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“Creating a sensitive, cultural and contextual response through a reflective design process; exploring the nature and character of space, along with the sensory aspects of experience.�

-Lauren Di Pietro 33308831


Contents

Design Narrative Mapping Site Response Master Plan Manifesto Theoretical approach Master Plan Scheme Phases of Master Plan Urban Room Project -Library Scheme Building Project -Hospital


Design Narrative

My name is Lauren Dina Di Pietro. I am a passionate, conscientious and family-orientated girl, constantly aiming to push myself to my personal limits and achievements. I am half Italian on my Father’s side, and find that throughout every aspect of my everyday this plays a huge role. Being brought up in such a family orientated and strong cultural background has enabled me to reflect this personality into my professional life. Through my architectural experience I am aiming to create a process where I maintain a close synthesis between a conceptual, contextual and technological response to design. My final year of my BA (Hons) Architecture Undergraduate degree has been a journey of self-discovery. As well as developing a further understanding of architectural design and practice, this year I have developed as a person. Through my design narrative and third year experience I put into words why I want to become an architect. I am interested in how the world works the people within it and the role the architecture has to play it this; creating habitable spaces for people. My BA3 project is inspired by the 2012 Venice Biennale, titled ‘Common Ground’. I propose to create a cultural and contextual response to my site through the exploration of Common Ground as the domain between public and private use of the built environment. My site is in the city of Chioggia, near Sottomarina at the southern end of the Lido in the Veneto region of northern Italy, 25km south of Venice. My scheme incorporates a master plan and developments of this through two buildings located on Isola Saloni in the city of Chioggia, VE, all of which responded to the site through the theories of public and private space.


Venice

Venice is a city in Italy, and part of the Veneto Region of Northern Italy. Venice consists of 118 small islands, separated by 177 canals with 409 bridge crossings. Venice and the lagoon are listed as World Heritage Sites. The foundations of Venice are closely spaces wooden piles made of the trunks of alder trees - known for their water resistance - in full submersion under the lagoon. Decay is slowed due to oxygenpoor conditions. The wooden piles are driven into a soft layer of sand and mud, followed by a hard layer of clay. The foundations of Venice and the many canals running through the streets have made the city famous.


The image above shows the location of the sites for this project in Venice, Italy.


La Biennale Di Venezia

An international art exhibition was to be set up and directed in order to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto and Margherita of Savoy on 19th April 1893. The event took place two years later, on 30th April, 1895. The pavilion which was to host the first exhibition was built in the public gardens in the Castello region of Venice. ‘Common Ground’

29.08 - 25.11

The Architecture Biennale is held once every two years, in alternation with the Venice Art Biennale. This year’s theme ‘Common Ground’ has been set by Sir David Chipperfield, looking to work in collaboration with architects globally, with an emphasis on what we have in common. The meaning of Common Ground; “an agreed basis, accepted by both or all parties, for identifying issues in an argument .” Common Ground can be defined in many ways as the exhibitions of the Biennale explore. It is seen to be a mutual understanding; between architecture in its place; between architects themselves; and even between the different professions related to architecture - engineers, photographers, graphic designers. Architect, Bernard Tschumi, created the series of posters above in order to attempt to explain the idea of ‘Common Ground’ within architecture. His work is exhibited as the introduction to the Arsenale, which holds works from numerous architects looking at the idea of ‘Common Ground.’` “I want this Biennale to celebrate a vital, interconnected architectural culture, and pose questions about the intellectual and physical territories that it shares” - Sir David Chipperfield. Chipperfield explains he wants to bring together architects from all ages, geography and disciplines through collaboration and dialogue.


Works from the Australian Pavilion

‘Venice Takeaway’ contribution by the British Pavilion

‘Venice Takeaway’ contribution by the British Pavilion

‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle’ Contribution by the German Pavilion

‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle’ Contribution by the German Pavilion

Contribution by the Japanese Pavilion

Contribution by the Japanese Pavilion

Contribution by Graftom Architects

Contribution by the O’Donnell + Tuomey

‘Freeland’ Contribution by MDRDV


Common Ground “The man made components of the built environment, coupled with the characteristics of the space between defines the Common Ground.” -Lauren Di Pietro

common ground

Web definitions a basis agreed to by all parties for reaching a mutual understanding. How do I define the ‘Common Ground.’ How does urban space and common ground affect the everyday? The common ground through architecture begins to look at public space. This public space looks into not only the buildings and the built environments, but also the space around these. Public space is designed for user experience; inclusive of all. Human perception of space begins to explore architecture and the built environment through the reality of enclosure and this identification of space. Walls create enclosure; whether dividing internal or external space. The idea of urban space is one of a public realm.

ur·ban

Adjective 1. accustomed to 2. characteristic of 3. designating to a town or city Urban space is divided by walls and rooms, however constantly portraying the potential for connectivity of space. A room is divided by internal walls. Urban rooms are divided by exterior walls. An urban room is public space which allows a space for meeting, greeting and exchange. Space can define everyday interaction, and vice versa.


Posters designed by Bernard Tshumi displayed at the entrance the the arsenale for the 2012 Architecture Biennale titled ‘Common Ground’.


Common Ground

Case Studio Vogt, ETH Zurich un-common Venice This installation explores the notion of ‘commons’ in Venice, focusing on public spaces, their use, and the regulations that govern this relationship. The newspaper kiosk located in the Corderie represents a familiar feature of Venice’s public spaces, and was used to house this installation. The kiosk was occupied and operated throughout the Biennale, exercising surveys and findings into the public views of Venetian public space. The installation asks members of the public provoking questions regarding the definition of the common ground of Venice, both socially and politically. My main focus through my projects is to reopen the idea of public space in a social aspect. Chipperfield wanted the projects exhibited in this years Biennale to “look seriously at the meaning of spaces.” Architecture is internally connected, and can define the common ground of the city. Urban Think-Tank Urban Think-Tank have exhibited a project that encompasses every aspect of common ground, collaborating with different professions for the project and creating an emotive campaign about a building that is common ground to many people. I think that this project defines the meaning of common ground, and portrays the ideas that Chipperfield hoped to exhibit through the 2012 Architecture Biennale. Urban Think-Tank are a Venezuelan architect firm, and have this year won the Golden Lion award for best project. Working as a collaboration (reiterating the ‘Common Ground’ theme) with Justin McQuirk a London-based architect, and Iwan Bann a Dutch photographer, Urban Think-Tank have explored the ‘Torre David’ through photographs and installations for the Biennale. The ‘Torre David’ is an unfinished, abandoned building in Venezuela. Reaching 45 stories the building functions today as an improvised home for 750 families, being described as a ‘vertical slum’. Urban Think-Tank is a Venezuelan architect practice participating in this years’ exhibition of Common Ground. I believe that through their installation they have thoroughly defined all aspects of common ground and are absolutely deserving of the Golden Lion award for this years’ best project. Their proposal exhibits a wide collection of research based on the ‘Torre de David’; an unfinished and abandoned forty-five -story building in the heart of Venezuela. The originally designed bank is now inhabited by 750 families that are now squatting in the ruins of the building, which is being described as a ‘vertical slum’. The families have themselves created a common ground throughout the building, creating their very own sufficient community, using some rooms as homes for families, and others as small businesses such as restaurants and cafes.


Public surveys completed by myself at the news stand installation.

Contribution by the Urban Think-Tank


Theory of Public Space

I went to Venice a few days earlier than the designated trip in order to explore the idea of Common Ground, and to observe and understand the Venetians’ everyday. I studied specifically how people move through squares and campos in Venice, and documented how these spaces may then begin to influence the Common Ground. Comparison of squares Leeds vs. Venice I created a short film looking into how Venetians’ use public squares and spaces, in comparison with how people in Leeds use squares. I found that the square in Leeds was used as a passage from one building to another, however the square in Venice was used a meeting place for people to gather, and children to play together.

public space

Web definitions A public space is a social space such as a town square that is open and accessible to all. Public space is defined as social space; open and accessible. This could also include public buildings. The theory of public spaces lies in a number of disciplines; philosophy; urban geography; visual arts; cultural studies; social studies; and urban design. Public space acts as common ground for the people; a political, social and cultural arena as a root to civic life. People apply a meaning to public space. Through my studies I noticed that the public space was not just limited to public buildings and exterior squares, but also to streets, bridges, boats and many other places, where Venetians gathered and met. As I walked down the streets in Venice, I found that many of these had doors facing straight onto the street. This provided an interesting aspect of meeting; chance meeting. This is where people can meet unexpectedly, and hence create a meeting place outside their front door. Due to the close community feel between the Venetians, I feel that this concept is one that I will employ into my own design project for Venice.


Mapping in St Marks Square

Mapping in Venetian Campo

Film still from the film I created titled ‘Mapping’

Bridge as a connecting Space

Street as a connecting space

Image representing the idea of chance meeting

Image representing the idea of chance meeting as doors open onto one another


Reflections of Venice

Venice is a beautiful place; in terms of culture as well as setting. As I explored the Venetian everyday life, I found myself feeling as though this was a simple and uncomplicated way of living in comparison with the everyday of England. A Venetian will typically work as a fisherman within the lagoon, waking early morning and carrying out a job of high manual labour. They then live in a community where everybody knows everybody else. Meeting people and gathering is a large proportion of Venetian everyday. In England people are consumed by consumption. English everyday consists highly of a complicated technological life with little face to face meeting and communication; instead largely unsociable by the use of cyber communications. However, between the beauty of Venice, there is one underlying problem. This is the tourists. Tourists are ruining the beauty of Venice. They crowd the street and take over the public space of Venice. this has led to use of the public space in Venice to begin to act similar to the public space of Leeds where people use the space as a passage from one place to another, instead of a gathering space.


Personal photography of Venice


Chioggia

I journeyed from Venice, 25km south to the City of Chioggia. The journey across the water was the beauty of Venice which I was searching for. The community on the boats was similar to the sense of community I had first imagined Venice to be. The vaporettos are a place to meet. One of the most common means of transport around Venice, where it is guaranteed to become a meeting place for the locals; on their way to work; on their way home; on their way to meet others. The water is a common ground. My site is in a city called Chioggia, nearby to Sottomarina at the bottom on the Lido in the Veneto region of northern Italy, 25km south of Venice, 50km by road. With a population of around 50,000 throughout the whole city, the area is small and has a rich sense of community through the locals and residents. I am interested in the Old town of Chioggia, in particular Isola Saloni, which is predominately an industrial town with its fishing industry, brick-making, steel and textiles. The heart of the old town is a wide boulevard running central to the island, of which are civic buildings, surround by the residential buildings on the outer of the island. My scheme and master plan are based on the idea of community and education through the everyday. The small island is the southern entrance to the Lagoon of Venice. Chioggia was destroyed in the 9th century, but later rebuilt around a new industry of salt pans. It produced, for a long time, large quantities of salt; in the period of peak production - the 12th century - the southern lagoon was almost literally covered with salt pans, over 100 of them, providing the republic’s single most valuable export. Chioggia was surrounded by around 119 salt beds in the 20th century, of which 63 were directly around Chioggia. Another major commodity for Chioggia is fish. Much of their catch was sent to Rialto, in the centre of Venice, to supply the capital; the rest was salted and exported over much of the Veneto and Lombardy. Chioggia was an important inland port for the Veneto region. Venice exported many goods to the south and imported much of its wheat and grain from Romagna and The Marches - the bulk of this trade channelled through Chioggia. Waterways were, and still are, the major mode of transport around the lagoon, and as Chioggia is the southern entrance to the lagoon, this made it an incredibly important city.


Film stills from my film titled ‘Journey’ from Venice to Chiogggia

Photomontage location map of the City of Chioggia


A Sense of Place Speaking to a local of Chioggia, he stated that

“Chioggia is not the little Venice, but [instead] Venice is the big Chioggia.”

My reflections of Venice were of the beauty but ruined by the booming tourist industry here. After visiting Chioggia it seems that this is the Venice without the tourists. Chioggia is how I imagine Venice was before the tourist industry took over. Chioggia seems to be a smaller version of Venice, still with the same building and canal typology, just fewer canals. Contrast The idea of contrast is one which I aim to explore further through my project. I chose my site on Chioggia due to the contrast it posed with Venice. I have also been exploring the idea of public space and, through my building design, aim to contrast this with the integration of private space. The integration of contrast. I aim to explore whether it is possible to integrate the idea of integration to complement two contrasting ideas. Isola dei Saloni For my master plan I will be looking in particular at Isola Dei Saloni. This is the industrial island next to the old town of Chioggia. As Chioggia was forming, the residences built there were in need of an industry in order to allow the economy to boom. This was decided to be built as a separate island adjacent to the Old Town of Chioggia, however only connected by one bridge in order to isolate the industry and work from the living and residential quarters of the area. Due to it’s location it also meant that any pollution for the industry did not directly affect the people living in Chioggia. Throughout the history of Chioggia, the port was the most influential area for the city economically. The port of Chioggia is located on Isola Dei Saloni - a link between the Veneto lagoon and the Adriatic Sea. When the port was in use, it’s area spanned over 100.000 metres squared, with 1350m of piers, and 47.000 metres cubed of private warehouses. However, as the industry began to boom, the port on Isola Dei Saloni was no longer big enough to meet the demands for export and import for the Veneto region. The disuse of the port on Isola Dei Saloni had led to the abandonment of an old salt and cement factory located there.


Personal photography of Chioggia

Psycogeographical map of Venice - Drawn by Rebecca Turner - depicting the differences between Venice and Chioggia

Psycogeographical map of Chioggia - Drawn by Rebecca Turner - depicting the differences between Venice and Chioggia


Venice vs. Chioggia

The photographs above aim to indicate the contrast felt between both Chioggia and Venice. The first set of photographs left to right show the difference in the tourist industry, with Venice at the top and Chioggia at the bottom. Venice has a booming tourist industry, meaning that thousands of people visit the city every day. This has introduced vast amounts of tourist shops along the promenades between houses and canals. Chioggia has little or no tourist shops like the ones in Venice, and instead exploit their local skills, selling local art instead of typical tourist souvenirs. The second photograph looks at the promenades. In Venice it is difficult to get around or walk along the promenades due to the amount of tourist and people walking around. This tends to ruin the beauty of walking along the water front. Chioggia has one central street making navigation very easy, and less crowds there make the walk pleasant, allowing views of the area around and little cafes and bars line the street. I also looked at the contrast of the industry on the water. Venice has made tourism the main industry of the city, even spilling onto the waterways with gondola rides charging tourists for a trip on a gondola. Chioggia is still using the water to maintain the fishing industry in the area. There are no gondolas in Chioggia. St Marks square is one of the busiest areas of Venice, filled with crowds of tourists. This main square in Venice is not used to meet and gather, instead it is an attraction causing people to simply pass through it, instead of gathering within it. the square in Chioggia is quite the opposite, and instead exactly what I was hoping to find through my exploration of squares and campos. The square is the meeting and gathering place within Chioggia, with families, people and friends all sitting and chatting whilst children ride their bikes and play together in the square. Venice feels very isolated and lonely. Venetians are trapped as the city has become overrun with tourists. Chioggia is much the opposite as everybody seems to know everybody else, with tourists at a minimum. Whilst in Venice and Chioggia I undertook a study showing the comparison of the two places. Within in this I looked at similar aspects of places, spaces, squares and campos, and how these were used in different ways. The places I looked at particularly included: • A public Square - St Marks Square in Venice in contrast with Piazza Vigo in Chioggia • A tourist shop - One in Venice Centre, and one in Chioggia centre • A bridge as a connecting space - The Calatrava Bridge in Venice in comparison with the Vigo Bridge in Chioggia • A main tourist promenade - Riva Degli Schiavoni in Venice, and Corso Del Popolo in Chioggia. I designed and put together a short film looking at the idea of contrast between the two cities. Filming the use of the areas stated above. Film stills from this film can be seen opposite.


Film stills from my film titled ‘Contrast’- depicting the differences between Venice and Chioggia


Response to Chioggia

My master plan manifesto directly responds to the problems that I found in Chioggia. The relocation of the port out of Chioggia and the decline of salt production has led to an economic decline within the city. This has caused a lack of jobs within the industrial trades. Although fishing is still the most dominant trade in Chioggia, the fishermen now have to venture to the sea to collect fish instead of the lagoon, due to the poor conditions of the lagoon. Chioggia also has a failing economy due to the comparisons made with Venice. Although the tourist industry appears to be ruining Venice as a sense of place, it is however the main industry within Venice, allowing for an income which Chioggia does not have. The Community College that I am proposing to design for my master plan aims to create an income and industry within Chioggia, without ruining the sense of place that is so important to the community. I carried out a study and analysis of facades along a promenade facing the industrial site in order to understand the place of Chioggia as the built environment. Through the study I found that there are many courtyards and external spaces that could be public squares and areas for meeting that are currently hidden, and therefore remain private and unused. I will aim to open up these spaces for community use through my design. Although bicycles are used often within Chioggia, cars are also used in areas. My master plan will encourage the use of bicycles to promote a higher quality of life through healthy living and clean air, and therefore I will design for a no car zone on Isola dei Saloni. There are a lot of derelict spaces and buildings currently on Isola dei Saloni. I found that it is not that these buildings are structurally unsafe, it is simply a fact that they are unfit for purpose. A design aspect I hope to incorporate will be to reuse some of these properties, instead of demolishing them, creating new functions for building use as a more sustainable way of designing. I found that when I was in Chioggia I felt unsafe in certain parts of the area, more so in the private areas. I felt that these were run down and derelict due to the privacy of the industrial sites, and therefore I want to combat this problem by exploring the domain between [public and private. The environment is quite derelict due to the failing economy. I propose that the income generated by the developed education of the community can help to renovate and rejuvenate the area of Chioggia.


Tourist industry in Chioggia

Fishing industry in Chioggia

Derelict salt and cement factory in Chioggia

Facade study which I carried out along a promenade in Chioggia, aiming to extrapolate the reasons why the area needs design initiative.


Masterplan Manifesto

• •

• • •

I designed a Community College Campus as the driving scheme for my master plan in order to tackle the problems of the area, economically and socially, through the education of the community. The fundamental purpose of a Community College is to provide an academic education to a community who may otherwise not have the opportunity to gain an education;. I will be sensitive and respectful to the existing buildings in Chioggia. It is important to keep the old cement and salt mill on Isola Saloni. I feel that this building is a key element to the historical context of the area, and should therefore be treated with importance in order to ground Chioggia. After speaking to some locals, they also feel that the building should remain as a landmark for Chioggia. I will create a sensitive response to the domain of public and private use. To create public spaces and squares for the community to meet and gather. To use the water’s edge as meeting spaces.

“Aim to provide students with both professional training and a solid cultural background.”

-Mission Statement for Community College

The fundamental narrative for my scheme is to propose a cultural, contextual and sensitive response to the area of Chioggia. I aim to do this through the idea of community education and inclusion of public space. After studying the Venice Biennale and looking at the topic of common ground I have personally defined the concept of common ground in the built environment as public space. A community college is about educating the community for the direct benefit of the community. In a way a community college begins to teach a community how to self sustain and create their own jobs in the local area, instead of having to travel elsewhere for an education. Currently the closest University or College building to Chioggia is the University of Padua 25km by transport from Chioggia. There is a need for educational facilities and jobs within the local area of Chioggia. The community use of educational buildings is increasing as they are beginning to be seen as a resource for the whole community. New functions of educational buildings, such as schools, colleges, libraries and universities are: • Community drop in centres • Breakfast clubs • After school extra curricular clubs • Health services • Policing


Concept image showing how the spaces along the waters edge can be used as public meeting spaces

Concept image showing more public gardens and spaces in Chioggia

Community College in Chioggia concept image


Current Planning

Chioggia is currently planned so that the industrial island -Isola Dei Saloni - is separated in typology from the Old Town of Chioggia. I want to find and design a common ground for the people of the community; bringing them together through the common ground. Currently there is a lot of private land on Isola Saloni, and this doesn’t feel like part of the community. Isola Dei Saloni currently feels very isolated and detached, and is thus becoming quite derelict and in need of a new function to reconnect to the community. All of the buildings in the Old Town are very high dense, however on Isola Saloni, the buildings are more spaced out. This is due to the fact that the Old Town became over populated, and as a quick response to this problem, new houses were built quickly on Isola Saloni when the industry declined. However these houses were never properly planned, and are now insufficient for use. Through my master plan I will aim to create careful planning of the residences. There is not a lot of green space. The majority of the existing green space are private gardens, creating a lack of public space within Chioggia. I aim to define more of a Common Ground through the gardens and squares in the area. The existing Common Ground in Chioggia consists of two main boulevards which provide passage through the Old Town from one end to the other. The only real Common Ground on both Isola Saloni and the old Town of Chioggia is Piazza Vigo, situated where the two boulevards meet by the vaporetto station into Chioggia [highlighted by the red square on the Common Ground diagram]. The public buildings are located along the main boulevard. The infrastructure is essential to a community in order to allow people to navigate easily around, as well as ground a sense of place through the area. The current main streets of Chioggia are not easy to navigate, and lead to a lot of dead ends. The transport to Chioggia also needs expanding for my master plan in order to account for an expansion of the population. I will implement another vaporetto stop and possibly extend the railway station at Sottomarina.


Public and private property

Urban Density

Public Spaces

The Common Ground

Civic Buildings

Transport Links


Bill Hillier

Spatial syntax is an architectural theory and set of techniques that analyse spatial configurations and simulate likely effects of human activity. Axial routes are generated by drawing the longest straight route between the built environment, indicating the accessibility of the public spaces. Poor access and axial routes inevitably means that users of the area may find it difficult to navigate around the obstacles of the buildings, whereas using people movement analysis and incorporating this into the built environment, it can allow for easier movement and therefore a better user experience. Convex routes are derived by highlighting the occupiable spaces between buildings. A nodal map is where axial routes meet open convex spaces. This indicates whether public spaces can be easily accessible. An open space map is way of showing where possible convex spaces may lie. Spatial syntax theory works on a basis of mapping exercises of a specific area, and then a mathematical analysis of the data shown by the maps. Through this mathematical analysis it is possible to derive numbers which decribe the spatial qualities of space. I have decided to use the theory of spatial syntax through the design of my master plan proposal, as the fundamental scheme is to create a cultural response to the site through the integration of community and education. Spatial syntax theory will allow me to create integral public spaces within the landscape of my master plan. A Node map indicates where two axial points meet. Nodes aim to identify the integration of an area, and possible social meeting places and interaction. A Convex map highlights all areas of occupiable voids within the built environment. These are mainly open public spaces, possibly used for socialising, gathering and meeting. An Open Spaces map can be seen as similar to a convex map, however this more easily identifies the relationship of open space to the buildings which define them. This type of data analysis can also show the proportion of open space in relation to closed space; also seen as positive and negative space. A Building Use map segregates public and civic buildings from private residential buildings in order to suggest how people may use the built environment, and possible areas of public interaction and congregation. The best urban plan for integration with the context and the community is the least number of routes, or axial paths, taken to reach each large open space, or a convex space, and the most number of nodal points to create user interaction.


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

The small French village of Gassin

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Current Syntax study of Chioggia

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axial map for the small French village of Gassin

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Axial Routes of Chioggia

Convex map for the small French village of Gassin

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Convex Spaces of Chioggia

Open Space map for the small French village of Gassin

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Nodal Points of Chioggia

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Nodal map for the small French village of Gassin


Precedents

The Old Town of Chioggia is much better spatially planned than Isola Dei Saloni. Chioggia Old Town area 1. 19 Buildings 14 Axial Routes 23 Convex Spaces 14/19 = 0.74 Axiality Larger numbers of axiality are better for the area as they mean that there are more routs through the area, making more easily accessible. 23/19 = 1.21 Convexity Higher values of convexity mean that there are greater values of synchrony between open public space and private space. More open spaces than buildings. 14/23 = 0.6 Integration The value of integration is derived by dividing the amount of axial routes by the amount of convex spaces. This shows how easy it is to access open public spaces to create greater integration within the community. However this is a great plan for integration, which is my primary aim. To improve this area further I can increase the amount of buildings in the area, thus creating a need for the open meeting spaces, with more people to inhabit them. Chioggia Old Town area 2. 14 Buildings 11 Axial Routes 11 Convex Spaces 11/14 = 0.79 Axiality 11/14 = 0.79 Convexity 11/11 = 1 Integration To improve this area for my proposal it would be better to have a greater number of convex spaces to improve integration. Chioggia Old Town area 3. 6 Buildings 8 Axial Routes 17 Convex Spaces 8/6 = 1.33 Axiality 17/6 = 2.83 Convexity 8/17 = 0.47 Integration However this is a great plan for integration, which is my primary aim. To improve this area further I can increase the amount of buildings in the area, thus creating better axiality and convexity. Chioggia Old Town area 4. 17 Buildings 15 Axial Routes 20 Convex Spaces 15/18 = 0.88 Axiality 20/17 = 1.18 Convexity 15/20 = 0.75 Integration To improve this area for my proposal it would be better to have a greater number of convex spaces to improve integration, and more buildings in order to improve axiality and convexity.

A sample of Cambridge University, UK 95 Buildings 34 Axial Routes 25 Convex Spaces 25/95 = 0.26 Convexity This means that there are a lot of open meeting spaces within the area. 34/95 = 0.36 Axiality As this is a low value, this means that there are few routes to be taken between buildings. 34/25 = 1.36 Integration The area is seen to be quite segregated and exclusive only to those who know their way around. Headingley Campus, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK 19 Buildings 18 Axial Routes 20 Convex Spaces 20/19 = 1.05 Convexity this indicates that there is potentially too much break up of space between and around the buildings, meaning that navigating may be difficult. However there are a lot of social gathering spaces for interaction. 18/19 = 0.94 Axiality A higher value of axiality also shows more break up between the spaces. 18/20 = 0.9 Integration However this is quite a good level of integration between the two, meaning that is easy to take an axial route to lead to a convex space for meeting and interaction, however the smaller this number is, the better it would be for integration. In order for Headingley campus to be improved, there should be more convex spaces, instead of just a few larger ones, thus giving a better value for integration on campus.


Chioggia Old Town area 1

Chioggia Old Town area 2

Chioggia Old Town area 3

Chioggia Old Town area 4

Spatial Syntax Precedent study - Cambridge University

Spatial Syntax Precedent study - Leeds Metropolitan University Headingley Campus


The Common Ground “The man-made components of the built environment, coupled with the characteristics of the space between, defines the Common Ground.� -Lauren Di Pietro 33308831

As part of my master plan response I built a 1:1000 model of Isola Dei Saloni and the Old Town of Chioggia with my master plan proposal on this. [The final model measures 2400mm x 1200mm] I looked at the idea of Common Ground running through the planning and typology of Chioggia, especially focusing on the idea of water, land and buildings as separate but connected elements of the Common Ground. Each of these elements also explore the common ground on different levels of scale. The water provides a common ground through transport and movement. People meet and gather on boats and vaporettos which create new public spaces on the water. This is the largest scale of common ground as the water connects Chioggia to Venice and the rest of the Veneto. The model also represents the land as the common ground. The space and land between the buildings create a public common ground where squares and campos have been planned through my master plan. This area of common ground is where I have applied my theories of public space and spatial syntax. This scale looks at Chioggia as the common ground, and this is where my focus has been for the master plan project. The buildings themselves are also representative of the common ground on a smaller scale. The public and civic buildings create an interior common ground for people to meet and congregate. The residential buildings also create a common ground between families and people residing together. The buildings painted white represent the Old Town of Chioggia which I have used as part of my planning design due to their integrational spatial syntax qualities. The buildings painted in gray on Isola dei Saloni are the buildings which I have designed and planned for my master plan. The buildings cast in concrete is the old cement factory on Isola dei Saloni which I have felt is important to keep as part of the master plan, representing the historical context of Chioggia. The ground has been darkened with wood stain in order to create a contrast with the buildings and water, which has been painted in rabbit skin glue, to derive the differences between the areas of the common ground.


Diagrams of Masterplan

Figure 2 shows the importance of the old cement factory that I have kept on the island. I feel that this is an important landmark for Chioggia, and represents its historical context. It is also important as it is in a central location on the island. Through my master plan I created two new transport links between Chioggia and the mainland [figures 3&4]. This allows more people to visit and inhabit Isola dei Saloni. The new transport links include an extension of the main train line running to Sottomarina, south of Isola dei Saloni, and also an extension of the current vaporetto route that runs from Venice to the Old Town in Chioggia. This has been extended to run to Isola dei Saloni as well. Through my studies of the existing typology of the Old Town in Chioggia, I found that the central street running as an axis through the town became the common ground of the area. I have reflected this typology through the planning of my master plan [figure 5] creating a central street with squares and gardens lining this to create public spaces for Isola dei Saloni. I am also incorporating the idea of creating the main street as the civic axis of the town. I have also designed the civic buildings so that the sit with their front elevation up to the edge of the street to allow them to be set forwards from all of the other buildings, highlighting their importance to the public realm. Through my spatial syntax studies of axial routes through the area I have integrated a similar typology to that of the Old Town of Chioggia, creating the central major route, with smaller minor routes leading from this allowing for easy access around the island, and linking together the public spaces for meeting and gathering [figure 6]. Figure 7 represents the new bridge links connecting the Old Town back to Isola dei Saloni. Through my studies of public space, I found that bridges were also used as common ground spaces for meeting and gathering. I feel that it is also really important to keep the connection between the Old Town and Isola dei Saloni as it felt quite disconnected whilst I was on site. The routes and locations of the bridges I have created link directly with the minor routes I also planned [seen in figure 6]. These routes have been planned in such a way to also create a connection with the Old Town. Where the bridges lie directly connects the minor routes of Isola dei Saloni with minor routes through the Old Town of Chioggia. This also means that as these paths connect straight through from the central axis in the Old Town to the westerly water’s edge on Isola dei Saloni, they create uninterrupted views to the water’s edge [figure 8]. Chioggia is much like Venice; penetrated with canals and bodies of water [figure 9]. This allows for the positioning of public spaces close to the water’s edge, harnessing views and natural lighting. I have placed the main squares and public gardens that I have incorporated into my master plan mainly along the water’s edge for this reason, as well as along the main axial route, and in the areas of large convex spaces through my spatial syntax studies [figure 10]. Through my studies of the existing typology in the Old Town, I have also designed internal courtyard spaces within the public and some residential buildings on Isola dei Saloni [figure 11]. This is due to the natural ventilating qualities that can be harnessed through small open internal courtyards. If these spaces house small bodies of water, such as fountains or pools, this cools the air in the courtyards and allows it to travel through the building naturally cooling the internal spaces. The orientation of the buildings in my master plan also reflect the natural cooling strategies of the Old Town, being orientated so that cool air can flow through the minor streets and cool the spaces, without being over bearing [figure 12].


Figure 1 - Existing Chioggia

Figure 3 - Transport

Figure 2 - The industrial site

Figure 4 - New transport links

Figure 5 - Central axis

Figure 6 - Major and minor routes

Figure 7 - Bridge links

Figure 8 - Routes through

Figure 9 - Relationship to the water

Figure 10 - Green and public spaces

Figure 11 - Internal Courtyards

Figure 12 - Natural ventilation


Future Proof PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

I used spatial syntax studies as a theoretical approach to my master plan design. I wanted to design the urban space so that when the theory of spatial syntax was applied the numbers that it would give me would be greater values of convex open spaces for public use, as well as greater numbers of spatial integration. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

New Syntax Study for Isola dei Saloni master plan 169 Buildings 152 Axial Routes 501 Convex Spaces 152/169 = 0.90 Axiality 501/169 = 2.96 Convexity 152/501 = 0.30 Integration The area that I have master planned has now got great numbers of integration meaning that all of the public spaces which I have planned are easily accessible through all of the axial routes that I designed. There is also a large number of convexity within the area, meaning that there are a lot of open public spaces and gardens for people to use and meet and gather in. The expansion of local food growth can have tremendous impacts on the health and economy of the local community. My 25 year plan incorporates a scheme to allow each resident of Chioggia to own a plot on a public allotment to begin to educate the community about growing their own food. To feed one person per year they would roughly require 1000sq m of green space to grow food. For the 25 year phase of my master plan it would not be sufficient to provide everyone with enough space to grow enough food to self sustain, however further into my master plan I am hoping to provide the community of Chioggia with enough space to grow their own food to self sustain, alongside the opportunity for a local education for professional jobs. One loaf of bread uses only 1sq m of wheat. In order to allow the most sufficient use of land for the public allotments, there would be designated areas for crop rotation for sequential seasons, allowing different crops in the same area. This is also a benefit to the crops, improving soil structure and fertility, and reducing pest build up and replenishing nitrogen. Typically crops have a four field rotation of wheat for food and also fermented for biofuel [good in poor soil], turnips, barley, clover, fodder crop and grazing crop. Emmer cultivation is also widely expanding in Italy as Emmer Wheat and Farro grow really well within this climate, and would be relevant to Chioggia. There can also be permanent crops that grow in Chioggia, such as citrus, olives, coffee, rubber and fruit and nut trees.


Concept image of public allotments in Chioggia

Concept image of public allotments in Chioggia

Concept image of vertical allotments


“Establishing a sense of place and position within culture; I aim to create buildings as sensory components, using materiality and techniques to evoke experience.� -Lauren Di Pietro 33308831


Site

The site I have chosen to design my urban room intervention of a library is part of the existing cement factory. I kept this building as part of my master plan manifesto due to it’s importance within the historical context of Chioggia. The libraries physical locality also roots itself within the community. I therefore think it is necessary to design my library intervention within the existing facade of the old cement factory, as this is seen to be a landmark building by the locals of Chioggia. Due to the location of the industrial site in the centre of Isola dei Saloni the building becomes integrated as part of the public urban space. Giving buildings new functions, instead of new builds is not only the most sustainable and cost effective option in an area of poor economy, like Chioggia, but also means that they can be continually be updated and innovated in accordance with the development of society. Whilst in Chioggia I spoke to some of the locals there and asked them how they felt if the industrial site were to cease to exist. All of them said that they thought it was an important landmark to look at on the horizon of Isola dei Saloni, as it reminded them of their industrial history. I feel that it is important to keep this building in the master plan, and due to it’s importance is why I picked the site. Weathering The existing building is constructed from a cement column and beam construction with recessed block work walls and a concrete skim render on the exterior. Due to the age of the building, the concrete render has been subject to weathering. The envelope of the building wears the everyday weathering, much like a human’s skin bears it’s everyday ageing. The scale at which I will redevelop the existing facade will be to retain the existing envelope walls with a complete demolition of the roof and interior, with the construction of a new intervention behind the existing facade. This is because, for my design, I want to include a skylight to top light the central atrium space, and also require new accommodation for the interior of the building. The retention of the facade preserves the integrity and character of the urban environment within Chioggia. The historical context which it represents also weaves through my narrative; creating a contextual and cultural response to the site. The new scheme within the existing facade will be completely concealed from the exterior view, however will be completely exploited in the interior with exposed structural forms.


Images of the industrial site and mapping through light

The industrial site

Existing side elevation of the existing building in context with the rest of the industrial site

Existing front elevation of the existing building in context with the rest of the industrial site

Existing section through the existing building in context with the rest of the industrial site


Structure and Materiality

The scale of the intervention will match the scale of the existing facade, using the existing structural qualities to form a grid pattern to work my intervention from. As seen from the diagrams opposite the grid is derived from the structural column and beam system of the existing facade. This allowed me to work towards the existing structural grid of the industrial site in order to design my intervention.

“Establishing a sense of place and a position within culture, I aim to create buildings as sensory components, using materiality to evoke experience.”

-Lauren Di Pietro 33308831

Through exploring the materiality of the library building I want to contrast the external concrete facade with a new steel interior structure. There is a huge overlap between the materials of concrete and steel, as steel is used to reinforce concrete structurally through rebars. I am aiming to use steel to reinforce the materiality of concrete through a conceptual deign approach as well, creating an exposed steel structure within the existing concrete facade. I designed and constructed a 1:50 model of the library layout using welded metal sheets and cast concrete. After exploring steel as a construction material, I undertook a short welding course to understand the nature and properties of the material. I learnt a lot through this course as it showed me many different methods of creating steel constructions. Welding is a sculptural process in which metals and materials are fused together creating strong joints. I melted work pieces and fused them together with flux and brass filler material to connect pieces together. I looked at and used: • Braising methods • Tungsten Inert Gas [TIG] welding methods • Gas Metal Arc [MIG] welding methods • Soldering methods • Spot welding


Drawing the Grid System

1:50 model constructed from welded metal sheets and cast concrete

Me during my welding course


Narrative and Programme “The function of a library is changing; a library is not just a place for education, but has also become a hub for social meeting.”

-Lauren Di Pietro 33308831

A library is the first point of call for education, giving access to life long learning to develop and maintain skills. I have therefore proposed a library intervention as a development of my master plan scheme of a community college. A library is a meeting place for today’s local community. To design an intervention which reflects everyday life in an urban context. Following on from my master plan scheme where I have designed a university campus focused on the idea of community integration with academic study and education. I propose to design a library as an urban room as my intervention. A library is a meeting place for culture, learning and insight. As the library is adapting to new technologies and digital media, spaces are becoming more flexible and open for different functions. The library has become, not just a place to borrow books, but a place for meeting friends, studying, working, reading the newspaper or magazines, a place for personal development and a place to view exhibitions and cultural events. Libraries in terms of architecture are landmark buildings. They house cultural communication and activities, with most libraries located within cultural quarters of the city. The interior layout reflects a greater level of meeting and user experience. The library creates an urban space within the city for the citizen’s natural cultural meeting place, and it’s central location on the old industrial site allows it to be an inviting place for all, through its architecture, creating a continuous interaction with the surrounding society. The library creates a local identity for the area, and housed inside the existing industrial factory releases the potential for re-use of existing buildings. Libraries are changing. The gross floor area will be around 1000m2. The principle spaces will include: A collection area 250m2; User seating area 210m2; Public computer access stations 200m2; 50 stations at 4m2 per station; Staff work area 70m2; Meeting rooms/spaces 25m2 each; WC facilities 12m2 4 cubicles at 3m2 per cubicle. The collection will serve the university accommodating for around 6,000 students, as well as the residents of Chioggia, and the collection will hold around 75,000 titles, 3,000 non-print items, 135 hard copy periodicals, and 40 hard copy back periodicals. The main public areas will be the ground and first floor, architecturally defined by a piano noble.


Diagramming As the central atrium space is the principle space of my building I will be top lighting this through a sky light. I examined the different types of sky light in order to determine which would be most suitable to achieve what I wanted for this important space. The pointed and angled sky lights were good for allowing the lighting to filter and naturally light the whole space, however the tall deep skylights allowed light to be concentrated directly below them. As I want to highlight the importance of this space within the building I feel that directly lighting this space from above will help to reiterate this idea. I also diagrammed the structural qualities of the existing building that I am designing within, exploring the contrast and integration of concrete and steel. Through the site analysis of my scheme I have looked in particular at the access and surroundings of the existing building. The building can be viewed from the Old Town of Chioggia, as well as the new master plan on Isola dei Saloni. Through my master plan I designed the central axis route, similar to the planning of the Old Town, however the route which I designed leads to, and passes directly through the old industrial site. I did this so that it highlighted the importance of the factory and marked the significance of giving this building a new function. The building which I am designing in is the first stage of the factory which will be reached from this main axial routes through the master plan. The building can also be accessed by the new bridge links that I planned between Isola dei Saloni and the Old Town. These two main routes to access the building show the importance of the building’s relationship with the water. As the central route leads directly to my intervention, I also want people to arrive in a square or garden to reiterate the idea of public meeting and gathering around the library. The circulation through and around the new library intervention allows people to arrive at the entrance into the central atrium common ground space. This then creates a meeting and social space for the community. As each level of the mezzanines surrounding the atrium are explored they become more suitable to the academic students of the community college. The social spaces are situated on the ground and first floor, denoted architecturally by a piano noble in the recessed mezzanine level on the first floor. The ground floor also houses all of the social functions such as the cafe space and meeting rooms. As I am designing the walls of the atrium space to be lined with books, I have designed and specified the dimensions and materiality of uniquely designed bookcases. These are designed to fit the space of the walls, and are made from alder wood, which is strong and durable and native to Venice. This also allows the furniture to remain contextual to its location. As the books line the 3300mm high walls, access to the books has been incorporated by the inclusion of a rolling ladder system, which is built into the unique design of the bookcases, extending one of the shelves of the bookcase and placing the rolling system within this to integrate the system within the bookcases. The ventilation of the spaces is also important in order to preserve the books and reduce moulding. The ventilation can be achieved mostly naturally with a similar concept to an internal courtyard, as I designed for the master plan. As the central atrium space is cooled, this transfers to the circulation spaces, located in the corners of the building in order to allow the cool air to pass through the building.


Library designed with books next to reading space

Library designed with books surrounding the reading space

Tall deep sky light design

Pointed and angled sky light designs

Views and Vistas

Routes and Access

The importance of the Industrial Site

Relationship to Water

Constraints of the building

Public Space

Arrival to the building

Sun Path diagram

Natural Ventilation

Rolling ladder design

Rebar construction within the existing

Rolling ladder design

Circulation around the building


Model Studies

I began my form development by studying the existing constraints of designing within an existing facade, through a series of massing models. The first models look at the contrast of concrete and steel through the form. The volumetrics that I completed were internal massing, rather as I am designing within an existing structure. I have explored the structural qualities of my intervention first within the existing facade. I will be using a steel framework which I want to be exposed within the interior of the building to express the contrast of the materiality from the exterior to the interior. I will have these as steel columns and beams within the structure, exposing I-Beams through the central atrium space. I then explored the shape and size of the central atrium space. This is the principle space within my intervention as it reiterated the syntax qualities of the master plan as well as housing the common ground of the building. I want to reiterate the importance of the external facade through my internal intervention, and after exploring a range of shapes and sizes I decided as a design imperative to reflect the shape of the exterior facade through the internal spaces. This made the shape of the atrium to become rectangular as an offset of the external form. I also explored the position of the atrium, housing it central to the building or setting it to one side of the building so that it may have the opportunity to open onto an external common ground space. I decided however to place the atrium set towards the front facade of the building. This is because I wanted people to enter the building straight into the common ground space in order to use it as the meeting space for all member of the public community. I also feel that the front facade of the building is the most important to the identification of the building, and allowing this front facade to open up to the principle space of the building allowed me to reflect the importance of both of these qualities together.


Model exploring the contrast of materiality between concrete and steel.

Model exploring the exposed qualities of steel columns

Model exploring the rectilinear shape of the atrium, reflecting the exterior facade

Model exploring the atrium space as a long and linear element to the building to expose a corridor atrium lined with long bookcases

Model exploring the central atrium space as a circular form, similar to Stockholm Public Library


Perspective Section


Public Space + Common Ground

The central atrium space is a central empty area within the library. It is designed as empty space to allow the constant possibility that something may inhabit it. This is the principle space of the building. This is the ‘Common Ground’. The exposed steel columns connect the materiality back to the interior spaces, and put into practice the materiality studies that I carried out for steel construction. I have also designed external gardens and public spaces to reiterated the convex syntax of the master plan, as well as the atrium space of the internal intervention within the library.


Ground Floor Plan 1:500 in context


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“Establishing a sense of place and a position within culture, I aim to create buildings as sensory components, using materiality and techniques to evoke experience.� -Lauren Di Pietro 33308831


Anchoring and Symbiosis

Steven Holl titled “Anchoring.” Steven Holl is concerned with both the metaphysical and phenomenological connection between architecture and its location. Through my projects I have also aim to create a concept behind my design which poetically links both architecture and site. “Architecture is bound to situation.” Architecture is integrated with the landscape, and thus intertwined with the experience of place. I believe that it is important to interrogate a site, in terms of culture, people, place and tradition in order to create a community conscious and humanistic approach to design, creating a poetic and sensitive link between my proposal, its location, and the inhabitants of it. The aspect of a place includes not only the physical appearance and measurements, but also the people and the culture. The meaning of a situation, or site, must be extracted in order to decide on the best way to tackle a design intervention. Steven Holl describes a metaphysical link between architecture and site. This is an abstract and poetic connection, but begins to drive all design. I aim to create a poetic connection through my conceptual design approach. “Architecture is an organic link between concept and form” As Holl describes, it is impossible to change the form without affecting the function. I believe that both should complement one another, and be designed together, not as one follows another. “Proto-Elements of architecture” As we approach any design project, Steven Holl begins to question what is our first consideration; form, method or geometry. I believe that the initial element is the situation and location that sets our boundaries in which to design. It is important to understand a site contextually before designing; and understand from all aspects including people, inhabitants, culture and area. Kisho Kurokawa Philosophy of Symbiosis Symbiosis is a close and often long term interaction between two or more species. The idea and philosophy of symbiosis is a close and often long term interaction between two or more species. Symbiosis has previously been used to depict people living together in a community. ‘Cooperating while competing.’ Kurokawa explains how architecture becomes a symbiosis between cultures, machines and life. He expresses how differences between these things coexist in a symbiotic state through architecture. The Nakagin Capsule Tower is a mixed-use residential and office tower designed by Kisho Kurokawa in Tokyo, Japan. The building was the world’s first example of capsule architecture built for actual use. All of the capsules are self-contained units. Kurokawa creates a symbiosis between the machine of architecture and living within this. Architecture becomes a hybrid. The Japanese style of Sukiya employs a method in which historical forms are followed, but with new techniques and materials to produce a gradual change and a sense of interaction between the two forms, defined in symbiosis. “Symbiosis is made possible by recognising reverence for the sacred zone,” This is the intermediary space of the differences between the two species of symbiosis. I define this zone as the common ground. To abide by common rules, and reach a common understanding. “Such intermediary space as street space, plazas, parks, waterfronts...landmark towers and the urban infrastructures...play a role as stimuli that make possible the existence of individual buildings.”


Images from Steven Holl Architects

Images of Kisho Kurokawa works demonstrating his philosophy


Philosophy

Through the critical evaluation of my texts, I have begun to define my philosophy of architecture – where I stand in the profession, and what it is I am interested in. I am half Italian on my Father’s side, and find that throughout every aspect of my everyday this plays a huge role. Being brought up in such a family orientated and strong cultural background has enabled me to reflect this personality into my professional life. Through my architectural experience I am aiming to create a process where I maintain a close synthesis between a conceptual, contextual and technological response to design. My final year of my BA (Hons) Architecture Undergraduate degree has been a journey of self-discovery. As well as developing a further understanding of architectural design and practice, this year I have developed as a person. Through my design narrative and third year experience I put into words why I want to become an architect. I am interested in how the world works, the people within it, and the role the architecture has to play it this; creating habitable spaces for people. “Creating a sensitive, cultural and contextual response through a reflective design process, exploring the nature and character of space, along with the sensory aspects of experience.” “The man-made components of the built environment, coupled with the characteristics of the space between defines the common ground.” “Establishing a sense of place and a position within culture, I aim to create buildings as sensory components, using materiality and techniques to evoke experience.” The texts that I read really helped me to define these principles. I believe that Architecture would cease to exist without people to inhabit and use the space.


La Famiglia


Narrative and Site My scheme is to design a centre to educate the community about emergency healthcare for the community. For my master plan I designed a community college, and this centre will be an extension of this. The building looks at the process of emergency medicine in a hierarchical sense. This building will be a landmark feature within the urban typology of Chioggia, in the hope that it is visible from all vantage points, directing the community to the building, and orientating people around Isola dei Saloni. The principle spaces within the programme of the building are the surgical amphitheatre, the chapel space and the waiting area. I have designed each of these spaces as linked through seating in congregation. The site for my second project intervention will be located next to my urban room intervention. As I am designing one cohesive scheme for the year, it is important that both of my projects are integrated together. Although this site is next to the old industrial factory, it is not part of the existing site, and therefore allows me to also experiment with exterior form as well as interior. The building will be designed to be a landmark building, and this location also allows for easy accessibility by both pedestrian access and water transport. The building sited on the water’s edge allows me to incorporate the ideas explored through my master plan design about using public space, and also allows the building to be viewed easily from both Isola dei Saloni, and the Old Town. Through my site analysis I began exploring the conditions of the site. I began by looking at the location and constraints of the site, such as the surrounding buildings. These buildings immediately posed a scope for me to design within. As the footprint of this boundary is around 40,000 sq m. I then began exploring the relationship of my site to the industrial building, as well as the relationship to the water. Through my master plan I proposed to use the water’s edge as a public meeting place, and incorporate this as part of the common ground which transpires as the waiting space in this building. The site lies on many access routes, meaning that it is easily accessible to all. The site lies on the water’s edge facing the Old Town of Chioggia. Through my master plan I designed routes and links between Isola dei Saloni and the Old Town. The site for this project lies on one of these bridge links through. This allows very easy access for pedestrians to the building. The corner of my side by the water’s edge is a connection of two main public routes for pedestrians. I will therefore use the corner through my design and orientate my building so that the entrance may lead onto this as a dominate public space. My building is surrounded by public space, allowing my design to incorporate both an internal and external plan. I have also positioned my building by this corner in order to create two clear and distinct access points, forpublic and private. The location of the site also means that the ambulance access is private and it is also not in the path of the new vaporetto station which I designed in my master plan. Due to its location on the corner of the water’s edge the building has many views and vistas available to it and from it. These will also be incorporated through my design. The sun path of the site is very important to the design of the building, and I will have to explore this in more detail for my project.


Site Location

Scope of site

Relationship to Industrial site

Relationship to Water

Access

Public Space

Views and Vistas

Sun Path


Healthcare in the Community

Healthcare is important to a community in order to increase quality of life and improve the public’s wellbeing. Due to the failing economy in Chioggia it is important to establish a public service that will not discriminate within the community, and will not take opportunity away from the poorer community. In Italy the health system is private and costs a lot of money. I feel it is important to provide emergency health services for free within the community. Incorporating this public service into the community college that I proposed for my master plan will also encourage the community to provide the service for itself and bring Chioggia closer to becoming a self sustaining community; teaching the residents, which will then work within the public service treating residents. My scheme is inspired by the series of hospital drawings by Barbara Hepworth. The drawings look at the process of surgery and how this may relate to the process of sculpture. Hepworth completed the drawings during the launch of the National Health Service supporting social reconstruction and creating a more inclusive society. She began the series of the operating theatre after the invitation from her friend, Norman Capener, following the hospitalization of her daughter, who was treated by him. When I visited the Hepworth Gallery in Wakefield these images were exhibited and they inspired me to look more around the idea of medicine and the NHS public service in England. Through these studies I began to draw differences between the economy and idea of free health care in this country, contrasted with that of other countries. This has been a strong driver for my project. Hepworth likens the surgeons operating around the table to people gathering in squares. Through my master plan one of my main aims was to create the sense and idea of public space through squares and Venetian Campos. The surgeons around an operating theatre have an intimate relationship, much like people meeting in public space. Hepworth in fact likens this experience to St Mark’s Square in Venice, and created a series of small sculptures reiterating this scenario. I find it particularly interesting through Hepworth’s portrayal of surgery how she focus’ on the hands of the surgeons. She draws comparisons between the way a surgeon works and the way in which an artist works, as she herself was a sculptor. The depiction of the hands shows Hepworth hasn’t drawn the gloves and has instead focused on the hands as if they were an artists’. The form of my building has therefore arisen by the sculptural qualities of architecture, idealising a pure form through the design of a teaching tower rising from the public base building. The pure form relates to the building function creating a clean aesthetic exterior, as well as interior. I also find it particularly interesting that Hepworth doesn’t draw the patient in any of her works. Instead the area where the patient may be is left blank or shaded in subtly, but so that the focus is always on the surgeons in the theatre, and especially focusing on their hands. she may not have drawn the patient in this case as it was her daughter, however I also believe that it depicts the qualities of privacy of the patient through dehumanising the process of surgery.


Barbara Hepworth Hospital Drawings

Personal studies of the Hepworth Hospital Drawings


Humanising Healthcare

Through the Hepworth studies I went on to explore the concept of humanising the surgical process. Hepworth executed her drawings without drawing the patient, in order to detach herself from the emotional aspect of the procedure. This is an element of dehumanization in order to remove the humane aspects from the patient. I am interested in humanising the process of health care and exploiting it to create a public service. Dehumanizing makes the process feel private and not for everybody, whereas I aim to achieve the opposite creating an open aspect to all. I have therefore designed the teaching aspect to the community health care facility. This means that members of the public will learn how to care for one another on a humane level. Patients through surgery can feel most vulnerable, putting their life into the hands of somebody else. One of the principle spaces within the building is the surgical amphitheatre. This allows students to learn through a hands on and visual approach about medical care. As the students are attached to the community college, the patient will have more trust in another member of the community. A surgical amphitheatre first came about as a method of teaching students about medicine and the anatomy, without hospital connections. This was the principle teaching method during the 19th to 20th Centuries. I still believe that this is the primary teaching method for such practices, as practical learning serves a greater purpose in a community which is poor in academic education, such as Chioggia. The amphitheatre consisted of rising tiers of seats arranged about an open space. This unique configuration enabled physicians not only to perform autopsies or surgeries but also to simultaneously demonstrate those procedures to numerous medical students. Although temporary facilities existed, the first permanent anatomical amphitheatre was constructed in 1594 for surgeon-anatomist Fabricius ab Aquapendente of Padua. The University of Padua is located about 25km from Chioggia and Venice. As this is the location of the first surgical amphitheatre I find it contextual to include this through my health care teaching facility as well. As a result of the popularity teaching hospitals gradually adopted amphitheatres as the primary arena in which surgeons could not only lecture to students but also perform operations on patients. By 1917, surgical amphitheatres had disappeared completely from hospitals in London due to hygiene and infection control reasons. The amphitheatres were largely open with no separation between the viewers and the surgeons, ever increasing the risk of infection control, and distraction within the operating theatre. Through my design I will ensure that the area is clean and sterile, and has some separation between the operating room and the students viewing the procedures.


Thackery Medical Museum

Through my exploration of surgical amphitheatres I began looking into the history of medicine, and visited the Thackery Medical Museum in Leeds. Here there were wonderful drawings about surgery, as can be seen opposite, similar to Hepworth’s Hospital Series, and inspired the programme of my building. Through my visit I also explored the history of medicine, and followed this through to the present day. I found the process and evolution over time an interesting concept and will explore this further to see if I can incorporate this aspect of process into my architecture.


Personal Photography from the visit to the Thackery Museum


Surgery

Surgery is a speciality that uses manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and treat a condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance. The healthcare facility that I am designing will include two surgical operating theatres for the treatment of emergency medicine, and incorporate the teaching amphitheatre facility to accommodate the medical students of the building. Trauma surgery is a surgical speciality involved in the invasive treatment of physical injuries, typically in an emergency setting. Trauma and orthopaedic surgery deals primarily with injuries, congenital and acquired disorders of the bones, and joints and their associated soft tissues, including ligaments, nerves and muscles. Most consultants contribute to an emergency trauma workload dealing with bony and soft tissue injuries admitted through their local A & E departments. Surgical emergency is a medical emergency which requires immediate surgical intervention (the only way to solve the problem successfully). The following conditions are surgical emergencies: • Acute trauma • Acute appendicitis • Ruptured aortic aneurysm • Aortic dissection • Bleeding ectopic pregnancy • Bowel obstruction • Internal bleeding • Gastrointestinal perforation • Intestinal volvulus • Cardiac tamponade • Acute subdural haematoma • Acute airway obstruction • Limb ischemia • Acute mesenteric ischemia • Pneumothorax • Paraphimosis • Peritonitis • Retinal detachment • Priapism • Retained abortion • Stercoral perforation • Testicular torsion • Urinary retention Many trauma patients are the victims of car crashes, stabbings and gun shot wounds. Trauma can also be caused by falls, crush type injuries and pedestrians being struck by a car. In the case of severe trauma, such as a catastrophic car crash, the trauma surgeon may be one part of a surgical team that includes vascular surgeons (to repair damage to blood vessels), orthopaedic surgeons (to repair broken bones) and other surgeons as needed.


Personal Photography of Wandsorth surgical facilities


Initial Model Study

My initial model studies began as an exploration of light and structural materiality. The first model shows the relationship between steel and concrete, similar to the materiality of my library building. I am interested in the running theme of contrast through my proposals and aim to create this contrast in a subtle manner, using both concrete and steel again through the construction of this project. Exposing the materiality through my schemes has been a design imperative of mine, using the materiality to evoke experience and contextualisation within Chioggia. The second model explores light. I cast a concrete base to represent structure, and then wax on top of this in order to diffuse light through the material. I looked at light being used to represent the purification and cleanliness aspects to the health care facility. The final model which I made explores the positive and negative spaces of my building and defines these as the common ground through meeting and gathering spaces. After casting a wax mould of the space, I cast plaster over this to define the negative space as a positive. I then melted the wax out of the plaster in order to create the positive space as the negative. The mould is a conceptual study of how the surgical amphitheatre may be formed. After visiting the Thackery Medical Museum I was particularly interested in the process of surgery, and the stages of procedure. I designed a series of small models using a vinamold construction method in order to explore how each of these stages and process are intertwined and linked, and whether they can be tweaked to create a smoother flow. I did this by using different materialities to represent each of the different stages within my model study. I used: • concrete - to represent patient communication about the process of surgery • plaster - to represent patient preparation for surgery • wax - to represent anaesthesia • clear casting resin - to represent the surgical procedure I used these materials in order to pose a contrast in density from heavy initial stages with concrete to the clear, clean and pure form for the surgical procedure. I then cut them all up and looked at the different aspects of rearranging and integrating processes to create a more humanistic approach. I found that the anaesthetic process should be next to the surgical theatre for infection control reasons and practicality. The patient communication and preparation process however can be intertwined to create a more efficient process.


Further Model Studies

I began to explore the idea of access into the building as it is such an important factor for emergency medical facilities. I designed and built the model shown opposite to indicate the concept of emergency access routes and the minors public access route. The emergency route must be a direct access and be separated from the main public access route. It must also be a private access point to the building, and I have shown this through the model by indicating solid walls without perforations. After exploring the Hungarian Pavilion by Camordy Groarke I want to make the public access route more permeable and open. I don’t want to make the public access a large open space as I feel that this could be confusing and lack direction to the visitors of the building, so I aim to make this partially permeable using obstacles that can clearly direct people into the building. I have also done this to distinguish a difference in design between the public access route and the private access route, allowing a direct journey to the emergency access point, but a filtered journey for the less serious cases who will be waiting to be seen. The volumetric models that I created focused on the shape and form of the tower building, using many iterations to create a deign decision. However after analysing the volumetric study and form development sketches I think that a rectilinear pure form reflects the pure and clean internal spaces of the building and allows for easy navigation around them.


Form volumetric model studies


The Waiting Space

Waiting is a hugely important aspect of any medical facility and is widely criticised. I began exploring the concept of waiting and how the architectural design may influence the emotional experience of this. I have looked at how and why people wait through a series of images and I set up an installation to ask people about their experience of waiting and how they felt about it and the spaces which they were in. People in Venice wait for: • a vaporetto • a bus • waiting to meet in a square or campo • waiting at a bar • waiting at a restaurant • waiting to catch a fish People in Leeds wait for: • friends • a film showing • train • bus • weekend • to be seen at A&E •

wait·ing

1. The act of remaining inactive or stationary 2. A period of time spent waiting NOUN The act of waiting ADJECTIVE being and remaining ready and available for use The adjective of waiting, being ready and available for use, creates the notion that waiting for something is being completed ready and prepared, or in a condition for immediate action. I find that this is particularly important to the concept of an emergency health care facility as this is a building which does have to constantly be prepared for any trauma. Waiting within medicine is something constantly complained about due to the amount of time spent there. In order to understand the complaints which I read whilst researching the concept of waiting I visited an A&E department in order to understand how the space in which I was waiting may affect the user experience. I found that the spaces were dark and quiet and it felt as though you were expected to remain silent until it was your turn to be seen. The space was uncomfortable and awkward. As a response to the critique of waiting I want to incorporate the public waiting space alongside the public spaces I designed through my master plan proposal.


Installation set up about people’s experience of waiting


Waiting Critique

wait路ing 1. The act of remaining inactive or stationary 2. A period of time spent waiting NOUN The act of waiting ADJECTIVE being and remaining ready and available for use The adjective of waiting, being ready and available for use, creates the notion that waiting for something is being completed ready and prepared, or in a condition for immediate action. I find that this is particularly important to the concept of an emergency health care facility as this is a building which does have to constantly be prepared for any trauma. Waiting within medicine is something constantly complained about due to the amount of time spent there. In order to understand the complaints which I read whilst researching the concept of waiting I visited an A&E department in order to understand how the space in which I was waiting may affect the user experience. I found that the spaces were dark and quiet and it felt as though you were expected to remain silent until it was your turn to be seen. The space was uncomfortable and awkward. As a response to the critique of waiting I want to incorporate the public waiting space alongside the public spaces I designed through my master plan proposal. I created a short time lapse film about the idea of waiting as a repetitive process as part of my critique of waiting. Opposite are the film stills from this.


Perspective Section


Plans

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Visuals

The external landscaping is crucial to my design as I designed many public spaces for meeting and gathering through my master plan proposal. Through my studies and critique of the waiting space in health care facilities I found that this is an important space to design within my building, and I have incorporated aspects of external waiting spaces into this. I have exploited the climate of Venice through this allowing the space to be used to it’s full potential, and have included canopy designs for the wetter seasons. I have included both hard and soft landscaping through the design to maximise the use of space and create easy orientation through and around the building. Materiality Concrete Structure - Columns and beams placed on a grid system Public garden spaces landscaped around the building including deciduous trees to provide shading for heat gain due to the large amounts of glazing used Perforated steel panel facade Ceilings and walls - Wet skim plaster over Duplex Plasterboard to provide monolithic surfaces that can easily be cleaned and resist vapour and airborne infection Glazed panels in the handrails Strip lighting fixtures and down lights to provide a sense of place important to a health care facility Paved exteriors for easy access Outdoor seating areas under tree canopies Large curtain glazed wall systems Block work concrete exterior walls to provide insulation and provide the tertiary structure for the facade system Precast concrete floor slabs, providing bracing within the column and beam structure Precast concrete butterfly roof - for drainage as part of a rainwater harvesting system Interior metal stud walls, with additional rigid insulation and acoustic wool to provide extra acoustics to maintain patient privacy. I want to use a lot of glazing throughout my building to create a public open space as a design imperative. The use of glazing must be considered sensitively, due to the concept of patient privacy. I will therefore incorporate a cladding system over the large areas of glazing in order to maintain the public private divide. As I am exploring the domain between public and private spaces I have decided that my cladding system will be perforated panels, allowing restricted views both in and out, conceptually exposing the divide between public and private spaces. My structure consists of concrete columns and beams. I have chosen a concrete construction as a contrast with my library building that I designed first. I send the existing concrete facade as part of my intervention for this scheme, and employed an interior structure composed of steel. As contrast is a running theme throughout my project I have also contrasted the materiality of these two schemes. The library concept was about constructing a new intervention within the old, whereas I have chosen to contrast this with the healthcare centre exposing the new materiality, whilst still be sensitive to the historical culture of the area, using concrete construction.


One of the principle spaces in my building is the chapel space. I have deigned this space with the intention to be another aspect to the waiting experience within the building. I feel that this space also grounds the building in Venice contextualising it in a predominantly catholic community. The space is designed with a different typology in form than the other room and areas of the building and is a double height room to give the space a hierarchy above the others.

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