (SEMP) Management of Aquatic-ecosystem through Community Husbandry (MACH) Patuakhali Barguna Aquaculture Extension Project (PBAEP)
Vocational trades training and employment creation:
Technical Training Schools (regional and Mobile) Employment Creation through Trade Training for Street Children and Youth Mirpur Agriculture workshop and Training School (MAWRS) Bandarban Technical Training centre (BTTC)
Community health and family planning:
Support to Eye Hospitals of Bangladesh National Society for the Blind Under-Fives and Maternity Clinic Dhanjuri Leprosy Control Centre, Dinajpur Khulna Leprosy and TB Control Project Centre for Assistance to the Sick Reproductive and Child Health Development Project Safe Motherhood project HIV/AIDS Prevention Project Bangladesh Rehabilitation and Assistance Centre for Addicts Programme for Rehabilitation of physically Handicaped Work with the Disabled Assistance to Charitable dispensaries/Clinics
Literacy and numeracy:
Underprivileged children Preparatory Education Programme Formation of Youth and teachers Programme Youth Formation Activities Education Support Programme to Children Education Programme for Indigenous People of Chittagong Hill Tracts Literacy and Health Care Programme for Children of Slums
Disaster management: Emergency disaster management Programme Strengthening of Community Resilience to Withstand flood Project Strengthening of Arsenic Preparedness and Mitigation Project Shelter for the Poorest Women and Children Sensitization, Community Mobilization and Disaster Management Programme Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation Programme Humanitarian Assistance for the Fire-Affected Familis under Mohalchhari Capacity Building in Disaster Management Construction of River Embankment Pavement, Bhalukapara
CORR—The Jute Workers
Mini projects and discretionary fund grants:
Teg O Sheba Abhejan (TOSA) – Lenten Campaign Dscretionary Fund Grants Caritas Employees Solidity Fund.
Human Resource practice of Caritas Bangladesh 14
Caritas Bangladesh is one of the leading NGO in Bangladesh. In NGO sector, Caritas play a major role in Bangladesh. This dept. mainly focus on four functions1. Acquisition Function 2. Training and development 3. Motivation 4. Maintenance
ACQUISITION FUNCTION OF CARITAS BANGLADESH • HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP): Caritas human resource planning includes job analysis, recruitment, selection and socialization of the new employees. • JOB ANALYSIS: It is the starting point of sound human resource management. What should be the nature of job information for job analysis, depends upon a number of considerations. Whether the analysis is required for evaluation purposes or for other purposes as well what job level is to be analyzed what type of evaluation plan is to be used and what job knowledge is held by the analyst who is going to conduct the evaluation. Certain basic areas of information may include: • Fundamental purpose of the job • Work elements in the job. It requires study of specific tasks, areas of responsibility, and examples of work • Scope of the job and its impact on the operation. • Specific methods, equipment or techniques those are required for the job. The managers of human resource department can use to determine job elements and the concomitant knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for successful performance include the following: 1. OBSERVATION METHOD 2. INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW METHOD 3. GROUP INTERVIEW METHOD 4. STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD • RECRUITMENT The recruitment committee of CB uses internal and external both types of sources of recruit for vacant post. The directors prefer SELF NOMINATION OR RECOMMENDATION channel for internal recruitment. And for external recruitment, they prefer advertising channel. They face some challenges like less experience applicant, reference, recommendation in case of new recruitment. They perform Realistic Job Preview and medical test. RECRUITMENT POLICY:
• • •
All recruitments are made against approved positions as per organ gram and provisions created by the competent authority. All positions of Central and Regional Directors are elective. The Caritas General Body as per provision of Caritas Constitution makes their appointments. When a vacancy occurs in a sanctioned post and recruitment is desired, it is advertised in any National/Local Daily/Weekly and/or in our own and other NGO bulletin boards. The advertisement should contain brief description about organization, required educational qualification, work experience, indicative salary range, and the job requirements i. e. what I expected from the suitable candidate/incumbent for the position. Minimum information required in the application are: brief information on the candidate’s education and experience, her/his special achievements, and preferably a note on why s/he thinks s/he is suitable for the position (only for professional positions).
All recruitment notices/advertisements are to be approved by the HR department/section of Caritas Central office. The short listed candidates will be communicated in writing about the date, place and time of written and/ or interview. The written test/interview date will be at least after 10 days of delivery of interview card to ensure that everybody receives the card and can take minimum preparation. After completing all the jobs of selection committee, the HR/Administration department will receive the joining report from the newly recruited incumbent. The new incumbent’s supervisor will verify joining report.
The authority of CB develops a selection committee. And they follow the following steps in selection process: STEP-1: PRELIMINARY RECEPTION OF APPLICATIONS STEP-2: EMPOLYMENT TESTS STEP-3: SELECTION INTERVIEW STEP-4: REFERENCES & BACKGROUND CHECKS STEP-5: MEDICAL EVALUATION STEP-6: SUPERVISORY INTERVIEW STEP-7: REALISTIC JOB PREVIEWS STEP-8: HIRING DECISIONS SELECTION POLICY: • An interview Board or Selection Committee will be constituted by the concerned Director where one representative from Caritas General Body or Executive Board will be included for the Central Office and two representatives, one from GB or EB or PREC and another from Caritas Central office for the Regional and Project offices. At least 1/3rd of the members of the Board/Committee should be women. If it is found 16
that any candidate is a relative of any member of the Board/Committee, such member will be replaced by someone appointed by the competent authority. A member of the Interview Board may be assigned to shortlist the candidates following the set criteria. This is essential to pinpoint responsibilities on a person, rather than on a Committee/Board. Special attention and positive attitude are to be given to the women, adivasi and disabled persons. SOME SCREENING CRITERIA MAY BE a. Academic achievements b. Relevance of experience to the position advertised c. Present organization and position of the applicant d. Potential to take additional responsibility e. Personal, social and cultural background f. Salary Expectation
The Interview Board/Committee meets together prior to holding the interview and decides on a fixed format for raising questions in order to achieve uniformity. The person other than Interview Board/Committee members should not make appearances in the interview area in order to avoid giving wrong messages and create confusion. The decision of the management to accept or not to accept a candidate or even leave the post vacant without assigning any reason is final and binding.
SOCIALIZATION: The authority of Caritas Bangladesh arranges 21 days Development Orientation Program for the new employees. Every new incumbent will, during the first six months, undergo systematic induction orientation to enable her/him to adopt organization’s norms and environment. However the newly employed incumbent should be put in her/his designated job as soon as possible.
Training and Development of Caritas Bangladesh: Training and development process is a complex mixture of activities intended to improve the performance of individuals and groups within an organization. It includes employee training, education and career development. Caritas provides employee training, education and career development activities:
Employee training provides by Caritas:
Caritas gives training for new employees as well as existing employees. It gives training for new and existing employees in two ways1. Internal training
2. External training Caritas provides internal training for new employees for development orientation (21 days) program and for existing employees gives internal training for advocacy, mediation conflict resolution and facilitation skill. External training available for only existing employees for community development but Caritas provides no external training for new employees. Caritas also provides project oriented training and evaluation services to Caritas Region and Sister Organization. Career development program provides by Caritas: Caritas provides career development program for existing employees. It provides LongTerm Mechanical Course (LTMC) of three years duration and Instructor Training Course (ITC) of one year duration for best graduates of LTMC to produce instructors for career development of existing employees. It also provides Modular training courses trades and Diploma-in Engineering courses of four years duration for career development for existing employees. Education program provides by Caritas: To build process and mechanism for addressing the issues of justice and peace and create awareness on human right at the grass root level, it introduces Human Rights Education program (HREP). â€˘
Caritas also provides an opportunity to young poor boys and girls to ensure professional skills for life through six months vocational or trades training school, in carpentry, mechanical, electrical, plumbing work, etc. it also provides employment creation through trade training for street children and youth. A project for vocational trades, training, aimed at diversification of occupation of tribal boys and girls. Caritas also provides preparatory education program. This program is initiated to make aware and mobilize the community to understand the significance of education and to ensure their participation in education. More then 500 schools were established so for in Caritas working areas and among these some are nationalized and some are merged as registered schools. Still more than 300 schools are run by Caritas. The project has been creating the opportunities of quality primary education to the children of rural communities who are deprived of education for want of consciousness of parents, poverty and lack of school nearby; as well as contributing to the governmentâ€™s effort of universal primary education. In the meantime, a model of child-centered interactive teaching learning is introduced to enhance the quality of education.
Motivation functions of Caritas Bangladesh:
To motivate the employees, Caritas provides many rewards, compensations and benefits and services. They also provide incentive to existing employees. Some factors that influencing the incentives policy of the Caritas. These factors areperformance, experience and specific skills on the basis of this they provide the incentive.
Benefit and service provides by Caritas:
Indirect financial compensation is too provided by Caritas to motivate the employee. To motivate the employees the Caritas provide promotion, yearly increment incentive to the employees. They also provide festival bonus to the employees. Caritas mainly follows individual incentive type’s structure. Caritas also provides some service to the employee. Housing facilities, pension only one direction they provide to the employees. Caritas also provides Employee Solidarity Fund to motivate the employees. This fund is for immediate help to the destitute helpless employees. Each staff member working under Caritas is serving the needy and poor people voluntarily by giving his/her own generous contribution in this project. It improves the livelihood condition of the employees, especially through its house repairing, income generation, marriages and other financial supports.
MAINTENANCE OF CARITAS BANGLADESH
GENERAL CONDUCT AND PRACTICES: • • • • •
All employees are obliged to follow the office orders, service policies of CARITAS BANGLADESH (CB) and also the orders of the higher authorities. All employees shall perform honestly and sincerely and maintain secrecy of the official matters. No employee shall remain absent from duties or leave workplace without prior approval of the competent authority. No employee shall take or give bribe from/to anybody. No employee shall be involved in any acts and omissions liable for disciplinary action as stated under the clause no.6 of the Service Rules.
PUNISHABLE ACTS AND OMISSION: • • • • • • • •
Willful insubordination or disobedience, whether alone or in combination with others, of any lawful or reasonable order of a superior. Theft, fraud or dishonesty. Habitual late attendance Resorting to illegal strike or ‘go-slow’. Falsifying tempering with, damaging or causing loss of CB’s official records. Poor annual performance report for three consecutive years. Negligence in maintenance of office assets, viz. vehicles, equipment, and causing damage to the same. Sexual harassment or any indecent behavior including comments towards colleagues.
TYPES OF DISCIPLINARY ACTION • •
The types of disciplinary action depend on the nature, frequency and severity of the misconduct. Minor disciplinary action may include: 1. Reprimand 2. Warning letter 3. Withholding increment(s) for a specific time 4. Withholding promotion 5. If money or property damage is involved, recovery from the concerned employee’s salary all or part of the amount. Major disciplinary action may involve any of the following: 1. Suspension up to 7 days without wages. 2. Dismissal/removal from service.
DISCIPLINARY PROCEDURES Before any disciplinary action is taken, the following procedures are to be followed: • • • •
The employee is to be informed in writing of the charges. The charges should be specific and written. The employee is to be given at least one-week time to reply. If the employee’s explanation is not found satisfactory, an inquiry team or officer is to be appointed to prove the allegation brought against the employee. Such inquiry team or officer shall be engaged by the management.
GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Any employee, who has a grievance in respect any matter and wishes to seek redress thereof, must observe the following procedure: • • •
• • •
A written complaint should be given to his/her immediate supervisor. If the employee is not satisfied with the response from their Supervisors, the employee should write to the next level of Supervisor and a copy to the concerned Director(s). The notice must be submitted within 30 days of occurrence of the cause of such grievance and the employer must within 30 days of receipt of such grievance, inquire into the matter and give the concerned employee an opportunity of being heard and communicate the decision, in writing, to the employee. All complaints must be in writing, signed and dated by the employee(s). Under no circumstances, anonymous grievance or allegation will be considered. Writing, disseminating or assisting in the spreading of anonymous allegation shall result in severe disciplinary action for all employees involved.
EMOLUMENTS AND PAY SCALES Every employee shall be paid emoluments in accordance with the Pay Scale and allowances approved/amended by the competent authority. PROVIDENT FUND • Every employee shall contribute to the Provident Fund of Caritas Bangladesh Employee Provident Fund effective from the date of confirmation at the rate of 10% of Basic Pay. The organization shall contribute an equal amount to the Fund. • The Provident Fund shall be administered in accordance with the Rules of the Fund for the time being in force. HEALTH CARE SCHEME Regular employees of the organization will be entitled to the benefits of the scheme as per the rules of Caritas Health Care Scheme as approved and amended time to time. GRATUITY FUND • Every employee shall be entitled to a gratuity fund as under: Gratuity shall be paid at the rate of one month’s basic pay for each completed year of service, calculated on the pay drawn in the last month of the employee’s service, but not subject to any ceiling. For purpose of payment of gratuity, basic salary shall be defined as basic pay alone as per pay scale applicable without D/A or any other allowances. • The Gratuity Fund shall be administered in accordance with the rules of the Fund for the time being in force. COMPENSATION SCHEME All Caritas employees shall be covered by the under-noted schedule of indemnities. Te principal sum will be up to a maximum limit of fifteen months’ basic salary in case of death of an employee during service life. The nominee of the employee is to notify Caritas in writing of the death within thirty days of the occurrence. In the case of an accident during service life the nominee or the staff concerned must also notify Caritas within thirty days of the occurrence in order to be entitled to the compensation related to the nature of injury to be determined by the Executive Board. The compensation will be given in the following matter: • Loss of life … The principal sum • Loss of two or more limbs by amputation At or above wrist or ankle … The principal sum • Total or irrecoverable loss of Sight in both eyes … The principal sum • Total or irrecoverable loss of sight in One eye and loss of one limb by Amputation at or above wrist or ankle … The principal sum • Loss of one limb by amputation at Above wrist or ankle … One-half of the principal sum • Total or irrecoverable loss of Sight in one eye …One-third of the principal sum
Caritas Bangladesh’s practice in Bangladesh perspective Human resource management is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets- the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goal. The NGO of Caritas Bangladesh also can be regarded as a set of interrelated policies with as ideological and philosophical understanding. Caritas Bangladesh’s HR department mainly concern with the employment development and reward of people in organization and the conduct of the relationship between management and workforce how to maximize output and efficiencies of employees. Condition of HRM in Caritas Bangladesh is discussed below: 1. The recruitment committee of CB uses internal and external both types of sources of recruit for vacant post. The directors prefer SELF NOMINATION OR RECOMMENDATION channel for internal recruitment. And for external recruitment, they prefer advertising channel. They face some challenges like less experience applicant, reference, recommendation in case of new recruitment. They perform Realistic Job Preview and medical test. 2. An interview Board or Selection Committee will be constituted by the concerned Director where one representative from Caritas General Body or Executive Board will be included for the Central Office and two representatives, one from GB or EB or PREC and another from Caritas Central office for the Regional and Project offices. At least 1/3 rd of the members of the Board/Committee should be women. If it is found that any candidate is a relative of any member of the Board/Committee, such member will be replaced by someone appointed by the competent authority. 3. A member of the Interview Board may be assigned to shortlist the candidates following the set criteria. This is essential to pinpoint responsibilities on a person, rather than on a Committee/Board. Special attention and positive attitude are to be given to the women, adivasi and disabled persons. 4. The authority of Caritas Bangladesh arranges 21 days Development Orientation Program for the new employees. Every new incumbent will, during the first six months, undergo systematic induction orientation to enable her/him to adopt organization’s norms and environment. However the newly employed incumbent should be put in her/his designated job as soon as possible. 5. All Caritas employees shall be covered by the under-noted schedule of indemnities. Te principal sum will be up to a maximum limit of fifteen months’ basic salary in case of death of an employee during service life. The nominee of the employee is to notify Caritas in writing of the death within thirty days of the occurrence. 6. Caritas also provides Employee Solidarity Fund to Motivate the employees. This fund is for immediate help to the destitute helpless employees. Each staff member working under Caritas is serving the needy and poor people voluntarily by giving his/her own generous 22
contribution in this project. It improves the livelihood condition of the employees, especially through its house repairing, income generation, marriages and other financial supports.
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CARITAS BANGLADESH 1. They generally prefer newspaper advertising for recruitment though there other channels are available. 2. Their selection process is too lengthy. 3. There is not enough facility for socialization for the new employees. There are some lacking also. • In this organization, the salary package is moderated; not so high, not so low. • Performance appraisal is not developed. Pubali Bank Limited About the company The Bank was initially emerged in the Banking scenario of the then East Pakistan as Eastern Mercantile Bank Limited at the initiative of some Bangalee entrepreneurs in the year 1959 under Bank Companies Act 1913. After independence of Bangladesh in 1972 this Bank was nationalized as per policy of the Government and renamed as Pubali Bank. Subsequently due to changed circumstances this Bank was denationalized in the year 1983 as a private bank and renamed as Pubali Bank Limited. The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh handed over all assets and liabilities of the then Pubali Bank to the Pubali Bank Limited. Since then Pubali Bank Limited has been rendering all sorts of Commercial Banking services as the largest bank in private sector through its branch network all over the country. PUBALI BANK LIMITED is the largest Commercial Bank in Private Sector in Bangladesh. It provides mass banking services to the customers through its branch network all over the country. This Bank has been playing a vital role in socio-economic, industrial and agricultural development as well as in the overall economic development of the country since its inception through savings mobilization and investment of funds. During the last 5 years the growth rate of bank's earnings is more than 25% on average.
ACQUSITION FUNCTION OF PUBALI BANK •
Human Resource Planning:
To achieve goal, manpower requirement needs to be assessed, located and harnessed. An organization has to categorize men as per their knowledge and skills and also ensure their balanced location. Pubali Bank uses human resource planning so that the organization can move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through manpower planning, the organization strives to have the right number and the right kinds of people at the right places at the right time. For human resource planning they require: 1. Forecasting future manpower requirements. 2. Preparing an inventory of present manpower. 3. Anticipating problems of manpower.
4. Meeting manpower requirements.
Job analysis: Job analysis provides: 1. Job identification, which is done by providing a title or a code number for each job. 2. Job characteristics, location, physical setting, hazards and discomforts of a job. 3. Job assignment, specific operations and tasks which make an assignment, its importance, simplicity, complexity and the responsibility. 4. Materials, tools and equipment required for a job. 5. Job preference, nature of operations. 6. Personal attributes, like; experience, training, physical strength, mental capabilities, aptitudes, other skills etc., required for efficient performance of the job. 7. Job relationship, scope for the advancement, patterns of promotions, direction or leadership form, etc.
The recruitment committee of PUBALI BANK uses internal and external both types of sources of recruit for vacant post. They prefer SELF NOMINATION OR RECOMMENDATION channel for internal recruitment. And for external recruitment, they prefer advertising channel. •
Because of competitive market, they have to select employee more perfectly. They follow the following process
REJECT SOME CANDIDATES
REJECT SOME CANDIDATES
REJECT SOME CANDIDATES
REJECT SOME CANDIDATES
REJECT SOME CANDIDATES
APPLICATION BLANK HIRE
OFFERS REJECTED BY SOME CANDIDATES
FIG: TYPICAL ORDER IN WHICH SELECTION DEVICES ARE USEDIN PUBALI BANK â€˘
SOCIALIZATION The authority of Pubali Bank arranges Development Orientation Program for the new employees.
Training and development of Pubali Bank:
Develop up to date skills, knowledge and abilities Pubali bank provides training program to the existing and new employees. Pubali Bank provides employees training, career development program for the employees. Employee training provides by Pubali Bank: Pubali Bank gives training for the new and existing employees in two ways1. Internal training 2. External training Internal training available for new employees in foundation course which basically provides by Pubali Bank. For existing employees it also provides internal training. The internal training provides for existing employee by Pubali Bank various professional course including IT. Pubali Bank also provides external training for new and existing employees. For new employees it provides external training is related professional. It also provides the same external training facilities for the existing.
Career development program provides by Pubali Bank: Career development is path that improves the position of employee personal career. Pubali bank provides some provision for career planning that helps the employee for the career development. Career development which provides the Pubali Bank are1. For the existing employees, Pubali Bank takes action an individual job performance that helps the employeeâ€™s career.
2. For career development Pubali Bank provides growth opportunities for the new employees whose background is potential.
Motivation of Pubali bank: To motivate the employees Pubali Bank provides many rewards, increment, compensation, benefits and services. Some factors influencing the incentive policy of the Pubali Bank. These factors are – performance, experience and specific skills.
Benefits services provides by Pubali Bank: To motivate the employees Pubali Bank provides promotion yearly increment incentive to the employees. They also provides festival and seasonal bonus to the employees. Pubali Bank generally follows individual incentive and organization wide performance type incentives. Pubali Bank also provides some services to the employees housing and transportation facilities.
Pubali Bank Limited’s practice in Bangladesh perspective: Human resource management is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets- the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goal. The NGO of Pubali Bank Ltd. also can be regarded as a set of interrelated policies with as ideological and philosophical understanding. Pubali Bank’s HR department mainly concern with the employment development and reward of people in organization and the conduct of the relationship between management and workforce how to maximize output and efficiencies of employees. 1. The recruitment committee of Pubali Bank uses internal and external both types of sources of recruit for vacant post. They prefer Self Nomination or recommendation channel for internal recruitment. And for external recruitment, they prefer advertising channel. 2. To achieve goal, manpower requirement needs to be assessed, located and harnessed. An organization has to categorize men as per their knowledge and skills and also ensure their balanced location. Pubali Bank uses human resource planning so that the organization can move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through manpower planning, the organization strives to have the right number and the right kinds of people at the right places at the right time. 3. To motivate the employees Pubali Bank provides promotion yearly increment incentive to the employees. They also provide festival and seasonal bonus to the employees. Pubali Bank generally follows individual incentive and organization wide performance type incentives. Pubali Bank also provides some services to the employees housing and transportation facilities. 4. Internal training available for new employees in foundation course which basically provides by Pubali Bank. For existing employees it also provides internal training. Pubali 26
Bank also provides external training for new and existing employees. For new employees it provides external training is related professional. 5. For the existing employees, Pubali Bank takes action an individual job performance that helps the employee’s career.for career development Pubali Bank provides growth opportunities for the new employees whose background is potential.
Critical analysis of Pubali bank: 1. Pubali Bank does not provide sufficient training for the existing employees for their career development, 2. They don’t have adequate socialization process for the new employees. 3. Pubali Bank provides incentive to the existing employees but it’s not sufficient so they knock to other organization. 4. The pay structure of Pubali Bank is not so well. 5. They only focus advertising for external recruitment but they don’t follow other sources. 6. In case of advertisement, they only follow newspaper.
Recommendation Caritas Bangladesh: • • • •
Salary package should be increased, so that employees can increase their productivity and the turnover rate will be decreased. Performance appraisal should be developed which will be used in performance improvement, compensation adjustments, placement decisions, career planning and development, staffing process deficiencies etc. HR department should develop a strong feedback and re-enforcing mechanism. They should balance qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) decisions.
Pubali Bank Ltd: • • • • • •
Pubali Bank should be increased salary package, so that employee can increase their productivity and turnover rate will be decreased. HR department should maintain an effective frame mechanism to monitor the employee feedback and reinforcing the employee for career development. Socialization process of employee should be improved. Performance appraisal should be developed which will be used in performance improvement, compensation adjustments, placement decisions, career planning and development, staffing process deficiencies etc. Pubali Bank should increase employee educational program effectively to motivate the employee performance. They should balance qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) decision.
Findings Caritas Bangladesh: After studying CARITAS BANLADESH, we can find that the mission of this organization is to become a partner of people-especially poor and marginalized, with equal respect for all-to attain integral development, to live a truly human life in dignity and to serve others responsibly. So we observe that it is a non-profit, service-oriented organization. In this organization, the Human Resource Department has been continuing for five years. After analyzing this department, we find that HR department – • Develop capabilities of all individuals working in the organization in relation to their present role. Because it is a service-oriented organization, so that the organization expects from staffs to render their service beyond the normal working hours. Therefore various value-oriented programs and activities ensured for the staff motivation. Caritas Bangladesh emphasizes on formation & self-development of the staff. At the same time it also emphasizes on professionalism. Through HRD, CB organizes in house and abroad training for capability of the staffs. • Ensures the security of the job of the employees by providing gratuity fund, provident fund, safety and health care scheme etc. • Develops capabilities of all such individuals in relation to their future role. • Develops better interpersonal and employer-employee relationships in an organization. • Develops team spirit. • Develops coordination among different units of an organization. Bibliography 1. Personnel/Human Resource Management - David Decenzo - Stephen P.Robbins 2. Human Resource Management - Gary Dessler 3. Human Resource Management - Kith Davis 4. Human Resource Management - Wendell L. French