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wine is food

wine is food INTRODUCTION TO WINE A N D WI N E S E R V I C E

by Pablo Aguilar

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- wine is food Wine has no ideological orientation. Wine attracts a variety of people, from atheists to the religious, from philosophers to fundamentalists, from scientists to ideologists, from capitalists to communists and socialists and from many cultures to many other cultures. Wine is timeless, it has values that last a lifetime, such as: happiness, sadness, hard times and liberty. It is limitless, belonging to this planet and the heavens. Wine does not discriminate between the poor and the rich. It was made for everybody as a blessing to be shared with friends and family and to gladden the soul and strengthen our relationships.

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Editors and advisors: Scott Ehrlich Art and Book Design Pablo Aguilar - Photography contribution is a courtesy from: Jenn Reyneri, Vitis International Variety Catalogue and Riedel glass company. Copyright Š 2008-2014 Pablo Aguilar - All rights reserved Published by Latin Connoisseur Corporation No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by Photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the copyright owner. For sales and all other inquiries to use this material should be addressed to: Latin Connoisseur Corporation

www.latinconnoisseur.com info@latinconnoisseur.com --Wine is Food-Introduction to wine and wine service - 1st Edition The Wine is food name is an international registered trademark of Latin Connoisseur Corporation. ISBN: 0-9727641-0-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2004090237 This book is designed to offer general information about wine with an emphasis on the serving of wine. Our editorial mission is not simply to reproduce and print information available to authors and editors; it is to complement, broaden and supplement as effectively as possible the vinicultural knowledge of our readership. We encourage you to read and learn about wines and to use this information as it corresponds to your individual interests and needs. The content in this book was continually updated throughout its publication. Although we have paid close attention to ensuring that the information it contains is complete and precise, typographical and factual errors may occur. The text therefore should be used as a general guide and not as a definitive document about wine. The Publishing arm of the Latin Connoisseur Corporation and the author Pablo Aguilar do not accept any personal or legal responsibility for any direct or indirect harm or loss suffered by any individual or entity from the use of the information in this book.

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table of contents

introducton to wines Author’s Note

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Dedication

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Raising a Toast in Different Languages

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Acknowledgments Author’s Mission

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How Red Wine is Made

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How White Wine Is Made

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Most Used Grapes Today Other Uses for Grapes Most Used Grapes By Country

20-23 24 25-28

Types and Styles of Wine

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Table or Simple Wines

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Red, White, and Fortified Wines

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Generoso, Sparkling, Medicinal Wines

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Red Style Wines by Their Body Structure

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White Style Wines by Their Body Structure

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Regulations for Wine Regions and Varietals

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Benefits of Drinking Wine Moderately

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Bottle Size Chart

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Wine Bottle Chronology

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Bottle Shapes and Sizes Introduction to Wine and Wine Service

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introduction to wine service The Wine Glass - Shapes Appropiate Wine Glasses and Its Uses Holding a Wine Glass Classic Most Used Wine Glasses White Wine Glasses Red Wine Glasses Wine Pour and Glass Size - Maintenance Wine Labels - Brief Chronolog y Wine Label Structure Why Removing Wine Labels - Methods Chart Wine Appearance, Aroma and Taste Quick Chart for Wine Description Proper Wine Service Basic Table and Glassware Setting Tips on Wine Sevice Chart Temperature for Serving and Consuming wine Choosing the Right Wine Opener Opening a Bottle of Wine - Champagne Serving and Pouring Wine Why Decanting Wine When, How & What Wines to Breath & Decant Wine Protocol The Art of Matching Food with Wine Pairings Food by Type of Wines Ground Braking Author’s Pairing Style Author’s Pairing Samples Buying , Serving and Pairing Sherry White and Red Wines Pairing Classic Codes to Use When Pairing Aging Wine Choosing and Buying Wine - Restaurant Sommelier Preserving Wine From an Open Bottle Wine Cellaring and Storage - Wine Enemies Wine Price - Wine is the Perfect Gift Cork Language Blind Tasting - Horizontal, Vertical Process for Blind Tastings Bibliography Glossary Wine is Food Pairing Style in Your Own Words Introduction to Wine and Wine Service

56-57 58-61 62 63 64-67 68-73 74-75 76 78 79-80 81 82 83 84 85 87-88 89 90-92 93 94 95-96 97 98 99-100 101-103 104-105 106 107 108 109-111 112-116 117 118 119 120-121 122-123 124 126 129-170 172-174


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To Sara, Jonah and every person I have shared the dining table

dedication To farm laborers whose daily efforts experience the growth of the grapes and later help convert it into grape juice and then into the finest nectar, wine, the juice which makes us happy and healthy. For those international and national servers that work hard to make a difference and for whom the serving of food and wine has become a daily virtue, for those who make sure that we are satisfied at the table and that our dishes, silver and glasses are clean and who always offer us a free and sincere smile. To those who believe that the dining table represents the epicenter of our social life and the lives of our nuclear families, culture and society. For those who use wine as a bridge to launch a good conversation and thus enrich our relationships with our good friends and family. To every one who consider wine to be one of the best food blessings from the creator and nature. Pablo Aguilar Server -Author

"Vit, is the Latin root of the word viticulture, is also the source of vita - life itself " "Wine is life."

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raising a toast Arab ic (Eg yptian) Arab ic (Kuwa iti ) Ba sque Bu l g aria Fijian Eng l ish Sp an ish Cata lan Ch inese Cro atian Dan ish D utch French G erman Hebre w Hung arian Gael ic (Irish) Ga l ician Ita l ian Jap anese Korean L ithuan ian Mo dern Gre ek Nor we g ian Persian Po l ish Por tug uese Q ue chua R oman ian Russian S erb ian Swe d ish Turkish V ietnamese Y idd ish Finn ish Afrikaans Hawa iian

fe e sa h itkum ! b il-'áf ya ! On e g in ! Top a ! skerriska ! Na zdrave ! Bu la ! Che ers ! Sa lud ! Sa lut ! Txin txin ! Ganb ei ! U zdravlj e ! Skå l ! G e zond heid ! À votre santé ! Prosit ! L e chaym ! Eg észé g e dre ! Slá inte a g us tá inte ! ¡ Saúde ! Sa lute !/Cin Cin ! Kanp a i !"dr y g la ss "Konb e ! I s veikata ! Sten hyg eia sa s ! Skå l ! b eh sa lamati Na zdrowie ! Saude ! V iva s ! Mana ung ug cana Noro c ! Va she zdorovie ! Z xiv j el i ! U zdravlj e ! Skå l ! Afiyettin ize ! Can ly ! (G e zunterhe y t) Ter ve ydek si ! G esond heid ! Oko le Ma luna ! (bottoms up)

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Acknowledgments My sincere appreciation to every person involved directly or indirectly in the making and production of this publication. Special thanks to Scott Ehrlich’s efficient and meticulous editorial work. I deeply thank my friends, Luis and his wife Jennifer Reyneri for their genuine, invaluable editorial and photographic contributions. Many thanks to Sommelier Pieter Verheyde’s great photographic contribution and unique advice. ON EXCELLENCE: My admiration for Chef David Bouley, Chef Alain Ducasse, professionals whose exceptional qualities and gifts revealed and profoundly influenced me in the practice on my enduring search for excellence throughout my professional and daily life. P. A.

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author’s mission Only in the past 50 years the wine and service industries have achieved more than it took humans to figure out about wine history in the past milenium. Clearly it’s an indication of gastronomic progress on why we eat what we eat in a society whose overall food, wine knowledge and sense of adventure is being placed out of their comfort zone and as a result both world interest and new opportunities grow for those who find them. Please use this book as a tool to assist you in learning your grapes and wines so you can find what grapes and what wines you like and get rid of those pre-established wine myths when ordering wine: After all the taste is in your own tongue! and when it comes to tastes and colors you are the only one to make the final call. My intention while writing this book is to simply remind your intrinsic need to experience wine as one more food product on your dining table and to show you and suggest you how to use wine wisely, so you can confidently embrace it, enjoy it and share it with your friends and family. Also this publication will reveal the virtuous and passionate aspect of wine service; because after all we love to be pampered and like to pamper others and without a doubt the table is the perfect setting to do so. My mission is to spread out the wine culture with an emphasis on service under the concept: wi ne i s f ood , be ca u se you sm e ll i t , ta st e i t , ch e w i t a nd s wa llow it . Wi ne i s t he sove re ig n comp lem e nt t o food, whe n b oth c ombi ne d, wi ne b ec ome s food . Wine i s for e ve ryone a nd s hou ld be con sum e d da il y as a ny ot h er food produ ct . Based on this concept any individual or community can incorporate this wine culture into their every day life style, making of wine one of the greatest tools to nurture our bodies and souls among friends and family.

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- wine is food -

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The t ype of g rape used to make wine is the singl e most important factor whe n recog nizing its ta ste and its natural traits Do you know your g rapes?

YES!

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How Red Wine is Made -Harvest (picking) the grapes. -Crush the grapes. -Place crushed grape juice with skins, stems and seeds inside tank.* Red wines get their color from skins of the grape. Tannins come from skins, seeds and stems which provides the wine aging capability. -Add some yeast, if necessary. (yeast promotes fermentation). Yeast could be natural or manmade. Yeast feeds on natural sugar and fermentation begins. -Fermentation usually takes place about two to four weeks. (Malolactic or second fermentation begins later or can be prevented). -Pigeage: Push and mix skins down over the layer of grape skins and fermenting liquid. -As soon as fermentation is complete, press or separate wine from skins. -Place wine in your favorite vessel, wooden (oak) barrel, stainless steel tanks or glass lined tanks to age it. -Rack (act of draining sediment) the wine at regular intervals. -Fine (removing yeast cells and other microorganisms) or filter the wine. -Bottle wine in clean bottles. -Age wine as long as you would like. -Serve it. *Critical differences in the production of white and red wines.

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How White Wine is Made -Harvest or pick the grapes. -Crush the grapes and remove stems. -Press grapes, remove skins, and place the juice into a tank.* White wines may not have contact with the stems and skins therefore it will have little tannin, but it could be added, again, at barrel aging. -Add yeast, if necessary. -Fermentation starts to take place for about two to four weeks. -When fermentation is complete, let wine rest in contact with lees or sediment. -Wine should be kept at a cold temperature. -Rack wine (act of draining sediment from wine). -Place wine in your favorite oak barrel or stainless steel tank to age it. -Age wine as long as you would like. -Fine or filter your wine. -Bottle wine in sterilized bottles. -Serve it. *Critical differences between the production of white and red wines. For unknown terms please refer to our glossary on page # 127.

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Wine is the product of the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice.

Grape Harvesting In regular weather conditions, grape varietals take usually 120-125 days to ripen. In hot weather it usually takes 110115 days to ripen. Finally, in colder weather conditions can take up to 130-135 days.

Widely Used Grape Varietals There are about 5,000 varieties of grapes, but since each can have two or three names, depending the location where the grapes are being grown, 24,000 different names exist for known varietals. I could mention many names for the different type of grapes but this is the best example: in Spain Grenache is called Garnacha, in Australia Syrah is called Shiraz they are the same grapes but each one independently expresses their own personality due to the terroir, climate and wine making styles used to make those wines. Among the most popular ones are: Whites: Airen (Spain's most widely planted grape vari ety), Blauburgunder, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Johannisberg Riesling, Muscat, Pineau De La Loire, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Rheinriesling, Spatburgunder, Weisser, Grenache Blanc, Sylvaner, Marsanne, Roussanne, Pinot Blanc, Viognier, Alvarinho, Torrontes. Reds: Amarone, Alicante, Carmenere, Gamay, Grenache, Montelpuciano, Cabernet Franc, Zinfandel, Grenache, Petit Verdot, Spanna, Barolo.

Most Used Grapes Today Overall today's wine is made from 150 different kinds of grapes, but only 15 types are considered classic and the most important for worldwide vine growth and wine production and I’m listing them with names and photos next page for your review:

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Whites: Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Muscat, Sémillon.

CHARDONNAY

RIESLING

SAUVIGNON BLANC

CHENIN BLANC

MUSCAT

SEMILLON

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Reds: Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Syrah Nebbiolo Sangiovese Tempranillo Malbec Pinot Noir Pedro XimĂŠnez

SYRAH

CABERNET SAUVIGNON

MERLOT

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TEMPRANILLO

NEBBIOLO

PINOT NOIR

MALBEC

SANGIOVESE

PEDRO XIMENEZ

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Other Uses of Grapes Grape Juice The juice is used in the fermentation process is called must. This basic term applies to a juice containing natural sugars destined to be fermented by the yeast’s activity. Yeast feeds on sugar beggining the fermentation process resulting in alcohol, gas, pressure and CO2. When grape juice is not fermented, it usually keeps its name by adding its variety type, for example: Concord Grape Juice: Grape juice is an important beverage because the antioxidants are a nutritious complement to the human diet. Most of the healthy properties found in wine are also found in grape juice. Wine Vinegar: When wine is in contact with air, it oxidizes, and subsequently, with the intervention of certain microorganisms such as acetobacters, it turns sour. Healthy vinegar is naturally extracted from wine and does not have additives. Vinegar is used to season different dishes, like Spanish Gazpacho (cold soup), and especially, salad dressings.

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MOST USED GRAPES BY COUNTRY ARGENTINA Red Grapes: Criolla (Misión), Malbec, Barbera, Bonarda, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah, and Tempranillo. White Grapes: Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc Fortified Wines: Palomino, Torrontes, and Pedro Ximénez. AUSTRIA Red Grapes: Blauburgunder (Pinot Noir), Portugieser, Blaufrankisch, and Zweigelt. White Grapes: Gruner Veltliner, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Rhine Riesling , Muller Thurgau, Weissburg under (Pinot Blanc) Welschriesling , Rotgipfler, Zierflander, and Sylvaner. AUSTRALIA Red Grapes: Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot. White Grapes: Muscat, Chardonnay, Riesling , Sémillon, Trebbiano Sauvignon Blanc, Colombard - Fortified: Sherry, Palomino, Sultana, and Pedro Ximénez. BOLIVIA Red Grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Grenache, Alicante, Barbera, Malbec, Pinot Noir, and Grinolina. White Grapes: Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling , Chardonnay, and Muscat. BRAZIL Hybrids: Concord, Isabella and Niagara. Red Grapes: Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot and Nebbiolo,. White Grapes: Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Riesling , Sémillon, Muscat, and Trebbiano. CANADA Red Grapes: Cabernet Franc, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir. White Grapes: Chardonnay, Gamay, Gewurztraminer and Riesling - Hybrids: Chaunac, Marechal Foch, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc and American varieties: Catawba, Concord, Elvira, and Niagara.

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CHILE Red Grapes: Pais, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, and Pinot Noir. White Grapes: Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Chardonnay Gewurztraminer, Riesling, and Pedro Ximénez. CHINA Red Grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, French blue, Muscat Hamburg, Pinot noir, Syrah, Carignan, and Saperavi. WhiteGrapes: Chardonnay, Italian Riesling, Ugni blanc, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, White Riesling, and Rkatsiteli. FRANCE. Red Grapes: Grenache, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Pinot Noir, Gamay, Syrah, Cinsault, Mouvedre, and Petit Verdot. White Grapes: Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Sémillon, Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Muscat, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Sylavaner, Pinot Gris, Muscadet, and Mauzac. GERMANY Red Grapes: Portugieser, Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir), Trollinger (Schiava). White Grapes: Mullerthurgau, Riesling, Sylvaner, Bachus, Ehrenfelser, Elbing, Gewurztraminer, Chasselas, Huxelrebe, Kerner, Morio Muscat, Optima, Ortega, Rulander (Pinot Gris) Scheurebe and Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc). GREECE Red Grapes: Agiorgitiko, Liatiko, Limnio, Mandilaria, Romeiko Kotsifali, Krasato, Mavrodafni, Xynomavro, Malvasia and Muscat. White Grapes: Savatianó, Aidani Aspro, Athiri, Asyrtiko, Lagorthi, Mavrodaphne, Moscophillero, Robola (Ribolla), Malagousia, Roditis, and Vilana. HUNGARY Red Grapes: Kadarka, Cabernet Sauvignon, Medoc Noir, Pinot Noir. White Grapes: Olasz, Riesling, Welschriesling, Ezerjo, Furmint, Harslevelu, Keknyelu, Leayka, Gewurztraminer, Szurkebarat, Pinot Gris, Sylvaner, Pinot Gris, Muscat, and Ottonel. ISRAEL Red Grapes: Carignan, Grenache, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir. Whites Grapes: Clairette, Muscat, Sémillon, Chardonnay, Sémillon, Riesling , and Sauvignon Blanc. Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


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ITALY Red Grapes: Aglianico, Barbera, Bonarda, Canaiolo, Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara, Nero d’Avola, Dolcetto, Freisa, Grignolino, Lagrein, Lambrusco, Montelpuciano, Nebbiolo, Raboso, Refosco, Sangiovese, Schiava and Teroldego, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Nero (Pinot Noir) , and Syrah. White Grapes: Albana, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Muller-Thurgau, Pinot Bianco, (Pinot Blanc), Pinot Grigio (Pinot Gris), Ribolla, Prosecco, Riesling Italico, Sauvignon Blanc, Trebbiano, Sylvaner, Vernaccia, and Verdicchio. LEBANON Red Grapes: Carignan, Syrah, Mourvèdre, Grenache, Cinsault and CabernetSauvignon. White Grapes: Ugni-Blanc, Muscat Clairette, Bourboulenc, and Chardonnay. MEXICO Red Grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Nebbiolo, Tempranillo, Zinfandel, Petite Syrah and Nebbiolo. White Grapes: Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay, Fumé Blanc, Palomino, Ugni-Blanc, and Moscatel. NEW ZEALAND Red Grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir ,and Merlot. White Grapes: Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat, Chenin Blanc, and Sémillon. PORTUGAL Red Grapes: Alfrocheiro Preto, Alvarelhão, Azal Tinta, Tinta Barraida, (Baga), Bastardo, Brancelho, Borracal, Periquita, Ramisco, Espadeiro, Molar, Negra Mole, (Tinta Negra Mole), Perreira Matias, Tinta Amarela, Tinta Pinheira, Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo), Touriga Francesa, Touriga Nacional, Perdal, Vinhao, Espadeiro, Azal Tinto and Trajadura. White Grapes: Arinto, Assario, Azal, Barcelo, Bical, Boais, Boal, Borrado das Moscas, Branco, Cercereal do Duoro, Encruzado, Esgana Cão, Fernão Pires, Folgosão, Galego Duorado, Loureiro, Maria Gomez, Moscatel (Muscat), Rabo de Ovelha, Roupeiro (Codega), Sercial, Tebbiano and Verdelho. Trajadura, Avesso, and Alvarinho.

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PERU Red Grapes: Malbec, Tannat, Petit Verdot, Barbera, Cariñena, Garnacha, Rubi Cabernet, Alicante, Negra Corriente or Creole, and Quebrantana. White Grapes: Sauvignon Blanc, Ugni-Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Pinot Blanc, Riesling , and Sémillon. SOUTH AFRICA Red Grapes: Cinsault (called Hermitage locally), Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir. White Grapes: Chenin Blanc, (called Steen Locally) Cape Riesling (Grouchen), Clairette Blanche, Colombar, Sémillon, Muscat (Hanepoot), Palomino, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc. SPAIN Red Grapes: Azal Tinto, Baga, Borrical, Tempranillo (Cencibel), Garnacha, Mazuelo (Carignan), Graciano or Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Caiño, Garnacha Tintorera, Tinto Aragonés, Souson and Macia Alicante, Sousón, Ferrón, Mencía, Brancellao, Cariñena (Carignan), Espadeiro, Monastrell, Moreto, Pansa Rosado, Pinot Noir, and Malbec. White Grapes: Airen, Viura (Macabeo) Malvasía, Garnacha Blanc, Viognier, Treixadura, Torrontés, Palomino, Godello, Macabeo, Loureira, Jerez, Malvar, Chardaonny, Sauvignon Blanc, Zarello, Pedro Ximénez, Treixadura, Albariño, Torrontes, Jerezana (Palomino), and Godello. URUGUAY Red Grapes: Tannat, Follie Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot. White Grapes: Sémillon, Ugni Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, and Muscat. UNITED STATES Red Grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel, Syrah, Cabernet Franc, Touriga Nacional, and Tinta Roriz. White Grapes: Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Concord, Catawba, Viognier, Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Elvira, and Niagara.

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Types and Styles of Wine Is important to stress that type and styles of wine are two different things but at one point during wine production they are one. “There are many types of wine in the world, each one with its own personality and style.” "Styles" are determined by the "type" of wine. Each type of wine can be made in a range variety of styles. Ex: Port is a type of wine, fortified, Tawny and Ruby are styles of Port. - Wine type explains: 1 - The alcohol concentration depends on the sugar levels present on the wine; in table wines the sugar concentration usually is between 13% to 15% and fortified wines between 17% to 22%. Sugar concentration in dry wines is lower than 10% per liter in sweeter wines sugar concentration is more than 10 % per liter. 2 - The presence or absence of color. There are three main colors of wine - red, white, and rosé.

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3 - The presence or absence of effervescence on wine. Are those that have bubbles or Carbone Dioxide gas naturally or induced. ex: sparkling wines, Champagne, Cava, Prosecco. 4 - The type of varietals used to make any particular wine is perhaps the most significant factor to identify the wine type. - Wine style explains: 1 - The type of varietals used to make any particular wine is also an important element to identify the wine style. Ex: In most countries (except France) including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and the United States the most remarkable wines are usually labeled by varietal. See most used grapes by country chart on page # 25. 2 - In many countries, the best wines are named after the region or geographical designation where the grapes were grown and the wine was made. Example: Champagne style or Bordeaux style, from France. Chianti style, from Italy. Rioja style, from Spain. Port style, from Portugal and Piesporter style from Germany among others. - Winemaking methods: - Type of yeast used to add or reduce acidity. - Type of wood used for wine aging. - Type of spirit used to fortify wines. - Amount of phenolics compounds used. - Biological processes for wine development being Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


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used like: malolactic fermentation or Sherry techniques. - The geography, climate, and soil composition: The style and the flavors of a wine are also affected by how, where and what types of soils the vines are being exposed to also, the exposure to sunlight, climates and microclimates where the vines grow. This process is also called trellising. It is very important to remember that the same grape type can be grown in France, Australia, California and Chile, but because of the different terroir factors just mentioned above, the resulting flavor and taste in wine from country to country or from district to district are different.

Table or Simple Wines Table wines are used mostly for regular everyday consumption and are usually of lesser quality. These wines are "simple" because these are commonly served and consumed at the table. Simple wines are also known as tranquil or light wines to differentiate these from sparkling wines. Table wines are divided in red, white, pink wines, and a fourth category called clarets that are wines with a color between red and pink.

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Red Wine These wines have a wide range of colors and flavors depending the grape, climate and wine makers style. Overall the ideal color should be between a deep red and mahogany; too much color purple shows youth, while a brownish color shows age. The flavor in reds usually is fruity, tangy or slightly bitter due to the tannins from the grape skins, which at the same time provides a rich color. Red wines lose color with age.

White Wines In white wines there is a range of colors and flavors depending the grape, climate and wine makers style. Overall white wine vary as much in color as they do in taste. White wines gain color with age. On this wine category the color ranges from pale green to yellow, which show it is a young wine. A golden yellow colored wine shows treats of a white wine well aged. In terms of flavor the range goes from fruity, oaky, floral to dry and very dry, generally the taste follows the color characteristics. The greener or unripe it is, the bitterer it tastes. However a dark deep yellow color could be an indication of corruption in white wines.

Fortified Wines Are wines which have been fortified with a neutral spirit or brandy to increase their alcohol content. These wines usually range between 17-24 percent of alcohol and are very sweet.

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Best known are: Port (Portugal), Sherry (Spain), Madeira (Portugal), Malaga (Spain) and Marsala (Italy). Technically the only genuine Ports are produced in Portugal however there are other port style imitations wines produced in other countries as well.

Generoso Wines (Spain) These wines have higher sugar and alcohol levels than table wines. They can be sweet or dry. This effect is obtained by exposing the grapes to the sun before fermentation. By evaporating part of the water and elevating sugar concentration, the alcohol level and flavor intensity increases. Most generoso wines are made in Jerez, Spain, the most important and well-known generoso wines are Manzanilla, Amontillado, and Muscatel.

Sparkling Wines Sparkling wines contain carbonated gas like Cava from Spain, Prosecco from Italy or the archetype of sparkling wines. "Champagne" from the region with the same name in France. The bubbles of sparkling wines are obtained by fermenting the wine for a second time, adding sugar, and yeasts to the base. If fermentation happens inside the bottle, these wines are known as “Method Champenoise” wines. If fermented in a tank of steel, they are called “Method of Charmat” or “Closed Tank Method” wines.

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Similar to sparkling wines are gasified wines, in which carbon dioxide is injected into the wine to give it its effervescence, rather than forming it naturally through fermentation the same process is used in making sodas. Some of these wines are of lower in quality than sparkling ones because the bubbles are thicker. Nowadays modern technology can help produce fine bubbles increasing the wine’s quality.

Medicinal Wines These wines are obtained through the maceration of medicinal plants in alcohol to form an extract that possesses the properties of the plants. The extract is measured into the base wine and sweetened. You can find medicinal wines in traditional pharmacies. Quinado wines are also for medicinal use, but some people drink this kind of wine for pleasure. These wines are made with a wine base and an extract called quinine - quinine is a tree or Chichona ledgeriana.

Aromatized Wines Vermouth is white wine that has been fortified and flavored with different herbs and spices. The word vermouth comes from the German wermut ("wormwood"). The 3 popular types of vermouth are divided into sweet, bitter, and dry categories. The most widely known is dry white vermouth. It is served as an aperitif and used in cocktails such as the classic martini. The red vermouth is served also as an aperitif and in sweet cocktails such as the classic Manhattan. The last vermouth is white and slightly sweet it's called Bianco and it's the least popular of the three.

Wine Style Charts Listed next from the lightest to the most robust wine styles

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RED STYLE WINES BY THEIR BODY STRUCTURE, GRAPE AND ORIGIN L IGH T BODIED Cor vina , Molinara g rapes b a se d wines from: Va lp o l ic el la and Lambr usc o. S orbara , Gra sparossa and S al amino g rapes b a se d wines from Ita ly. Gamay g rape b a se d wines/Gamay-B eauj o la is st yle from U.S. Gamay g rape b a se d wines from : Ch iroub les, Brou l ly, Sa int Amour, Fleurie, Chena s, Ju l iena s, Morg on, Mou l in- à -vent, V in de Savo ie and R e g n ie from Franc e. Dol cetto g rape b a se d wines from U.S. and Ita ly. Portug iese r g rape b a se d wines from Austria , Hung ar y and G ermany. Spatburg und e r g rape b a se d wines from G ermany. Pinot Noir g rapes b a se d wines from Cote D u B eaune from Burg undy in Franc e. Az al Tinto, S e rcial, B a stard o, B orracal, Touriga Nacional and Espad eiro g rapes b a se d wines from Por tug a l . MEDIUM BODIED Cor vina and Molinara g rapes b a se d wines from R e cioto D el la Va lp o l ic el la Amarone. B arbe ra g rape b a se d wines/Verb esc os st yle from Ita ly. S ang iovese and Canaiol o g rapes b a se d wines/Ch ianti Cla ssic o st yle wines from Ita ly. Garnacha , Te mpranill o g rapes b a se d wines from Rioja , Sp a in . Carig nan, Gre nache g rapes b a se d wines from : Corb ieres, Franc e. Cinsault and Carig nan g rapes b a se d wines from Cote de Provenc e, Franc e. Z infand el g rape b a se d wines/Zinf andel st yle wines from U.S. Pinot Noir g rape b a se d wines/Pinot No ir st yle from U.S. Pinot Ne ro/Bl auburg und e r ba sed wines f rom Italy. Cabe rnet S auvig non, Cabe rnet Franc, Me rl ot, Petit Ve rd ot and Malbec g rapes b a se d wines wines/B ordeaux st yle. Most g o o d and top vinta g es from Franc e. Ag iorg itiko and Xynomavro g rapes b a se d wines/Naoussa wine st yle from Naoussa , Gre e c e. Ve rd elho g rape b a se d wine from Madeira , Por tug a l . FUL L BODIED B arbe ra g rape b a se d wines from Barb era in Ita ly. Pinot Noir g rape ba sed wines - Grand Cr u, Prem ier Cr u and top vinta g es from Cote d’or : B eaune, B onnes Mares, Chamb er tin, Cor ton, Musig ny, Pommard , Richeb ourg , R omane e Conti and Vo lnay in Burg undy, Franc e. Syrah g rape b a se d wines from Herm ita g e, Cote R otie and Corna s in Cotes du Rhone, Franc e. Garnacha Tinta g rape b a se d wines in Navarra , Carinena , La Mancha , Pene des, Rioja and Utiel R e quena from Sp a in . Syrah and Gre nache g rapes b a se d wines from Chateauneuf- du-Pap e in the Rhone Va l le y, Lang ue do c and R ousil lon in Franc e. Also from Arg el ia , Israel , Austra l ia , Corsica , Moro c c o and Ita ly (Sard in ia). Tannat and Malbec g rapes b a se d wines from : Franc e, Arg entina , Ch ile, Ur ug uay, U.S. and Austra l ia . Me rl ot g rape b a se d wines from : B ordeaux , Pomero l , La g ue do c and R ousil lon in Franc e. Also found in wines from most re g ions in U.S., Arg entina , Ch ile, Austra l ia . Cabe rnet S auvig non g rape b a se d wines from : B ordeaux , Franc e, most re g ions in U.S., Arg entina , Ch ile, Austra l ia , Bu l g aria , Ita ly and Sp a in . Petit S irah (D urif ) and Syrah g rapes b a se d wines : from U.S. Austra l ia , Bra sil , Mexic o, Arg entina , Ch ile. Carine na and Garnacha Tinta g rapes wines b a se d from Priorato, Sp a in . Z infand el g rape b a se d wines, Zinf andel st yle from U.S. Te mpranill o g rapes b a se d wines from Por tug a l . Rioja and Rivera del D uero, Sp a in . Nebbiol o, Aglianico and S ang iovese g rapes b a se d wines/Ag l ian ic o, Br unel lo d i Monta lcino, Barb aresc o, Gattinara and Baro lo from Ita ly. Mavrod aphne, Limnio and Kotsifali g rapes b a se d wines from : Gre e c e. B oal and Malmse y g rapes b a se d wines from Madeira , Por tug a l . Pe riquita g rape b a se d wines from Por tug a l . Touriga Francesa and Nacional, Tinta Roriz g rapes b a se d wines from Por t, Por tug a l . Pedro Ximenez, Palomino, Moscatel grapes based P.X. (Pedro Ximenez) sweet Sherry from Montilla Moriles, Malaga wines from Jerez Spain. Pedro Ximenez grape based wines from Argentina and Australia.

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WH Y T H EI R B OD HIIT T E ST Y LE W I N ES B BY BO DY S T R U C TURE, GRAPE AND ORIGIN LIGHT BODIED Albariño, Macabeo-Viura and Grenache Blanc grapes based wines from Navarra, Galicia and Rioja in Spain. Alvarinho, Loureiro and Trajadura, Malvasia, Moscatel grapes based wines-Vinho Verde style from Portugal. Chardonnay grape based wines from Poully Fuisse and Chablis in Burgundy, France. Pinot Blanc grapes based wines from Alsace, France and U.S. Sauvignon Blanc grapes based wines from: Loire Valley/Pouilly Fume, Sancerre and Bordeaux/Graves in France. Also from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, Chile and U.S. Kabinett Trocken, Riesling, Sylvaner, Chenin Blanc grapes based wines from France, Austria, Germany, U.S. and South Africa. Semillon grapes based wines from Graves, Gironde in Bordeaux, France. Muscadet grape based wines from Muscadet in France. Muscat Grape based sparkling wines from: Italy, Austria, France, Greece, Spain, Australia, and U.S. Chenin Blanc and Pinot Noir grapes based white and rose wines from Anjou and Rose de Marsannay in France. Garganea and Trebianno grapes based wines: Soave, Venetto in Italy, South America, Australia, Portugal and U.S. MEDIUM BODIED Chenin Blanc grape based wines from: U.S. and other fine sparkling wines from Vouvray in France and South Africa Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, Marsanne and Rousanne grapes based sparkling wines from: Champagne, Saint-Péray and Saumur in Burgundy, France. Chardonnay grape based wines from: Pouilly Fuisse, Chablis, Macon, Saint Veran and Mersault in Burgundy, France. Unoaked from U.S., Australia, Italy, Lebanon, New Zealand, Spain and South Africa. Macabeo, Xarello, Parellada and Chardonnay grapes based table and sparkling (Cava) wines from Penedes, Spain. Prosecco grape based wines from Prosecco, Italy. Pinot Blanc grapes based wines from: Alsace, France and California, U.S., Pinot Bianco grape based wines from Italy. Sauvignon Blanc grapes based wines: oaky and unoaked from U.S. Loire Valley, Graves in Bordeaux, France. Casa Blanca and Maule Valleys in Chile. Mendoza in Argentina. Marlborough in New Zealand and South Africa. Pinot Grigio grape based wines from Italy. Verdejo grape based wines from Rueda, Spain and Viura, Grenache Blanc, grapes from Rioja, Spain. Malvasia and Verdicchio grapes based wines in Orvieto and Frascati, Italy. Asyrtiko, Athiri, Vilana grapes based wines from Greece. Tinta Negra Mole and Verdelho grapes based wines from Madeira, Portugal. Palomino, Pedro Ximenez grapes based Oloroso, Manzanilla, Jerez style wines from: Andalucia in Spain. Mull e r-Thurgau, Sylvane r, Gew ur ztramine r, Moscatto di Canelli, Liebf raumil ch g rapes b a se d wines from Alsac e in Franc e. Austria , Rh ine in G ermany, Ca l iforn ia in U.S. and Piemonte in Ita ly. Riesling grape based white wines from: Austria, Germany, France, S. Africa, Australia and U.S. FULL BODIED Pinot Grigio grapes based wines from Italy. Tokay d’ Alsace grape based wines from: Alsace, France. Pinot Gris grapes based wines from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Romania, U.S., Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Viognier grape based wines from Condrieu, France, California, U.S. South America, Spain, South Africa, Italy and Australia Muscat Grape based sweet, fortified wines from: Australia, Italy, France, Greece, Spain, Australia, U.S.and Portugal Fumé Blanc grape based wines from California, U.S. . Albariño grape based wines from: Rias Baixas (Galicia) in Spain and also widely produced in Portugal. Chardonnay grape based wines form: Chassagne-Montrachet, Puligny Montrachet, Mersault, Corton Charlemagne, Montrachet in Burgundy, France. Chardonnay grape barrel fermented and aged wines from California, Chile, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Lebanon, New Zealand, Spain and South Africa. Grenache, Cinsault, Groslot, Cabernet grapes based rose wines from California, U.S. Rhone Valley and Anjou, France Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc grapes based late harvest-sweet wines from: Sauternes in France, S. Africa, Australia, Chile, U.S. Tokaj Aszú grapes based wines from Carpathian Mts in Hungary. Riesling grape based sweet and late harvest wines from: Austria, Germany, France, South Africa, Australia and U.S. Auslesen style dessert wines from Germany and Austria.

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Regulations for Wine Regions and Varietals In the past few centuries most European countries (leading Portugal in 1756 and France in 1936) developed a geographical system that determines which grapes grow best in specific regions which in turn regulate quality and also their labeling structure. Today as never before the wine boom has led to a massive wine production and most countries and their wine makers in the ongoing effort to organize that productivity more efficiently have adopted stricter laws. Nowadays grape and wine making regulations are a way of doing business. Every country has different wine laws but all of them have something in common: the promotion of production of quality wines. For example, Pinot Noir is the only red grape allowed to be grown in most of the Burgundy region. Touriga Nacional is one of the main grapes used for the production of Port in Portugal. In other wine producing countries such as the U.S.A. often wine makers add the region's name to the varietal name of their wines labels; for example, Napa Valley, Cabernet Sauvignon. In several wine producing regions authorities have adopted standard regulations for the minimum and maximum percentage of a specific varietal used in their wines. Here every label should specifically show the percentage of the grape(s) name used to make those wines as specified by the regulations in that region.

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For example: Chardonnay based wines in the regions of California and Washington must contain at least 75% of that grape; most varietals in Oregon must be 90% of the named grape; and Alsace requires 100%. In Spain following the regulations established by the "Designación de Origen" (DO) system has helped to increase credibility and also has raised wine industry standards around the country, wines that bear this seal label (DO) are guaranteed products by their goverment agencies. This DO system follows the European production model. A designation of Origin guarantees both the quality on wine-making practices, and strict control on production quantity of the grapes and wines that are produced in each area. Spain has 62 Denominaciones de Origen DO each DO and DOC has its own audit council, which regulates wine-making procedures and standards of that region. "Appellation" is a designated growing area governed by the regulations of a local and federal government. The different adjectives used to describe appellation varies from country to country. FRANCE (AOC) APELLATION D’ORIGINE CONTROLEE ITALY (DOC) DENOMINAZIONE DI ORIGINE CONTROLLATA PORTUGAL (DOC)DENOMINACAO DE ORIGEM CONTROLADA SPAIN (DO) DENOMINACION DE ORIGEN

GREECE O.P.A.P. (ONOMASÍA PROELÉFSEOS ANOTÉRAS PIÓTITOS) UNITED STATES (AVA) AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREA

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Benefits of Drinking Wine Moderately Before going into technical details on how and why wine assists our health and souls. It is my duty promoting wine as a food product with nutritional, family values and table balance. Wine is like any other food product, if you eat or drink too much, your body naturally is going to reject it, but if you eat or drink in a balanced manner the result will be beneficial. Wine was made for everybody as a blessing to be shared with friends and family and to gladden the soul and strengthen our relationships. To me that is the first social and cultural benefit when used in moderation. The same way we learned from our parents how to sit and eat properly on the table, we as parents should teach our kids to eat and drink properly. Consuming wine with food moderately with meals is healthy and pleasurable. Not only does it compliment our food, but also serves as a digestive aid. Wine increases the production and flow of gastric juices, which assist digestion by breaking down foods in the stomach faster and more effectively. It has been proven scientifically in several studies that wine is beneficial for human's health if drunk in moderation.

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Based in scientific studies primarely conducted by Dr. Martin Weisse and his colleagues at West Virginia University (published in the British Medical Journal) proved that controlled wine consumption reduces the risk of getting sick from diseases caused by bacteria such as: salmonella, shigella, and e-coli in foods. Wine's natural properties are more successful in destroying the mentioned bacteria than bismuth salicylate (Pepto-Bismol), which takes three to four times longer to kill the bacteria. These type of bacteria commonly causes several unfortunate stomach aches or sicknesses such as dysentery, diarrhea, and food poisoning. Dr. Weisse based on this study suggests that a glass or two of wine drank along with meals can help greatly prevent stomach problems. Wine contains flavonoids (type of water-soluble plant pigment) these compounds are supplements and dietary ingredients known as antioxidants. In addition these compounds avoid free radicals from entering and harming cells, and they possibly guard the body from cancer, heart disease, and other health conditions. In addition the classic “French Paradox� and the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid recommends that wine consumed daily with a meal promotes favorable biochemical interactions, reducing the risk of certain chronic diseases.

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To support this statement several studies have been published through out the years, such case I found in the Journal of the American Heart Association, where it is proven that women who drank a glass of wine each day had a significantly lower risk of stroke, compared to those who did not drink at all. The combination of natural wine compounds with ethyl alcohol, polyphenols taken from popular Merlots, Cabernet Sauvignon, and other red wines, may have particularly advantageous health effects for moderate drinkers. Polyphenols taken from red wines in general slowed the test-tube production of endothelin-1, which is a natural chemical that clogs arteries by triggering the growth of smooth muscle cells in the artery wall, a process that leads to fatty deposits. People who drink red wine moderately (1-2 glass maximum) on a daily basis produced less endothelin-1. My healthy suggestion for you is to drink every dayone or two glasses but with your meals, but alas, drinking alcoholic beverages on an empty stomach or not having moderate drinking habits can and will cause you alcohol addiction and gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcers and in some cases, can cause death. Please drink wine as you would eat any other food product for a healthier diet.

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WINE BOTTLE SIZE CHART Name

Measure

Split tle

Equivalent

187 mill

Half Bottle

One-quarter bot-

375 mill

Half bottle

500 mill Standard Bottle Magnum

Two-thirds bottle

750 mill

Standard bottle

1.5 liter

Two bottles

Double Magn/Jeroboam 3 liter Rehoboam

Four bottles

4.5 lit/5 lit

Six bottles

Imperiale/Methuselah

6 liter

Salmanazar

9liter Twelve bottles (1 cse)

Balthazar

12liter

Nebuchadnezzar 16liter

Sixteen bottles Twenty bottles

12 to 16 lit* Titanic

27 liter

Eight bottles

16 to 20 bottles 36 bottles/Three cases

* Size depends upon producer and origin

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Anticipating Wine Language Bottle History, Shape, Color, and Size Anticipating a wine bottle's content will increase your expectations while you are choosing it, serving it and finally when drinking it. Knowing the history, shape, color, size and understanding how to read the label of a bottle will ensure that you make dynamic purchasing decisions for the wine you really want.

Wine Bottle - Chronology The earliest wine containers were made from animal skins and pottery; ancient wine drinkers stored wine in clay pots called amphorae. In addition, there is evidence of hollow glass vessels from 1500 B.C. in the Middle East, contrary to the many sources who credit the Romans with inventing the art of glassblowing. At the time, bottle sizes, thickness, and quality varied with the individual glassblower. In 300 A.D. the Romans used glass bottles for serving wine, but not for storing because glass was too fragile for transporting. In the 15th century Italy was the leader of glass technology, it began wrapping straw around the fragile glass to avoid breakage. In the 16th century wine bottle shapes were short and fat. In 1635 Sir Keneleman Digby invented the first thick-walled wine bottle.

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In the 17th century wine bottles were long cylindered, thin necked, like the modern bottles. By the 18th century, the first machine to make bottles was made and bottle size and its quality was standarized. During 19th century wine bottles developed particular shapes depending on the regions from which they came from, such as those of Bordeaux and Champagne. Traditional French bottle shapes have become the norm for most wines from the U.S.A. and most viniculture regions of the world. Smaller bottles usually contain unique wine types such as dessert wines. In most cases the bottle shape of French wines tell you where the wine comes from and the style of the wine ex: Burgundy shape. (Burgundy region and style), the same bottle shape for wines from around the world will usually tell you the varietals (type of grapes). Usually the design of wine bottles comes in many shapes, sizes, and colors, which reveal grape type, wine style and country of origin, however this approach is not official, but instead a general guide to identify wine.

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Bottle Shapes and Sizes “ The bottl e shape can sug g est its conte nts� Glass wine bottles don't have any chemical compounds which prevents wine from contamination, glass bottles also are oxygen resistant which prevent wine from spoilage preserving it longer. In the 70s, wine bottle average sizes were from 650 to 850 milliliters, and each designation had their own size, until in 1979 the European Union established the standard size of 750 milliliters (25.4 U.S.A. fluid ounces) this value has been the norm internationally. In addition to the classic standard size there are various smaller and larger sizes available. See bottle size chart on page # 42

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Champagne Bottle The elegant large, tall-necked, thick-walled bottle is the classic shape for storing sparkling wine under high pressure. All champagne and other sparkling wineshaped bottles such as Cava or Prosecco have a recess or indentation (also known as a punt or kick) in the bottom of the bottle. This punt catches the sediment, reinforces the bottle and relieves the pressure of the gas inside the bottle preventing it from blowing out. In general bottles that hold fine sparkling wines have this characteristic.

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Alsace - Rhine Bottle Several dessert wines made in Europe, the new world and in California are bottled in a long-necked bottle that resembles the bottles of Alsace. This tall slim bottle with long shoulders is also called flute or Rhine bottle. It’s color plays an important role in distinguishing the type of wines that go inside this bottle shape. For example in the region of Rhine the color used for this bottle is brown and in the region of Alsace and the Mosel the color used is green. The shape for this bottle is being used worldwide for wines with grape varieties linked with German wine grapes such like Riesling and Gewurztraminer. Most wines produced in South America, Spain and Portugal are in green glass, which is a standard color, although brown or clear are also used.

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For tifie d B ottle This bottle is typically used to store Port, Madeira, and Sherry wines. It is broad-shouldered and long-necked with a bump on its neck that helps traping sediment and preventing particles from escaping along with the good wine when decanted. Port wines tend to produce more sediment than other wines while inside the bottle.

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B ordeaux B ottle Bordeaux bottles use dark green glass and are highshouldered, straight-sided bottles. This is the standard shape for Bordeaux wines in France, which has influenced shapes in many countries and it has become a standard especially for Bordeaux styled wines internationally.

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The Bordeaux bottle has this shape because older red Bordeaux varietals tend to have sediment settled at the bottom. When the wine is decanted or poured into serving glasses, the shoulder of the bottle helps trap sediments and prevent particles from escaping into the good wine. All red Bordeaux wine bottles have green glass, and all white Bordeaux are mostly made in clear glass (with a few exceptions in green), but both have distinctively high shoulders. Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot are bottled in the green glass and Sauvignon Blanc and SÊmillon are bottled in the clear glass bottle. Some wine producers have a modern approach for wine bottle shapes, and do not always maintain the traditional use of bottles for varietals. It usually depends on marketing needs and producer’s taste and wine culture. In addition to the Bordeaux varietals, you will usually find Zinfandel bottled in the Bordeaux shape and some vintner's bottle Sauvignon Blanc-or Fume Blanc in a Burgundy-Chardonnay shaped bottles.

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Burg undy B ottle This elegant shaped bottle with sloping-shouldered can either contain red or white wine. Today this shape is used around the world, to bottle wines with classic varieties associated with classic varietals like: Syrah, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay. It is widely used in Burgundy, France, Spain, U.S.A. and around the world. Pinot Noir is generally found in green glass bottles, while Chardonnay may be found in green or clear glass.

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wine is food - introduction to service -

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Wine Glasses - Shapes Left to right: 1) Red Bordeaux glass 2) Montrachet (Chardonnay) white wine glass 3) Burgundy Red Wine glass (Pinot Noir) 4) Champagne Flute 5) Riesling wine glass

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The Wine Glass the purpose of this tasting instrument

The shape, thickness and volume of the glass is responsible for the first impressions your mouth associates with the wine tasted such as its bouquet intensity and the lasting flavor and quality of the wine on your palate. Wine glasses vary in size, shape and design and of course price. My best suggestion is to choose clear and simple glass without any pattern on (so you can admire the color, clarity and consistency of the wine better). After all food and wine goes inside your body through your eyes first! A wine glass enhances the pleasure and harmony when drinking wine. When a glass is built and used properly it becomes the perfect tool to balance and also improve the wine ritual by combining the three most important elements of wine tasting: natural wine treats, nature itself and the overall wine’s character: smell, taste, and density. Wine glasses have to be designed and built uniquely so when you swirl, smell and taste the wine, your senses recognize grape variety and the uniqueness of that wine.

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Appropriate Wine Glasses and Its Uses You can pour and drink wine from any glass, but the intensity of your experience will depend on the glass you choose to drink your wine, certainly the design of the glass will assist to see, smell, and taste the wine better. Many serious wine lovers choose proper wineglasses for many good reasons.

Quality Glassware = Quality Experience You might think wine can be drunk in any kind of glass, until you experience wine in an especially designed glass. A proper wineglass maximizes the wine tasting experience from the appearance to the most gratifying part: tasting it. My hope is that you find comfortable and functional wine glasses to improve your wine tasting pleasure every second you are drinking this Godly juice. You might even find talented local glass makers in your own town, if that is the case it will be up to you whether you use them or not. Whatever your taste or personal situation is my message here is to exploit as much as we can what wine offers us by using the glass as the ship on our journey. Find below a list of some of the most prolific international glass artisans that have been using fine glass hand-blowing techniques to get the best wine glasses for our pleasure.

Since 1756 the artisans of Riedel, an Austrian high quality wineglass maker produces simple, but excellent quality artis-

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tic wineglasses, it offer a full selection of wineglasses especially designed for each type of wine. Today in the marketplace there is a variety of glasses especially designed for each type of wine. Other outstanding wine glass makers are Baccarat, Steuben, Spiegel, Schott and Zweizel amongst others. Tip: keep it simple and practical. you don’t have to spend a lot of money on a good set of good looking and quality wine glasses. Invest in clear and clean glasses without any patterns. This way you will see and enjoy the wine's color, body, and overall's wine natural beauty clearly. It is better when your glasses have long stems because it will give you more movement and flexibility aswell.

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Holding a Wine Glass Properly

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Wine glasses should always be held by the stem or its base. At normal temperatures, this will avoid warming up the wine. When a wineglass is held directly around the bowl (those with a short stem) its wine will warm up and eventually it will loose its best treats and freshness as any other food product when left for long in a natural enviroment. The stem gives you more flexibility when moving your glass and also keeps heavy fingerprints off the bowl so you can see the wine clearly. Tip to hold a wine glass like a pro: hold it by its base. Do this by holding the edge of the bottom of the glass with you index finger underneath and your thumb on top of it.

Classic and Most Used Wine Glasses Every glass has been designed independently to enhance wine's natural properties for the four senses. As we already know a good wineglass increases the bouquet and results in a better tasting experience. Glass shapes described below are the most commonly used worldwide. When it comes to wineglasses, as a general rule, remember that content determines the shape of the glass. Ex: Bordeaux style glass used for Bordeaux varietals like: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot.

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Champ a g ne Flute This classical shaped glass was developed to avoid spilling and to esthetically expose or show off its luxurious personality by revealing its delicate, sensual bubbles, and enhancing its bouquet and flavorful character. This glass retains more effectively a sparkling wine's effervescence than any other glass. The narrow shape provides fewer places from which the bubbles can escape. Classic connoisseurs recommend you serve your favorite Champagne in the flute because it is pleasurable to drink and brings out the fine aromas from this elixir.

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Classic Tulip (White Wine) The tulip is mostly used for young white wines such as Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Grenache Blanc, Chablis, Viognier, Alvarinho and Verdejo. It is shaped like a tulip, its rim is angled closely to allow the aroma of the wine to remain inside the glass. Since the quantity amount reflects on the wine's temperature, the size allows the wine to keep cooler because white wine is usually served colder than red. In addition other styles have been created for white wines such as the Montrachet glass. Service Tip: using this wine glass when serving Champagne will help enhance the enjoyment of its bouquet and flavor far better than when serving it in the flute. By teaching your guests something new you will leave a good impression on them. Try it..!

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Montrachet Style The wide rim and size of the bowl allows plenty of space for a balanced bouquet to develop. For special white wines from the Burgundy region and other outstanding Chardonnays from a different zone or wine producing country.

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Riesling Wine Glass This uniquely shaped glass is used for white wines based on Riesling, Gewurztraminer or Muscat grapes. The open lip structure allows air to go inside faster and blend in with the wine and eventually promoting the wine aromas more intensely.

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I.S.O. Glass International Standard Organization designs glasses for wine tastings. The organization recommends that a glass carry approximately seven and a half ounces of liquid. This glass is designed for professional wine tasting and ideal to taste still wines. If any of these elegant wine glasses are not available simply use the classic tulip glass for white wines and an all-purpose wine glass for other wine types as long as they are clean and flawless your experience still will be lovely

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Classic Red Wine-Glass The structure of the classic red wine glass is wider and rounder in shape. The wider rim and long bowl allows more air inside the glass and enhances the aroma of wines. The large shape helps maintain red wine at room temperature, which is the ideal serving temperature for red wines. Here there are three main glass styles on this category: Bordeaux, Burgundy and Goblet.

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Bordeaux Style It gives breathing space to both young and more mature wines, revealing the various layers of bouquet and delivering a full variety of aromas for wines based on Bordeaux blends such as: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc in addition: Brunello di Montalcino, Sangiovese, Sangiovese-Grosso and Spanish reds.

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Burg undy St yle The larger bowl and smaller rim allows the full development and delivery of the bouquet directly to the nose and the fruit expression of the wine and its flavors to your palate. Use the following wine styles for this type of glass: wines based on the Pinot Noir and Beaujolais (red Burgundies), Barbarescos, Barolos, Blauburgunder, Dornfelder, Grenache Noir. In addition this type of glass is well suited to serve Syrah based wines however today there is a glass designed for this type of wine as well. - Syrah Style Glass: Syrah, Red Rhone varieties. If any of these elegant wine glasses are not available simply use the classic red wine glass as long as they are clean and flawless your experience still will be lovely.

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Classic Glass - Paris Goblet Restaurants and hospitality related professionals use this medium sized all-purpose glass to serve both red and white wines.

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Port, Sherry Glass or Copita This thin and long shaped glass is perfect for aperitif wines. Its medium size is the most appropiate to hold and pour the right amount of rich Port or Sherry wines.

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Wine Pour and Glass Size The size of a glass affects the quality and intensity of the aromas. The space allowed to make a wine breath has to be chosen according to the personality of the wine. Red wines: are served in large glasses with sufficient breathing space. White wines: are served mostly in medium sized wineglasses. The standard and wine glass size for a table wineglass is 12 ounces, of which approximately only 4 ounces should be poured in, depending on the type of wine.

Service Tip: A great rule of thumb is to fill only 1/3 of a glass with wine to let it breath.

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Wine Glass - Maintenance Do not be afraid to wash your glasses by hand. I usually recommend not to use any detergent but only warm water, then dry it with a glass polishing cloth. However if you do apply soap use a light detergent depending on how greasy or dirty the glasses are and use lukewarm water, because when using hot water, the extreme heat can expand the glass and break it. Fine crystal glasses should not be washed in the dishwasher, but by hand, however if you prefer to do so, make sure to regulate the temperature by selecting a gentle cycle. Be aware when using the dishwasher, many times the soap used remains inside the glass once they are dried, leaving a stain on the glass, which is difficult to remove it once its dried. Aditionally it will produce a negative taste, produced by the mix between the new wine you pouring and the soap. After glasses are washed place on a wine-glass rack if you have one, otherwise let the glasses drain on top of a napkin exposed to air. Before polishing, steam your glasses over a bowl with boiling water for that extra shine and cleanness. Then dry the glasses with clean lint-free linen that has been washed without fabric softener.

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When wiping a wine-glass, use one cloth on each hand, one to hold the bowl and the other to wipe it. Clean gently without forcing the cloth to the glass. Then finally when glasses are clean and shiny-clear place them standing (not upside down) ready for service. Tip: once they are ready for service place them on a tray. It’s a time-saver.

Wine Label Chronolog y In the old times when wine merchants would sell wine by the measure, it was typical for people to buy their wine supply by using their own bottles with their personal seal on it. Hand-made paper labels identifying the contents of that wine were developed in the late 1800s. Printed labels were produced after 1860. Today wine levels come in all colors and shapes you can find real art master pieces on a wine level. It is obvious that winery owners and their marketing companies work hard to leave a strong impression in their audience’s mind.

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How to Read Wine Labels The label explains in more detail a wine's character. Labels reveal the country of origin, vineyard name, agricultural community or cooperative, the region, and grape variety. Because of the region's dominant features, this information should be enough to anticipate the wine's personality. The label should have the year of the vintage, which is a guide to determine the quality of the year in which the wine was produced determining the region's climate and the season of the vintage, especially in regions with temperate climate. Also, if the wine is a meritage or blend, then the name of the different vintages or grapes should be listed as well. Knowing the vintage is vital, especially, if the wine is aged. The life span of a fine wine ranges from ten years to a century. During this period of time, wine can go through different stages like changes in color and its complexity development.

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78 QUICK WINE LABEL STRUCTURE

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Wine brand-name Name of the producer Logo, seal or producer's art work Bottler's name and address Name of the importer Name of the shipper or importer Alcohol content percentage by volume Volume of the bottle's contents The country of origin Sulfite advisory Health department recommendation Wine Varietal Quality of the wine Wine vintage Growing region, apellation or vineyard Type of wood where ageing took place Type of wine Wine producer name Wine was bottled on premises Wine tasting and description notes Cellaring & service recommendations

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WhyRemovingWineLabels Wine labels may be removed from the bottle for several reasons: - keeping track of wine you have tasted - maintaining a record of prices - just because you enjoy wine labels. For some wine lovers, this actually has become a hobby. At first removing wine labels can be tedious and frustrating work, but if you are patient, it will be only a simple routine. The difficulty to remove labels depends on the adhesive or glue used by the wine-maker. The old fashioned bottles from the old world have glue or adhesive that is weaker and easier to soften, and labels come off easily. The New World labels have glue or adhesive that is stronger and more difficult to remove. Find which method works best for you in the chart on page # 80. Service Tip: If you notice one of your guests is enjoying the wine He/She bought, do the following: tell your guest you have something special for him/her later. Then go take the label off the bottle and place it on a card with a hand written note on it, leting him/her know it was a pleasure serving him/her. They will appreciate not only the time taken to make of the ocassion even more memorable. Surely they would understand how seriously you take wine service and their needs. And last but not least you will really appreciate the hand shake (tip left for wine Sommelier or waiting staff ).

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METHODS FOR REMOVING WINE LABELS 1)-Hot Water Method Fill a tall jug with hot water and add a teaspoon of detergent. Also, fill the wine bottle with very hot water and place inside the jug. After 20-30 minutes, you will see the label floating in the jug or hanging loosely on the bottle. If the label has come off, leave it soaking. If the label is still on, dry the bottle well and peel carefully with a sharp knife. Be careful not to break the label because sometimes soap deteriorates the label. 2)-Icing Method At restaurants and parties, some wine bottles need to be kept cold for better enjoyment. The server places the bottle in a wine bucket with ice and keeps it there until you finish drinking. By the time you have finished the bottle, the wine label has completely fallen off the bottle. 3)- Steam ing or S weati ng Meth od You can sweat the bottle in the hot vapor of boiling water for 5 to 8 minutes. This leaves the adhesive loose and ready to be taken off and also leaves the bottle clean. 4)- Commercial Steamer (expresso machine) A commercial grade steamer used in restaurants exposes the steam directly to the side with the label After 3 to 5 minutes the label will peel off easily. 5)-Laminating Method Purchase a pack of label scotch pads at any office supply store. Fill wine bottle with hot water, place the clear adhesive sticker on the bottle, and rub firmly. Leave it for a few minutes and peel it off. Now you not only have your label but it is laminated as well. Its available on the web.

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Wine Appearance, Aroma and Taste Although the label should show the wine's identity, you could rely on simple and easy methods to further discover the wine's identity.

Color: You can distinguish the age of a wine by its color and from time to time how this wine was made. Aging increases color in white wines and decreases color in red wines.

Aroma: The aroma is liberated when wine is agitated or swirled in the glass revealing its components to the air.

Taste: wine tasting will help you recognize and evaluate the different physical properties of the wine and allow you to express your impressions in terms of color, aroma, and flavor on the palate. With time and experience you will not only train your palate, but also acquire the vocabulary to help you define the sensations. The only one that will reveal the true character of wine is wine itself.

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QUICK CHART FOR WINE DESCRIPTION APPEARANCE - Radiant, tenuous, limpid, greasy, bright, star-bright, glycerine, and dense.

COLOR - Brilliant, clean, opaque, or dark. - White wines could be light, greenish, healthy, straw, amber, citrus, copper, mahogany, golden, gold, or green with a yellow rim. - Red wine could be light red, violet, cherry, dark, faded, reddish, brownish, chocolate, brick, deep, ruby, earthy, purple, or violet.

NOSE OR AROMA -Personality: floral, fruity, vegetal, animal, spicy, woody, limpid, dirty, and dense. . -Intensity: light, medium, heavy -Quality: superb, acertive, elegant, pleasant, mediocre, or unpleasant.

MOUTH - In mouth: rich, big, concentrated, greasy, mature, soft, velvety, fluid, smooth, rough, fresh, sweet, honeyed, rich, acid, tannic, brief, thin, weak, plain, or green. - Body: alcohol (poor, weak, balanced, normal, spicy, hot, or warm). - Consistency: full, round, meaty, or delicate and chewy. - Tannin: rich, bitter: tannic, astringent, hard, rough, citrus and dry. - Palate: ample, consistent, tight, long, short, or weak. - Finish: long, short, extensive, pleasant, nonexistent, unpleasant, bitter, persistent.

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Proper Wine Service Temperature to Serve and Drink Wine White and sparkling wines taste better when they have been deep chilled for a couple of hours before being served. Do not leave the bottle inside an ice bucket for too long because the extreme cold will restrain its aromas and will diminish the flavors of the wine. Overall for your complete satisfaction you should drink wine at a certain or specific temperature. Remember, that you have more chances to ruin a wine when served warm rather than cold. It is easier to warm up a cold wine, but harder to cool warm wine. Warm wine tastes too alcoholic. In case you are unsure about the wine serving temperature, remember the rule of thumb: colder is safer.

Why Some Wines are Served Cold? Wines are served cold to boost properties and refresh the palate. Wine is best when served cold in summer and spring. Certain wine are more enjoyable when cold. However keep an eye when you are served extremely cold wine, it might be a sign that you are buying cheap or old wine. Bad quality or inexpensive wine flavors and defects can be covered with a deep chill; the cheaper the wine the colder it might be served. High quality red or white wines should never be excessively chilled or served too cold.

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Basic Table Setting With Seat Position Numbers Placed Clockwise Silver / cutlery: left to right: - butter plate with butter knife on - Appetizer or salad fork - Main course or dinner fork - Show plate* with folded napkin on Front of show or dinner plate: - Spoon and fork for dessert and coffee service Right side of show dinner plate: - Main course or dinner knife - Appetizer or salad knife Glassware / clockwise top left to right: - Champ a g ne, water, wh ite wine and re d wine g la sses . Ke ep g la ssware format refle cting the d ifferent c ourses-p a iring s ava ilab le. Usua l ly l ig ht wines fo l lowe d by f u l l b o d ie d wines . *show plate: term referring the use of a dinner plate for cosmetic purposes to make the table setting looks more elegant. Usually this plate holds the appetizer and soup plates and then later it is used to serve the main course. Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


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Wine Serving Tips Chart - White wine before red wine - Light wine before heavy wine - Dry wine before sweet wine - Simple wines before complex wines - Provide each guest a separate glass for each wine - If serving two kind of wines, provide half bottle of each wine per every two people. - If serving four type of wines, provide one bottle for every four people - If your guest had a glass of wine but He/She wants to try a new type of wine pour the new wine in a clean glass. - To get your wine cold very quickly place ice in a bucket with some water and salt, submerge the bottle and after a few minutes the result will be satisfying reflecting the quickest wine chill you ever had. - White wines are served colder than red wines. - Complex, subtle, and full-bodied wines should be served with minimum temperatures. - White, fruity, and sparkling wines are served colder in warm temperatures, because it increases the aromatic quality of the wine. - In cold climates, the temperature reduces the aroma and flavor. - Lighter, younger and fruitier reds can be served slightly chilled. - Fuller bodied and tannic reds should not be chilled, but served at 60ยบ F. - Sparkling wine bottles have thicker walls and require extra chilling time. If a bottle with sparkling wine is opened without a proper chill or if it's shaken up, it will foam and spill thus resulting in loss of precious liquid that is a waste and it could be avoided by being careful. Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


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Served at Room Temperature As discussed before reds are perfectly fine served at room temperature but whites are better served colder but if what you want is room temperature for your white wines no questions asked simply check if temperature is stable. If the environment is comfortable and there is a balance in the wine temperature, no problem, wines will do fine at constant room temperatures. For accurate wine serving temperatures please check chart on following page.

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S E R V I N G

T E M P E R A T U R E S °F °C N OTES 100° 39° Warm Bath 66° 19° Vintage Port 64° 18° Bordeaux, Shirah, 63° 17° Baga,Tannat,RedBurgundy,Cabernet 61° 16° Pais, Rioja, Malbec, Pinot Noir 59° 15° Chianti, Zinfandel, Tempranillo, Grenache Noir 57° 14° Tawny, NV Port, Madeira 55° 13° Perfect storage for all white wines 54° 12° Beaujolais, Rose 52° 11° Airen, Viognier, Sauternes 48° 9° Garnacha, Chardonnay 47° 8° Albariño, Riesling 45° 7° Champagne,Sparklingwines,Cava 43° 6° Ice wines 41° 5° Spumanti 35° 2° Fridge temperature 32° 0° Water freezes 0° 18° Freezer temperature Average Wine Serving Temperatures: 45-50 °F or 7-10 °C White Wines: 50-65 °F or 10-18 °C Red Wines: 45-55 °F or 7-13 °C Rosé Wines: Sparkling Wines: 42-52 °F or 6-11 °C Fortified Wines: 55-68 °F or 13-20 °C

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Choosing the Right Wine Opener Before you start opening your wine bottles make sure you get a solid wine opener otherwise you will be using a weapon against your fingers and your hand. You might find hundreds of them but the trick is to find one that suits your hand size and grip needs. Service Tip: Pressing firmly and steadily cut the seal around the second lower lip of the bottle. Make sure the knife of your wine opener is sharp without indentations (what you are going to cut is plastic or aluminum not a piece of steak) it will help you get a clean cut and help you avoid breaking the seal unevenly which looks sloppy and it will save you the embarrassment of showing that you don't know how to open a bottle of wine properly.

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Opening a Bottle Gently handle the bottle from its bottom or let it rest in a stable surface, without moving it around or shaking it. Make sure you cut the seal under and around the second lip of the bottle. If you get a clean cut of that part of the seal you will be able to pull it out intact which in turn will show that you are a pro. In bottles where top seals are difficult to separate from the head of the bottle because they have been placed under pressure or simply are too old and just can't get off the bottle, you might have to make a straight vertical insertion with your knife from the top of the bottle of the seal to the end of the bottom of the second lower lip so you can be able to loosen it up and then pull it out completely. Once you have taken off the upper part or the entire seal and have the cork area exposed, place the corkscrew on top of the bottle in the middle of the cork and continue pressing and turning steadily the screw inside the opener until you feel you are comfortable to pull the cork out slowly and completely. Once the cork is off the bottle, clean the lip of the bottle with a service napkin, making sure there is no sediment residual.

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Before serving the guests and as a normal routine a professional sommelier would taste the wine confirming the guest the wine they chose is healthy. (It's reasonable to pour in a sommelier glass (or in a taste-vin like in the old days) about 1-2 ounce. Service Tip: Pulling the whole bottle seal intact. You do this by surrounding the seal around the neck of the bottle with the palm of your hand, pull and twist it smoothly until is out or you can take it out by following the process I had suggested before.

Why Would I Do That? - When you decant a rare, expensive or special bottle of wine. - After you have decanted or transferred the wine from the bottle to the decanter you want your guest to admire that bottle of wine in all its magnificence without interrupting the curse of their meal by placing that bottle of wine over a wine cluster at the age of the table in front of your guests exactly the same way it looked before it was presented when it was unopened. That means that you should place the seal piece you pulled out, back where it was so the bottle actually looks just like if it wasn't opened.

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Opening a Bottle of Champagne - If the bottle of champagne is still wet, wipe the bottle off with a dry napkin or cloth. - Then place it over a stable surface or hold it firmly. - You can take the seal off or you can leave it on when uncorking the bottle of champagne. - If needed and for safety reasons place a napking on top of the bottle of champagne. - Place one of your hands with your thumb on top of the sealed cork while loosing the wire cage carefully with the other hand. - Once the wire is loosen but not taken out, with your palm and thumb still pressing and controlling against the cork, hold the botttle with your other hand until the cork is released and gas is gently released just like a whisper. - Wipe off the bottle’s neck to get rid of the dirt and cork remains. - To serve, hold the bottle firmly from the opposite side exposing the label to the guest or client.

Service Tip: Open a bottle of champagne by loosing the wire and holding the seal and cork together firmly until its open. If it begins to foam when the cork is popped, hold the bottle at 45Âş angle and the foam will stop.

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Serving and Pouring Wine Before serving the guest, as a normal practice a professional sommelier would taste the wine confirming the guest the wine they chose is healthy and ready for consumption. It's reasonable to pour in a sommelier glass, if available (I.S.O. page # 68) about 1-2 ounce. This routine has become standard and most adequate procedure in the fine dining industry to make sure wine is at its peak and ready to be served. I suggest you to serve wine as follows: - Holding the bottle from its base and with the label facing the guests so they can see what they are drinking. - Begin pouring only a taste (1 ounce) to the person who chose the wine usually the host or hostess of the ocassion. - Then after the guest has tasted and approved the wine, start serving ladies and then gentlemen clock-wise around the table serve only about three ounces on each glass and then to complete the pouring routine going back to the first person who served the wine completing the three ounces pour. - When serving wine pour it vigorously but carefully to add up additional breathing to the wine, remember the pour always should be only a third of the glass, leaving enough breathing room for the guest to swirl the wine inside the glass to let the aromas and flavors come alive as the wine interacts with air. - When serving Champagne or sparkling wines, fill the flute a little more to show off the bubbles. - Never fill any glass to the brim. After red wine is served, and the bottle is halfway empty, place it on a wine bottle coaster on the side of the table without disturbing your guest space. Service Tip: Do not wait until your guest's glass is totally empty; check the glass occasionally for refills.

Serving Quantities - A wine glasss should never be filled to the brim. - Red wine should be filled with 3 to 4 ounces. - White wines 3 ounces - Spirits 1 ounce. Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


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Why Decanting Wine? - During the aging process, old wine (port especially) will form a deposit or layer of sediments, which is removed by "decanting the wine". - This practice will benefit especially red wines and some white wines. If a bottle contains sediment, serving wine in a wine decanter will help leave sediment behind. -Decanting softens out tannins by exposing the wine to air and allows fruity flavors to come out. - The second main purpose of decanting wine is to expose wine to oxygen. By practicing vigorous decanting we allow aromas and flavors to expand faster, it is the equivalent of leaving the wine breathing for many hours inside an open bottle. - Overall decanting is the most effective means of allowing a red wine to breathe. - Young wines are decanted for breathing purposes - Older wines are decanted for both reasons. To remove sediment from the liquid and for breathing. Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


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Steps For Breathing wines - Natural or Simple way: After opening the bottle let the wine stand open for one hour before service. Some full bodied or old wines require longer breathing time. - Via Decanter: Hold the decanter with one of your hands while pouring or transfering vigorously the wine inside a decanter or carafe. (Don't allow any residual sediment on the carafe or decanter)

When, How and What Wines Should Be Decanted -Young white wines that have noticeable traces of sulfur need vigorous decanting to disperse its odors. -Young Robust Red Wines. New wines are released quickly so they are still very tannic, which hides its fruity flavors with astringency. -Before decanting, a bottle of old red wine should be set upright for a day or two just to make sure the sediment has fallen and settled on the base. - If this is not possible the wine should not be decanted, but served very slowly directly from a cradle or serving stand directly. - Older wines reach their peak two to three hours after decanting, while others begin to fade in that time. If you aren't sure, is safer to decant the wine near serving time.

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Steps For Decanting Fully Aged and Mature Wines These wine category usually have heavy sediments. I would definetly suggest you following these steps: light up a candle with a match, the smoke from a match won't interfere with your olfactory impressions of the wine you will be tasting and it won't be as intrusive as if you were using the gas from a lighter, and finally you will continue using the traditional wine service step that has been used for many years in the old world. To turn the match and candle off, do not blow them off but instead press or pinch the match or the flame from the candle using your index and thumb fingers until is completely off. This will save you all the smoke from the match that is released when blown off. Once the candle is lit place the flame beneath the neck of the bottle which will be inclined at 45 degrees, then carefully and ensuring you are pouring only the actual wine and not the sediment. Begin pouring wine slowly into the decanter so you see the detail of the sediment coming out approaching the neck of the bottle then stop it slowly until it settles back inside the bottle before it leaves the bottle to the decanter. Older wines may be very fragile, and if you use a too vigorous pouring it may dry out the fruit and tannins, be gentle on the pour. If a candle is not available for decanting look for a bright area with enough light so you can see the detail of the sediment coming out approaching the neck of the bottle.

Wines With Heavy Sediment Old vintage port is always decanted because it brings heavy sediment and often times even crusted sediment and its cork is very difficult to remove it intact. Set the bottle upright for a few days before opening, once the bottle is open decant the wine through a classic wine funnel, cheesecloth, sterile gauze, or a coffee filter. Pour slowly so the sediment and pieces of cork are caught in the filter. Follow same transfer bottle-decanter instructions as explained before.

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Wine Proto c o l - Red wines should be on the table already open and whites and rose wines should remain inside a wine bucket filled with ice and water. - The host should find out his/her guest wine preferences in advance. - The host should taste the wines before serving to make sure the wine is healthy and ready for service. -Always serve women and elders first, then men and the last served should be the host or hostess. -It is not recommended to wear any perfume or strongly scented oils or any strong fragrant scents when you attend a wine tasting. The strong scents will interfere with you and your colleagues senses while tasting the wines. - Avoid sucking candy or chewing gum. It will alter the taste of wine. Try to wash and rinse your mouth with water before you start tasting wines. - Be natural when explaining the wines you taste. Use a simple but concise vocabulary that would explain mainly taste treats, geography and technique used to make that wine. -Smoking will interfere in the taste of the wines tasted. In addition it might be offensive to other guests, or others performing the wine tasting.

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W I N E TA S T I N G “The single most important factor to understand wine and its taste is to learn the grape varieties used to make that wine.“

The Art of Pairing Wine With Your Favorite Dish Food and wine complement and bring each other's best qualities. Once you have learned and are familiar with some pairing techniques It will make you feel satisfied and will bring you pleasure and self-satisfaction. For those wine lovers and professionals that are not familiar with a specific wine trend or culture; is important to learn the historical and cultural links between food and wine of a specific place which will offer you a better understanding on what type of wine should be paired with a specific kind of food. If you appreciate the art of service, get all the necessary information to clearly let your wine server know what you like or do not like. Follow your taste buds', preferences and instincts, and see if both your wine and food inside your mouth work harmoniously. The main goal of your eating experience is to fully enjoy the meal. A few things to consider are the food's size, weight, richness, and intensity. When you pair food and wine, you need to create balance and improve each of those elements. Pair your food and wine based on these recommendations. Once you are familiar with the different flavors and textures from a particular type of ingredient or cuisine, the limits will be established only by your natural intuition and your knowledge about wines.

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Certainly there are unlimited ways to pair food and wine, which truly makes it a beautiful art and a great pleasure in life.

PAIRING FOOD BY TYPE OF WINES Young white wines are refreshing, clean and have fruity, citrus, apple, and pear like flavors. Make good pairing with salads, fish, shellfish, spicy dishes and cheese. (Chardonnay, Verdejo, Albarinho, Viognier). Sparkling wines are crispy, refreshingly efferevesent show elegance with its mineral treats from the soil, fresh fruity treats from green apples, toasty nuts and since it's a very versatile wine it virtually pairs with any food flavors and textures. It is usually good for Hors d'eouvres, desserts, any berries and chocolates. (Chardonnay, Pinot Noir or Vouvray style wines). Oaky or silky white wines are creamy, toasty, oaky and have vanilla, honey & melon complimentary flavors. Makes good pairing with pasta, chicken, fish, soft cheese. (California style wines based on the Chardonnay and Viognier grapes). Young and aged crispy fruity white wines tend to be refreshing, clean and have fruity, citrus, floral treats, and floral like flavors. Makes good pairing with cheese, sea food salads, fish, shellfish, spicy dishes. (Fine wines based on varieties such as: (Chenin Blanc, Riesling and Gewurztraminer). Aged rich white wines have minerality treats such as earthyness, refreshing floral tones and classic fruity treats from the varietals such as balanced lemon acidity. But are also slightly buttery which in turn make good pairing with buttery creamy sauces, oily fish, white meats, salads, pizza, pasta, salmon, chicken. (Fine aged Burgundy style wines based on the Chardonnay varietal).

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Simple fruity red, young and juicy reds are earthy and silky a classic treat from the terroir. In addition they bring mostly red fruity treats from the grapes used. They pair well with pasta, red meats such as: lamb, pork, veal and beef. (Burgundy style wines such as Bourgogne Rouge or Beaujolais wines based on Pinot Noir and Gamay grapes). Round wines are usually intense, complex, with heavy flavors with treats of coffee, leather, chocolate, pepper. They make good pairing with spicy dishes, rich beef and sauces with intense flavors, also hard and rich cheeses. (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot or blends). Fortified wine styles are syrupy, thick, woodsy sweet wines that have been fortified with brandy and oftentimes flavored with herbs, roots, peels, and spices. Classic examples are: Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Port, and Vermouth. These wines make good pairing to desserts, fruit, pastries, sorbets and ice creams. Fortified wines are often used in cooking, and they are served as aperitif or dessert wines. (Wines based on varieties such as: Pedro XimĂŠnez, Malvasia and Touriga Nacional). Late harvest wines that are sweet uniquely aromatic, are thick in texture their most classic flavors are caramel like, woodsy, perfumed, exotic fruits and pair perfectly very rich foods such as foie gras, duck confit or sweeet breads or Asian spicy foods. (Fine wines based on varieties such as: SĂŠmillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Riesling and Gewurztraminer).

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Ground - Brea king Author’s Pairing Style While traveling across the U.S. promoting a wine portfolio and its brands. I decided I was going to take an innovative approach to pairing wine to food . Day after day during a month I performed officially my wine style based on the notion WINE IS FOOD because you can extract every food element from a wine and reflect those ingredients on a particular dish. After I completed my work and my pairing test exercise and after receiving an overwhelming positive feedback from my guests I came to the solid conclusion I had actually started an innovative style of pairing wines to food in a very entertaining, virtous and effective approach. In other words I did and continue practicing the opposite of what the conventional Sommelier pairing does which is basically pairing the available wines with the dishes already available on the menu or the table. PAIRING WINE TO FOOD IS A NON CONVENTIONAL AND UNIQUE PAIRING STYLE; IT IS AN ENTERTAINING “DINING EXPERIENCE” BUT REQUIRES SOME THOUGHT, PATIENCE AND PLANNING BETWEEN THE CHEF AND THE WINE SERVER OR SOMMELIER. THIS GROUNDBREAKING PROCESS IS A RECIPE WHERE VIRTOUSITY IN SERVICE AND YOUR NATURAL INSTINCTS ARE THE MAIN INGREDIENTS.

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- The process begins in detailing and spelling out every single food product (detected by you and your senses) available in the wine you are choosing. - Once you have found and written down every food element found in your wine, is time to buy those ingredients in the market and reflect and prepare them in a way that both wine and food enhance and compliment each other as one. -On the table: always wine has to be served before the food arrives to the table that way you can get to now the wine better with a couple of sips previous your meal. When food arrives and your guests are ready to eat, you as the host or hostess will be the first to witness, smell and taste your actual work on the plate and the wine glass. - At this point you are in the last and most exciting stage of “pairing food to the wine you chose� and noe is time to get back the impressions from your guests, but that will be only possible if you explain to them in detail all the pairing process from the beginning when you chose the wine through the cooking and finally to the serving point at the table. Certainly they will be impressed, delighted and satisfied because you took not only the time to go through all the process for them but also you gave them a fresh meaninful dining experience and approach to enjoy food through wine. Af ter a l l who do esn't l ike to b e p amp ere d !

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PAIRING SAMPLE I'm going to choose 2 food friendly and versatile wines I like: MONTECILLO BLANCO (Serve it chilled) This aromatic mineral white wine based 100% on the Spanish indigenous grape "viura" which brings hints of olive oil and creamy elements coming from its fermentation process in steel tanks, additionally has delicate aromatic elements of dill combined with crispy refreshing fruity notes of pear, green apple and intense hints of tomato spicy citrus. Based on these elements I chose my dish: JALAPEテ前 -DILL TUNA CEVICHE Every element from the wine I chose to build this dish will pair harmoniously the fruity, aromatic and citrus flavors from this dish and will compliment the silky spiciness of the overall jalapeテアo dill tuna preparation balancing and intensifying its flavors.

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MONTECILLO CRIANZA (serve it slightly cold)

With well-assembled complex aromas of red fruits and fine woods. The taste elements from the nose reflect also in the palate with a subtle but straight forward attack with fresh spicy, oaky vanilla bouquet blended with hints of vegetable elements that linger for long in the mouth. Based on these elements I chose my dish: PAELLA Clearly the multicultural variety of ingredients in the paella such as: chorizo, shrimp, clams, mussels, rice, peppers and chicken show the versatility of this wine pairing and balancing them completely. Here the spicy over tones of the chorizo pairs very well the spice and earthy tones of this unique and luscious crianza becoming the most important aspect of this marriage. The powerful and intense Rioja personality of woodsy elements blend every ingredients with elements offers a balanced and pleasant combination of flavors in your palate.

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B U Y I N G SERVING AND PAIRING SHERRY The best foods to pair with Sherry are sea- food or the well known "Spanish tapas." Serve it cold. If you serve Sherry at a social event or you buy it from a restaurant, make sure the Sherry, Fino or Manzanilla, is fresh. Freshness of this wine is crucial, because it will make a difference in the quality of its flavor. At some restaurants, once servers have opened a bottle of Sherry, Fino or Manzanilla, the bottle oftentimes remains open for long periods of times, which results in the oxidation of the product. Once a bottle of Sherry is opened keep it no more than one day. Fino and Manzanilla, oxidize or turn rancid once exposed to air. In Jerez its usually sold in half bottles, which in the end is more practical and ideal for a meal. Amontillados, Olorosos and creams will last much longer. Try to buy Sherry from a trusted source to ensure the integrity of our next bottle of Sherry. There is also the classic sweet sherry that may be paired with desserts as well.

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WHITE WINE AND FOOD PAIRING Chardonnay: veal, turkey, seafood made with butter, ham, chicken, pasta made with butter or cream. Gewurztraminer: muenster cheese, spiced/peppered cheeses spicy dishes, Indian, Thai food, smoked foods, and pork. Sauvignon Blanc: chevre, goat and strongly flavored cheeses, oysters, grilled or steam salmon, seafood salads. Riesling: mild cheese, Asian foods dishes, seared or fried salmon, clams, mussels, sashimi, sushi, ham, pork, lobster, Indian curry based dishes.

RED WINE AND FOOD PAIRING Cabernet Sauvignon: cheddar, blue cheeses, strong cheeses, spicy or rich beefs, duck, pâté, rabbit, spicy chicken or poultry, sausage and chorizo. Merlot: roasted beef, roasted turkey, roasted and braised chicken, roasted lamb, veal stew, liver, venison, meat stews. Syrah: braised chicken, chili based dishes, goose, meat stews, steak stews, barbequed meat, spicy meats, garlic stews and casserole, grilled beef and chicken. Pinot Noir: Gruyere cheeses, charcuterie, sautéed braised chicken, cold cuts, duck, rabbit, roasted turkey, roasted beef, lamb, veal and truffles.

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CLASSIC CODES USED WHEN PAIRING FOOD AND WINE 1- White before red. 2- Light before heavy. 3- Dry before sweet. 4- Delicate dishes with subtle wines. 5- Rich dishes with full-bodied wines. 6- Never use poor quality wine. Do not use wines you would not drink. 7- Simple before complex 8- Young before old. 9- Match sweet wines with slightly sweet or spicy foods. 10- Serve white wines with seafood and chicken. 11- Serve red wine with other meats 12- Remember, serving a wine too cold can cover its flavor and sweetness. Chill it just right and the wine will become more flavorful. 13- Heavier, red wines are often paired with red meats because fats and oils usually tend to neutralize strong tannin. 14- High alcohol content wines normally taste slightly sweeter and often are nicely paired with sweet or spicy foods. 15- Acidic, tart wines taste less acidic with food with the same personality.

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Aging Wine In general wines that benefit from aging become more complex and smoother, less harsh or tannic. Light reds, most whites and all roses should be bottled after fermentation and drunk while still young. But in order to reach their full potential some aging is necessary particularly in fine reds such as: Bordeaux styled type of wines around the world also Rhone from France, rich Cabernets and Zinfandels from U.S.A. and also Italy's Barolos and Brunello di Montalcinos. To decide how long you can age your wine before you drink it, follow these recommendations, but always consider: geography, terroir, climate, and also bottle size ex: a smaller bottle, half bottles will age wine faster than larger bottles. On the other hand wines aged in bigger bottles will age bettter but for longer periods of time. White wines usually light ones like Sauvignon Blanc or a light Chardonnay don't need any aging and can be drunk immediately to enjoy their freshness better. Usually white wines don't age as well as red wines do even those which do get better with time. They won't last nearly as long as their red counterpart does. The average time for white wines suitable for aging should be from 5 to 7 years (others such as whites from Bordeaux would go up to 10 years).

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But more complex white wines with an incredible aging potential are white Burgundies which averaged a drink age from 3 to 7 years. Dessert wines (Riesling, Gewurztraminer, etc.) or late harvest like Sauternes should be aged a very long time: 10, 20, 30, 40 or more if required. The majority of reds can be drunk immediately, however some red wines will benefit with some aging and some others will benefit from a long aging, reds can easily be aged for 30 years and even more. The young wines that are ready for drinking now will get better within 5, 10 or 20 years of aging and in other cases such as Cabernet Sauvignon will benefit with 10, 15 years or even with 30 years of aging. Merlot, Malbec 4 to 7 years for Nebbiolo, 10 years or more; Pinot Noir, 5 years.

Barrel Aging Wines can be aged in barrels made out of wood like walnut, oak, cherry, chestnut etc., but none of these have the ability to give wine the unique and diverse character as oak does. Oak is the most suitable wooden cask for aging wine because of its unique aroma treats that makes wine taste its best.

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The tannins (dry sensation in the mouth) an astringent preservative important for long term maturing of wine. Tannin is an important trait of the aging process; through time, tannins develop while aging inside wooden barrels or the bottle and eventually fall out of the wine turning into sediment at the bottom of the bottle. It is a substance that comes from the seeds, stems and skins of grapes. If you want to taste something that tastes like tannin, the closest safest product is tea. Put two tea bags in a cup of hot water then try it, that is tannin. Tannin compound’s help for the production of good red wines providing the complexity of the wine's flavor, structure and texture that makes wine's character more balanced. Mostly, red wines are those produced with a higher amount of tannins with the goal of storing them longer for better maturation. If you drink very young wines they will taste a bit too harsh but on the other hand if you give them some aging time, your chances to increase the experience resulting in a more flavorful, fruity and complex wine. Red wines get their color from the tannins which come from skins, stems and seeds. White wines may not have contact with skins and still have some tannin, but also it could be added, at barrel aging.

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Buying Wine There are many wine resources available in the market place where you can find information and details on the wines you are about to buy. If you want that incredible bottle of wine that you’ve been thinking of buying for a long time or if you only want good quality wines at good prices, either way it is very important to do your homework or some research about it. At the end you will find a big difference and your hard work will pay off while you enjoy your wines at your table. Although sometimes it can be frustrating when buying wine, because we don’t know anybody in that particular wine shop or becasue we just don’t know about wine at all. Here there are a couple of questions to answer before buying a bottle of wine: How much do you want to spend on a bottle? and what is the ocassion? With that in mind you can ask the sales person to guide you through the different options you have at the shop. Another way to get informed is to subscribe to wine publications in print and online where information is available on the latest wine trends, wine releases, and award-winning wines.

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But what really counts is what you like, and what is valuable for you. Also some shops offer in-house wine tastings. The most you taste wines the most you will learn about them. If you become a regular client, ask the merchant to buy your wine by the case, which is a better value. Most shops and Supermarkets offer 10% discount on 12 bottles. Compare prices in different wine shops in your area. Establish a friendly relationship with wine sellers that are well informed about the products they offer. They might even recommend wine to pair with your food. Always ask many questions, so you are guaranteed a better purchase. Overall: get to know your local wine merchant, attend their tastings and finally find online wine clubs because many are free and are a good source of information. When selecting a wine store, look at the space where the wines are being placed at, because it shouldn’t be too close to warm places or exposed to direct heat and sunlight. Store keeppers store their wine in space they have “available” and oftentimes those places might not offer the proper environment to storage and age wines.

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A good infrastructure with air conditioning and a stable temperature will help keep products in very good condition. If the color of the wine is faded due direct sunlight exposure or drastic temperature changes, the wine might have lost its natural treats and it might be dead. In addition look at the cork's condition if it's wet or dry it might be an indication due to wine escape.

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Buying and Choosing Wine in a Restaurant Be prepared to order wine, either to drink by itself or with your meal. If possible, find out about the restaurant's wine list in advance so you can order your wine in a more precise fashion. Most of the time a restaurant’s wine lists is posted in their web sites. When asking for wine at the table, mention its grape variety: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, or Pinot Noir and so on. Also, you can name its vintage if you know. You might refer to a particular wine by mentioning its denomination of origin or geographical place where it was elaborated. You can also ask for it by naming its producer. Do not get intimidated by a sommelier or wine server because they might know more than you do about wine, but on the contrary expect a good engaging and in detail descriptive introduction of the wines they offer on their wine list. “Servers or sommeliers are there to help you, suggest wines, and ensure your dining experience is exceptional.� In many establishments the waiter is also in charge of serving wine. I suggest you that once the wine is presented to you, read the bottle label and double check if the vintage of the wine, is actually the one you had ordered in the first place The next step is opening the bottle by the server in front of you or near you and can actually see it, especially if it is an expensive bottle, it is part of the wine experience.

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Look and feel the cork and confirm if is still moist, which is a good sign that the wine has been kept under proper conditions. If the cork breaks down in your hands, its a sign of deterioration and the wine might be bad. If the quality of wine is fine ask your wine server to pour a little bit of wine in your glass for tasting; smelling, savoring, chewing and distributing the wine throughout your palate. This exercise can be done in less than a minute, and tasting is done to make sure you are getting what you paying for. As a wine buyer, you have the right to be satisfied with your wine. In addition you are enhancing your own wine experience. If wine tastes like vinegar or it has been oxidized (it has been open for long periods of time and it has been exposed to air, resulting in a unpleasant smell and taste) return the bottle and ask for a replacement. Once you have approved and are happy with your selection, ask your server to pour the rest of wine to your guests. If you are bringing your own bottle of wine to the restaurant, most restaurants will charge a fee. Call in advance to make arrangements and know about their policies, corkage, and service fee because the fees vary from restaurant to restaurant.

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PreservingWineFromanOpenBottle After a social event, parties or family reunions most of the time there are bottles with some leftover wine. To prolong the life and freshness of that wine is necessary to keep wine away of direct contact with air for long periods of time; wine that has been exposed to air gets oxidized. See wine enemies chart on next page. An effective way of saving your leftover wine is by transferring it to a clean smaller bottle, which minimizes the amount of air in the bottle. Wine that has been exposed to air for a long time, will loose its flavor. Always close the bottle tight to avoid trapping air inside the bottle. A tool called wine saver or wine oxygen vacuum removes excess air from the partially full bottle of wine. These items are on sale on the web. Before you use this device, put a wine stopper inside the neck of the wine bottle (stoppers have an opening so air that gets pumped out doesn’t come back inside). Afterwards simply place the pump on top of the stopper and with a back and forth motion begin extracting the air out of the bottle. Once you feel there is no resistance, or there is no more air, the left over wine is saved and sealed. Store red, white, and sparkling wines in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days. Another way to keep a bottle sealed is injecting gas (nitrogen and carbon dioxide) in the bottle. There are unique air pumps designed for Champagne and sparkling wines. Once sealed, check the room temperature, if the room temperature is 65°F, red wine doesn’t need refrigeration. Howerver I do recommend to refrigerate all opened wine so you can use it as soon as you can.

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Enemies of Wine - Oxygen - Direct Light - Heat - Vibration - Fluctuating temperatures

Wine Cellaring and Storage For an effective wine storage the most important factor is to maintain a stable temperature. Preserving wine with its natural character has been a challenge for centuries. Different cultures throughout the years have tried different methods to accomplish this successfully. Whether you store wine in a fancy cellar or simply in a closet, what makes a difference when storing wine is a cool and constant temperature enviroment, the bottles should be lying on their sides so the cork remains moist and does not dry or shrink. Wines shouldn’t be exposed to sunlight and finally bottles should be kept labels faceup to prevent scuffing or staining. Always keep the temperature stable! For many, building a real wine cellar is only a distant dream. However the best solution to solve your cellaring issues is to store your wine in modular wine racks. They can accommodate your bottles as they accumulate. If you don't have a wine rack you can carefully pyramid your bottles on top of one another.

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Wine Price In many occasions a $10 wine bottle might bring ease to your wallet but at the same tinme even more satisfaction than a $100 wine would. Remember that there are wines from all over the world today and you might have a lot of surprises, especially in terms of quality and prices, and it is up to you to find out about them so be curious and adventurous.

Wine is a Perfect Gift! Wine is a universal and elegant gift. It is a symbol of hospitality and suggests celebration. A great benefit of giving wine is that it doesn’t require immediate consumption. If you are not sure about what kind of wine you should give, Champagne is always a safe choice because it is festive, and practically, everyone enjoys a glass with it. Here are some ways to make wine a special gift: -Personalize your gift by giving someone a wine from his or her country of origin. -For a birthday, buy a fine wine from his or her birth year. -Request or make a custom made label with the name of that person. -Personalize your gift by giving someone a book just like this one!

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Cork Lang ua g e Corks are made out of the bark skin of the alcornoque tree, which is valuable, scarce, and grows only in Spain and Portugal. Looking at the cork is the first impression of your wine tasting experience. "Cork" regulates the contact between the wine and the environment. It can help you see the wine's health and might anticipate what you are going to drink. In the past people or wine lovers used to check if the wine label matched the cork's imprint just in case the wine was relabeled with something different. There used to be a lot of wine fraud especially with fine wines. We all have seen wine servers and people smelling the cork to see if the characteristics of the wine are similar to those from the cork. The bottom line is that The proof is in the wine! my opinion is that smelling the cork should be left to each person preferences, however since people get more educated on the theme, this practice is disappearing due to the fact that what you really need to smell is the wine itself. In very good restaurants sommeliers still place the cork along with the wine or open the bottle by the side of the table near the guest, to ensure the wine He/She ordered is the wine in the bottle.

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Overall the cork may provide you the following information: -A long cork is a good sign because producers know that long corks offer enough space for wines that need to rest for long periods during ageing. - A clean cork could be an indication that the wine bottle was produced recently. -If the cork is old or degenerating often means the bottle is older, but if the bottle is sealed properly and dry outside, the wine should be fine and it shows that the bottle has been wellkept and has rested quietly without any disturbance. -A wet or shrunken cork means that there is a leak and the wine has been exposed to air and might be oxidized. - If the cork is dry, it means that the bottle has been exposed to air for too long and the bottle has not been stored properly and it has allowed air inside. -A moldy cork means the wine has been exposed to excessive humidity or high temperatures, which weakens its flavor and personality. If the cork is in bad condition, and it reflects in the quality of the wine return the bottle for one in better conditions. Service Tip: After extracting the cork, clean the neck of the bottle and the cork surface with a service napkin.

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B l i n d Ta s t i n g “Only practice makes the master� This practice is entertaining and has a high educational value. Blind tasting is a great way to "test" yourself and your friends on how much you know about wines. It might be practiced as a hobby on a regular basis or to enhance more seriously your career. A good way to be prepared is to be familiar with wine terms; as a reference use our quick chart for wine description (page # 82). Blind wine tastings are fun and educational because they are interactive socially and encourage improving your knowledge on wine, food and service. To start you do not have to reveal the identity of the wines you are serving. Usually you are the only person who knows the wines to be tested. (The information on the origin of wines don't influence the opinion of the participants) In a different type of wine tasting, participants will be told what kind of wine they will blind taste, but the vineyard or property will not be disclosed. In other occasions, the identity of various wines are revealed to participants (like 6 Chardonnays, from 6 different vineyards), but tasters do not know where the wine in their glasses are from. A more challenging tasting is called a double blind tasting, which is executed by only disclosing the grape varieties. This increases the challenge to predict where the wine comes from and the character of each wine. Blind tastings train our taste buds to recognize the grape variety from the wines we trying and also help us on how to establish the geographical and regional characteristics of the wine and eventually determine the vineyards where the wines were made.

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Typ es of Bl ind Ta sting - Horizontal Blind Wine Tasting All wines are from the same vintage but from different vineyards.

- Vertical Blind Wine Tasting Wines are set from different years but from the same vineyard, estate, or property. The main goal is to identify individual and unique characteristics of each vintage.

- Materials for Blind Wine-Tasting -Six similar priced bottles of wine from different vineyards or wine makers, from the same variety, geographical zone but all of the same vintage. The host is the only one who knows the identity of wine. -Paper bags to cover serving bottles -Paper and pencil to take notes on the wines' qualities -A pitcher of water -White bread or crackers -A spittoon (spiting jar or container to spit) -All wine bottles should be at the same temperature.

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Process For Blind Tasting -Open every bottle in advance. (Host will be the only one to know the identity of wines being tasted.) -Clean the neck of the bottle. -Number the bottles of wine and write description of each. -Place a glass of wine on the table for each bottle being tasted and for each taster or guest. -Place water glasses next to wine glasses. -In the center of the table place a pitcher with fresh water, pencils, paper, bread or crackers (to clean your palate), and a container to spit tasted wine. -Serve all bottles of wines at the same temperature -Ask participants to taste the wines, take notes, describe and talk about the wines tasted. - A tasting may involve several wines, therefore I recommend that your guests spit out the wine being tasted. -After every participant has tasted every wine and have their own impressions, uncover and disclose the identity of each wine tasted. -See if their description matches with wines. -Finally, explain your wine description and let the rest do the same sharing theirs and finally qualify the wine.

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Bibliography Newspaper and Periodicals The New York Times Wine Enthusiast Wine Spectator Wine Advocate Books: Ron Herbst and Sharon Tyler Herbst. Wine Lovers’s Companion Second Edition. Collombet, Francois. The Flammarion Guide to World Wines. Karen MacNeil, Wine Bible Workman Publishing 2001. Stevenson, Tom. The new Sotheby's wine encyclopedia Third edition 2001 Johnson, Hugh, Hugh Johnson’s Modern Encyclopedia of Wine, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1993

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GLOSSARY

A [ABOCADO] - In Spain this term describes moderately sweet and semi-dry wines. [ABBOCCATO] - In Italy this term describes moderately sweet and semi-dry wines. [ABUNDANT] - Wine that posses a multi-range of aromas and is used to define the propagation of many good sensations in the palate. [ACETIC] - Term used to explain high volatile acidity in wine due to microorganisms that transform alcohol into acetic acid. [ACETO] - Vinegar in Italian. [ACIDITY FIXED] - Acidity of a wine calculated as the sum of its natural and mineral acids. [ACIDITY - VOLATILE] - Free acid content. High volatile acidity is not a desirable component for sound wines. [ACIDITY - TOTAL] - Sum of fixed and volatile acidity. The degree of acidity of a wine affects its stability during aging, as well as its freshness and color (the greater the level of acidity, the more it can be aged). [ACID WINE] - Term that explains one of the many wine traits. It is also is referred to an unbalanced wine, where acidity dominates over other flavors, due to natural acids from grape and fermentation.

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[ACUOSO WINE] - Very liquid or watery wine - Unbalanced wine. [ADEGA] - Galician word for bodega o cellar. [AEROBIA] - Biological process that requires the presence of oxygen. [AGED] - Synonymous of aged wine that has been matured in wooden barrels for at least 3 years. [AGING] - Process of ageing wines in oak casks and in the bottle. Ageing process. [AGING SHIP] - Part of the "cellar" which holds casks and bottle racks where the wine is aged. [AGING THE YEAST] - Known as well as sur lies, it's the length of time a white sparkling wine spends in the barrel. [AGUJA] - Very fine bubble produced by the presence of carbon dioxide slightly felt in the mouth when tasted. It should not be excessive and it might be slightly noticeable at a glance, it appears in young wines. [AFTERTASTE] - Flavors, aromas and sensations which remain present in your mouth after swallowing the wine. It is the compilation of sensations that the wine leaves in your mouth after you have tasted it. [ALBARIテ前] - Fresh, crisp white wine from Galicia. Also it is the name of the primary grape in these wines. [ALBARIZA] - Soil of very light color and rich in calcium carbonate. Classic soil type in the region of Jerez in Spain. [ALBERO] - Chalky type of soil in Montilla.

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[ALCOHOL] - Alcohol is the intoxicant element of wine and different spirits produced by the yeast fermentation of certain carbohydrates-the sugar in fruit. In many countries the alcohol content should be displayed on the bottle label. [ALCOHOL-ETHYL]-The only alcohol suitable for drinking. [ALCOHOL CONTENT] - Percentage of alcohol contained in the wine. It is often given in degrees. 12 degrees is the equivalent of 12% alcohol content. [ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION] - Transformation of the sugars in the must into ethyl alcohol using yeasts [ALCOHOLIC]- This term describes a wine's hot burning taste accompanied by a tingling and sharp sensation in the mouth. This undesirable characteristic is caused when an elevated alcohol level is not balanced by other wine components. [ALELLA] The smallest D.O. in Spain located just north of Barcelona. It's well known for its fresh crisp white wines and excellent Cavas. [ALMOND LIKE] - Aroma that recalls bitter almond-like aroma and flavor. It appears in red young wines that are made with carbonic maceration. It shows certain alterations like excess of oxidation in white wines. [ALTERED] - wine showing untrustworthy origin or has been altered. [ALVEAR] - Brandy made in Holland. [AMBER] - Color or tone that characterizes some white wines due to oxidation.

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[AMBER-YELLOWISH] - Tone produced by color oxidation in some white wines, Amber in color denotes age. [AMERICAN VINE] - Any of several vines used for rootstock the Vitis Viniferous because of its resistance to phylloxera. [AMER PICON]- Orange flavored syrup (bitters, licensed in Spain). [AMONTILLADO] - A dry Sherry of the fine type, usually fuller and darker than most fine wines, with a pronounced nutty and dry flavor. Its alcohol content is between 17 and 18 percent. [AMOSCATELADO] - Its nose (perfume) or character reminds us of Moscatel wine. [AMORTADOS] --Purple and violet colors which prevail in red wines. [AMPELOGRAPHY] - Science that studies the morphology of the vines. [ANDANA] - The barrels aligned in aisles one on top of the other forming aisles in cellars. [ANIMAL] - Characteristic odors from old wines, usually these odors recall animal skin or leather. [ANĂ?SSETE] - Anis flavored liquor. [ANTHOCYANINS PHENOLIC] - Dark colored substance, an active ingredient in grape skin found mainly in red grapes which are the main elements that give color to the wine.

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[AOC] - Appellation d'Origine Contr么l茅e. In English, it means Denomination of Controlled Origin, which is the highest classification for the control of wines in France. Most wine makers around the world have adopted this system of control with a different name, i.e., In Spain, they use only D.O. Denomination of Origin and it usually appears at the bottom on the label of the bottle. [APERITIF] - Drink or beverage drank before or after a meal. [AROMA] - The fruity scent in a young wine. Aroma should not be confused with 'Bouquet', which is a more complex scent found in mature wines and achieved through the bottle aging process. [AROMAS PRIMARY] - These are those aromas that come directly from the bunch of grapes, from its fruitfulness character. Elements like climate, soil, humidity, among others, determine the particular characteristics of the fruit. [AROMAS SECONDARY] - These are produced during fermentation. In this process, millions of leavening agents work to transform sugar into natural alcohol from the must. In this process new substances called secondary products from fermentation are formed, which are vital for the flavor and aroma of the wine. [AROMAS TERTIARY] - Group of aromas produced in the aging process, whether in conditions of reduction or oxidation. Overall, these aromas are the evolution of primary and secondary aromas. [ARTISAN] - Handcrafted wine made by a small wine producer or 'bodega'.

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[ASTRINGENT] - A dry sensation and contraction of the tongue and mouth due to certain substances like iron and zinc. In wines, this harsh sensation is due usually to excess in tannins. [ATTACK] - Very first sensations perceived when wine enters in the mouth. [AUTO EVACUATIONS] - Small tanks shaped like flying saucers, used to ferment grapes without pressing them. [AVA] -Stands for American Viticultural Area in the USA.

B [BAGAZO] - Spanish word to explain residue of grape skin after pressing. [BALANCED] - Spirit of a wine in harmony showing its quality through its components. [BALSAMIC] - Recine like aroma due to the type of soil or aging which reminds us of a wood barrel, normally made of oak, which is used to age wines. [BANANA] - An aroma very characteristic of certain white wines. It's due to a type of alcohol (ester, isoamyl acetate). [BARREL FERMENTATION] - Vinification process in which the wine is fermented in casks or wood vats (usually made of oak). This process is usually undertaken with white wines and results in a characteristic smoky aroma.

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[BERRY] - Fruity aroma is a unique feature of certain red and rose wines and some Ports. It can also be found in sparkling wines made with Pinot Noir grape. It reminds the aroma of the fruit with the same name. [BITARTRATES] - Potassium bitartrates are crystals found in wine bottles that have been subjected to cold temperatures. The wine is decanted so these crystals will not appear in the bottle. The presence of bitartrates in a bottle does not have any effect whatsoever on the wine's organic quality, but many consumers, particularly in Spain, will reject bottles in which these crystals can be seen. [BITTER, TART, OR HARSH] - A term used to describe wines that are high in acid, which produces a harsh, sharp impression on the palate. It should not get confused with the tannic flavor. [BACK LABEL] - Label placed on the back of a bottle which usually contains information about the wine and its origins. [BLANC DE BLANCS] - Wine made with white grapes such as chardonnay grapes, which are separated from the skins before fermentation. These wines are light and delicate. [BLANC DE NOIRS] - Wine made only with dark skinned grapes such as Pinot Noir. [BLOOMING - FLOWERING] - Stage in the growing cycle in which the flowers bloom. [BOCOY] - A wooden barrel, bigger than a barrel, which holds 700 liters. [BOTTLE-RACK] - Structures (usually made out of wood or iron) where bottle wines are kept for aging.

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[BOTTLE-KEEPER] - Person who is in charge of the bottles. [BOTTLING SHIP] - Part of the bodega where the wine is bottled. [BOTRYTIS CINEREA] - A beneficial noble mold that attacks certain type of grapes producing a desired effect. The dehydration the grape is exposed intensifies the sugar concentration to produce complex sweet dessert wines. [BOTRYTIZED] - Term used to explain when the grape berries have been infected with the noble rot Botrytis cinerea. With certain grape varieties (SĂŠmillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling and Gewurztraminer) this infection can produce a desired effect. As a result rich wines of intense flavor and concentration with a high sugar concentration and incredible quality can be produced. [BOUQUET] - French word to describe the elements of nose or smell that a wine offers. Term used to describe the tertiary aromas (those which arise from ageing the wine in casks and in the bottle).Young wines don't have an evident bouquet. [BRIEF] - After tasting sensation that lasts very few seconds. It dies on its flavor. [BRISTOL CREAM] - This wine has been imported since the XVII century. The most known brand is Harvey & Averys of Bristol. British name for sherry wine that is mostly sold in the world. [BRUT] - In French means natural or not refined usually this term denotes the driest sparkling wines and has a minimum amount of sweetening. Brut is drier than "Extra Dry", it follows Sec, Demi Sec and finally Doux or Sweet.

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[BUBBLY-SHINY] - Wine that presents a brilliant and clean look, with luminous highlights. [BUDDING] - Stage in the growth cycle where vine's leaves begin to bloom. [BUTT] - The standard butt used for ageing sherry wine in the "soleras", which can hold up to 500 to 600 liters of liquid. They are made out of American oak. [BUTTER] - Noble aroma that can be detected in quality wines. Especially those that have had malolactic fermentation.

C [CADIZ] - Capital of the land of sherry, which is located south of Jerez of the Frontier. [CASTING] - System: Ancient practice which consisted in adding plaster cast. [CALADOS] - Underground cave with high humidity and constant temperature year-round, used for ageing wines. [CAPSULE] - A small metal or plastic wrap to cover the cork. [CARAMELIZED] - Smoky-caramel like smell found usually in aged wines like Cru's and Grand Cru. [CARBONATED WINE] - Sparkling wine of inferior quality produced.

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[CARVALHO] - Portuguese name for oak. [CATAVINOS] - Spanish recipient used to taste wine. French version is the Tastevin. [CAUSTIC] - Sensation from certain acids and tannins [CAVA] - Spanish sparkling wine produced mainly in Cataluùa. It is elaborated with the "Champenoise" method, having its second fermentation in the bottle. It is also an underground wine storage room. [CAVES ALIANÇA] - This is one of the largest wine companies in Portugal located in the northern Portugal's Barraida region and produces red, rose, and white wines. [CEDAR WOOD] - Term used to describe scented wines with this softwood, commonly used in Morocco. [CELLAR] - Company or establishment devoted to one or more activities related to winemaking, aging, bottling, storing and selling wines. [CELLER] - Catalan word for 'bodega' or cellar. [CEMETERY] - Place in the bodega, usually underground, where wines from old vintages are kept, usually in small niches (hence the name). [CHAPTALISATION] - Sugar addition to grape must in order to increase the alcohol degree of the wine. [CHARACTER] - It is the emphasis of wine and the distinction of its personality that distinguish a type of wine in a very favorable way. This is the recognition of wine and its uniqueness.

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[CHARDONNAY] - America's and worldwide favorite white wine grape. It is one of the three main varieties to elaborate Champagne or Cava. Originary from Burgundy, it is considered a very ancient vine stock. Its character is softer than other grapes like Cabernet Sauvignon, Riesling or Sauvignon Blanc. Many people associate its aroma with apples, others with melons and other exotic fruits. [CHATEAUNEUF-DU-PAPE] - Red wine from the southern French Rhone Valley. It means "new castle of the pope". [CHATEO] - Degustation made by more than 3 people. [CHASTE] - Originally pure, noble and high quality. Well raised since its youth. [CHEWY] - Name for rich, greasy, dense wine sensation when wine is tasted. [CHERRY] - Classic fruity aroma due to a body of complex chemicals. Good reminder of the fruit's aroma of the same name. [CINNAMON] - This aroma is very frequent in wines and it is due to a chemical body from the cinnamon series. [CLASSIC] - Wine whose personality has been established throughout time, even centuries. [CLARETE] - Spanish word for light red wines. Clarete wine is used for a particular type of rosĂŠ, which has an extremely pale color. British wine lovers call claret to wine from Bordeaux. [CLOS] - French word that describes fenced vineyards. [COLHEITA] - Portuguese name for vintage or harvest.

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[COMMON WINE] - Wine which does not belong to a designation of origin. [COMPLEX] - An exuberant wine for its characteristics and sensorial taste, well harmonized and elaborated, made from a varietal that presents a full and expressive bouquet. [COMPLETE] - A balanced wine with harmony due to elements like color, aroma and mouth. [CONTROL BOARD] - Independent official authority in charge of prescribing and enforcing the regulations of a Designation of Origin. [COPA] - Spanish for wine glass.

[COPITA] - Classic wine glass used to serve port and Sherry. It’s a small slightly long glass with its upper border inward, which allows appreciating the aromas and properties of the wine. [CORK] - Stopper on the bottle. In wine tasting, it can reveal a bad smell and flavor coming from wines that are not in good conditions. [CORKED] - Spoiled wine with classic bad smell of a musty wet cardboard, also referred to wine that has been exposed to oxigin. [CROWN] - Shape of bubble accumulation on top of a good sparkling wine when poured in a wine glass. [CRU] - French word for "growth" or term used to rank a vineyard. APELLATION CONTROLEE. A "cru" is a specific vineyard, and the wine that it produced has been classified according to its quality.

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[CHERISHED] - Refers to a delicate and slightly sweet wine made by combining Pedro XimĂŠnez and color wines. [CRIADERA] - An oak butt or container where wines from Jerez are aged in through the solera system. The 'criaderas' form several levels and the last level on top belongs to the solera. [CRUS BOURGEOIS] - Term used to design certain wines in Medoc (Bordeaux) this category is one level before "cru classes". [CUAJADO] - Stage in the growth cycle in which the grapes begin to form after fertilization. [CASK] - A wooden barrel normally made of oak, which is used to age wines. Bordeaux-type, 225-litre casks are used most commonly. [COUPAGE] - Any mix of different wines or musts, or vineyards. [CRUSHING] - Crushing of grapes in order to break the skin and free the juice. [CRACKED] - Sick wine. CRIANZA - Term used in Spain that shows a total period of three years of aging including at least 6 months in oak barrel. [CULT WINES] - Term used particularly in California to explain wines made in small amounts from well renowned wine makers and vineyards. These wines usually attract wealthy wine lovers whom usually are willing to pay incredible amounts of money.

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D [DECANTER] - Bottle or recipient where wine is served. [DECANTING] - Transferring wine from bottle to decanter to aerate wine. When some complex wines have sediment, decanting is key to get full enjoyment of these wines. Position a candle flame or other source of light beneath the neck of the bottle, in a clear place with enough light so you can see the sediment as soon as it appears coming out of the bottle. [DEGUELLE] - The disgorging process of deposits that form during the second fermentation in a sparkling wine bottle. [DELICATE] - Fine, very pleasant and subtle. [DEPTH] - Intensity or depth of the color in a wine. [DENOMINATION OF ORIGIN, D.O] - Quality wine region. Enclosed geographical area in which such type of wine has been produced. Established trade protection. [DEMI SEC] - The sweetest-style of champagne. [DENSE] - Robust, thick and consistent wine. [DESSERT WINE] - Wine that is usually consumed after the main dish, accompanying dessert (sweet wines, dessert wines, fortified wines). [D.O.C.A. QUALIFIED DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN] Abbreviation used for "of Guarantee of origin and quality of the wine". Term used in Spain to describe a designation of origin, which meets stricter requirements than other designations of origin. [DUBONNET] - French aperitif

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[DULZON] - Slightly sweet wine. [DUELA- BARREL STRUCTURE] - Wooden structure of barrels. [DRY] - Wine that has fully reached its fermentation process, transforming all its sugars to alcohol. Quality where the palate finds sensations with this characteristic. [DRY EXTRACT] - Residue left after evaporating a wine sample.

E [EARTHY] - Wines with an earthy or muddy flavor and taste. [ECOLOGICAL WINE] - Wine made as natural as possible with minimal use of chemicals, sprays or insecticides. [ELABORATED BY] - indicates who made the wine. Also this other similar terms are used to explain the same. ex: blended by; produced by or matured by. [ELEGANT] - Balanced wine with aromatic sensorial sensations that explain elegance, fine style and a combination of various subtle and noble elements, fundamentals on this kind of wine like scented woods, soft and very agreeable complexity, and open and clear colors with balanced aromatic intensity. [EL CID] - Amontillado wine sold very successfully.

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[EN VASO] - Method to train upright vines in a goblet shape. [ENVERADO] - Wine made with grapes picked earlier in the season in order to maintain its acidic levels. [TURNING] - Stage in the growth cycle in which the grape's color begins to turn yellow or into a ripe stage. [ESCOLHA] - Portuguese word for selection. [ESPALDERA] - Vertical structure for grape growth. [ESPLENDIDO] - Youngest brandy from the house of Garvey. [EVOLVED] - Wine that has suffered changes and modifications with time and aging.

F [FATIGUED] - Term to explain a wine that has been exposed to oxygen and a wine that has become flat. [FINISH TASTE] - Final notes that you taste when tasting wines. Final impression that remains on the palate after a wine is swallowed. [FLAT] - A wine that lacks acidity, character or any distinctive flavor; in sparkling wines it refers to wines without bubbles or sparkle. [FRUITY] - Wine with multiple fruits aromas.

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[FOREST] - Smell that reminds us of woods and aromatic herbs from the forest. [FOREMAN] - Manager or person in charge of an estate or a property. [FINO] - A generous and elegant wine of biological aging, which is originally from Andalusia, Spain. Term used for dry Sherry. As its own name describes it is a refined, fragile and complex Sherry, pale colored, low in alcohol with a dry and humid aroma. It should be served chilled. [FOLIATION] - Budding; cutting the branches in the growing process in which the leaves of the vine begin to bud. FLAT] - Used to describe a wine that has lost its acidity, which has lost its balance. [FLAVOR] - Different sensations in the mouth such as sweet, bitter, sour and salty. [FLOWER] - Layer of leaveners, which help the formation of aldehiyes during the biological aging of some wines, like Jerez, Montilla, Rueda, and some from Jura (France). [FLOWERY] - Subtle aroma from some wines which reminds the perfume of roses, violets jasmine, etc. [FOAMY, SPARKLING] - Sparkling wine treated with carbon anhydride and bottled before its fermentation. [FORTIFIED-WINE] - Sweet wine, lightly fortified. It is usually white but occasionally a red can be found. [FORTITUDE] - Expression of a round and mature wine.

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[FREE RUNNING] - Separating the must from the skins through gravity by draining the crushed grapes. [FRESH, CRISP] - Fresh young and very drinkable wines. [FRIZZANTE] - Slightly sparkling wine. [FRUITY] - Aromatic qualities of wines. Wines with aromas reminiscent of fruits like berries, raspberries, banana, pineapple, peach, etc.

G [GALICIA] - Coastal region in the Northwest of Spain, famous for its seafood, for its dry white wine from Albariño, and its Celtic culture. [GARAGE WINE] - French equivalent to cult wines. see cult wines. [GARRAFEIRA] - Term used in Portugal uniquely for dated vintages containing 0.5 per cent more of the required alcohol. [GARNATXA D'EMPORDA] - A sweet dessert wine made in the Ampurdan. [GARNACHA] - This varietal is original from the Mediterranean. This grape produces wines with high alcoholic content and high acidity. This grape has a very dark colored thin skin. It is medium sized and round. [GENEROUS WINE] - Wine with an alcoholic content between 15° and 23°. It's usually fortified with spirited alcohol to stop fermentation and increase its strength. This term is also used to indicate high alcoholic content in table wines. It is consumed usually as an aperitif or a dessert wine.

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[GEOGRAPHICAL RULES] - In the world of wines, this term refers to a designated growing area governed by a set of rules designed to generate a D. O., established and enforced by that country's federal government or local governing body. These rules or appellations change from country to country. [GOLD] - used to describe the color tone of some wines. [GOLDEN] - Term used to explain the color of white or late harvest wines. It is also an older lightly fortified version of pale. [GRAN RESERVA] - Term mostly used for Spanish wines that indicates a certain aging period. These are classifications within aging categories, which are defined by how and how long they have been aged. For a wine to attain a given category, it has to meet certain minimum aging requirements. Usually, 60 months for red wines and 48 months for white wines. [GRAN-VAS] - Sparkling wine made using the cuvee method. [GRAPE SUN EXPOSURE] - Technique used to expose grapes directly to the sun-light. By doing this the grapes increase its sugar concentration. This must is usually used to elaborate sweet wines. [GREASY] - A very dense and malleable wine becasue for its high glycerin content which makes it very soft but with a fuller body. A good example is the Sauternes from France. [GROWTH CYCLE] - The vine's development cycle throughout the year.

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H [HALF AND HALF] - Equal parts of alcohol and mature grape, used for fortifying wines. [HARD] - When components do not reach harmony. Description for a wine that is young and excessively tannic or acidic. These wines will soften with aging. [HARVEST, VINTAGE] - The year the grapes for a wine were harvested. [HARVESTER] - Wine-grower who is dedicated to the sowing, treatment and harvesting of his own grapes and who also makes his own wine with the traditional methods used in his area. [HARMONIOUS] - A wine tasting term for a wine that is perfectly balanced and ready to drink. [HARSH] - Wines of great tannic personality. Usually you notice them when your tongue and gums get dry. [HEAD] - Training method for vines in which several upright vines are trained in a goblet shape. Solid mass made up mainly of the skin of the fruits, which floats on the surface of the must during fermentation. [HEADED] - Addition of alcohol from wine to the must to stop its fermentation, preserving this way a portion of residual sugar, which is a characteristic of liquorish wines. Generous wines are also headed.

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[HEAD PLUNGING] - Action of submerging the head (sombrero) during fermentation in order to enhance extraction of color and aromas. [HALBTROCKEN] - Semi-dry in German. [HÁRSLEVELÜ] - A white grape grown mainly in Hungary, with some acres just across the border in Czechoslovakia. Hárslevelü is the leading component in Hungary's renowned Tokay Aszu wines, which are made from Botrytis Cinerea grapes. They are very aromatic, very spice and perfumed. Good Hárslevelü varietal wines are produced in the southern part of Hungary, in Villány in the south, and Debrö in the north. [HERBACEOUS] - Odors and flavors that remind vegetables and herbs. Aroma that can refer to fresh herbs, like hay recently trimmed, or of dried herbs of known aromatic quality, like rosemary or basil. [HONORABLE] - Quality brandy. [HOLLOW] - Term used to explain wines that do not have anything to offer, from its nose to its final.

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[HONEY] - Frequent aroma in some whites, rosé and a few red wines. This aroma comes from the phenotypic acid. [HYBRID] - In the wine world this term refers to a vine or grape created by breeding two varieties from different species (such as vitis vinifera and vitis riparia or vitis labrusca). However, the term sometimes also refers to a crossbred, which is a vine or grape created by breeding two varieties of the same genus. Hybrids are created in an effort to produce a plant with the best traits of its parents, such as high productivity, disease resistance, and/or better adaptability to environmental conditions. One who creates hybrids is called a hybridist.

I [ISTELA] - Mix of alcohol from the wine with the must.

J [JEREZ] - Shortened versions of the proper name Jerez-XérèxSherry y Manzanilla de San Lúcar de Barrameda D.O. Jerez may also refer to Jerez de la Frontera. [JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA] - A city in southwestern Spain, Andalucía region, just inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Jerez de la Frontera (once known as Xerex) is the central city and birthplace of Spain's Sherry country. [JEREZ-XÉREX-SHERRY Y MANZANILLA DE SANLÚCAR DE BARRAMEDA DO] - The Denominacion of Origen in which true Sherry is made. It's located in southwest Spain around the city of Jerez de la Frontera. This area is rich in white, chalky soil called Albariza. It produces the best grapes for Fino and Manzanilla wine styles.

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L [LAGAR)] - The traditional rectangular stone or cement (occasionally wooden), where in the past grapes were treaded. It is also the place in the cellar where the presses are located. Also used for fermentation of the juice. Today, most have been replaced by more modern vinification methods [LEATHERY] - Noble aroma from certain red wines that come from the aging process in the barrel and the bottle. [LEGS] - Drops of wine that fall down the side of the wine glass while you swirl it. When wine has higher alcohol content the legs are thinner. [LEES] - Lees is the yeast remaining or residual matter. The residue or sediment which accumulates in the bottom of a vat or barrel during fermentation, and transferring of a wine from one barrel to another to leave the residue at the base and use only the clean wine on top. [LIMITED SOCIETY] - Legal name established for a public enterprise or company. This is a legal shield or protection that public enterprises use to define responsibilities and legal limitations. [LIVELY] - A very vivacious wine with a clean aroma and fresh acidity. Term used in sparkling wines with lively bubbles.

M [MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION] - Second fermentation of certain wines. It is the transformation of malic acid into lactic acid using bacteria

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[MOLDY] - Referred to the aroma similar to old, dry, dusty books. A classic characteristic of wines that have been aged in old wooden casks or barrels. It is a characteristic of wines aged for a long time in barrels that have been used several times. Also it's a defect usually caused by a bad quality cork. [MACERATION] - Process in which the must is left in contact with the skins to favor extraction of color and aromas. [MACERATION CARBONIC] - This is the vinification process in which the grapes are fermented together with the stalks prior stalking. The fermentation process weakens the grape skins, which eventually break and free the must. Creating as a result wines with weak tannins but very fruity. [MADEIRA] - Real Madeira comes from Portugal's Madeira Island, located southwest of Lisbon and west of Morocco. It is Portugal's highest quality ranking DOC (Denominação de Origem Controlada). Madeira is one of the three best-known fortified wines, the others being Port and Sherry. Finer Madeira's are stored in wooden casks and left in attics or other extremely warm areas for years. This wood slowly aging develops the tangy, burnt-caramel, slightly bitter flavor that's unique to this wine. Madeira ranges in color from pale blond to deep tawny. In regards to its flavor, Madeiras go from quite dry very sweet and it's usually fortified from 8 to 20 percent alcoholic content. These wines are generally served as aperitifs. [MADERIZED] - Defect of an oxidized white wine, dull, and dark. [MAGNUM] - Bottle twice the size of a normal bottle size (75cl)

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[MATURE] - Wine that has developed its best attributes in a positive manner and it shows it through its personality when it is drunk. It also means ripe. [MALBEC] - Original grape from Calhors - France but grown widely especially in South America. One of the great surprises of new world wines.. [MALVASIA] - Indigenous variety of the Mediterranean Islands. Soft and fruity wines with a tendency to golden shades. It produces alcoholic wines with a characteristic nose. It has medium grapes with spherical. [MANCHADO] - Literally means stained. But this word calls for a white wine, slightly pink, due to the red deposits left in tanks from prior wines. [MANZANILLA] - Very dry, aged, amber colored Sherry with a nutty flavor. Fine generous wine aged in San LĂşcar de Barrameda (AndalucĂ­a). Manzanilla or chamomile this name is used in Spanish speaking countries widely to order a hot cup of hot chamomile known for its medicinal properties / Chamomile. [MANZANILLA PASADA] - Mature or old manzanilla. [MENTHOL] - Noble aroma of some aged red wines. [METHOD CHAMPENOISE] - This French term is original from the region of Champagne. A process where the wine performs its second fermentation in the bottle producing typical bubbles. [MERITAGE] - Word used in the U.S.A. since 1989 to explain a blended wine with varieties originally from Bordeaux-France such as: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Petit Verdot.

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[MONASTRELL] - Grape originary from Valencia. Known in France as "Mourvèdre" Wines of high level of alcohol, intense color and fruity taste. This varietal is medium size grapes, spherical grain and intense black color it matures quickly. [MOSCATEL] - Varietal name mostly used to make sweet wines. [MOUTH FEEL] - The various sensations-thick or thin, ripe or green- a wine can create while in the mouth. [MUST] - Juice from the grapes before fermentation. [MUD] - Clay soil. Mix of water and soil. [MOTHER] - Sediment or lies that rest at the bottom of the barrel. Concentrated wine due to its cooking process (fermentation). It is added to certain common wines to give them more body. [MUSK] - Characteristic aroma of some varieties, that reminds one of the odors that certain animals give off.

N [NATIVE YEAST] - Presence of naturally yeasts. [NEWBORN-VERY YOUNG] - Term used to denote early youth and when used in wine, it refers to a young and light wine with a light personality and low acidity. [NOBLE PUTREFACTION] - Term used to describe the effect caused by the fungus Botrytis Cenerea in certain wines.

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[NOSE] - The total combinations of every smell in a wine. [NERVE] - Applied term to wines with acid, mineral and tannin character. [NEUTRAL] - Wine without aroma. [NOBLE] - Natural and pure, well elaborated. [NEW OR YOUNG WINE] - Wine that has gone through its main phases of fermentation, but stills needs to mature. [NUTTY] -- Aroma of some special wines like Sherry, which reminds us of the nutty aroma of almonds, which is very characteristic of wines stored or fermented in oak barrels.

O [OXIDIZED AGING] - This kind of aging is produced by air particles that go through the wood barrels pores. This process ages wines faster, adding aroma and taste substances. [OENOLOGY OR ENOLOGY] - Science or study of viniculture, winemaking and wine aging. One who studies the science is called an oenologist or enologist.

[OAK] - Smell and flavor derived from the ageing of wine in oak barrel, which should be in perfect harmony with the round of the wine. [OVER PUMPING] - Action of extracting the must from the bottom of the fermentation tank and pouring it over the surface in order to improve extraction of color and aromas.

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[OENOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION] - Facilities which provide general services to vine growers, bodegas and control boards. [OLOROSO] - Generous wine from Jerez that gives has nutty smell on the nose, with an 18 to 20 percent of alcohol. Rich dark aged Sherry obtained by oxidation aging. [ORGANOLEPTIC, SENSORIAL] - A word used to explain sensorial perception on the taste buds and olfactory nerves. [ORUJOS] - Term for the residue of the skin of the grapes. This is what is left from the pressed grapes after wine has been extracted. It can be used as fertilizers to produce 'aguardiente' or sugar cane spirit. [OXIDATION] - Change that wines suffer after being exposed to oxygen. As a result it affects the color and the freshness of white wines. Red wines only moderately oxidize during its growth, although an excess of air and oxygen breaks totally their color and best natural qualities. [OLD WINE] - A wine that has aged for a long time [OVER OAKED] - When a wine acquires strong flavors from the aging in the barell.

P [PALE] - It refers to pale white wine that is light in color or straw-colored. White wine naturally strong or softly fortified with little aging in a tank and not in an oak barrel. This term is applied to wines with low color intensity.

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[PALO CORTADO] - Type of sherry between Amontillado and Oloroso. [PALE CREAM] - It is a sweet wine with the color of vino fino. [PACIFICATION] - Aromas that remind raisins that develop in wines made with very rape grapes. [PEDRO XIMENEZ] - The legend tells the original varietal was introduced to the region from Germany by a soldier named Peter Siemens from the Flanders regiment. Siemens was later changed to the actual Ximénez also known as PX and other variations. It’s a white grape grown in certain regions of Spain, and also a varietal wine, an intensely sweet, dark, dessert sherry. Pedro Jiménez is a heavily grown variety in South America. [PEPPERY] - Term used to describe earthy and spicy aromas of nose from certain wines. [PERSISTANT] - Length of sensations that wine produces in your nose and palate [pH] - Abbreviation used to determinate the acid levels in wine. [PEARL WINE] - Wine where malolactic fermentation has taken place in the bottle. [PHYLLOXERA] - (Phylloxera vastatix). Parasite of vines that attack its roots. The existence of the phylloxera in the soil, has forced the vine growers to graft the Vitis Vinifera onto American vine rootstock, which is resistant to this pest. [PICADO] - Spanish term for a sick wine attacked by the acetic bacteria. It refers to a wine that has lost its character it is often compared to vinegar.

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[PLATE] - A device placed in a fermentation vat in order to cool the fermenting wine. [PLONK] - Wine of poor quality [PONCHE] - Addition of brandy to different blends of creams with different flavors. [POLYPHENOLS] - Phenolic compounds. Substances present in wine, which influence its aroma, color and flavor. [PORTUGAL] - Years before the Roman occupation, vineyards were cultivated in the valleys of Duoro and Minho. This country established its own quality control or appellation "Região Demarcada" (RD) in 1756, almost two centuries before the French adopted their own quality system, "Appellation d' Origin Controlèe". Portugal is the seventh wine producer in the world. Most of its wines are consumed domestically, which has made Portugal the third per capita wine consumer worldwide. [PX] - Abbreviation for the variety of Pedro Ximénez. [PORT] - It is called Vinho do Porto. This famous wine, originated from Portugal, named after the city of "Oporto", which was established in 1756. Such wines (true ports) are named and labeled like "Oporto". Today there's a specific demarcated region (Port DOC) in the Douro Valley. Port is a sweet Fortified Wine, most often served after a meal. Port has that fruity and sweet flavor due to the addition of high proof Brandy or "aguardente" in the partially fermented must (this spirit is distilled locally or imported from France). The wines are generally produced in the Douro Valley, across the river. Then after a few months, it is shipped to the town of Vila Nova de Gaia, (a suburb from the city of Oporto), where there are plenty of lodges (warehouses) for aging the wines, up to 50 years sometimes. There are four main categories of port wine, named in order of prestige, from the most famous: Vintage Ports, Ruby Ports, Tawny Ports and White Ports.

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[PUMPING OVER] - To prevent the growth of any unwanted organism wine makers periodically wet the floating cap of skins while wine is fermenting. [PUNT] - This punt catches the sediment, reinforces the bottle and relieves the pressure of the gas inside the bottle preventing it from blowing out. This indentation on the base of a glass bottle usually made to hold the bottle better while serving. It’s also useful when cellaring wine bottles it helps to keep bottles one after another more securely and more organized.

Q [QUALITĂ„TSWEIN - QbA] - Minimum certification of quality for wines in Germany. [QUINADO] - Wine made with quinine and contains high level of alcohol.

R [RACKING] - Process in which the wine is poured or pumped between tanks or casks. In the latter case, racking serves to decant and air the wine. [RANCID] - The oxidation process gives the wine a rich and unique flavor, and a tawny color. These wines are high in alcohol and are called fortified. The results are similar wines to the Madeira, the Tawny Port, or the Marsala. Rancid wines are made throughout Spain, as well as in southern France. They are usually drunk as Aperitifs.

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[RAW] - Wine that has not had time to develop its natural personality, like aroma and flavor. [RAYA] - Term used for juice extract from Sherry. [REBURNED] - Caramelized. [RED WINE] - Wine made from red grapes produced by the fermentation between the contact of the must and the skin of the grapes. Presents a color that goes from light red to a dark or bluish black. [REDUCTION] - Aging process in the bottle where the wine absorbs the oxygen left in the bottle and matures very slowly. Lack of air helps to refine wines. [RESERVE] - An aged wine. Reserve wines must be aged at least one year in oak barrel, and at least three years between the barrel and the bottle. [RETRO NASAL BREATHING] - Action during wine tasting in which air is expelled through the nose while the wine is being tasted, in order to appreciate better certain aromas. [RIDDLE] - Action of turning wine bottle upside down so the spent yeasts get accumulated on the neck. [RIBERA DEL DUERO] - A region in the North central part of Spain. This region is internationally known for its excellent red wines that are made mostly with the Tempranillo varietal. [RIOJA] - A famous Northern wine region in Spain. It is known because it has produced well known wines internationally. Wines from this region have won many awards in international wine competitions. In addition, this region was the first to introduce a quality control system.

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[RIPENING] - Stage in the growth cycle in which the grape attains the required level of ripeness for picking. Term used when grapes have reached the best ripeness quality in terms of sugar levels. It's usually around 23.5 percent of sugar (brix). [RIM] - It refers to the round border of a wine glass. [ROSテ云 - Wine made with red grapes in which the must is separated from the skins before fermentation. This way, the wine will acquire its characteristic color. Rose or blush wine in the U.S.A. [ROSE LIKE] - Aroma from certain wines which reminds us the perfumed odor of roses due to an alcohol, phenyl-ethyl alcohol. [ROOTSTOCK] - Bottom part of an American vine, including the roots, onto which the Vitis Vvinifera is grafted. [RIPENING] - Stage in the growth cycle in which the grape attains the required level of ripeness for picking.

S [SAND] - Granular, reddish, sandy like soil. [SANGRIA] - Refreshing drink made of wine, brandy, orange, lime, and fresh fruit. [SETTING FAILURE] - Failure of a vine to form berries (setting) during the growth cycle. [SOUL] - Wine with personality and character.

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[SOLERA] - One of Spain's age old blending and maturation system. [STORAGE KEEPERS] - Merchants that brew must from their own vineyard or buy from others to sell it to bigger wine producers. [SILKY, VELVETY] - A wine with a pleasant taste or texture, smooth and silky. - This characteristic is found mostly in a wine with low acidity but very rich in glycerin. [SINGLE VARIETAL WINE] - Also "monovarietal". A wine made with a single grape variety. [SKIN] - Skin of the grape, it is also known as peel. [STALKING] - Action of separating the grapes from the stalks. [SPIRITUOUS] - Rich in alcohol, this generates heat in body, mainly stomach, when drank. Usually term used when referring to fortified Port like wines. [SPLIT SYSTEM] - A cooling system where the condenser is located outside the wine cellar [SKIN] - Skin of the grape, also known as peel in other countries. [SOFON] - Soda Water (Spain).

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[SOLERA] - Generic name that refers to the inferior aisle of a system where the oldest wines are aged. It is an aging process to improve a young wine with the oldest. This aging system is used for generosos wines from Jerez. This system: white palomino grapes are crushed, and the juice is fermented in stainless steel or cement tanks. After this wine is lightly fortified with grape spirits. Then fortified wine is poured into barrels and set aside for a year or more to develop its complexity. [SOMMELIER] - French term for steward in a restaurant in charge of wine. Sommeliers are responsible for cellaring, organizing and the serving of the wine. This person is expected to have a vast knowledge about wines and their compatibility with certain dishes. He/She should know the virtousity in service and should apply while serving his/her guests. [SPARKLING WINE] - Wine which alcoholic fermentation has taken place inside the bottle or in relatively small sealed vats. [STALKS] - Woody part or structure of the grape bunch which holds the grapes. [STILL WINE] - A wine wihtout gas or a wine that is not sparkling or does not have any bubbles. [STRAIGHTFORWARD] - Wine without alterations. Simple, clean, honest, direct, without major complexities. [STOMPING SHOES] - Old fashioned cowboy boots with a flat heel, used for crushing grapes. [SUPER TUSCAN] - A blend of Sangiovese (traditional grape variety from Tuscany-Italy) with Cabernet Sauvignon or another variety from Bordeaux styled wines.

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[SYRAH] - Excellent red grape native to the Rhone/ River Valley, France It gives robust wines with great amount of color and tannin and for this reason is normally blended with other varieties to round it out. In Australia is known as Shiraz. The traditional Syrah grape produces fruity like and also beefy and brawny style of wines.

T [TABLE WINE] - Wine usually drank during meals (as opposed to sweet wines, dessert wines, fortified wines, etc.). Table wines should not be confused with common wines as table wines include some of the best like Grand Reserves, Grand Crus, etc. These wines come from the most recognized wine regions and designations of origin. [THICK] - Wine with body with structure and form, subtle with and intense color and dense. [TIRED] - Wine that has lost its aromatic and fruity characteristics and has become plain. It is possible for wines to get like this when they have been just filtered due the oxygen action. They usually get better with rest. [TEAR] - Empty wine from barrel to separate wine from grape skin. [TEAR TRAIL] - Traces of wine waves on the walls of the glass, when it is swirled from a rich wine in sugar, alcohol or glycerin.

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[TERROIR] - French for soil - A term to explain a classic taste from a particular geographical zone where the wine has been grown and made. To explain terroir 3 aspects have to be considered Climate, Soil and grape variety among other elements that affect the flavor development of that wine. [TOBACCO] - Characteristic aroma from quality young wines that come from the grape and the barrel where the wine was aged. [TAFELWEIN] - German table wine. [STEM] - A traditional wine glass has three parts: the bowl, the stem, and the foot. [TANNIN] - Substance from the seed and skin of grapes. It is an organic substance with astringent flavor. Thanks to this element, wine is able to age. During the aging in oak barrels, the wine absorbs the natural tannins from its vegetal bark. [TANNIC] - Astringent aroma and flavor due to the presence of excessive tannins. This term is applied to wine when its flavors and aromas are slightly sharp. [TAPON] - Ugly taste due to the contact of wine with a bad cork. [TASTY] - Pleasant flavor to the palate. [TEMPRANILLO] - Grape varietal from Spain and grown also in South America. A classic red grape with intense color and medium size. Wines made with this grape are very aromatic and well balanced. It is widely used in "La Rioja" and "Rivera del Duero" where its known as Tinto "Fino"or Tinta del Pais. In la Mancha as Cencibel and in Catalu単a known as el de Ull de Llebre.

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[TERPENES] - Aroma found in wines in the form of chemical compounds such as geranol, linaloรถl, neroli and limonene. [THICK FAT] - Silky, rich in glycerin. A wine that is soft and well developed. [TINAJA TANK] - Big fermentation vats shaped like mixing bowls originally made out concrete and lined up with epoxy. [TINTA] - A family of red wine grapes from Portugal. They are used to make Ports and DAO wines. The most important Tinta varieties are: Tinta Roriz, Tinto Cรฃo, Tinta Barroca, and Tinta Carvalha. Grape varietal with antocian pigment in the skin. [TINTORERA] - Original variety from the Alicante area. Its wines are of great and well balanced personality; its color is black blue like and is pretty thin. It produces fruity and intense delicate bouquet. [TORO DISCTRICT] - One of the latest DOC regions in Spain.

U [UNBALANCED] - When wine components do not reach a proper balance.

V [VALANCE SYSTEM] - A cooling system where a water chiller is located outside the wine cellar.

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[VANILLA] - Wine that has been stored in oak barrels flavoring it with this characteristic aroma. [VARIETY] - Characteristic distinctive of a type of grape. All kinds of grapes belong to the same variety: Vitis Vinifera. [VARIETAL] - Wine made with only one grape variety but it is also used to describe grape variety(s) that have been used to make wine such as: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot and Syrah etc. [VENENCIA] - A recipient or instrument used to extract sherry from the barrel and taste it. Made of different materials such as silver, stainless steel, wood or fine plastic. [VELHO]: Old in Portuguese. Old, aged and legally identified as a wine with three years of age for the reds and two years for whites. [VERY ALIVE, LIVELY] - Clean and fresh aroma with a shiny color. [VINO VERDE] - It is a wine that comes from unripe grapes, which causes an abnormal acidity. A young wine with unfinished fermentation usually looks greenish. [V.D.Q.S] -Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure. It is the next level of AOC wines. [VINICULTURE] - Art of making wines. [VINIFICATION] -Wine making process that begins with the extraction of the must from the grape to the end of fermentation.

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[VIN DE PAYS] - French term used for domestic wines. These wines are not always exported. They are labeled according to their place of origin and province where they were produced. [VIRILE, MASCULINE] - A noble wine, full of a unique character and personality. [VINTAGE] - Year in which a wine's grapes were harvested, it should appear on the label of the bottle. [VINE GROWER] - Person who grows and tends vines. [VITICULTURE] - Art of growing vines. [VITIS VINĂ?FERA] - Vines species that produce grapes which are used to make wine. [VINE-STOCK] - Vine or grape variety.

W [WARMTH] - An expression that explains a warm pleasing feeling in your palate, showing the good properties of the alcohol in wines. [WELL-ADJUSTED] - Wine that shows balance and does not have any unpleasant characteristics. [WHITE] - Wine made with white grapes. Very classic, very clear, abundant in yellowish tones combined with green and golden tones. [WINE] - Natural beverage obtained though fermentation of the grape must.

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[WINE TASTING] - Analysis of one or several wines [WINE TASTING EVENT JUDGES] - Team and group of experts and wine connoisseurs that review and rate wine critics and wines. [WINE TASTING CHART] - Tasting record of your favorite wines, regions, grapes or tasting notes. [WINEMAKING SHIP] - A part of the bodega or cellar where the wine is made. [WINE ESTATE] - Vineyard. [WOOD] - Smell that comes with the evolution of the tannins. Also attributable to the oak barrels used in the wine's storage.

Y [YEAST] - A living, microscopic, single-cell organism. Wild yeast spores are found in the grapes' peel or skin and initiate the alcoholic fermentation process. In the production of wine, the conversion of yeast to alcohol is necessary for the final product, and carbon dioxide is what makes sparkling wines effervescent. Popular commercially available yeasts used today include Champagne, Epernay, Montrachet, Pasteur Champagne, and Steinberg. Rather than resorting to using cultivated yeasts, some winemakers prefer native yeast fermentation, which relies simply on natural wild yeast spores.

[YOUNG] - Wine without aging. In wine tasting, young or youthful describes a fresh, light, generally fruity wine. [YOLK] - This is the result of the strained must without damaging the paste.

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Z [ZINFANDEL] - Its one of the most important “red wine grapes”.and this grape is largely planted in California. [ZURRACAPOTE] - Refreshing drink made out of wine, sugar, cinnamon and lime. [ZURRACAPOTE O ZURRA] - Name used to describe the elaboration of "sangria" with white wine.

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“WINE IS FOOD PAIRING STYLE”

YOUR OWN WINE PAIRINGS IN YOUR OWN WORDS wine you chose and your own tasting notes

List food items you detected in your wine

Buy, Cook, Serve, Write Your Notes and Explain Why You Chose That Wine and Reflected it on The Dishes You Prepared For Everyone At Your Dining Table

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“WINE IS FOOD PAIRING STYLE”

YOUR OWN WINE PAIRINGS IN YOUR OWN WORDS wine you chose and your own tasting notes

List food items you detected in your wine

Buy, Cook, Serve, Write Your Notes and Explain Why You Chose That Wine and Reflected it on The Dishes You Prepared For Everyone At Your Dining Table

Introduction to Wine and Wine Service


“WINE IS FOOD PAIRING STYLE” YOUR OWN WINE PAIRINGS IN YOUR OWN WORDS wine you chose and your own tasting notes

List food items you detected in your wine

Buy, Cook, Serve, Write Your Notes and Explain Why You Chose That Wine and Reflected it on The Dishes You Prepared For Everyone At Your Dining Table


WINE IS FOOD +  

A WINE GUIDE FOR THOSE THAT WANT A QUICK ENTERTAINING WINE TOOL FOR WINE BASICS AND ITS PROPER SERVICE

WINE IS FOOD +  

A WINE GUIDE FOR THOSE THAT WANT A QUICK ENTERTAINING WINE TOOL FOR WINE BASICS AND ITS PROPER SERVICE

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